Copper Queen

Mines of Arizona

Miami concentrator

Arizona's Greatest Industry

The following extract from an editorial in "The Bisbee Daily Review," issue of March 30th, by George H. Kelly, editor, is a concise summing up of the condition of the mining industry of Arizona, and since prosperity depends, in a great degree, on this industry, this is an indication of general conditions throughout the state.

"In the mining industry of Arizona we find the greatest recent expansion and prosperity and this satisfactory condition is confined to no one district or section of the state, but is in evidence all the way from Jerome to Bisbee, and from Kingman to Clifton. The good price maintained for copper during the past year has caused unusual activity by those engaged in the production of the red metal and all the producers have been engaged in providing new plants and adding to old ones, thus indicating a purpose of increasing their output and reducing the cost of production. A few years ago the average cost of copper production in Arizona was about 12 cents per pound ; this average has now been lowered to less than nine cents with the minimum maintained by several of the largest producers at about seven cents, so even the low price of copper eighteen months ago was not alarming and the present price of 15 cents is highly gratifying.

'The copper mining companies in Arizona now have in course of construction work which, when completed, will cost fifteen million dollars and provide not only largely increased facilities but greater economy in the operation of mines and reduction plants. At Jerome the United Verde is building an entirely new smelting plant at a cost of $3,500,000; in the Globe district the Inspiration Consolidated Company is building a mammoth concentrator which with the money expended in installation of mining facilities, development of water, etc., will cost $7,000,000; at Clifton the Arizona Copper Company is spending $2,500,000 for a new smelting plant which is due for completion during the coming summer. At Douglas the new two million dollar smelter being constructed by the Calumet & Arizona is nearing completion, while the Copper Queen last year completed a reverberatory furnace and McDougal roasting plant at an approximate cost of $750,000 and this year has started another unit of this plant.

"The mining industry is today, as it has ever been since it was inaugurated, the bone, sinew and marrow of the industrial prosperity of Arizona. It is in the hands of competent men who are a guarantee of its continued growth and prosperity.

"Arizona is in the heyday of its prosperity, and its people have every reason to be happy and contented."


The Copper Queen mines, situated at Bisbee in The Warren District, are among the greatest copper mines of the world, and the largest producer of the four great mines controlled and operated by Phelps, Dodge & Co. Their other holdings are: The Detroit Copper Mining Company of Arizona, at Morenci ; The Old Dominion Copper Mining Company, at Globe, and The Montezuma Copper Company, at Nacozari, Mexico. The Copper Queen has been producing for thirty years, during twenty of which it was the only producer in the Warren Mining District. This District is named after George Warren, who discovered and disclosed the fact that great bodies of ore existed in the Mule Mountains. The original workers of the property upon which the Warren District is founded were named Martin, Ballard and Riley, who built a small smelter where the old depot stood, and this, from the day it was blown in, showed the rich deposits that were to be found in those hills.

Dr. James Douglas, now President of Phelps, Dodge & Co., had purchased a few mining claims on the mountain side above this point, and there sunk a shaft. At a depth of a few hundred feet ore was discovered, and having compromised a suit with the old Copper Queen Company, the companies were reorganized and consolidated, and the foundation laid for the greatest mining district in the southwest. Like many other rich and successful mines, the Copper Queen has known periods of depression, and it is stated upon authority that at one time the present owners, having spent $80,000 without permanent results, were deeply discouraged and in much doubt as to the advisability of proceeding with the development. Luckily, however, for Bisbee and the whole district, another $15,000 was appropriated, which, invested in a sort of forlorn hope, enabled the faithful band of workers to discover the real copper deposits. These mines are now the main source of wealth of the entire county, and upon them all the other industries depend, either directly or indirectly.

The Copper Queen now has over 100 miles of underground workings in its extensive property. The deepest shaft in its mines is only about 1,800 feet, and no development work has been done below 1,600 feet. The bottom of the limestone foundation, in which the ores occur, has never been found in Copper Queen ground, and there is no reason to feel that the ores grow leaner with depth. At one point very rich oxides and carbonates are being mined at a depth of 1,600 feet, the deepest workings, while at another heavy iron sulphides are found within four or five hundred feet of the surface.

The Copper Queen mine was opened in 1880 on a solid outcrop of oxidized copper, iron and manganese, opposite the Copper Queen hotel in Bisbee. The original ore body, since removed, leaving a large artificial cave, gave an average return of 23 per cent copper, but was exhausted in three or four years, and the mine experienced many vicissitudes until additional and far larger ore bodies were developed. Extensive bodies of high grade ore have been found within the last ten years, and development proves them to be of great depth. In fact, new bodies are being developed yearly, and the ultimate lateral limits of payable ore are unknown.

The mines show numerous beautiful caves lined with calcite crystals and stalactites, some of which are of considerable size and found in close association with good ore bodies. Rich oxidized ores are found on the lowest level, and masses of native metal ranging up to several tons in weight have been found at considerable depth.

The mine is opened ahead for several years, but not so extensively as formerly, the ore bodies being so soft that it is difficult to secure the openings and it is frequently necessary to bulkhead the same in order to keep them intact. Many of the slopes are bulkheaded throughout, and the mine is timbered with square sets of 8x8 timber, an average of twenty feet of timber, board measure, being required for each ton of ore taken out. The ore is hand sorted under ground after breaking, and culls are used for filling in worked out slopes, this material standing remarkably well. Notwithstanding the numerous disadvantages originally encountered, the Copper Queen is one of the safest of mines for underground workmen, because of experienced, capable and careful management. Although as a whole the mine is not especially wet, the district being drained largely by the Superior and Pittsburgh, yet it is supplied with electric pumps.

In 1908 the entire system of operation was radically changed. Formerly each of the principal shafts was operated as a separate mine, but the five old shafts are now used for men, waste, timber and supplies, all ore extraction being done through the Sacramento shaft. The underground haulage plant installed in that year consists of 17 miles of track on every second level, from the fourth to the sixteenth, inclusive, ore from the intermediate levels being dropped through chutes and all of it hauled to the Sacramento shaft for hoisting. In order to complete this traction system it was necessary to open many new drifts and crosscuts, which are located in solid ground, wherever possible, as these electric tram lines are the arteries of the mine. The hauling system includes electric locomotives and side dumping ore cars. This innovation has resulted in marked economy in operating expenses.

