Thomas Rynning

Governor Brodie yesterday issued a commission to Thomas H. Rynning of Douglas, Arizona, to be captain of the Arizona Rangers, vice Burton Mossman of Bisbee, resigned. In making this appointment recognition is given a deserving and thoroughly competent man to fill a position the laborious duties of which the territory has not become fully acquainted with.
Mr. Rynning was second lieutenant of B troop of the Rough Riders. He was with Roosevelt and Brodie in Cuba, being in all the engagements from the battle of La Guaymas up to the surrender at Santiago. During this campaign he won distinction for gallant and daring deeds and no doubt his record on the battle-field did much, if it was not his entire influence, toward securing his appointment as the Ranger's captain. Mr. Rynning, although a comparatively young man, has been on the frontier all his life,
he knows well the geography of the territory, which knowledge will be of unlimited benefit to him in performing his official duties.
Mr. Mossman, the retiring captain of the Bangers, and the band's first leader, has shown how badly needed by the territory was such an organization. His record, the making of which he owes considerable to his men, has been a splendid one. His private interests in Bisbee became such that last July he decided they needed his undivided attention, and his resignation was tended to the governor.
The sergeant of the Arizona Rangers is appointed by the captain and commissioned by the governor. It is likely this appointment will be made the first of next week.
—Phoenix Gazette, 1902


Thomas H. Rynning, second captain of the Arizona Ranger organization, was born in Christiana, Norway in 1866. He came to the United States when he was two years old. In 1885, as a mere boy, he enlisted in the U. S. Cavalry in Texas. That was a period when a cavalryman had something to do. Young Rynning, under Ceneral Phil Sheridan, was in a campaign against the southern Cheyenne Indians in Indian Territory. Following that campaign and still as a trooper in the Eighth cavalry, he served under Lieutenant Samuel Fountain in Arizona against the Chiricahua Apaches in 1885 and 1886. On account of his reliability he was detailed to carry dispatches out of the Sierra Madre mountains in Mexico to General George Crook in Arizona. He was with Leonard Wood at the capture of Geronimo. With his command he marched to Dakota territory in 1888, which was the longest ride by cavalry in the world. There they relieved the famous Seventh cavalry (Custer's old regiment) and pursued Sitting Bull into British Columbia. He was honorably discharged from the army in 1891 with a record of 17 battles against the Indians.
Rynning then went to California and from there he settled in Tucson, Arizona in 1893 where he became a building contractor. Having failed to see enough trouble in the military, after four years of successful contracting, along came the Spanish-American war and he could not resist the temptation to enlist with Roosevelt's Rough Riders. He went in as a private, was promoted to sergeant and left as a second lieutenant in Troop B. He went to Cuba with Colonels Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood.
It is not generally known that an exceptional responsibility fell to him in the battle of San Juan. Just before the advance up Kettle hill, when the Rough Riders were deployed in loose formation and impatiently lying in the grass and brush under galling fire, an officer of the regulars passing alone the lines went up to Lieut. Rynning and stated that Capt. "Bucky" O'Neill had just been killed and ordered Rynning to take charge of that section of the line. Just at that moment there was a spontaneous decision of the Rough Riders, officers and enlisted men alike, that they would not await orders where they were but would advance. Under Rynning the charge up Kettle hill began and was carried out with great success. With an enlisted man, Rynning was the first to reach the summit of the hill, and mounting a great over- turned sugar kettle (which gave its name to the hill) directed the enlisted men to hold aloft the Rough Rider regimental flag as a rallying point; and it was while the two were standing on that kettle that the famous flag [which now rests in the museum of the Department of Library and Archives in the state capitol building in Phoenix] was riddled with bullets. Following the rally on Kettle hill the Rough Riders and the regulars on each side of them pressed on to victory at the summit of San Juan hill.
Upon his return from the service he resided in Safford and also in Tucson, engaging again in the contracting business.
In 1902, when Alexander O. Brodie, who was a lieut. Colonel with the Rough Riders, was elevated to the governorship of the Territory of Arizona, Tom Rynning was appointed captain of the Arizona Rangers, succeeding Burt Mossman, resigned. At that time he was residing in Douglas, Arizona, and upon taking charge of the Rangers, moved the headquarters from Bisbee to Douglas. Under his leadership the Rangers became widely known for their handling of strikes in the Bisbee and Morenci areas. In 1906 a copper strike in Cananea, Mexico, where Americans as
well as Mexicans were employed as miners at Colonel William C. Greene's copper mines there, brought on a bitter conflict between factions over wages. Volunteers were called in and Captain Rynning headed a force of volunteers from the Bisbee-Douglas-Naco area, and as private citizens, put down the rioting and bloodshed with the aid of the Mexican Ruralcs under the leader-ship of Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky.
In 1907 Hynning was appointed warden of the territorial prison at Florence, Harry Wheeler succeeding him as the third and last captain of the Arizona Rangers. Rynning supervised the new penitentiary's construction with the aid of convicts brought there from the old territorial prison at Yuma which was being abandoned. He held that post until statehood in 1912, when a Democratic regime took over, but in 1921, when the Republicans came into power again, Rynning was again named to his old job as superintendent of the state prison.
Rynning went to San Diego, California, after his first term as warden at the Florence prison had ended, and was commissioned as deputy United States marshal for the San Diego division in 1934. He also served as an undersheriff there. Tom Rynning died in San Diego June 18, 1941, at the age of 75, and was buried at Fort Roscrans cemetery in that city.

A shooting affray occurred at Douglas Sunday night which resulted in the death of one man and the serious wounding of another when Ranger W. W. Webb shot and instantly killed Lorenzo Bass in the "Cowboy" saloon. The coroner's jury decided that the deed was justifiable homicide and exonerated Webb.
The bullet which killed Bass by penetrating his heart, passed through his body and lodged in the abdomen of Ranger McDonald. The physicians in attendance reported that McDonald's chance for recovery' was good.
The killing of Bass is considered to have been provoked by him. According to the evidence he made an assault upon Webb with a revolver, and was shot dead instantly before he could make another move. McDonald took no part in the trouble, and was standing near when the trouble look place.
Webb and McDonald entered the saloon together. They stepped up to the bar and were about to lake a drink when Bass, who dealt Monte in the place, ordered them to leave. This the men refused to do. and Bass stepping up to Webb, struck him on the side of the face with the butt end of a revolver. Before Bass could make another move he was shot through the heart and was a dead man. The move by Webb was too quick for him and this is believed to be the reason why Bass did not kill the Ranger. It is currently reported that hi' had made threats to kill Webb on sight
Bass was between Webb and McDonald when the shot was fired. After passing through his heart the bullet struck McDonald about the waist line and went upward. He fell to the floor, telling Webb to give any of the others the same kind of a dose, if they made any breaks.

Additional details of the killing of a man at Douglas by Ranger Webb were received at the office of the governor in an official report by Captain Rynning. There is a disreputable street in Douglas known as Sixth street. There was a disturbance on that street and a deputy constable asked Webb to accompany him to make an arrest. They arrested two men and took them away. Soon after that some shooting was heard in that neighborhood and Ranger Webb and the deputy constable went back to see what was going on. On his way back Webb met three other Rangers, Barefoot, Peterson and McDonald, who had just returned from a long trip. They went together into the Cowboy saloon and dance hall. The proprietor, Lon Bass, who Captain Rynning says was one of the toughest men he ever met, came up to Webb and said something about the Rangers coming into his place without being called. He swore that they could not make trouble there and his language was very abusive.
Captain Rynning said he had ascertained that Bass drew his gun, when Webb quick as a flash fired and shot him through the heart and before he fell shot him in the side. The people of that street, the captain said, have an animosity against all officers as he knows by personal experience, having once gone there himself to put down a disturbance. At the time of the killing all of the Rangers were perfectly sober. The captain says that there is a clique of cow thieves along the border and that they stand in with the lowest divekeepers.
As soon as the killing occurred Webb was turned over to Constable Dayton Craham [former Ranger] .and as there is no convenient jail there a couple of Rangers were appointed to guard him. At the time the report was made up a coroner's inquest was in progress. Captain Rynning believes there will be no trouble in clearing Webb.
The story of the shooting as gleaned from travelers who arrived here from the south is noticeably different, though it in no way reflects on the Rangers. The stoiy is that two or three weeks ago Ranger Webb and saloonkeeper Bass had some trouble but later patched it up and spoke pleasantly. On the day of the shooting Captain Rynning and Rangers Webb, McDonald and Peterson arrested the two men referred to above, in the saloon, but that when the second disturbance occurred only Rangers Webb and McDonald went to the saloon to investigate.
As they approached the bar Bass stepped from behind and hit Webb with the butt of his revolver, whereupon Webb shot him twice, one bullet going through his heart and the other lodging in his body. During the shooting a bullet passed through the right lung of Ranger McDonald and lodged between the lung and the surface. Though it had been probed for, it had not been recovered at last account, and Ranger McDonald's recovery was considered very doubtful.
Bass was known as a desperate man and one who bore the scars of many battles. The pitiable thing in connection with the incident is that Bass leaves several orphan children, Mrs. Bass having died some time ago.

The Tombstone Prospector had this item:

Ranger Webb was brought over to Tombstone by Sheriff Lewis and Captain Rynning and placed in the county jail where he will be held until Friday the 13th. when he will be taken back to Douglas and given a preliminary hearing. After the coroner's jury had exonerated Webb he was immediately arrested by the officers on a charge of murder and will be given a hearing. In conversation regarding the case Captain Rynning stated that "Webb had to kill Bass or be killed himself," and added, "He is just as anxious as anyone to have an examination held so that he could be cleared of the matter."
Bass had a gun when he came at Webb, and from his actions it was plain he meant to fin-. Bass' friends say that Webb will have a hard time clearing himself of the charge of murder, while Webb himself says the shooting was purely self-defense. McDonald's wound which was at first considered fatal, has proved otherwise and the chances for his recovery pronounced very good.
The interesting question is, who shot McDonald? It is thought by some that an employe of the saloon shot him while the Other shooting was going on and others hold to the theory that the bullet that passed through Bass entered the body of McDonald.
The Bisbee Review later wrote: When the preliminary examination adjourned, the prosecution had not finished presenting its witnesses. The testimony was strongly against Webb, several of the witnesses stating that the
killing of Bass was unprovoked. The strongest testimony was that of Al White, who is employed at the Copper Queen smelter at Douglas, and was present in the Cowboys' Home saloon when the shooting took place.
When the examination closed the outlook for Webb was dark. If the testimony is to be believed he did wrong in killing Bass. The Rangers were not downhearted at the outlook, and say that Webb will not be bound over to the grand jury.
Yesterday the testimony of A. L. White, John Wilton, E. L. Matrix, John Swords, Alex Gilchrist and James Goode were heard. The last two testified that they were drunk when the shooting took place, and are unable to throw any light on the affair.
The only exciting incident of the day was the removal of C. F. Nichols, who acted as stenographer at the coroners inquest His place was filled by W. C. Ferguson, formerly of Bisbee, at the request of Attorney English who alleged that Nichols had not taken the testimony verbatim at the inquest.
The testimony of John Swords was even more positive than that he gave at the inquest He stated under oath that Webb shot without cause. The witness stated that he was in the saloon when Webb and Bass entered. Webb had some words with Bass and then placed a revolver against his side and fired. He fired another shortly after. About four minutes before a shot was fired in the saloon, he stated that he saw Bass make no move as if to injure Webb. He stated that the wound on Webb's cheek was the result of a glass being thrown by one of the girls in the saloon. He swore that he did not see a gun in the hands of Bass.
A. L. White testified that Ranger Barefoot was quarreling with the bartender in the saloon, when Bass entered the front door and wanted to know what the trouble was. He stated that Webb then drew a revolver and shot Bass in the stomach. He fell to the floor exclaiming, "Oh, my God!" Just before the shooting Webb asked Bass what he was going to do, and the latter replied that he would beat the face off him and put him out. The witness was certain that Bass had no gun in his hand. He said one of the women threw a glass at Webb.
John Wilton testified that Bass entered the saloon, and told Webb to "cut it out" and that he would "punch him." Then Webb shot twice and killed him. Wilton was positive that he saw no gun in the hands of Bass and that he did not strike Webb.
E. L. Mattix, who is a miner, was in the saloon when the shooting took place. He said that Bass entered the front door, and asked Webb what was the trouble. Words passed between the two men, and then Webb shot and while Bass was falling he fired the second shot. Like the others he did not see any gun in the hands of Bass.
The courtroom was crowded to the doors during the examination of witnesses. At the request of the defense, all witnesses were excluded from the courtroom while the others were giving their testimony. This is done to prevent any collusion.
Incidently, the fire at Douglas yesterday morning which destroyed the saloon in which the killing occurred, destroys all evidence of a material nature with reference to the assertion that Webb fired a shot into the floor a few minutes before he killed Bass. Outside of this it will have little bearing on the issues of the case owing to the prosecution and defense having witnesses at their disposal who can testify to the condition of things in the saloon, just before and after the shooting was done.
Regarding the fire at Douglas, the Bisbee Review reported: The Copper Belt theatre, Cowboys* Home saloon and restaurant, adjoining the theatre, were completely destroyed by fire Friday. As far as can be ascertained the fire was the outcome of a quarrel between a Mexican prostitute and her lover, who lived in a back room of the Cowboys' Home. During the quarrel the woman threw a lamp at the man. It struck the wall, broke, and set the place on fire. The house being a light frame structure, lined with cloth and papered, the fire spread with great rapidity to a small shack adjoining, occupied as a restaurant; all were soon in flames.
The Cowboys' Home was owned by a man named Coats. It and all the contents were a total loss. This is the saloon in which Lorenzo Bass was killed. The Copper Belt theatre was owned by J. O. Philips. He saved his piano, cash register, cigars and liquors, but all the fixtures were a total loss.
It is not known why, but for some minutes after the hose was attached to the hydrant there was no water with which to fight the fire. Some say it was fully twenty minutes before the water came on in sufficient force with which to fight the fire.
Editor's Note; The Webb case came to trial after numerous delays, during the district court proceedings at Tombstone, and after a four-day trial, the jury returned a verdict of not guilty and Ranger Webb was discharged and surities on bond released. Webb was honorably discharged from the Ranger service at the expiration of his one-year enlistment, September 18, 1903. At the bottom of his certificate of discharge Captain Rynning wrote: "Excellent service, honest and faithful. A fearless and reliable officer."
The legislature, in 1903, passed a law doubling the number of the Arizona Rangers. It has been claimed that during the last two years it was possible for the Rangers to cover only a limited portion of the territory, because of the small number provided by the original law. The new act doubles the force, and we hope to see the efficiency of the force more than doubled as a result.
One of the results of the Ranger force is to relieve the counties of the territory of much of the expense of hunting down criminals and bringing them to justice, and especially should this relief be desirable in the border counties, where hard characters are most likely to put in an appearance and make trouble.
The Rangers can accomplish much and be more powerful for good, in our opinion, when they work in harmony and in conjunction with the sheriffs office in the various counties of the territory. This has not been done to a great extent lately; on the other hand there seems to have grown up a kind of jealous rivalry between the sheriffs and the Rangers. We hope now that the Rangers have been increased in number, that a new policy will be adopted, and that Captain Rynning will seek to do his work in harmony with the various sheriffs of the territory. The Rangers could be stationed in the several counties, with instructions to hold themselves in readiness to give assistance to the sheriff. This would save much expense to the counties, and the sheriffs could have an equipped force at the expense of the territory.
The doubling of the Ranger force in Arizona we believe will cause cattle rustlers and other hard characters to steer clear of this section, and if this proves to be the result, then the legislature has done well. We believe the Rangers have been a benefit to the territory, and we hope to sec the company grow in efficiency until the last cattle thief has been driven out. But the Rangers are by no means entitled to the credit for the good work that has been done by the sheriffs of Cochise and Graham counties in rounding up many hard cases during the past two years in this part of the territory. Sheriffs Lewis and Parks have both been active, and have accomplished much, and they deserve the praise due when duty is well done.
Now that we have an adequate Ranger force, let it be used to the best advantage, and in our opinion harmonious work with the sheriffs of Arizona will be the best plan to adopt. (Editorial)
—Solomonville Bulletin, 1903

