Fulton County, Arkansas
This county was carved out of Izard County by the act of December 21, 1842, and was named for William S. Fulton, the last territorial governor of Arkansas. It lies in the northern tier of counties, has an area of 625 square miles, and is bounded as follows: On the north by the State of Missouri; on the east by Sharp County; on the south by Sharp and Izard counties, and on the west by Baxter County. The surface is rolling and mountainous and the average elevation is 582 feet. It is drained by Spring River and its tributaries. Spring River has its source in the Mammoth Spring, near the northeast corner of the county, said to be the largest spring in the United States, if not in the world. The flow from this spring is over thirty thousand gallons per minute. The water power is used for generating electric current, running a large flour mill, etc.
The act creating the county designated the house of Peter Ground as the temporary county seat. Early in 1843 the permanent county seat was established at Salem, near the center of the county. The first county officers were: E. C. Hunter, judge; Isaac King, clerk; F. Tolhert, sheriff; D. Hubble, treasurer ; B. Archer, surveyor; B. Adair, coroner. The county is divided into sixteen townships, to wit: Afton, Bennett Bayou, Benton, Big Creek, Cleveland, Fulton, Mammoth Springs, Mount Calm, Myatt, Pleasant Ridge, South Fork, Strawberry, Union, Washington, Wild Cherry and Wilson.
Mammoth Spring, the largest town, is located near the northeast corner on the St. Louis & San Francisco, the only railroad in the county. This town was incorporated on June 15, 1889, and now has a population of 700. It has one daily and two weekly newspapers, a bank, an electric light and power company, a large flour mill, mercantile concerns, public schools, etc. Salem, the county seat, was incorporated on July 2, 1900. It has a bank, a weekly newspaper, a telephone exchange, a flour mill, public schools, general stores, and a population of 400. Elizabeth, South Fork, Union, Viola and Wild Cherry are the principal villages. In 1920 the population of the county was 11,182. In 1910 it was 12,193.
(Source - "Centennial History of Arkansas", 1922; contributed by Tina Easley.)
MAMMOTH SPRING, is situated in the north edge of Fulton County, Arkansas, on the line of the Fort Scott and Memphis Railroad, 140 miles south of Springfield, Missouri, and 145 miles north of Memphis, Tennessee. A thriving town of 400 inhabitants, nicely located on an elevated plain on the banks of the “phenomenal” Mammoth Springs. The country surrounding is rolling—the bluffs well covered with timber—while the valley is fertile and produces small grain and vegetables of all kinds in abundance. Cotton is also raised in large quantities, and from four to six thousand bales are annually shipped from this place. Fruit of a superior class is raised in large quantities, especially grapes, peaches, and apples. The climate and soil is well adapted to fruit raising, and in the near future this will be one of the leading shipments from this county. The opening for a large cannery is first-class, and the opportunity now offered will insure remunerative results.
The famous spring is the leading feature of the city. Here is to be found 1,000 horse-power flowing in one majestic stream from the bowels of the earth, issuing every minute 65,000 cubic feet of water. A marine dam of stone has been erected 400 feet long with a base of 17 feet and 8 feet at the top, securing a head power sufficient to run immense factories. The stream has a fall of 127 feet in seven miles, and leave splendid openings for manufacturing all along the line. Factories are negotiating for plants at this time, and in the near future there will be a chain of looms and wheels on this stream employing many thousands of hands. The surrounding county produces cotton in large quantities, and the inducements for cotton factories are unsurpassed. The city is building up in good shape, mostly of brick manufactured here, besides stone may be had in abundance for the same purpose. The town supports one weekly paper under the proprietorship of editor Culp, who looks well after the interests of his patrons and the business interests. There are three hotels, Hotel Chapman, Crescent, and Spring River, all under the supervision of accommodating landlords. A cotton gin with a capacity of 3,500 to 4,000 pounds daily is in constant operation during the season. The climate is unsurpassed, and healthful water abundant and pure. In short, Mammoth Springs has everything needed to give her a phenomenal growth inside of a few years. There are daily mails, express and telegraph communications. Schools of a high order are here to be found, and churches for all. [Source: The Southwestern Business Directory, published 1889, McKenney Co]
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