The ore mined at Bisbee is shipped to Douglas, 28 miles distant, for treatment. There is located the Copper Queen Smelter, the most modern in the world, which is a central smelter for the mines of Phelps, Dodge & Co. in Arizona and Mexico. These properties produce a great variety of copper ores, including practically every grade found in the American southwest and northern Mexico, and it is possible by means of this central reduction plant to take advantage of the varied nature of the ores in mixing furnace charges. The plant does also considerable custom smelting of gold, silver and copper ores. The buildings consist of smelter building, power house, boiler house, machine shops and foundry. The works occupy a site of about three hundred acres, and are served by a complete Y-track railroad system of standard gauge, consisting of 15 miles of track and reaching to every building and department of the plant. Construction of this was begun in 1901 and the first stack was blown in in March, 1904, since which time there has been almost constant enlargement, and the works are second in size in the country, having a daily capacity of about 4,000 tons. The Company has also a large precipitation plant and is recovering considerable copper from its mine water.

Water is secured from artesian wells about 400 feet deep, in which the water rises nearly to the surface. A large reservoir and cooling tower have been built in connection with the water supply.

The power house, built of steel and brick, provides power for all departments and transmits electric energy 72 miles to the El Tigre mine in northern Mexico. The power plant has about twenty units of various sizes and types, aggregating more than 6,000 horse power. Buildings at the Douglas works include an office and warehouse and a number of dwellings for employes.

The relations between the Copper Queen Company and its employes have been exceedingly cordial for years. Efforts have been made at different times to unionize the Bisbee miners, but in a referendum vote taken in 1906, in which the polling was conducted on the Australian system, and no bosses or other salaried men allowed to vote, the result was five to one against forming a union.

The management of the Company is superior throughout, and keeps thoroughly abreast of the times, and it is a fact universally known that this Company enjoys the distinction of being a corporation with a full and whole soul for those in its employ. In every possible way is this evidenced in the cities of Bisbee and Douglas.

With the liberality for which the Copper Queen Company has been noted, they have erected buildings and established free libraries at both Bisbee and Douglas. The Bisbee library is one of the best and most complete in the country, and occupies two floors, one of which is a free reading room, where may be found all works of reference and the latest magazines and newspapers. The other contains the library proper, consisting of 10,000 volumes on every known subject, ranging from science to the latest fiction. The service of the library is absolutely free and the librarians in charge most courteous and helpful.

The Douglas Library is conducted on practically the same principles, having also a reading room and library proper, but is not quite so extensive as that of Bisbee. Here, too, the public is accorded the utmost courtesy.

An Employes' Benefit Association is another one of the excellent features instituted by this Company. In this Association membership is entirely voluntary and open to any employe, regardless of occupation. The finances are administered by a joint board composed of officers and employes, the Company subscribing $15,000 annually if half the employes join, and $25,000 if three-fourths join, while employes contribute 2 per cent of their monthly wages in return for industrial and life insurance. Beneficiaries receive half wages if sick or injured, and one year's wages is received by heirs in case of death from sickness, and two years' wages in case of death through accident.

The Medical Department has an able staff of physicians and surgeons at both Bisbee and Douglas, which is maintained partially through monthly contributions from employes, the balance being contributed by the Company. There is also a large hospital, provided with all the modern conveniences known to medical science, and or which Dr. F. E. Shine is the chief surgeon.

The Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company was organized in 1885 under the laws of the State of New York, with a capitalization of $2,000,000, shares par value $10.00. It is controlled through practically the entire stock ownership by Phelps, Dodge & Co., is really a close corporation, and has only about fifteen shareholders.

The office of the company is at No. 99 John street, New York; the mine office at Bisbee, Arizona, and the general and works office at Douglas, Arizona. The officers are as follows : Dr. James Douglas, President ; Arthur Curtiss James, Vice President ; George Notman, Secretary and Treasurer; Stuart W. French, General Manager; Grant H. Dowell, Assistant General Manager; Gerald Sherman, General Mine Superintendent; Joseph Park Hodgson, Superintendent; Forest Rutherford, Superintendent of Reduction Works; Ellinwood & Ross, Attorneys ; Dr. F. E. Shine, Medical Superintendent.

The force employed by the Company consists of more than 4,000 men, of whom approximately 2,500 are at the mines, and the remainder at the smelters. In addition to its numerous claims in the Warren District, it owns various properties in other sections.

One of the points early recognized by this Company was that in order to achieve the best results it would be necessary to have the man best suited to the requirements in every capacity, and they have, therefore, gathered together in their employ the brightest and brainiest men obtainable in their several lines, each and every one of whom is working heart and soul for the best interests of the Copper Queen Company.


The Detroit Copper Company is controlled through ownership of entire issue of stock by Phelps, Dodge & Co., Inc. The mine is at Morenci, Graham County, where is also the mine and works office, while the company's office is at No. 99 John Street, New York. The mine, opened about 1880, was first worked opencast, but is now developed by tunnels and shafts. The caving system, giving about 40% reduction in mining costs, was adopted in 1909, where feasible, and the square-set slicing system is used in other portions. Gas power is employed for practically all machinery except hoists and locomotives. There is a complete electric lighting plant. A pumping station six miles distant raises water from wells on the San Francisco River to a height of 600 feet, whence it is fed by gravity to the mill. A 36" gauge railway connects the mines and smelters with the Arizona & New Mexico railroad at Guthrie, and a tunnel through Longfellow Hill, completed 1909, gives direct rail connection with the mill. The smelter has one 42x264" and four 54x144" blast furnaces, and a converter department. Flue dust is briquetted for resmelting. The smelter has 2,000-ton ore bins, surmounted by a steel railroad trestle. The property of this company is managed with great skill in all departments, and is an exceptionally fine example of a successful low-grade mine. They employ about 1,000 men. The officers are: President, Dr. James Douglas; Vice President, Cleveland H. Dodge; Secretary and Treasurer, George H. Notman ; General Superintendent, Alexander T. Thompson ; Mine Superintendent, M. H. McLean ; Mill Superintendent, G. E. Hunt. The company conducts a large department store and an excellent hotel, and maintains a library, gymnasium and clubroom for employes.


The Globe-Miami District, Gila County, is now producing annually about 60,000,000 pounds of copper, most of which is obtained from two mines, the Old Dominion at Globe and the Miami near the town of Miami, and when the improvements now in progress at these mines shall be completed and the Inspiration Consolidated placed on a full producing basis, it is anticipated that one-tenth of the copper supply of the United States will be produced in this district. For more than twenty years the Old Dominion mine was the most important deposit of copper ore known in the district, but in 1907 the Miami ore body was discovered in a belt of mineralized schist, five miles west of Globe, and the next five years was a period of wonderful development for this section ; a new mining district was created, and on the site of the town of Miami with a population of 2,000 and rapidly growing, there were less than a dozen houses three years ago. The population of the Miami district is close to five thousand; and that of Globe, according to the census of 1910, about 7,000, while in 1902 it was but 1,500. Here has been discovered a single ore deposit over two miles long and having a maximum width of 1,500 feet, which contains also several breaks and barren patches, and on this have been developed four mines. The Globe District, though pre-eminently a copper producer, furnishes a small amount of gold and silver, most of which is in connection with the copper ores of the Old Dominion Mine. Both this and the Miami mine are large producers and paying dividends and it is expected that the Inspiration Consolidated, formed by a merger of the Inspiration and Live Oak Companies, will be producing at its full capacity within a couple of years.