Badges were of solid silver and lettered in blue enamel with engravings etched in blue. Captain's, Lieutenant's, and four sergeants' badges had rank in blue above the word Arizona; badges worn by privates had numbers, one to twenty. In addition, each man carried a warrant of authority and commissions were issued to the officers.
Editor's Note: According to the bill there will be twenty privates, four sergeants, a lieutenant and captain on the force. This is an increase of eight privates and four sergeants. The new salary scale for the force is as follows, one of the provisions being that they own and keep their own horses: captain, $175; lieutenant, $135; sergeants, $110; privates, $100. The captain and lieutenants are allowed to ride on the trains free of charge. The remainder of the force must make their moves on horseback.
An added feature of the new law was to the effect that the captain shall provide and issue to each Ranger a badge, uniform in size and shape, with the words "Arizona Ranger" inscribed thereon in plain and legible letters, which badge shall be returned to the captain upon the said Ranger going out of the service.

The trouble in Graham county resulting from the putting into operation of Arizona's new eight hour law [1903] has finally reached a stage of contest for supremacy between the properly constituted authorities and the disorderly element among the 3,500 striking miners, mostly Mexicans and Italians, at Clifton, Morenci and Metcalf, a trio of mining towns closely clustered in the area.
The Clifton Copper Era stated:
For the past week the strike situation at Morcnci has been most critical. There were from twelve to fifteen hundred of the miners, mostly well armed who practically had control of the
camp and compelled the companies to close dieir mines and cease to operate their tramways. Last week Sheriff Parks arrived on the scene with a large number of deputies from the valley, and swore in others until he had sixty men under him. Then twenty-four Rangers arrived, but this force was inadequate to cope with the strikers, who had stationed themselves on the surrounding hills, and by their long range rifles commanded the situation. At one time they had it in their power to capture or kill all the deputies and Rangers, as they were surrounded by twelve hundred armed miners, who jeered the officers and laughed at them, then defied them to advance further. A battle which meant the extermination of the officers, as well as death to many strikers was averted only by the coolness and good judgement of Sheriff Parks, his deputies and the Rangers. Had a gun been fired accidently on either side, there would have been an awful slaughter. It would have been a fight to the finish, because a braver or better lot of officers was perhaps never before assembled in one group than those under Sheriff Parks, and Captain Rynning of the Ranger force, but it would have been of short duration, as the strikers were fifteen to one. Sheriff Parks ordered a hall, and then a retreat, which was accomplished without provoking the fire of the strikers. It was a most trying and critical moment, and had not all of the officers used good judgment a struggle would have been commenced which would have been prolonged for many weeks at the expense of hundreds of lives and the destruction of millions of dollars worth of property.
On Tuesday night the entire Arizona National Guard, 230 men under command of Colonel James II. McClintoek, Adjutant General, arrived on the scene, and on Wednesday morning a number of leaders were arrested and placed in confinement, and many of the strikers disarmed. A search was made of all the houses for arms and cartridges, and some were found and confiscated, but it is not thought that the miners were disarmed by any means, as it is known that many of them have cached their arms in the hills.
Last night 250 troops from Portal Grant and Huaehuca arrived and tonight as many more ore expected from Texas, in all making more than 800 regulars and militia at the scene of the trouble.
The deputy sheriffs at Morcnci will now doubtless be withdrawn from Morenci and placed at Clifton and Met calf, where it is possible their services may be needed later.
At one period Deputies Thompson, Birchfield, Epley and Phillips were surrounded by several hundred strikers, and told to deliver up their arms. The deputies dropped on their knees, threw cartridges into their Winchesters and told the strikers to come and get them. The strikers made no further demonstration, and the officers were allowed to depart in good order. All the citizens of Morcnci speak in tin; highest terms of praise of the deportment, conduct and judgment exercised by Sheriff Parks, when for more than a week with a mere handful of deputies he was able to protect the lives and property of the citizens of the community.
In the same issue of the Copper Era was this comment: Just as the Era goes to press it is learned that the striking miners at Morenci have agreed to resume work at the terms originally offered by the company, nine hours' pay for eight hours' work. It is supposed the Metcalf miners will agree to the same terms.
A special dispatch to the Tucson Star is as follows:
Clifton, Arizona, June 12, 1903.—Col. J. H. McClintock disarmed the strikers here yesterday. Today the strikers have agreed to accept the company's terms. The strike is therefore now over. Sheriff Parks and his deputies and Captain Hynning with the Arizona Rangers have shown fine generalship throughout this trouble and to them is largely due the credit of averting bloodshed.
James Colquhoun
General Sup't. Arizona Copper Co.

Editor's Note: Although no mention was found in the newspapers as to any possible effects the unprecedented flood which swept through the Clifton area had on the sudden settlement of the strike and the end of hostilities, it seems there is a possibility it may have, as in the same issue of the Copper Era was this startling headline:

Unprecedented Disaster Wreck Devastation and Death Caused By a Cloud Burst in Chase Canyon. Loss of Life from Twenty to Thirty Persons—Only Seven Bodies Recovered—Many Home- less and Much Damage Done—Hundreds of Men Cleaning Up the Wreckage and Streets.
The old saying that "misfortunes never come singly" has again been verified. When the strike situation had reached an acute stage and an armed conflict between the officers of the law and the strikers was momentarily expected, Clifton was visited by the most disastcrous Hood in its history, sweeping into eternity a score of human beings and causing untold property losses.  In the middle of Tuesday afternoon ominous clouds were seen hovering over the mountains from the New England camp to Morenci, and it was evident that heavy rain was falling. Telephone messages were received from the Longfellow mine and Metcalf to look out for floods, and word was sent up Chase creek, inhabited mostly by Mexican families, and where the principal part of the town of Clifton is located, warning the people to that effect. But few people realized the danger, and but little attention was paid to the warning.
Then the storm broke loose in Clifton, the rain falling in sheets, as if spilled from a mighty reservoir, accompanied by hail as large as walnuts, propelled with force as if shot from a gatling gun. The people ran for shelter to their homes and stores. In an incredible short space of.time a terrifying roar of angry, washing waters, which drove terror to the hearts of those who realized its import, was heard above the roar of the rain and hail and the deafening peals of continuous thunder and lightning, which fairly rent the hills, and reverberated from crag to crag of the narrow canyon which confines the limits of the town.
The flood waters struck the upper end of the town with a breast of from six to eight feet, carrying houses, horses, wagons and human beings on to the Frisco ( San Francisco river was commonly called Frisco river by the locals.) river with a speed and fury indescribable.
Not until then, when too late, did the people realize their great danger. It might therefore be said that the flood came without warning, as in fact it did to most people. Houses were picked up and jammed against others only to break into a thousand pieces, carrying their helpless occupants for a few hundred feet, when they sank beneath the murky waters never to be seen alive again. In a few moments the happy and prosperous town of Chase creek was partially almost wiped from existence. The scenes of terror as witnessed by many who were fortunate enough to be in the brick buildings, or who had made their escape and were clinging to the rugged sides of the mountains, were indescribable and can never be blotted from the tablets of memory.
Wreckage and debris would pile against a building or block up the narrow street, causing the water to pile up until its force swept everything before it crushing strong buildings, like egg shells, and hurling the debris with still greater violence against another building, which, like its neighbor could not withstand the force of the compact and was lifted from its foundation, and dashed into fragments in a few seconds. And so it continued from the upper end of the town of Chase creek to the Frisco river, a distance of probably a mile. How anyone who was on the creek side of the town escaped is a miracle, but hundreds did escape, many of them being mangled and bruised from head to foot. Had this storm occurred in the night time the loss of life would have been appalling.
Within a few moments the worst was over, but the flood lasted for an hour before it commenced to recede and it was a considerable time after that before any material assistance could be rendered to those whose lives were imperiled in buildings wrecked but still standing.
Owing to the strike hundreds of men were in idleness and on the streets, but insofar as being able to render assistance was concerned, they might as well have been a thousand miles away.

The Douglas Dhpatch in 1905 carried a story from Phoenix, saying:

Seven of the Morenci rioters were released from the territorial prison last week on the expiration of their two-year terms. One of them, the leader, Three Fingered Jack, sentenced at the same time, was not of the number. It will be remembered that he took part in the last attempted prison break and was sentenced to a term of ten years.
The Morenci strike following the eight hour law which went into effect on June 1, 1903, was succeeded by a riot which was put down by the National Guard, the Arizona Rangers, and the
United States troops in July. Several of the more prominent of the rioters were arrested and tried in the court of Graham county the following fall. Eight of them were convicted and sent to Yuma prison. One of the number was an Italian and a member of the Mafia, from which organization he received $5 per week during his imprisonment. He had accumulated about $90 at the time of the release of himself and his companions. They celebrated their freedom by a drunk which has been given a place in the annals of the town of Yuma. Two of the released went to Tucson, two went to Phoenix, and the other three went to the Pacific coast.


