Cactus, any plant of the family Cactaceae, a large group of succulents found almost entirely in the New World. A cactus plant is conspicuous for its fleshy green stem, which performs the functions of leaves (commonly insignificant or absent), and for the spines (not always present) of various colors, shapes, and arrangements. Cactus flowers are notably delicate in appearance although usually large and showy; they are commonly yellow, white, or shades of red and purple. Many species are pollinated by bats. Cactus fruits are berries and are usually edible. A cactus plant appears on the coat of arms of Mexico, and the blossom of the giant cactus, or saguaro (Cereus giganteus), is the state flower of Arizona.
The plants vary from small, round globes to epiphytes, vines, and large treelike forms. The reduced leaf surface, the enlarged fleshy stem, which is well fitted to store water and to retain it, and the ramified and extensive root system (much reduced in cultivated cacti) make the plant particularly adapted to regions of high temperature and long dry periods. Cacti are not restricted to desert regions, however, for in America they range from the tropics into Canada.
Most cacti bloom in the spring for a very short period, sometimes for only a few hours. The blossoms are noticeably sensitive to light, and often different species blossom only at specific times of the day. One of the most famous of the cacti is the night-blooming cereus usually classified as Selenicereus or C. grandiflora (several other night-blooming cactus species bear the same common name). Its fragrant blossoms unfold at a visible rate after sunset and last only a single night. In many of its native habitats the flowering of this cactus is celebrated with festivals.
Wren, small, plump perching songbird of the family Troglodytidae. There are about 60 wren species, and all except one are restricted to the New World. The plumage is usually brown or reddish above and white, gray, or buff, often streaked, below. Wrens are similar to sparrows but have longer, slender bills and usually perch with their tails cocked straight up. They are valuable insect destroyers. Among the best singers are the canyon, Carolina, and winter wrens.
Most wrens nest in natural holes and cavities; house wrens, which range over most of the United States and S Canada, will nest in boxes built for them and in crannies about dwellings. Also found in North America are the cactus, rock, and marsh wrens. The common European wren is a winter wren. Wrens are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Passeriformes.
The Arizona State Flag
The birth of the Arizona State Flag can be traced back to the 1910 National Rifle Matches at Camp Perry, Ohio before Arizona officially entered the Union. Shooting matches began at Camp Perry in 1907 and rapidly developed into a prestigious annual event that continues to this day.
Members of the visiting Arizona Rifle Team noticed that all of the other "state" rifle teams carried flags or emblems. The Arizona team had no such flag or emblem and brought this to the attention of Arizona National Guard Colonel Charles Wilfred Harris, who was serving as the team captain. The team suggested that a flag be created to represent the Arizona Rifle Team at future National Rifle Matches.
The idea for the design of the flag was conceived of by Colonel Harris and by Carl Hayden, Arizona's first representative in Congress who went on to become a United States Senator. Their first priorities for the design were that it contain historical values and that its colors should reflect those values.
Designed by Colonel Charles W. Harris, the first flag, carried by the Arizona Rifle Team to the National Rifle Matches in 1911, was sewn by Carl Hayden's wife, Nan D. Hayden.
In 1912, now serving as Adjutant General of Arizona, Colonel Harris designed a state flag that was similar to the flag that he designed for the Arizona Rifle Team.
Measuring four feet high and six feet wide, the flag is divided into a top and bottom half with a large five-point copper star in the center.
The top half of the flag represents the 13 original colonies of the United States and the western setting sun. The copper star in the center of the flag identifies Arizona as the largest copper producing state in the union.
The lower half of the flag is a field of blue, the same Liberty Blue found in the United States' Flag. The red found in the rays of the setting sun is also the same shade of red found in the United States' Flag. The Blue of the lower half of the flag and the yellow of the western setting sun are the Arizona State Colors. The red and yellow colors found in the rays are the colors flown by the Spanish Conquistedors led by Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in his unsuccessful search for the Seven Cities of Cibola in 1540.
During the territorial period of Arizona, the Governor was selected due to a pork barrel system. All of Arizona's Governors were appointed by the President of the United States. Even though the political preference of most Arizonans were Democrats, the Presidential administration was usually Republican from Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War until Democrat Grover Cleveland was elected in 1885. The party would switch several times causing the territory of Arizona to through much turmoil in the governorship. A governor might be removed from office simply because he was a Democrat, and the new President was now Republican or vice versa. When Arizona became a state, the State Governors were elected every two years intending it to be a weak executive branch. Many of the Governors would prove that it was not to be. The Governors were not elected to four year terms until Governor Bruce Babbit.
John Goodwin (1863-1866)
George W. P. Hunt (1912-1919)
Thomas E. Campbell (1919-1923)
George W.P. Hunt (1923-1929)
John C. Phillips (1929-1931)
George W.P. Hunt (1931-1933)
Dr. Benjamin B. Moeur (1933-1937)
Rawghlie C. Stanford (1937-1939)
Robert T. Jones (1939-1941)
Sidney P. Osborn (1941-1948)
Dan E. Garvey (1948-1951)
J. Howard Pyle (1951-1955)
Ernest W. McFarland (1955-1959)
Paul J. Fannin (1959-1965)
Samuel P. Goddard (1965-1967)
Jack Williams (1967-1975)
Raul H. Castro (1975-1977)
Harvey Wesley Bolin (1977-1978)
Bruce E. Babbit (1978-1986)
Evan Mecham (1986-1987)
Rose Mofford (1987-1991)
Fyfe Symington (1991-1997)
Jane Dee Hull (1997-2003)
Janet Napolitano (2003-present)
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