Old Dominion Company, whose office is at No. 99 John Street, New York, while the mine office is at Globe, Arizona, was organized in January, 1904, under the laws of Maine, with a capitalization of $8,750,000, par value of shares $25.00. This is a securities holding company organized to promote the operation of the Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co. and United Globe Mines under joint management, though the companies are operated as entities. The Old Dominion Mine dates from the year 1874, when a band of prospectors, braving the hostile Apaches, crossed the Final Mountains and located the claim that was afterward known as The Old Dominion Mine, which for some years produced a high grade of silver. When in the early eighties silver mining began to decline, attention was turned to copper, of which there were numerous surface indications, and in 1881 the Old Dominion Company was operating a small furnace about one mile west of the present town of Miami on copper silicate ore from a small schist nearby. This proved unprofitable, however, and the Globe mine was purchased, the smelter moved to Globe, and in 1884 two 30-ton furnaces were in operation. Since that time the mine has passed through several periods of idleness and re-organization, having changed hands several times, but it has been a steady producer since the advent of the railroad in 1898 and a dividend payer since 1907. The Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Company, its present owner, was organized in 1895 under the laws of the State of New Jersey, with a capitalization of $5,000,000, par value of shares $25.00. This company had a large debt which was cared for and the last of which was paid in October, 1908, by the holding company. An excess of water in this mine, formerly a sore grievance, has been converted into a source of revenue almost sufficient to pay for the cost of handling, the water being sold to both Globe and Miami for various purposes. The mine is equipped with pumps of about 10,000,000 gallons daily, and with electric haulage, tramcars having about 22' cubic capacity, and hoisting is in three deck cages. The mine, mill and smelter are connected by a private railway equipped with a Porter locomotive and 50-ton ore cars. This mine was handicapped in the past by lack of sulphide ores and the company was- previously an extensive purchaser of these ores needed for fluxing the oxidized ores of both it and the United Globe Mines, which are treated at the smelter, but both mines have since developed considerable sulphide in their lower workings and the amount of custom ore handled has been greatly reduced. The smelter has a capacity of 2,400 tons daily. Both mine and smelter are in better shape than ever before, for which much credit is due the management.


The United Globe Mines, which is also under control of the Old Dominion Company, was organized with a capitalization of $2,300,000, par value of "shares $100.00. This adjoins the Old Dominion mine and its output is treated at the Old Dominion smelter. Improvements of plants and mining equipment are continually being made and $500,000 has recently been appropriated to be expended on constructive work. One of the most notable improvements is the lining of the two-compartment Kingdon shaft with concrete. A separate flue and dust chamber has been built at the converter plant and a new converter stand will replace the three now in use. This mine is said to have more ore in sight now than at any other time in its history, and it is believed that it will be a producer for many years to come. It is essentially a vein mine, but owing to the large amount of water encountered and the heavy nature of the ground, it is impossible to block out ore very far in advance of mining. The office of the company is at 99 John Street, New York, and the mine office at Globe. The officials are as follows: President, James Douglas; Secretary and Treasurer, George Notman ; Superintendent, George Kingdon.


The Miami Mine was actually started December 8, 1906, when J. Parke Channing secured from Fred Alsdorf, a mining engineer, and F. J. Elliott, a lawyer, an option on the claims that have developed into the Miami. Mr. Channing was in Globe negotiating for the Inspiration claims, but considered the price asked excessive, and later meeting Mr. Alsdorf, he listened to his proposition, examined the ground and decided to secure an option for the General Development Company, a Lewishon corporation. Mr. Alsdorf was placed in charge of the work, and for several months results were discouraging. No. 2 shaft was about 200 feet deep with no sign of ore, and No. 1 had disclosed only 70 feet of two per cent ore, so it was decided to cut a 20-foot sump and then cross-cut into the hill. At the bottom of the sump the indications were more encouraging and about ten feet lower the shaft went into chalcocite ore assaying four per cent copper. The shaft was continued to the 720-foot level and extended through an unbroken depth of 485 feet of ore. In November the Miami Copper Company was organized and development proceeded rapidly. By the end of 1910 there had been developed 18,000,000 tons of ore averaging 2.58 per cent copper and a 3,000 ton concentrator, power plant and pumping station had been completed. In March, 1911, the first unit of the concentrator was started, and within a year all six units were in operation. The Miami Company was organized under the laws of Delaware in November, 1907, with a capital of $3,000,000, par value of shares $5.00. The capital has since been increased to $4,000,000, 60,000 snares of the latest increase having been offered to stockholders at $18.00 each.

There being practically no waste in this mine within the limits of the ore zone, some problems have been presented, the most serious being to devise a method by which the greatest amount of ore can be extracted with the least waste. The system devised for mining is known as the auxiliary raise and sub-level sloping method, by which 60% of the ore will be mined in rooms and the remainder extracted by top-slicing and sub-level caving methods. The mill structure, built under the direction of Mr. H. Kenyon Burch, is of steel with no woodwork, except in the launders, and is on a foundation of about 15,000 cubic yards of concrete. The water supply for the mill includes a water-right on Final Creek and one at the lower end of the Miami wash, where there are three wells, each producing 500,000 gallons daily. Water is taken from Final Creek by a 25,000' pipe-line of 14" diameter. In addition, the company buys from the Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Company 1,000,000 gallons of water daily. The pumping station, about two miles from the concentrator, has electric pumps. The mine is served by the Gila Valley, Globe & Northern Railway with standard gauge, having an excellent average grade and light curves, so that favorable freight rates are given the mine and mill. No essential feature of well planned and thoroughly symmetrical development has been slighted and, therefor, the cost of putting the Miami mine on a productive basis has been much greater than was anticipated, a matter in which the management deserves credit rather than censure, as every dollar above the original estimate that has been put into the property has given at least $5.00 of developed values. They have a substantial office building erected at a cost of $15,000, and the company has built a recreation hall provided with reading matter, pool tables and games. The lands of the company aggregate 1,122 acres, partly patented and the balance in process, of which 222 acres are mineral ground. The Miami is a very large and very fine mine and is in worthy and able hands. The offices are at No. 42 Broadway, New York, and Miami, Arizona. The officers are as follows : President, Adolph Lewisohn ; Vice President, J. Parke Channing; Treasurer, Sam A. Lewishon ; Secretary, Herman Cooke; General Manager, B. Britton Gottsberger; Mine Supt., N. O. Lawton ; Mill Supt., F. W. Solomon.