Ranger Jeff Kidder, who some time since was doing duty in this section, but recently transferred to the southern portion of the territory, seems to be trying to make a reputation for himself as a bad man, judging from the following from the Bisbee Review of July 6:

"Who sent this Ranger in here with his pistol to beat up men on the streets of Bisbee? What provocation is there for inflicting a man with the methods of a thug, bully and butcher upon a community that has the reputation of being peaceful to a degree, excelled by no camp on earth? Is the reputation of a member of the Ranger force to be made and maintained by the muzzle end of a .45 in the hands of a hot-headed man wearing a star? Who gave this man Kidder, wearing an. Arizona Ranger badge, the extraordinary powers warranting him to cut men's heads open with the butt end of a .45? Why are not our own officers ample to care for the peace of this community? They have taken care of it in the past; they are still able to do so without the savage assaults of a murderous mind, stimulated with the idea that he's the whole cheese, if he can demonstrate his ability of knocking out men and boys with his ever ready gatling., A sorry affair, indeed, was that on the streets of Bisbee last night. Let the captain of the Rangers come here—fair man as Captain Rynning is, and take this man Kidder out of here, strip him of his star and badge which gives him the authority to 'pack a gun' and use it like a crazy man, unfitted to be an officer by every evidence in the world. The last and most flagrant assault by this man Kidder was made early in the evening, and as far as can be ascertained, and the Review man made diligent search for all the facts in the case, was a wicked assault made on a .young man named Radebush. He with companion was standing near the front of the Turf saloon, on the sidewalk, and on the curb thereof, when along came the great peace preserver of Arizona, his ever ready shooting iron in his pocket, prepared for business. With a gruff 'You'll have to get off the streets here,' he pushed Radebush off the sidewalk, where he had a perfect right to be. Radebush turned and said: 'Why, what's the matter with our standing here?' This was enough for Mr. Kidder, the big man with the big gun. Arizona had been deadly insulted by a common miner—a peaceful young fellow who works for the Calumet and Arizona company, a young man who by scores of testimony from such men as Lewis Hunt, Mayor Taylor and others state is a steady, hardworker, without a particle of bad blood in him. This dreadfully insulting remark of Radebush was enough for the dignity of the arsenal packer. Out with his side kick, his .45, he immediately smashed poor Radebush over the face with his deadly weapon and knocked the young man cold. As he fell to the side-walk his forehead struck the cement walk and was cut open. There he lay unconscious, the third victim of this man strapped with a belt full of cartridges and a long toni gun, a new weapon for slashing men brought into vogue in Bisbee.

"So cowardly, so vicious and so brutal was the unprovoked assault that he (Kidder) was soon surrounded by a thousand men, and cries of 'get a rope,' 'hang him.' 'string him up,' came from a hundred throats, and it required but the leadership of one single solitary man to have swept the other officers from the street and strung Kidder to the first pole they came to. The feelings of the citizens was aroused in a high pitch."

The Douglas American of July 7th had the following relative to the trouble gotten into by Kidder:

"Ranger Kidder, charged with beating several people over the head with a six-shooter Tuesday evening while about making an arrest on Main street in Bisbee, was arraigned yesterday in Judge McDonald's court at Bisbee on two charges of assault and one of assault with a deadly weapon. In the first two cases he asked for a change of venue, which was made to Tombstone, and in the third waived examination, being hound over to the grand jury in the sum of $1,600. There is a great deal of feeling over the matter in Bisbee. Strong assertions is made by the men attacked and their friends that the attacks were unprovoked and the work of an officer who exceeded his authority. Bangers here expressed themselves yesterday and today as deeply deploring the affair because of the reflection it cast upon the Hangers as a body and as desiring the matter thoroughly sifted. If Kidder is guilty as public sentiment appears to indicate, they want him to receive the limit of punishment"

The above item, which was reprinted in the Williams News, carried the following item two weeks later:

Last Wednesday at Tombstone Hanger Kidder was convicted in the justice court on a charge of assault and battery committed on the person of a man named Fagan in Bislwe on the evening of

July 5th. The jury was out only a short time, when they brought in a verdict of guilty as charged, and the justice imposed a fine of $50.
The ease against the Ranger for assault upon Graham was dismissed on account of witnesses of the prosecution not being present. Kidder must answer another charge for assault upon Radebush. This case will come up before the grand jury.

The Tombstone Prospector, in November 1904, reporting the district court activities, listed the Territory of Arizona vs. Kidder, plead not guilty. In December this paper noted: Mr. Radcbush,
a witness in the ease of the Territory vs. Jeff Kidder, is in town today. lie is oim* of the parties whom Kidder is charged with having beaten up. In June 1905. the Prospector said: The case of the Territory vs. Jeff Kidder, for assault with a deadly weapon has been transferred to Pima county upon the motion of the attorneys for the defendant filing affidavits to the effect that by reason of biased and prejudiced published reports of the ease the defendant could not secure a fair and impartial trial in this district. This is the sensational case of alleged assaults made by the officer at Bisbee on July 4th of last year.
Editor's Note: In checking through various newspapers, no further mention was found in the case. The Douglas Dispatch in November 1905 said: Ranger Jeff Kidder, who is stationed at Naco, is in the city to transact official business and to call on friends. He reports everything quiet in the vicinity of Naco.

"Hands up!" was the command uttered by a masked brave at 11:30 o'clock last night in the Palace saloon, and the seven men who were congregated in the place suddenly realized that the crisp order meant business and that the days of the Wild West were not altogether gone as six of them obligingly filed into the back room at the right of the rear of the saloon and stood there with uplifted paws.
For the seventh man, a carpenter named M. D. Beede, had cut and run for it as soon as the would-be holdup made his appearance. And to that fact Proprietor Kane of the saloon probably owes the fact that he is still in possession of his "bank roll" today.
At the time narrated, Decker, the night bartender, was standing at the end of the bar; Lincoln, the crap dealer, and Johnson, the roulette dealer, were behind their respective games, while Beede, Matt Fayson, a miner, E. O. Smith, one of the city's typos, and the colored porter were variously disposed about the room engaged in conversation.
Suddenly there appeared through the back door a man of ordinary build, dressed in a long, faded coat, blue overalls, a dirty slouch imitation Panama hat, and with a red bandana handkerchief covering bis face, through the punched eye-holes of which glittered a pair of restless black orbs.
"Throw up your hands!" was the command of the desperado, "and march into that side room," an order obeyed by everyone except Beede, who was already out of the front door like a flash.
The victims could not help observing, in spite of their rather nervous condition, that the bandit was in an equally nervous state, judging from his repeated jestures to "hold 'em up higher," as he gradually edged toward the coveted crap table money. This he would have reached in a few seconds at the rate he was progressing when suddenly—"crack!" went a pistol shot, followed by two others in rapid succession, and the gentlemen who had been doing the living picture act suddenly got busy dodging bullets, but the seance was very short, for as the smoke cleared away Sergeant Harry Wheeler, of the Arizona Rangers, was seen standing in the front door with a smoking revolver, while the holdup artist lay on the floor with blood flowing from a wound in his head and another in his right breast.
Carpenter Beede had run into Wheeler immediately after making his hurried exit, and thinking the latter was about to go into the saloon, hurriedly ejaculated: "Don't go in there—there is a holdup going on!" to which the Ranger answered: "All right; that's what I'm here for," and cautiously advancing to the saloon door, he opened it and at the instant was descried by the robber, who pointed his big .45 Colt's at him and pulled the trigger, but just a trifle too late, for the Ranger's gun had spoken first and the bullet had grazed the right side of the bandit's head, staggering him and undoubtedly destroying his aim. As it was his bullet whistled harmlessly past the Ranger, who thereupon fired again, this time with better effect, as the ball took effect in the man's right breast, effectually putting him out of business for the time.
As he sank to the floor with a groan the crowd closed in on him, seeing that there was no further danger, and soon Dr. Olcott was called and was on the scene, doing what he could for the man, who was seen to be very badly if not fatally wounded. He was promptly removed to the hospital by the doctor's orders, and at 10:30 a.m. today had very slight chances of recovery. His name was ascertained to be George Anderson, and he came here from Locust Grove, Georgia. Just who he is, or how long he had been here no one seemed to know.
From the evidence of people on the sidewalk during the shooting there was a fourth shot fired, evidently at Mr. Wheeler from across the street, by a confederate of Anderson, although neither Wheeler nor anyone in the saloon could vouch for this. The fact remains, however, that a bullet went by Wheeler which embedded itself in the leg of the roulette table and which, from the line of firing, obviously must have been shot by somebody outside.
Sergeant Wheeler is a small man, but he proved his right to his office thoroughly. "I am sorry that this happened," said he to a Citizen reporter this morning, "but it was either his life or mine, and if I hadn't been just a little quicker on the draw than he was I might be in his position now. Under the circumstances, if I had it to do over again I think I would do exactly the same thing." This was said without the slightest air of bravado, and merely as the plain statement of an officer. The sergeant had just arrived from Willcox last night, where he is stationed and was leaving Wanda's restaurant when he met Beede.
Ranger Wheeler telegraphed to Captain Rynning, who was in Benson at the time of the shooting, and who took the first train here. He went out to the hospital this morning in company with a representative of the sherifFs office, in order to secure an antemortem statement from the wounded man, in case his injuries should terminate fatally.
In one of the foregoing paragraphs, wherein the names of the occupants of the saloon were mentioned, the name of "Policy Sam" Meadows was inadvertently left out. Sam was there—very much so, according to his version, which is undisputed by others.
It appears that the bartender Decker, thought the matter was a joke at first, or else he is gifted with a superabundance of nerve, for when the bad man first issued his command to elevate the "digits," Decker jokingly held up first one finger and then two, at the samp time asking his robberiets if that was enough. But he was soon undeceived as to the man's mission, for that worthy told him to "get a move on" in no uncertain terms, whereat he complied.
At 2 o'clock Dr. Purcell, the county physician, who went out to the hospital to attend the wounded man, reported that his chances for living were practically nil, as he was shot through the right lung as well as in the forehead above the right eye, although the latter wound is not, of course, fatal. The right eye is powder burned, according to the doctor, which supports the theory advanced by some that the man shot himself, but this is scouted by nearly all the eye witnesses of the affray. The Ranger is almost positive that his bullets inflicted both wounds.

Bandit George Anderson finally passed away, breathing his last at 3 a.m. today.

By the time the readers of this paper are glancing over its columns, the true name of the bandit who was shot last Sunday night by Hanger Wheeler may be known, for the coroner's jury will then have been in session over an hour and the infonnation may have been elicited from some witness. For the present, though, it remains unknown as far as the people are concerned. The story of the dead man whose remains have been viewed all day long as they lay at the Reilly undertaking parlors, is a trifle out of the common with regard to the usual lawbreaker of his class.
A week ago last Friday afternoon a man well dressed in a dark suit, with a derby hat came into the San Augustin hotel and asked proprietor Hall for a room for an indefinite period, particularly wishing a room only, which is contrary to the rules of the house. His request was granted, however, as he occupied the apartment Friday and Saturday nights and was seen in the room early Sunday evening by the domestic, but when the chambermaid went to make up the bed Monday she discovered that the room had not been occupied the night before.
After waiting a day or two, Mr. Hall, thinking at first that in spite of the good appearance of the guest, he had simply been done out of a little rent, took possession of the neat traveling bag left there and locked the door. Subsequently he remembered that the man had spoken of being pestered for money he owed by people outside of this town, and putting two and two together, with the reading of the- story of the hold-up and the mysterious bandit's refusal to give his true name, at least as given out, he opened the grip and discovered that its contents consisted of numerous letters, telegrams and documents, in addition to a few articles of clothing.
These documents clearly established the fact that the man was named Walter F. Stanley, and that he was the advance contracting agent for the Independent Carnival company. One of the letters is an introduction from Maynard Cunsul, secretary of the recent Albuquerque fair, in which he commends both the man and the show. Another letter establishes the fact that he recently entered into a contract with Douglas people, including the Douglas band, for a date for his show there. He had very evidently worked west from Denver, Pueblo and other Colorado points, as the telegrams showed.
When, therefore, the man died yesterday, Mr. Hall promptly reported his knowledge to the authorities and turned over the grip and its contents. The man's wife is evidently in Denver, and there is nothing to indicate that there are any children. There was no money found in the grip and the man probably didn't have any, or else he would have paid for his room in advance.
Now, however, comes the fact that he had evidently made up his mind to commit the crime for which he paid the penalty with his life, for as the readers of this paper will recollect, in the story of the shooting, it was stated that there was undoubtedly a shot fired at Ranger Wheeler from across the street, probably by a confederate.
The night following the shooting a man in a box ear of an east bound freight told his brother hobo travelers that he had a wounded partner in Tucson. His information reached the authorities and Ranger Wheeler took up the trail of the confederate and at the time of the bandit's death, was twenty miles east of Lordsburg, New Mexico, hot in pursuit. Then he was wired for by the officials here to come back for the inquest today. Hence he had no choice but to report here, which will probably result in the fellow's escape for good.
As a final chapter, it is known positively that the name Walter F. Stanley was an assumed name. The man came from Locust Grove, Georgia, as has been stated, and it is understood that Undertaker Reilly is in communication with parties there—in fact, he received a wire today from that point, but the contents have not been made public at this writing. They may, of course, be brought out in the evidence before the coroner's jury.
LATER—This afternoon telegrams were received by Mayor Schumacher, and Undertaker Reilly from the father of the dead man, ordering him to be buried here, which will probably be done tomorrow afternoon.
His real name is Joe Bostwick.
—Tucson Citizen, 1904