The Inspiration Consolidated Mining Company. was formed early in the year 1912 by the merging of the Inspiration Mining Company and the Live Oak Development Company, both of which had been in course of development for several years. The former had been organized under the laws of Maine in 1909 with a capitalization of $10,000,000, issuing 1,000,000 shares of stock at a par value of $10.00 a share; and the latter was organized under the laws of Arizona with a capitalization of $500,000, issuing 50,000 shares of stock at a par value of $10.00 a share. Both mines are situated in the Globe-Miami District.

At the time of the organization of The Inspiration Copper Company the property consisted of twenty-five claims. The Taylor group of seven claims was acquired about a month later, and the Black Copper group of eight claims, formerly owned by the Arizona Banner Copper Company, about six months later after having been held under bond by The Inspiration Copper Mining Company for a number of months. The total area of mineral lands then aggregated about 500 acres. On these various groups of claims considerable development work had been done before they became part of The Inspiration property. Part of this development was done by underground shaft, part by churn drilling, and by the end of the year 1911 there had been developed in them a total of 45,000,000 tons of ore averaging about two per cent copper.

A period of vast development and construction work, which will involve the expenditure of about $7,000,000, in about two years, was begun soon after the merger of the two companies was completed. This includes three development and two main working shafts and the opening of the first haulage level. Many miles of drifts and levels will also be necessary to bring the mine to the point of production. Plans were also drawn for a 7,500-ton concentrator, power plant, railroads, shops, etc., on all of which construction will proceed as rapidly as possible.

The Company has valuable water rights covering the junctions of Final and Miami Creeks; a water supply dam is completed across Final Creek, and a pumping plant is being erected.

The Live Oak property was first located by a man named Marshall in 1890. It was later acquired by Forrest Kaldenbery, who assigned it to the Live Oak Copper Mining & Smelting Company and operated by the latter until 1908, when it was taken over by the Hovland & Smith interests and The Live Oak Development Company. While it was in control of The Live Oak Copper Mining & Smelting Company, over $600,000 worth of ore was produced, the greater part of which was shipped to the Old Dominion Smelter at Globe.

During this same period of development a tunnel 500 feet long, now known as the Sulphite Tunnel, was driven from the south end of the Copper Springs claim in the direction of the vertical shaft, the original purpose of which was to cut several veins of high grade sulphide ore which outcrops on the surface, and from its portal to its face, this tunnel was driven through altered schist sprinkled throughout with chalcocite ore similar to the ores of the Miami, Inspiration and Keystone mines. After The Live Oak Development Company took over the property the vertical shaft was continued to a depth of 281 feet, and at the 200 foot level sulphides were encountered.

The Inspiration Consolidated Copper Company, capitalized at $30,-000,000, is at present employing about 700 men, with the number steadily increasing, and it is estimated that the mine, when in full operation, will be able to produce about 7,000,000 pounds of copper a year.

Mr. William B. Thompson, of the Gunn-Thompson Company, is president; Mr. Charles E. Mills, for some years in a similar position with the Detroit Copper Mining Company of Arizona, at Morenci, is general manager ; Dr. L. D. Ricketts is consulting engineer, and Mr. T. R. Drummond is superintendent.

By means of the untiring efforts of its capable officials, it is no exaggeration to say The Inspiration Consolidated Mining Company will eventually be one of the largest and best paying mining projects in Arizona.


 The Shattuck-Arizona Copper Co., mine lies in the northeastern portion of the Bisbee camp, and consists of eight claims patented, with an area of about 120 acres. Development was begun here in August, 1904, and shipment of ore in September, 1906. In November, 1907, however, work was stopped for a time owing to the panic, but was resumed in 1908 and production has since been continuous. Owing to the rugged topography of the lands tunneling is impracticable, neighboring properties holding all tunnel sites, hence development is by shaft. Ores are mainly oxidized, with some sulphides at depth. The property is equipped to produce about 1,000 tons daily. The Shattuck-Arizona has been the highest grade producer of any large copper mine of the world, and possibly also the lowest cost producer. For a time the Company pursued the policy of extracting only the highest grade ores, which in 1910 gave the phenomenal average return of about 17% copper, leaving an immensely greater tonnage of ore of much lower average grade unsloped in the mine. Ores are shipped from this mine to smelters at Douglas. The buildings of the Company include a carpenter shop, smithy, boiler house, engine house, warehouse, sawmill, and changing house with accommodation for 200 men.

The Shattuck-Arizona Company was organized March 22, 1904, under the laws of Arizona, with a capitalization of $3,500,000, shares $10.00 par, non-assessable and fully issued. This company is closely connected in ownership and management with the Denn-Arizona Mining Co. The main office of the Company is at Duluth, Minnesota, and the mine office at Bisbee, Arizona. The officers are Thomas Bardon, president; A. Guthrie, vice president; Archibald M. Chisholm, secretary and treasurer; Lemuel G. Shattuck, managing director; Norman E. La Mond, assistant secretary; A. B. W. Hodges, consulting engineer; and John Olson, superintendent. The stock of the Company is listed on the Boston Stock Exchange.


The United Verde Mine is situated on the north slope of one of the principal mountains of the Black Hills Range, about five miles from the Verde River. The United Verde Copper Company was organized under the laws of New York, and re-organized in 1889 under the laws of West Virginia with a capitalization of $3,000,000. It is practically a close corporation and controlled through stock ownership by Senator William A. Clark. Many of the stories written of this property, which have aided in making it world famous, have been but a perversion of facts caused by a desire to create the impression that Senator Clark was receiving the greatest income of any man in the world through its output ; and while the property merits all of the renown which it has attained, the history of the United Verde has not been an example of blind luck, but a gradual development by means of a liberal expenditure of money and a liberal application of brains and judgment. The credit for its success is, therefore, due to Senator Clark, and not to the Goddess of Chance.

The first location made in the district was the Verde Mine, which is now the property of the Verde Queen Copper Company. This was located by the famous scout, Al Seiber, in the early eighties, was held by him several years and then became the property of Dan Mar, a farmer, who later disposed of the same to the present company. In 1883 the original United Verde Company was organized and began active operations at once, installing a thirty-ton copper furnace. In spite of the fact that coal and coke for the furnace had to be hauled from Ash Fork, a distance of 75 miles, two dividends of $37,500 and $25,000 respectively, were declared. The next year the majority of the stock was placed in escrow by the company under lease and bond to Senator Clark, and before the expiration of the option the bond was satisfied by Senator Clark, who, recognizing its value, began to acquire the outstanding stock as rapidly as possible. Senator Clark gained control of the property in 1888, since when its development has steadily increased, and the plant has grown from the thirty-ton smelter to the ponderous furnaces of today.

A large portion of the power used in operating the United Verde Mine is purchased from the Arizona Power Company and transmitted a distance of 38 miles, under pressure of 40,000 volts, 3-phase, 60-cycle, stepped down and converted in the Power Company's substation, and delivered on the Copper Company's switchboard at 2,300 volts AC, and 250 volts DC. The switchboard is built in two sections, and has 19 panels equipped with the necessary apparatus to control, not only the power and lights used in the plant, but also the power and lights used in the city of Jerome.

Modern shops, equipped with necessary tools for doing all repair work for the mine, smelter and railroad are conveniently located.

The smelter building is 80'x400', and contains one blast furnace 56'x180' with 14' settler, and three blast furnaces 48'x240' with 16' settlers, all fitted with hot blast pipes. In the converter line there are four stands 93'x 138', barrel type shells, electrically operated. There is also one Knudsen furnace. In this building there are also two 40-ton and two 50-ton electric traveling cranes that traverse the full length of the building, and are used for handling the converter, matte, and slag ladles. All the furnaces are connected to the main dust flue, which runs the full length of the smelter building. Near the center of this flue is located the main down-take leading to a large brick dust chamber, where the dust settles from the escaping gases. From the dust chamber the gases are carried to the main stack, which is built of steel, is 20 feet in diameter and 165 feet high. The smelter building is also fitted with the necessary blast pipes for the furnaces and converters, also water pipes and pipes for compressed air.

The ore for the smelter upon arriving at the surface at the shaft is dumped directly into the main storage bins, from which it is loaded into the furnace feed cars and taken by electric locomotives to the feed floors, and dumped into the furnaces by means of air lifts. The water supply is piped from various springs south of Jerome, the farthest being 16 miles. It flows by gravity and is distributed along the various tanks about the plant aggregating a storage capacity of 435,000 gallons. The works are secured from fire by a first class system of water mains. Numerous hose houses are located about the plant, sufficiently equipped for all purposes.

The mines, smelter and city of Jerome are connected with the main line of the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railroad at Jerome Junction by the United Verde & Pacific Railroad, which consists of 26 miles of narrow gauge line traversing a very difficult country, and the scenic effects which greet the eye of the visitor as the train winds round the sharp curves approaching Jerome are decidedly spectacular. The rolling equipment of this road consists of eight mogul type, narrow gauge locomotives equipped for burning fuel oil; five passenger cars and 144 freight cars of various kinds, including box, flat, oil, coal, coke, and rock cars.

The United Verde mine is worked from vertical shafts, of which there are four, ranging in depth from 300 to 1,500 feet. Where the ore comes to the surface it is worked from open cuts. There are also adits which connect the main workings on the 300, 500 and 1,000 foot levels. There are copper precipitating flumes outside on these levels.

The 1,000 tunnel, which is 6,593 feet long, seven and one-half feet high and eight feet wide, is now used for drainage and ventilation. It was driven for this purpose as well as for a main haulage way for the ores for the new smelter.

A large area of the old workings is in the fire district, and except where work is being carried on in this district it is bulk-headed from the remainder of the mine. A portion of it is being worked from the 300 and 400 levels. The ground in and about these places is badly broken up, and fans are used to force back the gas and sufficiently cool the place so that good results can be obtained. There are about 15 miles of workings open at the present time. There are about 550 men employed, and the tonnage is about 1,000 tons a day. New Smelter: In the Verde Valley, at Clarkdale, approximately six miles from the present smelter site, and connected with the mine at the 1000-foot level by the Verde Tunnel and Smelter Railroad, a new smelter of approximately 3,000 tons daily capacity is in course of erection. It is the intention to make the new smelter thoroughly modern in every detail. In general, the equipment at the new smelter will consist of: Four 48x26 ft. blast furnaces; three 19x100 ft. reverberatory furnaces; five 12 ft. converters; large receiving and storage bins for ore and coke ; sampling mill, thoroughly equipped with the latest machinery for this class of work ; dust chambers, stacks and ore handling system, etc., designed according to the latest engineering practice.

The shops will be equipped with modern machinery. The warehouse and main buildings will be steel structures, designed with a liberal allowance of operating space. Approximately 10,000,000 brick and 8.000 tons of steel will be used in the construction of this plant. A modern brick plant to make the brick is in the course of construction. The material will be handled in and around the plant by a modern industrial system, including the latest design of electric locomotives, conveyors, trams, etc.

The townsite of Clarkdale will be controlled by the Copper Company. It has been laid out on strictly modern, and sanitary lines. The buildings have been carefully designed with due regard to climatic conditions, etc. The fire and water supply system has received careful attention. A 40,000 volt transmission line, connected with the Arizona Power Company's mains supplies the necessary power for construction requirements.

The bulk of the power for operating the smelter will be supplied from waste heat boilers, connected to the reverberatory furnaces.

The new smelter and townsite are connected with standard gauge Verde Valley Railroad, running up the Verde Valley, a distance of 40 miles, and connecting with the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railroad at Cedar Glade. This gives the new townsite and smelter a decided advantage in transportation facilities over the old smelter and Jerome narrow gauge connection.

The business office of the United Verde Company is at No. 20 Exchange Place, New York City, and the mines and works offices at Jerome, Arizona. The officers are : Honorable W. A. Clark, President ; James A. McDonald, Vice President ; J. H. Anderson, Secretary ; H. H. St. Clair, Treasurer; Will L. Clark, Manager for Arizona.


The Ray Consolidated, situated at Ray, Pinal County, is one of the greatest mines in the entire country in point of production. It employs between 1,600 and 1,700 men, and has an average monthly payroll of $135,000. The total area of mining lands owned by the Company approximates 2,000 acres at Ray, almost all of which is patented, and in addition to this they control under long lease certain surface areas adjacent to the settlement of Mexican employes known as Sonoratown. At Hayden, where the mill and smelter is located, they own about 4,000 acres situated in Gila and Pinal Counties, and additional holdings which include the townsite of Kelvin, eighteen patented millsites, in area about 87 acres, and twenty one unpatented mill sites, in area about 105 acres.