Arizona is by no means the domain of the bad man. The burglar insurance people give lower rates there on bank safes than they do in New York and yet with its vast area, nearly thrice that of New York, policed by twenty-six men, the Arizona Rangers, it would seem to be open to the highwaymen of the country. But the Rangers are doubly efficient. They know the lay of the land. They can track a man with all the skill of the Indian with scant clews through a desert where few desperadoes could find their way.
Captain Rynning, the head of the Ranger force, has his office at Douglas to be near the border, where much of the Ranger work is done. The organization is secret. The men are not generally known, so that they may work in a town without their presence being suspected. Last year they found it necessary to kill but one bad men, and this is certainly a record to be proud of, for they covered 10,140 miles on their ponies and arrested 455 men. For a little army that is doing about as well as the Arizona taxpayer could expect.
Along the Mexican border tho Rangers co-operate with the Mexican Gendarmes Fiscales, a body of frontiersmen, skilled Indian fighters, and enemies to desperadoes, headed, strange to say, by a square jawed Russian, Amelio Kosterlitzky, who came to the Mexican border years ago from the Russian army in search of adventure, which was not then to be had at home. He is dreaded by the border scoundrels, for the law in Mexico and its administration gives him plenty of leeway.—Brooklyn (NY) Eagle.
—Douglas Dispatch, 1905

Land of mystery and intrigue and home of the primitive Sen Indians. Lure of the adventurous and sometimes doom for those less fortunate in coming back alive from its haunting environs.
The Douglas Dispatch, in May of 1905, tells of the return from Tiburon [te-voo-ron] Island, of Arizona Charley and his party after an uneventful trip. He tells of their having no firearms; that their weapons are the primitive bow and arrow and wooden spear. He related that the Seri were expert in spearing fish, which they eat raw; no evidences of cooking or of fire were seen. From the indications, fish was about the only food of the Scris, as there were no signs of agriculture or gardening, nor were there any nut or fruit trees to be seen.
Physically, the Seris were said to be much like the Cocopah Indians in Arizona—strongly built and symmetrical in form, but apparently nothing warlike about them and that it might be possible they were cannibalistic, as is often rumored, but there was no indications of it.
The island itself showed unmistakably that it is of volcanic origin, the surface being generally rough and mountainous, and, though not barren, there is a sparse vegetable growth in a few small valleys. There is a small tree on the island that resembles the sycamore, the largest one noticed being not four inches in diameter.
Tiburon Island is said to contain about 20,000 acres, but it is thought that this estimate was too great, and there is nothing especially attractive or inviting about the place.

The Douglas Dispatch, later in the month, had this item:

Thomas Grindell and G. Olin Ralls leave this morning for Bisbee, where they are joined by Messrs. Hoffman and Ingraham, and leave Wednesday for Nogales. They leave for Magdalena Sonora, and spend Friday with Colonel Kosterlitzky, who is assisting them in their trip to the Tiburon Island. He will furnish them with soldiers if they so desire.
From there they leave for Altar, where they buy horses and outfit for the trip. They go first to Libertad and then skirt the coast to Cape Tepapa, where there are ruins of an old monastery of the Seri Indians. They go south from there to a strait about a mile and a half long at low tide and the water is very rough. This is crossed by means of Indian boats called "belsas," being made of pine. From this point they get on land four miles and explore the island. The island is twenty-four miles by twelve miles.
Mr. Grindell visited the savage Sens last year, but found them the most peaceable people on earth. Many of them were so poor that they could hardly navigate and lived on a very plain diet, such as fish and turtles. They do not cook their food and do not use knives, but simply in a very primitive manner tear the food asunder and eat it raw.
The women are supreme in tribal government and the older they are the greater their power. The party will be gone about six weeks and will go into the Yaqui country before returning.

The following month, the Dispatch had this item:

Ed P. Grindell arrived in this city Sunday from Cananea. He is very much worried about the continued absence of his brother Tom, superintendent of the Douglas schools, who left with Olin Ralls of the Coirper Queen smelter and four others for Tiburon Island in the Gulf of California, at the close of the school year.
The party was to have returned on August 1st, almost a month ago, but no message has as yet been received since they left Guaynias for the island. He says he is almost certain something
must have happened to the party to delay their return for so long a time. The Seri Indians who inhabit the island are not especially warlike, but they have no particular love for the white man and the Grindell party may have gotten into straits through their treachery.

And later this story:

There were several rumors on the streets yesterday that the bodies of Tom Grindell and the members of his exploring party had been found at the mouth of the Colorado River, the report being brought here by a man who returned from the Altar district yesterday. There is but little doubt here that Grindell and his party have met death either at the hands of treacherous Indians or by drowning, the waters of the gulf being fully as treacherous as the Indians in (hat section are said to be.
Reports from Nogales state that E. P. Grindell, a brother of the lost explorer, is prosecuting his search, but there is little hope that the party will Ix- found alive. The report of a grewsome find by vaqueros in the employ of a ranchman in the Altar district may lead to some conclusive evidence as to the fate of the explorers.

The Nogales Oasis says:

Sunday evening E. P. Grindell came here from Hermosillo, where he had been for several days, en route to Tucson on business; but has since returned and gone to Altar where he will organize a party to go out to the gulf coast and Tiburon Island, to search for the missing exploring party headed by his brother T. F. Grindell, which passed Caborca on the 9th of June, with the intention of going to the island, and has not since been reported, when at the time of departure from Altar the plan was to return to Hermosillo not later than the 15th of August.
At Hermosillo Mr. Grindell was given by Governor Ysabal letters to the prefect in Altar, and a general letter calling upon all to whom presented to afford every attention possible to aid Mr. Grindell in his search. He will outfit at Altar and follow out the trail of the missing party so far as possible.
While in Hermosillo Mr. Grindell met a man who has a cattle ranch near the coast who stated that his vaqueros had reported finding a deserted camping place occupied but shortly previous where there had been left a sheet iron camp stove. Everything In-longing to its owners, but that, had been carried away. Upon a stick or post planted in the ground near the stove were nailed four human hands. If upon investigation at Altar it is learned that the missing party took such a stove, the searching party will try to locate the place where it was seen and thoroughly scour the surrounding region for further traces.
The missing men are four in number, T. F. Grindell and Olin Ralls of Douglas, Dave Ingraham of Blsbee and Lieutenant Hoffman, who had a commission in the rough riders. They are all young, active men, well capable of caring for themselves, and has anything untoward occurred to them, it has been through unavoidable accident or treachery.

Magdalena, Sonora, October 16,1905

Captain Thomas H. Rynning, Douglas:

My Dear Captain: Your esteemed favor dated the 11th instant reached me yesterday morning. I immediately got three men ready to go with your sergeant and as he did not arrive on yesterday's train, I took train for Nogales and no one seems to know when he will return. I returned here this morning and will go again to Nogales this afternoon with the hope of finding your sergeant, as I think not a moment ought to be lost in hunting for the Grindell party. For my part, I am ever ready to be of service to you.
How unfortunate is this affair! If Tom Grindell would have minded and heeded my advice, he would be all right today. When he went on his expedition he and Ralls stayed with me one day. I cautioned them against the trip—that is, the route they intended to take, as I know too well the country. I insisted on them going by way of Guaymas, but all to no avail. Tom was bull-headed al>out the thing, and it was impossible for me to get him to change his mind. I pictured to him the things as I experienced them once, and for no money in the world will I undertake a like job. Instead of getting Tom to desist, he became more determined.
It was my intention to gel my orderly trumpeter to go with them in case the Guaymas route, but I would not permit the trumpeter to join them on the one they took. Before they left Douglas, when Ralls indicated to me the intended trip and outlined the road by letter, I even then advised him not to take this road. I do hope my letters will be found among Ralls' effects at Douglas so that you may see how hard I fought witli them to desist.
I am also positive that the poor fellows died for want of water, for after the Papago guides left them they no doubt wandered in a demented state of mind superinduced by thirst, until one by one they gave out and lay down to die; but then as long as their bodies are not found there is hope, and most sincerely do I hope that they will yet turn up sound and well.


Douglas, Ariz., October 10.—The following taken from the Nogales Oasis is the latest information received from E. P. Grindell, who is heading a searching party for his brother:
There are now indications thai the exploring party headed by Thomas Grindell may have been murdered by their guide. E. P. Grindell of Tucson, who is searching for his missing brother and his companions, was in Nogales yesterday. He had been to Altar, where, through the efforts of Antonio Ramirez, presidente of the municipality, he succeeded in finding the Papago Indian  guide who left that place with the party last June and later returned without them. The guide told of leaving the party on the coast. He said they found the four hands mentioned by the Mexican cowboy some weeks ago, before he left the party. He also told Mr. Grindell that the missing party intended to go to the Escalantes ranch, about thirty-five miles from the coast, where he left them. He said they had camped one night at a place where there was no water and had turned the horses loose. The horses scattered, and two of the men, with himself, went to find them. The entire day was spent in hunting for the animals. He then left the party and returned to Caborca. He offered to take Mr. Grindell to the place where he left them, telling him the country was dry and sandy and they could find tracks that had been made six months before. Mr. Grindell agreed to take the trail with the Indian, but the night before they were to depart, Arturo Furken of Caborca accosted Mr. Grindell and told him that the man he was to start out with was of shady reputation, and offered to accompany them. When the Indian was told that Mr. Furken would be one of the party, he demurred and did not want to go. Later he agreed to go if he could take two of his brothers with him. He was told that his brothers could go along. Next morning there was no Indian guide to be found. He had secured a fresh horse during the night and fled the country. His flight has caused Mr. Grindell to believe that the man let the horses of the missing party scatter and while the men were separated hunting for them, the guide murdered them one at a time. He also believes that had he gone alone with the guide as he had intended, he would have never returned.
Wednesday Mr. Grindell was in Hermosillo and told his story to Governor Yzabal. The governor said that they would have to get that guide, and assured Mr. Grindell that he would get him. Mr. Grindell has gone to Tucson, where he will remain a few days, while the Mexican audiorities are seeking the guide. If they do not find the Papago he will go back to Sonora and employ men to assist him in the search.

Washington, January 5.—The department of state has received a letter from E. P. Grindell, dated from Hermosillo, Mexico, and giving a detailed account of his search for his missing brother,
Thomas Grindell and the members of his party. The letter is as follows:

Hermosillo, Sonora, Mex. Dec. 9.

Robert Bacon, Assistant Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.

Sir:—Mr. Hostetter, the American consul here, informed me you have written him regarding four Americans lost in the vicinity of Tiburon Island last July; namely, Thomas Grindell, Olin Ralls, David Ingraham and Jack Hoffman. Mr. Hoffman, however, has since been found, and you no doubt have heard his story. He says the other boys likely perished for want of water.
Now I have been searching for this party since the 5th of September, giving my entire time to the matter, but have failed to find any of them. I have, however, found their trail and have followed it for over one hundred miles, but the recent rains have entirely obliterated their trails. So now I have nothing to work on but the general location. I found the boys' camp deserted. I found four or five animals dead. I trailed Mr. Ralls over forty miles, where he went alone with one mule. A sudden rain forced us to stop following the trail for the day, and next day the trail was gone. But one of the Indians found, about ten miles further on, a dead mule. The mule had the pack saddle still on its back and a rifle and bucket still fastened to the saddle, which led me to believe that Mr. Ralls had fallen between this and the point where I last had his trail. I searched the country thoroughly, but could find no trace of the men.
I had with me five to twelve Papago Indian trailers and one American companion. We searched the entire coast of the mainland in front of Tiburon Island for a distance of one hundred miles, and back into the mountains for from twenty to thirty miles, and I think I have covered every place where bodies might reasonably be expected to be. We rode over eight hundred miles on horseback.
I have given up ever finding the boys, but as a last resort I have offered a reward to the Papago Indians of $200 for each of the bodies they find. It is my opinion that the boys wandered in their frenzied condition away back into the mountains, into places where they never will be found. Everyone here has been very kind to me in the search, especially Louis Hostetter, the American consul. He has been very considerate, and helped me many times. I trust this information will be of value to your department.
Very truly, E. P. Grindkll.

Yesterday afternoon the Review was in receipt of the following telegram from J. A. Naugle, superintendent of the New Mexico & Arizona Railway with headquarters at Guaymas, Sonora. The telegram is the first information received from the exploring party which left Douglas last June, headed by Prof. Thos. Grindell, consisting of five members, for the purpose of exploring Tiburon Island in quest of a gold mine which was reported to be fabulously rich.

Guaymas, Mexico, Oct. 25.

Mr. J. E. Hoffman, who was with Professor Grindell and party, appeared in my office this morning and states that the party became separated near the crossing to Tiburon Island about June 29th, and that he continued along down the coast, arriving here yesterday. He thinks the party has probably perished for want of water and food. He States that the Papago Indian guide was all right. In case it is desired to find them or recover their remains, the party should start from Guaymas by boat. Hoffman offers to accompany the rescue party. He is without funds. Advise us if we can render any assistance from this end.