The Ray Consolidated Copper Mining Company was organized in May, 1907, under the laws of Maine, with a capitalization of $6,000,000, which has been increased several times and now amounts to $12,000,000. The par value of shares is $10.00. A $3,000,000 issue of 6 per cent convertible bonds was authorized July 1, 1907, but has been recalled by conversion into stock. They later absorbed the Gila Copper Company, through exchange of stock, giving one share for three, and through the purchase in 1911 of the real assets of the Gila Copper Company in process of liquidation. During the past year they have secured an important acquisition in the property of the Ray Central Mining Company, which lies in the same district. This group also was absorbed by means of a stock transaction, and is estimated to contain 600,000 tons of copper ore averaging 5 per cent. The Ray & Gila Valley Railroad, which is owned by this Company, connects the town of Ray with Kelvin and Ray Junction, and joins the Arizona Eastern at the latter point. During the past year the line has been extended to No. 2 shaft, and a permanent station established near that point for the convenience of the town of Ray. Another branch extends from a point on the Arizona Eastern to the mill at Hayden, a distance of about three miles. The total trackage, including sidings, is about sixteen miles, the main line to the two branches being about ten miles. The present equipment of the line consists of three locomotives, one hundred twenty 60-ton steel ore cars, and the small amount of equipment necessary for passengers and commercial freight business. The road and its equipment is in excellent physical condition, and its operation is resulting in substantial profits. The distance between Ray and Hayden via the Ray & Gila Valley and Arizona Eastern is about twenty miles. The Ray mine has been developed by underground workings and extensive churn drill borings, and the Gila property has been proven by drills mainly, holes having been bored, checker-board fashion, in 200-foot squares. The mine is opened by two shafts about 4,000 feet apart, and in addition to the two main operating shafts, there are six other shafts extending to the main levels for ventilation and other purposes. It was formerly planned to operate the property through one shaft, but it was felt that a single shaft would be inadequate for such a mammoth property. The shafts are connected by a drift on the second level, and by the side of each an incline shaft to be used for the handling of men and material, the comparatively shallow depth of the mine permitting this lavish use of extra shafts. In addition to these, since the acquisition of the Ray Central properties, a new shaft, known as No. 3, is being sunk to tap the ore in this group. Ore is hauled underground in trains of 5-ton cars drawn by 10-ton electric locomotives. There is a crushing plant at the mines, reducing the ore to about one-inch size before shipment to the mill. The mill, of 8,000 tons normal daily capacity, has eight 1,000-ton sections and is so designed that it can be enlarged on the unit plan. The first section was completed in March, 1911, but did not operate continuously until after April 1, and subsequently additional sections were completed until by the end of present year seven sections had been finished. The power plant is complete and the transmission line from this plant to Ray is in continuous and satisfactory commission, furnishing all the power used at the mines. The pumping station for main water supply, machine shops, warehouse and all accessories arc completed and in full operation. The miscellaneous buildings are all of steel frame on concrete foundation. Office buildings and quarters for offices and employes have also been provided. The power plant at the mill-site is 10,000 horse-power and supplies electric current for the operation of the entire property, except locomotives. The plant has water tube boilers with four 2,500 horse-power Allis-Chalmers triple expansion engines, direct connected to four 1,750 kilowatt electric generators. The smelter, which adjoins the mill, has a capacity of 1,600 tons and a converter department. The company has erected family houses of the highest type. Each family has a comfortable cottage of three rooms, this style having been chosen by the company instead of the usual community quarters, so that each family has its own home. Shower baths, electric lights and modern plumbing throughout are features of these cottages, \which are far superior to those usually found in isolated mining camps. Single men are quartered two in a cottage, and these cottages, like the other buildings of the company, are modern in every respect and have all conveniences. This, however is not the most agreeable part. The price has been reduced to cost and the rooming accommodations, which furnish all the comforts of a home, cost the men less than ten cents a day. The company has built a well appointed club house, where the men have a number of forms of amusement, a shower bath, plunge and other accessories of a place of this kind. There is also a new hospital, with accommodations for twenty beds, well built and well furnished throughout, not only with all modern surgical instruments, including an X-Ray apparatus, hut one of tin- finest operating rooms outside a large city.

It has been said that the Ray Consolidated management treats its men as though they were a part of the family, and after a visit to the camp one can not hut think that this family and all the members thereof are most fortunate.

The office of the Company is No. 111 Broadway, New York; mine office at Ray, and mill office at Harden, Arizona. The officers are Sherwood Aldrich, President; Colonel D. C. Jackling, Vice President and General Manager; Eugene P. Shove, Secretary and Treasurer; Louis S. Gates, Manager; W. S. Boyd, Superintendent of Mines; J. Q. MacDonald, Superintendent of Mills; A. J. Maclean, Cashier; Joe H. Browne, Supply Agent. The management, practically the same as that of the Utah Copper Company, is thoroughly experienced, strong and capable.


Arizona Copper Company, whose lands consist of about 4,000 acres containing eight producing mines in Greenlee County, was organized in August, 1884, under the laws of Great Britain, with a capitalization of 755,000. About 20 per cent of this stock is issued in the United States. The mines, except the Coronado, are developed to a depth of 500 feet only, being opened mainly by tunnels, thereby affording cheap extraction. Notwithstanding the comparatively shallow zone of development, a tremendous amount of ore is in sight. Considerable diamond drilling has been done. The Humboldt mine, which is the principal producer, shows a large body of low grade disseminated chalcocite. Extraction from this property is partly opencast, but mainly through tunnels equipped with electric lights and electric traction. The haulage system uses the overhead trolley. Electric locomotives of 12 horse-power haul 80-ton loads, the line having a single track running 8,600 feet directly through the mountain, with a loop reaching all workings of the Humboldt mine, the tunnel running through International Hill direct to the new concentrator. The Longfellow mine, belonging to this Company, is the oldest important copper mine in Arizona, dating from about 1877. A 1300-foot tunnel driven from Chase Creek connects with a 600-foot blind shaft, obviating about three miles of railroad haulage over bad grades. The Longfellow Extension mine has developed into a good property.

The Coronado Group, about nine miles from Clifton, has three shafts, the deepest of which is 1,100 feet, and shows considerable high grade ore. Ore is taken from the different mines by six gravity tramlines to storage bins on the Coronado railroad, from which it is hauled to the reduction plant at Clifton. This railroad is of 36-inch gauge from Clifton to Metcalf, a distance of seven miles, and has 30-ton ore cars.

The mines and works use about 3,000 horse-power, supplied in about equal portions from steam, gas and distillate engines. The gas engine plant is exceptionally complete. It has been planned to develop hydro-electric power and transmit same from a dam about 50 miles distant. The somewhat scattered works at Clifton, Morenci, Longfellow and Metcalf were remodeled and enlarged several times, and the reduction plants now include six concentrators, a smelter, lixiviation plant and acid plant.

No. 6 Concentrator has a daily capacity of 1 ,500 tons, and has two 600-ton crushers and a 250 horse-power Nordberg engine, direct connected to a 125 horse-power dynamo, steam being furnished by three 400 horse-power Stirling water-tube boilers. No. 6 Mill has a large settling basin. The Company has had trouble over tailings and has found it necessary to use its best endeavors to keep its tailings from entering the river. There is a tank about a mile above the town, with an 18-inch wooden pipe line to supply clear water at flood times, and in dry seasons, the tank being fed by seepage and spring water.

The smelter is of steel frame with slate roof and floor of iron plates laid in cement. There are six 300-ton water-jacket blast furnaces, each 39x240 feet at the tuyeres, with blast supplied by Nos. 7, 9 and 10 Connersville blowers, operated by a 275 horse-power engine. Gases from the blast furnaces pass through a 480-foot tunnel and 300-foot stack. Matte of 50 to 55 per cent copper tenor is charged into the converters by a 10-ton ladle handled by a 30-ton electric crane. The converter plant has three stands and six 7-ton shells, with a daily capacity of 50 tons of 99.5% blister copper. Disintegration of slag by running water was tried, but has been discontinued, and molten slag is again handled by a steam locomotive. A complete new smelter is now under construction.

The 25-ton briquetting plant uses coal-breeze as a binder, under a pressure of 2,000 pounds per square inch. The plant is entirely automatic, fines going in at one end and briquettes being loaded on cars at the other.

The acid plant makes about 3,000 tons of sulphuric acid yearly from the fumes of the roasters, the entire product being used in the leaching plant, which treats an average of 250 tons of low grade oxidized ore daily. This is perhaps the most successful leaching plant in the United States.

Miscellaneous enterprises include a well-equipped foundry, machine shop, saw mill, planing mill, and 20-ton ice plant, all built of brick. The Company also has excellent general merchandise stores at Clifton, Longfellow and Metcalf, while a splendid library is maintained for employes. The number of employes at the present time is over 2,700.

The office of the Company is at 29 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Scotland, and the mine and works office at Clifton, Arizona. The officers are as follows: John Wilson, Chairman ; P. Dickson, J. P. G. Readman, J. Wilson, Y. J. Pentland, Alex McNab, J. P., and Lord Salveson, Directors ; Norman Carmichael, General Manager ; William Exley Miller, Secretary; George Fraser, Smelter Superintendent; Archibald Morrison, Mill Superintendent at Clifton; J. G. Cooper, Purchasing Agent. The Company is entitled to much credit for its conservatism and the thoroughly successful working of its plant.


The Shannon Copper Co., was organized November 13, 1899, under the laws of Delaware, for the purpose of purchasing the Hughes and Shannon mine, which had been for years considered the equal of any copper mine in Arizona. It had been owned for twenty years by Charles M. Shannon, the well known pioneer of the district, who had been unable to interest capital to develop the property so as to bring it to a producing stage, until he attracted the attention of Mr. W. B. Thompson, of Boston. Mr. Thompson, however, would not undertake to handle the property unless it was sold outright, which Air. Shannon agreed to do with the understanding that he be allowed to retain an interest in the company as stockholder. The company was capitalized at $3,000,000, par value of shares $10; and in July, 1909, this amount was increased to $3,300,000, of which $300,000 was held in the treasury for conversion of an issue of $600,-000 6% bonds which had been authorized in May, 1909, by the Shannon-Arizona Railway Company, and were convertible into Shannon stock at $20.00. The company also had a direct issue of 7% bonds originally $600,000 with a $60,000 annual sinking fund for redemption, by means of which the bond issue was reduced. The new company immediately began the systematic development of the property, and shortly afterward purchased some adjoining claims from the Arizona Copper Company, the pioneer mining company of the district. This gave them not only very valuable mines, but also control of ground which was necessary in the extensive work which had been mapped out. Their lands now consist of about 50 claims, in area about 400 acres, at Metcalf, in the Greenlee district, with a mill-site of about 100 acres area, and some limestone claims on the Frisco River. The mine is developed by shafts, tunnels and open pits, underground workings reaching a depth of about 1,300 feet below the crest of the mountain. The mine is timbered with 12x12" square sets. Extraction is by two double track tunnels, one of which is 7x8' in size and connects with a 1,400' double-track incline tram leading to the Coronado Railway, with six ore-bins at either end, the tramway, inclined at 36 deg., having 10-ton cars operating in counter balance with a retarding engine at the upper end, the steel cable passing around a 13' double drum, which runs a small air-compressor that generates power while serving as an auxiliary brake. The Shannon Company controls the Coronado Mining Co., through ownership of ^ 1 ', of the stock issue, and operates under lease, the property of the Leonard Copper Company, owning the Copper Belle mine at Gleeson. They also own and operate the Shannon-Arizona Railway, which is capitalized at $600, 000. This standard-gauge line of about ten miles length, was built and equipped at a cost of about $600,000, the territory traversed being very rugged and a 900-foot tunnel having been necessary. It was completed in 1910, and has not only proven a saving to the company of considerable money on ore haulage, but gives immunity from the serious interferences formerly caused by annual floods.

The 1,000-ton smelter at Clifton, seven miles from the mines, had two 350-ton water-jacket blast-furnaces, which were thrown into one large furnace by a new section between, built on the plan first used at the Washoe works, making a single blast-furnace of 1,000 tons daily capacity. The briquetting plant for flue dust and fines has a daily capacity of 60 tons, and there is a small sampling mill in connection. The 500-ton concentrator, on the San Francisco River, eight miles from the mine, has ore bins 100' long, in two sections, for first and second grade ores, and treats daily about 400 tons of ore.. Tailings have carried as high as 12% copper, due to the highly oxidized condition of ores, but have been stored and may be leached later. Formerly there was much trouble from acid waters eating the iron screens, while brass or copper screens in the jigs were worn out too rapidly by abrasion. This trouble was overcome by a simple but ingenious application of the principle of electrolysis, a low-voltage electric current being applied to the jigs, by which the screen became a cathode in the circuit, this attracting hydrogen from the water, which in turn, attracts the metallic salts, and the copper freed is deposited on that portion of the screens formerly eaten away. Water is pumped from wells near the San Francisco River by an electric triplex pump. The amount of ore smelted has shown an unbroken annual increase since the fiscal year 1904, while costs have also shown improvement

The office of the company is at No. 82 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass., the mine office at Metcalf, Arizona, and the works office at Clifton, Arizona. The officers are: Nathan L. Amster, president; Alexander B. Clough, vice president; David A. Ellis, secretary; R. Townsend McKeever, treasurer; Charles R. Jeffers, assistant secretary and treasurer; John W. Bennie, general manager; H. H. Dyer, general superintendent; H. A. Collin, mine superintendent; William H. Bond, mill superintendent. The stock of the company is listed on the Boston Stock Exchange, the property is considered very valuable, and the management excellent.