J. A. Naugle.

Upon receipt of the telegram the Review immediately called up Thomas Rynning at Douglas, captain of the Rangers, but Mr. Rynnling was in Mexico. Lieut. Hopkins of the Rangers was notified of the contents of the telegram, and he at once notified the Mexican consul at Douglas, who in turn communicated with the Mexican State authorities at Hcrmosillo and Magdalena. It is expected that when the Mexican officers at Ilermosillo leam of the arrival of Hoffman at Guaymas they will immediately send a courier after the rescue party, which left that place on October 17th, traveling in the direction of Caborca and Port Libcrlad.
In addition a telegram was sent to Mr. Naugle stating that Mr. Hoffman was to be furnished with expense money and to have him wait for the arrival of the rescue party headed by the brother of Professor Grindcll.
Almost five months have passed since Thos. Grindell, who last year was the principal of the public schools at Douglas, organized a prospecting party for the pUIpOBe of exploring Tiburon Island, off the west coast of Mexico, in quest of a rich gold mine. Mr. Grindell visited the Island in 1904. and it was for the purpose of prosecuting his search still further during his summer vacation, that the party was organized the first part of June. After leaving Caborca, a settlement about half way between the railroad and
the coast, no trace of the party has been had. They were then on their way to Port Lihcrtad, when' they expected to find boats which would afford them transportation to a point opposite the island. Instead, they found Port Libcrtad deserted, and the party then started down the barren and desert coast on foot. The Papago guide refused to go into the desert and returned, but the intrepid party pushed on south hoping to strike fresh water, and were never heard of since until Mr. Hoffman, of the original party, arrived in Guaymas yesterday after a journey on foot lasting from June 29th.
Judging from the Hoffman story the party became lost and separated, and the possibilities arc that he was the only surviving member.

—Bisbee Daily Review, 1905

J. K. Hoffman, who is supposed to be the only survivor of the Grindell expedition, which left here for Tiburon Island last spring, has arrived at Magdalena, according to reports received here, and will accompany the searching expedition headed by Captain Thomas Rynning over the trail taken by the Grindell party. They are expected to leave today for Altar.
Previous to leaving Guaymas for Magdalena, Mr. Hoffman wrote a brief history of his trip to the coast, and it was just received here. The following is the story written for the Dispatch by Mr. Hoffman:
"We left Bisbee June 1st for Nogales, where supplies were secured and from there went to Santa Ana, Sonora, by train, where Grindell and Ralls left their surplus baggage; thence by Stage to Altar, where we secured more supplies, one horse and a burro; thence to Pitiquito also by stage, where we bought one horse and four burros, with two pack saddles. At Pitiquito we packed our burros and started for Terno Rancho. Before reaching there, however, two dry camps were made and more water was secured at the second camp from a ranch alxuit four miles distant. At Terno Rancho we secured a Papago guide. We then started for Coyote Springs, two or three camps being made on the way, the first one in the mountains, where a fresh supply of water was secured, the last we had.
"Then our hardships began. We were out of water long before reaching Coyote Springs and exceedingly thirsty. We stopped there a few days and then started for Tiburon Island pass, but ;it Coyote Springs we got the last water we ever had. Before reaching Tiburon pass, where our last camp together was made, we made three camps, one of which we made on account of the intense heat. Before reaching the third camp we were out of water, or rather nearly out, as Grindell and Ralls still had a little in their canteens. Dave Ingraham and myself were completely out, although Dave and I were in good shape. I was about played out and drank seven cups of sea water and two cups of coffee made out of sea water. You know the effects. The next morning I could hardly navigate, with about eight more miles to go to reach Tiburon pass.
"However, I dipped my head, arms and breast in sea water about eveiy half mile or so and felt better right along. The reason that I played out was that I was the packer and the cook and did lots of sweating, although the boys helped all they could.
"We arrived at Tiburon pass, where Grindcll and Doc Ralls took the animals and water cans and started to cross. In the meantime I was distilling water and distilled about ten tincups full. Dave and I drank seven. I continued to distill water, Ralls having given up the attempt to cross to the island and having started out for the San Antena Rancho with about half a gallon of water (distilled). He did not return for two days and we were forced to do something, distilling not furnishing water fast enough for three.
We started out for the San Antena Rancho on or about June 28th. We ran across a strong trail and followed it, thinking that it would bring us to the ranch. After traveling twenty or thirty hours the trail proved to be a stock feed and water trail in wet weather. We stayed here in the shade the rest of the day, before starting for anywhere else. Dave and I were played out, but Grindell took the canteens and continued on; this was the last seen of Grindell. We rested all night and started back for the gulf the next morning.
"We found a shady spot to rest on the way back, but there was not shade enough and we were partly in the sun all day. The next night we continued toward the direction of the gulf and traveled two more nights together. We quenched our thirst by chewing the pulp of the water plant (cactus). The fourth night Dave could not go any farther and the fifth night I was forced to leave him, and made the gulf the next morning, weak and exhausted. High tide had covered our former camp and had done considerable damage. I found three or four bunches of matches which were not wet and started to distill water, but it took me all day to get some water.
"Olin Ralls had returned without water, as I found a plate with some fried bacon from which he had taken the grease and mixed it with flour and eaten part. It took me five days to regain strength enough to return to the mountains for Dave. I got out as far as we were or farther, but got so weak had to return without seeing anything of him. Stayed in camp three or four days more and, decided that the only way to save my life was to travel south for Guaymas. I left about July 14th or 15th, taking with me bacon, shotgun, the only gun left, the rifles and six-shooters being left on the desert, flour, baking powder, two pair blankets, coal oil and cooking utensils, making two loads.
"It took me until October 24th to reach Guaymas. I had to make detours of twenty or thirty miles around some of the swamps. I had too many troubles in regards to water, food, sore feet, etc., to bother you with.

J. E. Hoffman.

After the statement of Hoffman, the Douglas Dispatch reported that Governor Kibbey had granted a leave of absence to Captain Tom Rynning and four privates in the Rangers for thirty days to join a search party. Captain Rynning was supposed to start from Nogales with Sergeant Old and privates Stanford, Kidder and Burnett, all of whom go as private parties and not in their official capacity. They will be joined by a squad of men detailed from the Mexican Rurales by Colonel Kosterlitzky, and will leave as soon as possible for Altar, where the trail of the missing party will be taken up.
The next issue of the Dispatch reported that the action of Governor Kibbey in giving leave of absence to Captain Rynning and four of his men to join the search for Tom Grindell was very favorably commended on.


After an unsuccessful attempt to find the missing members of the Grindell expedition to Tiburon Island or to recover the bodies of the three lost Americans, Captain Tom Rynning of the Hangers, who had been petitioned lo head the relief party, re-turned to Douglas yesterday morning. With the exception of finding the decomposing remains of animals used by the party and a portion of their outfit, no trace of Tom Grindell, Dave Tngraham and Olin Ralls was discovered.

Captain Rynniiig was seen last evening at the Ranger head-quarters by a Dispatch reporter and gave the following story of his trip:

"The party which was organized at Guaymas to go to the relief of the missing explorers left Guaymas at noon November 2nd in the power boat Lolita of twenty tons. In the party were John F. Hodman, the survivor of the ill-fated expedition; Dr. Frank Toussaint of Guaymas, Rangers Tip Stanford and W. A. Old and myself. The crew of the Lolita comprised the captain and a crew of five Mexicans.

"Dr. Toussaint is formerly of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and is engaged in mining near Guaymas. He is a warm friend of a sister of the Grindell boys and took a personal interest in the search. In addition to the money which I took from Douglas, die doctor advanced me $100 to outfit for the trip and to charter the boat. We found out on our return that the message from Walter Douglas requesting me to draw on him for $500 was received at Guaymas two hours after our leaving for the island. If we would have had that amount we might have stayed longer and con-tinued the search for the bodies further in the interior. I never

drew on Mr. Douglas for any money. "We arrived at Tiburon Island the next evening, the distance being about 125 mile.*. We did not disembark until the next morning at 9 o'clock. Although we sailed completely around the island the only human habitation we saw were five deserted Seri villages and two dogs. All of the natives had probably gone into the interior of the island.

"The captain and sailors on the Lolita evidently were well informed as to the Seri Indians or else had been intimidated by the stories they had heard of the cruelties practiced by the natives as they absolutely refused to leave the boat. No amount or gold could have persuaded them to set foot on Tiburon soil.

"After the trip around the island we landed on the mainland and Hoffman guided us to the last camp of the party. There we found two dead horses and a half mile below the last camp we found a dead burro, three coats, an overcoat, two blankets, an ax, a burro bell, saddle and two pack saddles. We also found a camera which belonged to Mr. Grindell. It was hidden in the brush .some distance below and there we also found a quantity of bacon, flour and other provisions and about 300 rounds of ammunition.

"Hoffman led us to the place where he assured us was the spot at which he left Dave Ingraham to die, but no trace of him could be found. Hoffman found his buck-handled knife near this place. All of the statements made at Guaymas by Hoffman were corroborated by what we found, but no trace whatever could be found of the bodies, dead or alive, of the missing explorers.

"Going further inland we found the trail of what we supposed was the other relief expedition, which is led by Ed Grindell. The trail of the horses showed that they were shod, which convinced us that it was Ed Grindell's party. The trail seemed to come down from the north and went back that way, only further to the east. One of the trails was nine miles from the camp of the missing party and the last was about fourteen miles from the camp.

"Considerable apprehension was felt by the members of our party for the other rescue party, as it was feared that they were making a dangerous trip and they are likely to meet the same fate that Grindell and his companions are supposed to have met.

"Realizing that nothing further could be done in that vicinity, we re-embarked and left for Guaymas, where we arrived yester-day morning. Hoffman expected to leave last evening for Bisbee and will probably be there tomorrow.

"Hoffman is almost completely recovered from the results of his awful trip down the coast to Guaymas. The trip that we made in twenty-four hours it took him ninety days to make, and when he arrived in that city he was in horrible shape. His body was almost completely covered with running sores and he was almost crazed by his experiences. His face was almost as black as that of a negro owing to the exposure to the sun and weather, and persons who knew him before he left on the trip failed to identify him. In some instances he was requested to repeat parts of conversations he had with some of these people to prove his identity.

"Parts of his story were not given much credence in Guaymas, but the trip to the island convinced us that he told the truth in every instance. His experiences in that trip down the coast would make an interesting but exceedingly harrowing tale, and that he is alive today is the best proof of his story to those who know the country through which he went.

"As to Grindell's fate and that of his companions, it would be hard for me to give an opinion. It is the general belief, however, that if they were not actually killed by the Sens, their bodies were disposed of by them. The stories concerning the habits of this tribe regarding their cannibalistic tendencies we found to be true. It is a fact that they cat all of their meat raw and that they have been known to partake freely of human meat.

"Of course, there may be a chance that the members of the party escaped, the absence of any trace of their bodies leaving some hope of that, but it is beyond me where they are if they are alive, with the possible exception that they are prisoners in the interior of Tiburon Island, but there seems but little hope of that. The other relief party under Ed Grindell may have dis-covered something more, possibly the bodies of the missing men, and nothing further can be done until they return."

A telegram was received by the Dispatch from Hermosillo yesterday stating that Ed Grindell and Ralph Colvin of this city had arrived in that city after a fruitless attempt to locate the former's brother and his two companions; the third organized attempt to find the missing explorers. The message stated that the party had just returned from the coast, but the search was absolutely fruitless, as the recent heavy rains had obliterated aII trails and traces of the party which had previously been found.

The telegram which was sent to the Dispatch by Mr. Colvin states that Ed Grindell had given up all hope of ever hearing anything from his brother and that it would be useless to con-tinue the search.

There is this satisfaction, however, that everything was done Within human power to locate those whose fate will always be conjecture and this will, of course, be some consolation. Mr. Grindell has spent his time and money and did not give up the hurt till it was found that all efforts were in vain. The many friends of the men who were lost showed the right disposition in helping in a material way in every necessary manner and now tha ti the search is at an end they will feel that everything was done that could be done.


There is no little surprise as well as disappointment expressed by many people because of the failure of Governor Kibbey to appoint Captain Rynning of the territorial Rangers superin-tendent of the territorial prison, says the Tucson Star.

It was generally understood that Captain Rynning was going to receive the appointment. This because of his peculiar fitness and qualifications for the very important office, which is charged with most responsible if not dangerous duties.

It was expected Captain Rynning would receive the appoint-ment because he had justly earned the promotion and official recognition. Captain Rynning had made a good record as a Hough Rider in the Spanish-American war. He has made a splendid record as captain of the territorial Ranger force. It was the presence of mind, the indomitable courage and quick action of Captain Rynning that quelled and brought to naught the riot of the strikers during the Clifton strikes two years ago, in which by his courageous timely action he saved much bloodshed and destruction of property.

For this service to the territory Captain Rynning is entitled to recognition and official promotion. That promotion should have been superintendent of the territorial prison, because of all men in Arizona, outside of Ben F. Daniels, he is peculiarly fitted for this heavy trust.

Captain Rynning is a giant in frame and strength, an athlete in action; he has had much experience with criminals, having been in the Chicago police force, and has managed the range duties of Arizona with marked skill, prudence and unstinted courage, and with much credit to the service.

The Star has ever maintained that public honors and promo-tion in the public service should follow well performed public service. That qualification should be the most important consid-eration, linked with integrity and good citizenship, and when sustained by a record of public service there should be nothing to defeat the right of public recognition.

Captain Rynning meets every one of these requirements and for this particular official station. It is to be hoped when Jerry Millay resigns or if he refuses to accept the appointment, that Governor Kibbey will see his way clear to appoint Captain Rynning superintendent of the territorial prison. —Douglas Dispatch, 1905

Rynning Has No Complaint.

Captain Tom Rynning of the Arizona Rangers, who returned last evening from a trip to the territorial capital, said to a Dis-patch reporter that he had no intention of resigning, as was reported by the Phoenix papers.

The head of the Rangers was asked concerning the superin-tendency of the Yuma penitentiary, for which he was prominently mentioned before the appointment of Jerry Millay. "I have no Complaint to make," he said, "although I did think that the appointment would be offered me. Governor Brodie made me a promise of the office on the resignation of Mr. Daniels, which was expected some time ago, but I learned from Governor Kibbey that Colonel Brodie had never mentioned it to him, due undoubtedly to the stress of official business which occasioned his leaving the executive office of the territory and his subsequent hurried trip to the Philippines. Governor Kibbey told me that had he known of Colonel Brodies promise he would have offered me the appointment, but thinking that he knew the facts in the case I never sent in an application for the place." —Douglas Dispatch, 1905

Two or three Arizona newspapers are camping on the trail of the Arizona Rangers, with the evident intention of impairing the usefulness of the organization by diminishing its numbers, says the Nogales Oasis. The plea is made that when the Rangers were organized cattle thieves were numerous along the border and the services of the Rangers were necessary; but that the evil has been so greatly lessened during the past few years as to render the maintenance of the company at its present strength unnecessary.

The reason advanced for the proposed diminishing of the force is hardly a logical one, from the viewpoint of a man in the cattle country, and right on the border, as well. It is a fact that cattle stealing has become less popular in this section, but the cattle thieves have not all been killed off by any means. Some have been sent to Yuma; some have been driven out of the country and others have sought less dangerous vocations.

This condition is due to the energetic services of the Arizona Rangers. They are experienced cattlemen, trained to the rugged life that an active Ranger must lead and knowing the trails of the country and the habits of the cattle rustler. It is fear of these men that has stopped the depredations of the cattle thieves. Abolish the Rangers and the abolishment of the organization will be the signal for which many are undoubtedly waiting to resume their raids. Cut the force in two and the danger of cattle stealing will be sufficiently diminished to tempt many of the old timers to again start in business with a horse, a riata and a branding iron for capital.

The Oasis has been in Arizona for many years. It knows the Rangers as an organization of fearless and efficient officers. It knows of their work and in the interest of the cattle industry and other industries it stands for the maintenance of the Arizona Rangers. They have done good work and the fruits of their labors should not be undone. —Douglas Dispatch, 1905

The editor of the (Clifton) Copper Era has worked himself up into a great state of nervous excitement over the Ranger force. He is greatly worried for fear some member of the force will arrest some lawbreaker within the sacred precincts of the Cliff town. He writes as one inspired and constantly reminds the Rangers and the public that the local officers can take care of all the criminals who come within their jurisdiction. It is the duty of every Ranger to respond to the call of the local officials, whether it be in Safford, Clifton or Phoenix. If he did not do so he would be derelict in his duty.—Safford Journal, —Douglas Dispatch, 1905

THE ARIZONA RANGERS. That is the caption of an editorial defense of Captain Rynning's men in the last issue of the Safford Journal, the latest addition to Graham county newspapers, and from the same it seems that the Rangers arc not without friends in Graham county, where most of the agitation against them begins. The Journal says:

A few, and we are glad to note that it is only a few, of the Arizona newspapers arc advocating that the force of the Arizona Hangers be reduced in numbers. Investigation shows that the agitation was started by the Copper Era of Clifton. There is a reason for all things and if we examine this particular question we will find that the reason for the attitude of the Copper Era is that at one time, not very long ago, when there were several notorious hop joints running in Clifton which the local authorities Were either incapable or incompetent to close, the assistance of the Rangers was called for—and the joints closed. This action undoubtedly made some powerful enemies for the Rangers in' Clifton and the Copper Era is their mouthpiece.

Under the circumstances it is safe to say that very little attention will be given to the frenzied waitings of the Copper Era. No body of men has done more to rid this territory of notorious cattle thieves, thugs and highwaymen than the Arizona Rangers. This organization was created for the purpose of mak-ing this territory a fit place for peaceful and industrious citizens. How well it has succeeded is evidenced by the fact that now there is being raised a cry for a decrease of their numbers. Perhaps the Rangers arc not kept so strenuously active now as in the early days of their existence—we hope so, anyway. "Eternal vigilance is the price of peace." A reduction in the numbers of the Rangers force just at present would be inviting a return to the old days when every man who went twenty miles from home had to pack a gun and be a law unto himself. The Rangers are all right. They have done and are still doing good work. Let us keep every one of them. —Douglas Dispatch, 1905


In order to save the life of Ranger Kidder, yesterday afternoon, Deputy Sheriff Sparks drew his revolver and shot a hobo at Naco who was attempting to make an assault with a dagger. A free-for-all fight was taking place there yesterday evening, brought on by about fifteen tramps who were drinking and raising a disturbance just west of town on the railroad track. Officers Kidder and Sparks were called to settle the trouble when the hoboes .assaulted them. Both officers were knocked down and badly, but not seriously injured. As Ranger Kidder arose one of the tramps drew a dagger and attempted to assault him, when Deputy Sparks drew his revolver and fired, the bullet taking effect in the assailant s hip.,

All the rioters were arrested and landed in jail. A warrant will be sworn out in justice court charging the one who made the knife play with assault with intent to kill, and others on a charge of disturbing the peace. The man who was shot will be sent to the county hospital at Tombstone, where he will remain under arrest. The fight was witnessed by a large crowd of people. —Bisbee Review, 1906

CANANEA RIOT Awful Reign of Terror in Greene Camp at Cananea, Mexico— Al Least Fifty Men are Killed and Wounded—Prominent Ameri-cans Shot Down in Cold Blood—The Town Set on Fire and the Mines Burning—Men, Women and Children Flee for Their Lives Pitched Battle at Naco.

"For God's Sake Send Us Armed Help at Once" was Colonel Greene's Message to the United States.

Naco, Arizona, June 1.—Forty-five American Miners killed and more than twice that number wounded and dying—Fifty Mexi-can miners and four policemen killed and many more wounded —the town burned—citizens fleeing for their lives to the hills, stores being looted, and machinery being dynamited. Soldiery rushing in from across the American line.

The above glaring headings greeted the readers of the Douglas Dispatch on the morning of June 2, 1906, and the newspaper went on to reveal:

This in brief was the situation at Cananca at one o'clock this morning. At noon yesterday the Mexican miners, about 5,000, left their work at the Capote and adjoining mines and appeared on the Mesa or public square and demanded of the foreman that their wages be raised from $3 to $5 per day, Mexican money, and eight hours per day, and stated that if this was not complied with at once that they would strike. After a half hour conference, they called on Colonel W. C. Greene, who appeared from his sick room, and addressed them from the veranda of the mining company's office. He explained to them that he could not raise their wages without the consent of the governor of Sonora, but that he would do this as soon as he could hear from the governor giving his consent.

This did not satisfy the Mexicans, who immediately went on a strike and called all their men off the works and instituted a state of rebellion. They said that if they could not get their demands granted, the Americans could not work and at once armed them-selves and began to make a wholesale warfare on the Americans.

The American miners being unarmed at work were taken by surprise and were swept down before the ruthless fire of the Mexicans. The Americans made as good defense as possible and soon returned fire under fearful disadvantages, killing and wounding as above stated.

Col. W. C. Greene at once appealed to the Americans and Governor Yzabal at Hermosillo, who at once started with Mexi-can Rurales, arriving at four o'clock this morning. Here they were joined by Captain Thomas Rynning of the Arizona Rangers and five hundred armed miners of Bisbee. A special train carrying Rangers, special officers and armed citizens, left Douglas at eight o'clock making the run of thirty-five miles in thirty-five minutes. They joined the governor and his forces. A train passed through Douglas from EI Paso at two o'clock, having 1000 rifles and ammunition on and were joined here by officers and armed citizens.

At 10:15 a long train pulled into Naco, carrying nearly one thousand, principally women and children, who passed through to Bisbee. They were in a state of terror and many of them were without hats and anything, but the clothing they had on their backs. They were sitting on the floor of the baggage cars, and scats were taken out to make more room for the crowd which was jammed in as rightly as possible. The train stopped about seven miles out of Cananea to pick up a great many of the refugees who had flown from the town on foot seeking to gain the international line.

At 10:30 another train came to Naco having two coaches loaded with women and children, who were hungry and half starved. They were at once fed by the people and wandered about the town eating at the lunch wagons and getting whatever there was to eat. They had left all of their possessions behind them and fled for safety. They were all terrorized and told harrowing stories of the fearful conditions which they had left behind them.

NACO, (11:30 p.m.—Special.)—The town is swarmed with men armed, walking to and fro doing sentinel duty. The country around swarms with riders coming in from all directions, ready to join the armed forces which is to cross the international line in the next hour. Ranger Arthur Hopkins is in charge of the situa-tion, and all under arms must report to him. The Arizona Rang-ers, twenty-four in all, arc present and prepared to cross the line as soon as the Bisbee contingent joins them. Tremendous excite-ment prevails and every minute news reached here by telephone giving fresh information of the alarming condition. The officers have little to say as to their plans further than they are ready at the proper time to cross the line.

NACO, (11:45 p.m.—Special.)—A party of mounted men have just arrived from Bisbee in advance of the train which will arrive here in about an hour. These cavalrymen reported at once to Ranger Hopkins. The boys here have just completed organizing a special company to take a special train to Cananea and will leave in a few minutes.

The Mexicans have refused to permit the soldiers to pass the line and a skirmish is expected to take place at this juncture. It is the idea of the Bisbee men to ride the line and prevent the Mexi-cans from making an attack on tl?e train. Everyone is prepared to make the attempt to cross the ^line, no matter what is in advance. There are horsemen arriving all the time and swelling the ranks and it is believed that'a strong cavalry force will be in readiness in a few minutes.

NACO, (12 p.m.—Special.)—Just now a pitched battle took place near the stock yards, just east of town, where over 200 shots were fired as fast as possible. Two Americans were shot off their horses and several Mexicans were killed and wounded. A courier ran into the center of the town.having been chased by a posse of Mexicans who were determined not to let them pass the line. The Americans are scouting for an opportunity to cross and the fighting continues all along the border for several hundred yards. There is great consternation prevailing here, and it is feared that the Americans are taking too many chances in trying to cross the line. The special train is waiting on the line to make the crossing and a telegram from Cananea is just received urging the troops to hurry.

NACO, (12:15 p.m.—Special.)—There was a company of twenty-five horsemen riding along the line just now when they were fired upon from ambush by a large number of Mexicans. Two men were shot. They are shooting now all along the line.

NACO.—The telephone from Cananea is in charge of B. A. Packard and other Americans, who are keeping the Americans on this side of the line in touch with the progress at that point. They report that everything is burning and that the mines are burning at several places and that all work has been abandoned and the smelters are shut down. There is no working going on and a large number of Mexicans are marching up and down the streets carry-ing flags and making a tremendous noise. They have no order and there seems to be very little leadership among the strikers. Every one but the strikers have left the streets and are in hiding or are fleeing to the hills.

NACO, June 2.—In the midst of the turmoil and confusion, Col. W. C. Greene passed through the crowd in his automobile, crowding the way through the strikers. He was not molested by any one and made a last effort to quell the mob and to send them to their homes. This was without avail, and after passing through several of the main thoroughfares he returned home and gave up, seeing that his efforts were futile. Greene was cautioned to remain under cover, but this had no effect upon the copper king, who did all in his power to allay the storm.

As the train pulled out of Cananea loaded with the large num-ber of refugees, an American was attacked by three Mexicans, all armed. Before the eyes of the spectators, the American put up the great fight, killing all three Mexicans and escaping with his life.

NACO, June 2.—(12:45—Special.)—A telephone message was just received from B. A. Packard, which was sent by Colonel Greene. It says: "FOR GOD'S SAKE SEND US ARMED HELP." This struck terror into the very hearts of all, and it was hard to keep the men from rushing across the line in a forced march to Cananea. It seems now that the very American forces are being annihilated and are utterly helpless. What the morning will bring forth no man can say, but it looks now that not half the terrible butchery and destruction can be told. There is terrible conster-nation reigning here and death and destruction seems rampant. Five hundred fighters strong left Bisbee at 12 o'clock sharp and arc expected every minute.