The  Calumet and Arizona was organized in March, 1901, under the laws of Arizona with a capitalization of $2,500,000, shares $10.00 par, and the capitalization increased February, 1911, to $6,500,000. The Company has paid in dividends to date $16,456,812, and has at present a cash surplus of $4,000,000.

The Company's holdings consist of the original Calumet & Arizona holdings plus the large holdings of the Superior & Pittsburg Copper Company, the merger having been effected in 1911 by exchanging one share of Calumet & Arizona stock for three and a half shares of Superior & Pittsburg stock.

It is now building at Douglas a smelter of 2,600 tons capacity, consisting of two 48x40-foot blast furnaces and five 19x1 00-foot reverberatory furnaces. The Cananea bedding system is one of the features, and also the most modern sampling and crushing plant for custom work in the southwest. The roasting plant consists of twelve 21 -foot Hereshoff roasters.

The production of the Calumet & Arizona Mining Company for 1911 was 49,945,905 pounds of refined copper.

The labor at the Calumet & Arizona mines is not organized, the Company paying better than union wages. A referendum vote on the Australian plan was held in 1907 and it was decided by a majority of four to one to continue the Bisbee district on the open shop plan. The Calumet & Arizona Mining Company was the first mining company in the state to discontinue Sunday work. This decision became effective in August, 1910, and is now extending over the state.

The mines in Bisbee employ about 1,400 men. At the smelter at Douglas about 350 men are employed operating, and at the present time an additional 250 men are employed on the construction of the new smelter.

The Calumet & Arizona Mining Company has the reputation of being a fair mining company, and it is the only large mining company in the state that does not own railroads and operate a company store. The management is considered excellent in every respect. A hospital with an efficient staff is maintained by the company for its employes.

The main office of the Company is at Warren, Arizona. The eastern office is at Calumet, Michigan. The officers of the Company are as follows: Charles Briggs, President; James Hoatson, Vice President; Thomas Hoatson, Second Vice President; Gordon R. Campbell, Secretary; Peter Ruppe, Treasurer; John C. Greenway, General Manager; W. B. Gohring, Superintendent of Mines; James Wood, Superintendent of the Smelter; J. E. Curry, Chief Clerk: Walter B. Congdon, Purchasing Agent.

The Calumet & Arizona Mining Company, in addition to its mines at Bisbee, is operating a producing mine at Courtland, Arizona, employing about 75 men, and is also conducting extensive exploratory work at Superior, in Piral County, Arizona, and at Ajo Camp, in Pima County.


The Patagonia District, in Santa Cruz County, is rapidly acquiring an important place in mining records, as phenomenal developments have been carried on during the past year, and great attention has been attracted to this district. A number of the heaviest mining operators and corporations have bought properties and undertaken further developments and large amounts of ore are now being shipped to reduction works, while the erection of plants for the reduction of ores too low in grade to stand the cost of shipment is being contemplated, and will doubtless be effected in the near future. The Chief group of mines in this district has been taken over by the same people who developed the El Tigre mine, in Mexico, and they are developing on an extensive scale, opening large and rich bodies of ore. The Phelps-Dodge Company have recently taken over The World's Fair group and are extending development. W. A. Clark, of the United Verde, has bought the Trench mine, which is also being extensively developed. The great development made to date in the R. R. R. group has been done by N. L. Amster of Boston, president of the Shannon Copper Company, by whom it has recently been purchased. Mining operations have been conducted in this vicinity for many years, but generally in a superficial way, not having been carried to any great depth, which has led to a rather common belief that the conditions did not warrant deeper development. Mining experts, however, and geologists have declared that indications point to profitable deep mining, and recent results have borne out their assertions and the advent into this field of operators of most thorough experience and capable judgment says volumes for the latent mineral resources of the Patagonia District. Here has been presented an array of eminently practical and successful mining operators who have been attracted to the region. They have taken hold of promising properties in good faith and are projecting operations on large scales. The first mining done in this region was by the Franciscan friars, early in the 17th century, about the time their missions were established. When the missions were abandoned at the time of the termination of Spanish rule in Mexico, early in the 19th century, the mines were concealed and abandoned and the records removed to Spain. About this time an uprising of the Apaches caused the entire region to become desolate, by driving away the miners. The operation of mining was resumed after the war with Mexico and has since been carried on intermittently, but no great development has resulted.

By Anson D. Smith

Mohave County Mining, the principal industry, in Mohave County dates back to the discovery of the Moss mine in the early 60's before the Territory of Arizona was created and while that region was still within the confines of Donna Ana County, New Mexico. The Moss vein and mine is located four miles northeasterly from the Gold Road mine and the report of the discovery soon attracted hundreds of prospectors and miners from the gold districts of California and Nevada. Some of the surface ores of the Moss and neighboring properties in the Black or River Range, then known as the Blue Range, were extremely rich, yielding handsome profits after the payment of shipping expenses by pack train to the Colorado river, by river steamer to Port Isabel, down the Gulf of California to Point Arena, up the coast to San Francisco, thence to Swansea, Wales, for treatment. Owing to the hostility of the Piute and Hualapai Indians, explorations were confined to 'a very limited district until 1865, when a daring party of miners ventured into the Cerbat range, only to be massacred, with the exception of one, on Silver Hill, where the town of Chloride was later established and is now flourishing.

When the Territory of Arizona was created in 1864, Mohave County became one of its four great political subdivisions. On the admission of Nevada to statehood in 1865 that part of Mohave west of the Colorado River was annexed to the Sagebrush State, and the county seat was removed to Hardyville, ten miles northeasterly from the Moss mine. With the discovery of rich veins in the Cerbat range the county seat was moved to Cerbat, and later to Mineral Park, where it remained until 1887, when it was removed to Kingman.

Mining in the Black and Cerbat ranges continued under very adverse conditions until the construction of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad, when practically the first development below water level was begun. Prosperity followed until the depreciation in the price of silver, when attention was again turned to the gold deposits of the Black or River range, resulting in the discovery of the Gold Road and Tom Reed mines, to which, with the Golconda, the largest zinc producer in the State, the present prosperity of Mohave County is due. Besides these, many other properties of merit are in various stages of development, adding much to the annual output of gold, silver and zinc which is now attracting the attention of mining investors of this and other countries.

Return To The Main Indiana Page