NACO, June 2.—(Special)—Three Mexicans have been killed in the skirmishes on the line. One was shot through the head and killed immediately; one was shot twice and the third was shot through the bowels, which proved fatal. Three others are re-ported wounded.

NACO, June 2.—(9:30 p.m.—Special.)—A telephone message from W. C. Greene, president of the Cananea Consolidated cop-per company to Col. B. A. Packard, says forty people arc killed. Buildings have been set on fire by the rioters. The American consul, Galbraith, has wired Washington asking that troops be sent from Fort Huachuca, Arizona, to protect the American citizens.

Editor's Note: The foregoing headlines and special bulletins give some idea of the excitement and turmoil which took place at Naco and Cananea, and after considerable revaluation of the situation, it was discovered that the loss of life and damage of property was not as great as was first reported. Captain Rynning did show a great deal of poise and in his handling of the riot and coordination with Colonel Kosterlitzky, he showed him-self possessed of a good quality of diplomacy.

A resume of Captain Rynning's diplomacy in connection with the Cananea riot is contained in a later article appearing in the Phoenix Republican, in part as follows:

Rioting by the Mexican miners was in progress and they showed themselves especially hostile to Americans, of which there were some 300 men, women and children in the camp. Word came to Bisbcc of the situation and citizens appealed to Rynning to lead a rescue party to Cananea. He replied that it would probably mean his losing his job as captain of the Rangers, but he would lead the proposed expedition; and he asked for armed volunteers to the number of 300. The number required followed him immediately to the border town of Naco, where they pro-posed to entrain for Cananea. At the Mexican line Governor Yzabal of Sonora met Captain Rynning and forbade his entrance into Mexico, pointing out that permission could not possibly be given to an armed party of Americans to come into his country. Captain Rynning replied that they were not going in as a party but as individuals; that they were going on a peaceful mission to Cananea to protect and rescue Americans in peril and they were going on that train. Governor Yzabal made the best of the situation and went along. He afterwards lost his job when it was represented to President Diaz that he had permitted Captain Rynning to cross the line.

Arriving at Cananea with his armed Americans, Captain Ryn-ning was met by Colonel Kosterlitzky, the famous Russian com-mander of Sonora Rurales, who had just arrived with some hundreds of Mexican soldiers. Captain Rynning anticipating some controversy with the colonel, already had ordered his men to proceed to a hill which commanded the town, and when the interview began the Americans were assembling on the hill. The colonel pre-cmptorily ordered Captain Rynning to return to Naco with his men, and added that he was there to protect life and property, that the Americans were a menace to peace, and he broadly intimated that if his orders were not obeyed there would be trouble. Captain Rynning, in his slow, quiet voice, suggested to Colonel Kosterlitzky that he direct his gaze to the neighboring hill. "My men are up there," Captain Rynning said, "and you can sec that they command the situation. I am going to see that the Americans here are protected until they can be taken out of town and across the American line. We don't want trouble, but if you want it we can accommodate you."

Kosterlitzky, like Yzabal, put the best possible face on a dis-agreeable situation. A considerable number of rioters were killed after the arrival of the Rynning party, and it has always been understood that the Americans did their share toward putting down the riot—but there was no conflict between the American and Mexican soldiers, and in due course the American residents were escorted out of town and across the line.

As soon as possible thereafter Captain Rynning reported per-sonally to Governor Kibbey and advised him of all he had done. It is understood that the governor said to Rynning, "You deserve to be severely punished for what you have done and I will try to make the punishment fit the crime—how would you like to be superintendent of the prison?"

When Governor Kibbey told President Roosevelt of the Mexi-can exploit of his former Rough Rider lieutenant, "Teddy" gave one of his famous chuckles and said: "Tom's all right, isn't he?"


That General Luis E. Torres will not permit any discourtesy on the part of Mexican officials to any American citizen and that he is desirous of retaining the most cordial feeling between the two republics is shown by the following incidents and cor-respondence:

Some time during the early part of last week a rancher on the American side of the line near Naco lost a bunch of goats, a portion of which strayed over into Mexico. The rancher secured permission from one of the Mexican officials at Naco by the name of Jiminez to go over into Mexico to search for his goats. He also requested Lieutenant Harry Wheeler of the Arizona Rangers to help him in his search. While on the Mexican side of the line the rancher, although having previously had permission to cross the line, was arrested by this man Jiminez and thrown into jail.

Wheeler on hearing of the occurrence proceeded to the office of Jiminez for the purpose of securing the man's release if pos-sible. On entering the office Jiminez was found with his hat on, but requested that the American Ranger immediately remove his headpiece. This Wheeler very courteously refused to comply with unless Jiminez would accord him the same courtesy.

On the refusal of Lieutenant Wheeler to remove his headgear, Jiminez is said to have started for the Ranger lieutenant, but for some unknown reason stopped before he reached him. Wheeler eventually left the office of Jiminez and still had his hat on. The lieutenant immediately reported the occurrence to his superior officer, Captain Rynning of Douglas, who took the matter up with General Luis E. Torres, who wrote as follows:

"Captain Thomas Rynning,

"Douglas, Arizona.

"My Dear Friend: Your very kind letter has been received and I thank you very much for helping us watch the border for the bandits who were reported to be heading toward the boundary line.

"I deeply regret the lack of courtesy shown by the adminis-trator of the customs service at Naco toward my friend, Lieuten-ant Wheeler, and I have reported the case to the proper officials. I wish to apologize myself for the lack of good behavier on the part of Mr. Jimincz, and I wish to say further that I work at all times to keep the best of relations between the people of our two countries.

"Believe me, my dear captain, truly your friend.

Luis E. Torres. —Douglas Dispatch, 1906


DOUGLAS, Dec. 31.—A running fight in which five shots were exchanged occurred here this afternoon between a man suspected of being a desperate character, and Jeff Kidder, a member of the force of Arizona Rangers, and as a result the suspect lies fatally wounded.

For several weeks past the local police and the Rangers have been receiving reports of hold-ups and house-breaks, and in every instance have been unable to secure the slightest clue as to the identity of the perpetrators of the crimes.

During the past few days a number of strange men have been noticed in the city, who have had no visible means of support, and the police officers determined to watch them, thinking that this might be the explanation of the crimes. The Ranger force was divided up and have been patrolling certain places where these men were in the habit of congregating.

While riding his beat this evening, which took him in the direction of the railroad roundhouse, Jeff Kidder, a private in the Ranger force, noticed a man start up in front of him about forty yards, and he immediately shouted to the fellow to halt. Instead of stopping the man redoubled his speed, and Kidder shot over his head. At this the suspect turned, and drew from his hip pocket a six-shooter, and fired three shots at the Ranger, none of which took effect, Kidder, who is one of the crack shots of the Ranger force, drew down on the fellow and the first shot passed through his head.

The Ranger went to the man's assistance at once and picked up the revolver, which was a 38-calibre on a 45 frame. In one of the mans pockets he found an ordinary sock filled with 38-calibre cartridges, and outside of this there was not a thing whereby the man could be identified.

A doctor soon arrived on the scene and administered restora-tives to the wounded man, but up to a late hour tonight the fellow had not recovered consciousness, and the physician stated that there is no possibility of his recovery.

DOUGLAS, Dec. 31.—The man shot by Ranger Kidder died at the C. & A. hospital at 11:45 tonight. No one has yet appeared who can identify the man.

DOUGLAS, Jan. 10.—(Special)—After hearing the testimony in the case against Ranger Kidder, who was charged with killing a stranger near the roundhouse one night last week, Judge Ben Rice this morning discharged the prisoner on the motion of Assistant District Attorney Ross. The warrant charging Kidder with murder was sworn out against Kidder at his own request, he desiring that the case have a full investigtion in court. George Campbell, who was with Kidder at the time the killing occurred, was the first witness. He testified that he went with Kidder on the evening of the trouble and that they followed a man across the railroad track; Kidder called on him to stop, say-ing that we were officers and desired to look at him. At this the man fired a pistol, the bullet whizzing close to my ear. Then Kidder fired three shots; the man's gun lay about four feet from him when he went to him.

Christian Nelson, machinist, testified that he was on the ground and saw the deceased after he was shot; deceased was lying on his back with blood coining out of his head, but he was not dead. He saw the gun.

Leslie Kyle, roundhouse foreman, said Kidder came to the roundhouse and asked for a phone, stating that he was an officer and had shot a man and wanted to phone for the coroner, which he did. I saw the deceased with a gun lying three or four feet from him; also a pipe; deceased had a bullet wound in his eye.

F. E. Smith, machinist, was at the roundhouse on the occasion of the shooting and saw the injured man when the wagon came after him; did not sec his wound.Con Jones, boilermaker, said a man was killed near the round-house and he saw him and a gun lying close to the dead man.

W. C. Copeland, boilermaker, testified: "All I saw was the dead man, 50 or 60 feet this side of the roundhouse. I think he had a hole in his head. I think he was still alive; know nothing about the shooting."

Jacob Smith, boilermaker, slated that he saw a man with a hole in his head, ready to turn in his checks, southeast of the roundhouse about nine o'clock; did not see the pistol until after it was picked up.

M. F. Knechtel, boilermaker, said: "I saw the man 15 or 20 steps southeast of the roundhouse. He was shot over the right eye. I heard no shots. He looked like he was still alive; saw him dead since at Ferguson's undertaking parlors."

Albert Ryan: "I was not at the shooting; I saw a body at Ferguson's undertaking parlors and recognized him. I knew him in Texas and knew him as Tommy Woods; I knew him in Douglas. I glanced at his face and he was dead." Ryan, when cross-examined, admitted that he told three men that he had not seen deceased for five years.

Lee Thompson testified to corpus delicti at the undertaking parlors: "I knew the deceased as Tom T. Woods for three years; he worked for me twice, then opened up a saloon on Ninth and G." Cross examined he stated: "He always carried a gun. T have heard him say he would not give his gun up to an officer or any-body else. I am not sure that I told Kidder about this before the shooting."

Campbell was recalled and stated that he had seen the man's body at Ferguson's undertaking parlors.

Ryan, on being recalled, admitted that a few days ago he had declared that he did not know the name of the deceased. At this point, on motion of Assistant District Attorney Ross and without objection, the name Tom T. Woods was substituted instead of "John Doe."

The gun was produced in evidence; also Kidder's gun. Con-stable Shropshire identified Kidder's gun and stated that Kidder offered to give it up the night of the shooting.

Young Davis testified: "I am E. P. and S. W. night watchman. Went over with Judge McDonald and found the man; he was alive. I picked up the gun and examined it; it was three feet from the body and had been fired once; the body was taken to the Calumet hospital. I knew him by sight for three years, but did not know his name.

Davis cross examined: "I examined the gun by sticking my little finger in the muzzle and smelling of it; identified the gun.

The defense called Officer Shropshire who identified the gun as the one Davis gave him; he found a stocking containing 38-40 smokeless cartridges in dead man's hip pocket; also a couple of skeleton keys. The gun had been freshly fired. One shot had been fired out of it. The gun was a 38 on a 45 frame.

Witness Campbell, for the defense, stated that Kidder asked him to go down on Sixth street, which they did. They came back near Happy Jack's place and went down on Railroad avenue to investigate a robber's nest; went to the window. Thought there were three men and a woman. They were talking about a watch and money. Deceased came out of the back door and came up the street. We followed him on suspicion. We split and followed him across the railroad yards; it began to rain. Kidder was ahead of me; I think I was within 30 or 40 yards of him. Kidder called to him in a loud tone, "Hold on there, Jack, we are officers and want to look at you." Deceased fired as previously stated.

Kidder's statement corroborated Campbell's statement regard-ing Sixth street, and the hobo headquarters; also in regard to the shooting. He hailed him as stated by Campbell; deceased replied with a shot and I went to shooting back. I fired three shots, then saw him on the ground. I left and went for an officer. 1 was a territorial Ranger at that time. I was and I am here under orders from the captain of the Rangers.

The prosecuting attorney moved the court to discharge the defendant. The position of the prosecuting attorney was fair in the extreme and his remarks to the court as well as the evidence fully vindicated Kidder. The court found that Kidder killed Tom T. Woods in the proper discharge of his duty. —Bisbee Review, 1907


BENSON, Ariz., Feb. 28.—In an insane fit of jealousy, J. A. Tracy, aged 38, a resident of Vail Station, where he is the agent for the Helvetia Copper Company, attempted to kill D. W. Silverton and wife yesterday at Benson, and would have suc-ceeded had it not been for the interference of Lieut. Wheeler of I lie Arizona Rangers.

As a result of the murderous attempt, Tracy is dead and Wheeler is carrying two wounds to the Tombstone hospital for treatment, one in the left leg above the knee, and another in I he right foot.

Tracy was shot four times by Wheeler. One ball entered the left breast, another through the neck, the third in the shoulder and the last shot fired by Wheeler passed through the left hip.

Back of the murderous attempt made by Tracy to kill Silverton and wife is a story shrouded in mystery relative to the relations existing between Tracy and Mrs. Silverton before she was married.

Mrs. Silverton refuses to give her maiden name, but says she knew Tracy, first in Nevada about a year ago and later in Ari-zona. She says she knew Tracy in Tucson and also Vail Station where she was a resident at the time Tracy lived there.

When taking her deposition before the justice of the peace she swore Tracy was nothing more than a friend. Later, to a Review reporter in disconnected statements, she said:

"This is all a one-sided affair you know. We were doing our best to avoid trouble, and I don't sec what they want us to stay over here for. Tracy is nothing to me. I have never been married to him. I first knew him in Nevada about a year ago. He was always wanting me to come to him."

Again she said: "He was crazy jealous."

What Mrs. Silverton was doing in Nevada, Colorado, Tucson, Vail Station, and other points in the West, she docs not state, and is very careful to guard her maiden name. She takes this course upon the advice of her husband, who declares he does not care what transpired between his wife and Tracy in the past; that she is his wife now and he proposes to protect her.

D. W. Silverton Jr., is a son of Col. D. W. Silverton, of Louis-ville, Kentucky, a prominent family of that city. Col. Silverton has been in Cananea on several occasions as the guest of Col. W. C. Greene. Young Silverton appeared worried yesterday as to just how his father would receive the news of the incident at Benson, in which he and his newly wedded wife played such an important part.

When pressed by the reporter for the name of his wife before she was married, Silverton gave as an excuse for refusing to an-swer, that his wife was well connected in Colorado and that he did not wish her folks to learn of the affair.

Mrs. Silverton admitted to a Review man that she had lived in Colorado and Nevada, and that her mother still lived in Colorado, but that her father was dead. When pressed for more details concerning her life and movements, prior to her marriage to Silverton, she evaded the questions, saying she could not see how that could interest anybody.

Mrs. Silverton is good looking. Rather tall and well formed. Large black eyes, brown wavy hair, and seems partial to tur-quoise jewelry. Two large turquoise rings are worn on the left hand and she wore ear rings with set turquoise stones. She gave her age as 25 and said she had been in Arizona about a year and a half.

Young Silverton is a son of one of the oldest families in Ken-tucky. He is a graduate of a school of mines and says he is in the West to see the practical side of mining. He says he first met Ins present wife about eighteen months ago in Nevada and that they had corresponded at intervals since that time. He says he wrote his wife to leave Vail Station and go to Phoenix, where he met her and they were married six weeks ago by an evangelist named McComa, who was traveling through Phoenix at the time.

With the marriage of Silverton and this girl, whether for cause or not, Tracy's jealousy was aroused. He learned that the couple were in Tucson on their honeymoon. He followed them there and at one time had an interview with Mrs. Silverton. She says he wanted to make her a present of a diamond ring which she refused. Tracy made no threats at this time, but in order to avoid meeting him again Silverton and his wife took an auto-mobile ride through the country around Tucson. Tracy returned to his business at Vail Station, but the next day, according to Mrs. Silverton, she received four threatening letters from Tracy.

Tiring of Tucson, Mr. and Mrs. Silverton decided to visit Bisbee, Cananea and Douglas. They boarded the train for Ben-son at 2:30 p.m., Wednesday afternoon and arrived at Vail, a way-station, about one hour later. As the train stopped at the depot, Mrs. Silverton looked out of the window and saw Tracy standing on the depot platform. She pointed him out to her husband who hastily left his seat, and jumping down from the ear steps, he introduced himself to Tracy as the husband of the woman to whom he had written the threatening letters. Just what passed between the two men is not known. The meeting was not pleasant and as the train pulled out of Vail Station for Benson, Tracy attempted to catch the rear car but failed.

Mr. and Mrs. Silverton arrived in Benson an hour later and took rooms at the Virginia hotel, being assigned room 14. During the night, Tracy arrived from Vail Station armed with a .45 Colts pistol. He remarked to a comrade, who rode with him on the freight train, that he was "going to Benson to get a couple of people." Silverton evidently thought that Tracy might follow him and his wife to Benson and secured a negro porter to watch for Tracy and inform him if he arrived. When Silverton arose early Thursday morning, preparatory to leaving for Bisbee with his wife, he learned that Tracy was in Benson. To make sure he stepped out on the front porch of the Virginia hotel and saw Tracy standing beside the train which was about to depart for Bisbee. Upon seeing Tracy, Silverton immediately entered the hotel and asked Castenada, the proprietor, for a gun, as he feared a man standing over by the train intended to do him harm. Castenada advised that instead of getting a gun, that he report the matter to an officer, and summoned Lieut. Wheeler of the Rangers, who was stopping in the hotel.

After listening to the story of Silverton and searching him to make sure he was not carrying a concealed weapon, Wheeler walked towards the train, for the purpose of preventing trouble, and to disarm Tracy, should he discover he was carrying a gun. As Wheeler left the hotel, walking across the street to the rail-road tracks, Tracy was standing on the car steps of the cafe parlor ear. As Wheeler approached Tracy, and was within a few feet of him, Mr. and Mrs. Silverton left the hotel also, to go to the train. As Tracy saw the married couple leave the hotel he jumped down from the steps and as he did so attempted to pull a gun, and had the gun half out of his pocket, when Wheeler stepped up close, saying:

"Hold on there. I arrest you. Give me that gun."

For reply Tracy whipped out a revolver and fired, the shot entering the side of Wheelers coat, passing through without doing any damage. As Tracy fired the first shot. Wheeler got his own gun into action, and the next two shots were fired almost together. Wheeler continued to advance upon Tracy, command-ing him to halt; that he was under arrest, and to surrender his gun. Tracy kept firing and Wheeler returned the fire. When Wheeler had fired four shots, all of them taking effect, and the men were standing in the middle of the street, Tracy said:

"I am all in. My gun is empty."

At this announcement. Wheeler threw his gun down on the ground, and walked toward Tracy, commanding him to sur-render. At this time Wheeler was shot through the leg and Tracy was shot four times in the body above the waist line, though he was still able to stand on his feet.

Tracy's gun was not empty. As Wheeler advanced toward him, Tracy fired at him twice, one of the shots taking effect in the Ranger's foot. Nothing daunted. Wheeler gathered up some rocks and began throwing at his man (his own gun was several feet behind him) and finally, after Tracy had shot at him six times, Wheeler walked up to him and disarmed him, turned him over to a lone Benson officer, went back and picked up his own gun, and then was so weak from pain and loss of blood that he had to be assisted into the hotel.

Tracy was able to walk with assistance. From the nature of his wounds, it was thought best to send him to a hospital at Tucson. He died on the way, at Mescal Station.

Capt. Rynning, who was in Benson at the time, took a deposi-tion from Tracy, but could not get him to say much beyond the fact that there was a woman in the case.

Wheeler was taken to the hospital in Tombstone yesterday by Capt. Rynning. He will be confined to his bed for about a month.

When seen by a Review man at Benson, Wheeler regretted the occurrence and was sorry when he learned that his assailant had died while being taken to Tucson.

There is little doubt that Tracy came to Benson for the pur-pose of killing Silverton and his wife, and but for the prompt and plucky action of Ranger Wheeler, there was very little doubt I hat he would have accomplished his purpose.


The affray at Benson Thursday morning resulted in the display of unusual bravery by Lieut. Wheeler of the Arizona Rangers. The circumstances of the encounter with the man Tracy dis-closed the fact that the brave officer, while acting in the defense of his own life, had no desire to take that of his assailant when he made the claim that his pistol had been emptied of bullets.

It is quite evident that only for the presence of Wheeler in Benson, Tracy would have killed the man Silverton and perhaps his wife also. Tracy was acting like an insane man and had undoubtedly followed Silverton and wife to Benson with the purpose of satisfying an insane jealous hate.

Wheeler has shown that as an officer he is all right. He was no doubt taken unawares when Tracy began shooting at him, but lie was not stampeded; he was there to prevent murder which had been threatened by Tracy and he did so by risking his own life.

Lieut. Wheeler is to be congratulated on his narrow escape from more serious harm and also on the fact that he did his duty as an officer, and while the death of Tracy will be regretted it no doubt saved the life of Silverton.

PHOENIX, March 1.—D. W. Silverton, who stated to a news-paper reporter at Benson on Tuesday that he and his wife had been married in Phoenix six weeks ago, will find he is unable to prove this assertion by the records of the probate court in this county.

A newspaper correspondent called on the probate judge here today and that official informed him that a marriage license had never been issued in this county to D. W. Silverton to wed any-body.

The story told at Benson to the effect that he had been mar-led by a traveling evangelist is also evidently a fabrication, as no one ever heard of a traveling evangelist by that name. The persistency with which Silverton refused to give the maiden name of his alleged wife, and the failure to find any marriage license on record in this county, surrounds the tragedy enacted at Benson Thursday with additional mystery regarding the re-lations of Tracy with the woman in the case and also her relations with Silverton.

Now that the excitement attending the killing of Tracy by Ranger Lieutenant Harry Wheeler has subsided, little side stories which throw a melodramatic air about the episode are coming to light.

It is related by a bystander who was so close to the shooting that he had to move lest he get out of luck and into range of some of the flying missiles from the guns of the combatants that as both men lay on the ground at the end of the affray, at a time when Wheeler is said to have refused the comfort of a chair, preferring that it be given his erstwhile antagonist, the man who would have taken his life had his aim been true, Wheeler turned his head toward the man near him remarking: "Well, it was a great fight while it lasted, wasn't it, old man."

"I'll get you yet," said Tracy, with the faintest kind of a grim smile. He reached for Wheeler's proffer hand. But little did the wounded man realize that it was his last threat. He expired but a few hours later on his way to medical attendance at Tucson. —Bisbee Review, 1907


In his biennial message to the territorial legislature in 1907, Governor Joseph H. Kibbey had this to say about the Arizona Rangers:

"Although expensive to the territory, the Arizona Rangers proved so often their usefulness that it seems impossible to recommend the repeal of the law authorizing the force. The area of Arizona is vast, and there are so many remote sections in which the county peace officers do not ordinarily travel—the remoter sections being the favorite haunts of criminals of the most desperate class—that the Rangers to a large extent perform functions that can not well be performed at all by sheriffs or their deputies. The Rangers are traveling almost constantly, and as their identity is kept hidden except when necessary to reveal it, they are enabled to make many arrests of great importance. During the biennial period ended June 30, 1906, the Rangers made a total of 1,756 arrests, of which 451 were for felonies. In addition to these arrests, they made many others in conjuga-tion with local officers, the Rangers being quite frequently called upon for assistance by sheriffs and police officers.

"During the past year one of the most notable achievements of the Rangers was to detect a conspiracy which was forming in Arizona by Mexican citizens to start a revolutionary movement against the government of Mexico, to arrest the ringleaders of the revolutionists, and to aid in their deportation or conviction. When the officers of the Rangers brought to my attention the facts they had learned as to this conspiracy, I at once laid all the available facts before the United States District Attorney, and also advised the State Department at Washington. The projected revolution-ary movement was effectively suppressed, and for their efficiency in this matter the territorial authorities have been warmly thanked by both the Mexican Government and the United States Government.

"The total cost of maintaining the Ranger force during the fiscal year 1905 was $33,354.46. During the fiscal year 1906 it was $33,054.17." Captain Tom Rynning of this city has received the appointment of superintendent of the territorial prison at Yuma, succeeding Jerry Millay, who resigned on account of bad health. The ap-pointment was announced yesterday by Governor Kibbey. This leaves open the position of captain of the Rangers and it is rumored that Lieutenant Wheeler, who is next in line in the Ranger force, will be given the appointment. The news of Captain Rynning's appointment is a source of much gratification to friends in Douglas and elsewhere over the territory. It has been predicted that Deputy Sheriff Hopkins, formerly sergeant of the Rangers, will be offered the lieutenancy and that in the event of his declination the position will be up to Ranger Kidder who is now stationed at Douglas. Should the lieutenancy come to Sergeant Kidder it could not be given to a more deserving officer. He has been very active in the hunting down of criminals for the four years of his connection with the Rangers. He has always been a careful, courageous and zealous officer and the people of Douglas would be pleased to hear of his promotion. —Douglas Dispatch, 1907 Editor's Note: The immediate appointment by Governor Joseph H. Kibbey of Lieutenant Harry S. Wheeler as captain of the Rangers and confirmation by the Arizona Legislature which followed on March 22, 1907, gave the organization its third, and what proved to be its last captain.

Sergeant William A. Old was appointed to the lieutenancy by Governor Kibbey, and the appointment was confirmed by the legislature.

Source: The Arizona Rangers Edited by Joseph Miller 1972
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