ARKANSAS INSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND

1868

Transcribed by : Tina Easley

tina@grnco.net

http://genealogytrails.com/ark/greene/

http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ar/county/greene

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

The following-named newspapers have been received at the Institute gratuitously, for which the proprietors have our thanks. It is hoped that the favors will be continued :

Little Rock Daily Republican, Little Rock.

Arkansas Daily Gazette, Little Rock.

Arkansas Statesman, Jacksonport.

New Era, Fort Smith.

Fort Smith Herald, Fort Smith.

Christian Observer, Louisville and Richmond.

Western Methodist, Memphis, Tennessee.

Memphis Presbyterian, Memphis, Tennessee.

Central Baptist, St. Louis, Missouri.

Our thanks are also due to the Little Rock Mercantile Library Association for the gratuitous use of books to be read to pupils.

To Gen. Eaton, Commissioner of the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C, for numerous favors.

To the Trustees of the " Rotch Fund," Boston, Mass., for two volumes in raised print.

To the American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Ky., for specimen volumes and cards.

To the Mendelsson Club, Little Rock Glee Club, Mrs. Stowell, and others, for invitations for our pupils to attend their concerts.

To the pastors of the several churches of the city, and other ministers, for preaching at the Institute on Sabbath afternoons.

To Dr. E. Collins, for gratuitous dentistry.

To the Cairo and Fulton, Memphis and Little Rock, and Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroads, and to the Arkansas river packets, for favors to the pupils, in the way of reduced fares.

APPENDIX D.

FUND FOR PROMOTING THE WELFARE OF THE INDUSTRIOUS

BLIND

Whereas, Some of our former pupils have failed to obtain employment for want of means to set up in business; and whereas, A small sum of money, say one or two hundred dollars, by way of donation or loan to indigent graduates, to enable them to start in life, would be of great value to them, in saving them from dependence, and perhaps from the almshouse, and be a fit and much needed supplement to the beneficent work now being done by the Institute : therefore

Resolved by the Board of Trustees of the ' Arkansas Institute for the Education of the Blind, That all donations to the Institute, the object of the same not being otherwise specified by the donors, shall be used to constitute a fund to be known as the fund for promoting the welfare of the industrious blind, which shall be governed by the following rules :

I. All contributions to this fund shall be placed in the hands of the treasurer of the Institute, who, if said contributions be in money or personal property, convertible into money, shall, except as hereinafter provided, either invest the same in United States securities, or loan it out upon good real estate security, at such rate of interest, payable semi-annually, as the Board of Trustees may agree upon. Donations of real estate may be sold, held or rented, as the board may direct.

II. All rents and interest-money may be used to aid industrious, indigent blind persons, of good moral character, residing in the State of Arkansas, in obtaining employment, whether said blind persons shall have been pupils of the Institute or not, and until there shall be a sufficient amount of rents or interest-money to meet demands, small contributions may be used for that purpose, instead of adding them to the principal of the fund.

III. Drafts on the fund may be drawn upon the recommendation of the Superintendent and the approval of the Board of Trustees of the Arkansas Institute for the Blind, and the money thus drawn may be used in the pur chase of machinery, tools, musical instruments, or other necessaries for starting in business in a small way, which articles shall be furnished to deserving indigent blind persons without rent, and, until paid for, shall be regarded as a loan, to be returned to the Institute in case of the death of the individual receiving said loan, or his or her ceasing to use them as intended, or the money may be used under the direction of the board in furnishing work to the blind at their homes, by procuring material for them and disposing of their manufactures; or, should the amount of the fund ever justify, it may be used in aid of shops for the instruction of the adult blind in useful trades, or it may be used in such other ways as may best promote the welfare of the industrious blind.

IV. Should there be a surplus of interest or rents on hand at the close of any fiscal year, and no immediate call for it, it shall, upon the decision of the Board, he added to the principal.

V. The Trustees may make alterations in these rules, but should the fund ever be diverted from its legitimate object—that is, should it ever be used for any other purpose than aiding the blind.it shall revert to the donors or to their heirs.

VI. A list of the names of all contributors to the fund, together with their residences, and the amounts contributed, shall be preserved at the Institute, subject to public inspection.

Approved by the Board of Trustees of the Arkansas Institute for the Blind, December IV, 1873.

CATALOGUE OF PUPILS—FEMALES

NAME RESIDENCE CAUSE OF BLINDNESS
Austin, Cynthia A Lincoln County Congenital
Bell, Lulu Pulaski County Sore Eyes
Bennett, Lucinda E. Saline County Accident
Brawdy Mamie A Pope County Sore Eyes
Brooks, Louisa J Garland County Sore Eyes
Burnett, Louisa Johnson County Sore Eyes
Clapp, Delila E Crittenden County Neuralgia
Cypert, Mary Pulaski County Neuralgia
Church, Lucinda C Lonoke County Scarlet Fever
Damm, Alice E Benton County Congenital
Elliott, Lavica C Lonoke County Scarlet Fever
Ellis, Nancy Desha County Unknown
Ezell, Jennie Pulaski County Serofula
Hicks, Jane Fort Smith Sore Eyes
Hays. Jennette Little Rock Unknown (Died)
Johnson, Fannie Greene County Unknown
Johnson, E. V. Johnson County Erysipilas
Johnson, Mary A Johnson County Measles
Lane, Mary J Woodruff County Cold
Miller, Lorena Yell County Sore Eyes
McLaughlin , Martha Yell County Fever
Mathews, Nancy J Crawford Scrofula
Manley, Josephine Pulaski County Unknown
Manley, Julia A Pulaski County Sore Eyes
Moore, Naoma A Lonoke County Sore Eyes
Percefull, Berline Lonoke County Sore Eyes
Percefull, Sarah E Lonoke County Sore Eyes
Rowland, Edne M Yell County Small Pox
Thornton, Missouri Nevada County Neuralgia
Rhodes , Fannie C. Yell County Measles

 

Pupils - Males

NAME RESIDENCE CAUSE OF BLINDNESS
Bennerman , Wm. Little Rock Congenital
Bennerman , Robt. Little Rock Congenital
Cloud , James M. Hot Spring County Fever
Davis, John H. Sevier County Congenital
Franklin , Anthony Yell County Unknown
Jones , J. Paul Pulaski County Unknown
Locke , Frank M. Little Rock Sore Eyes
Lamb , Levator Pulaski County Fever
Manning , Wm. F. Crawford County Burn
Newton , Leander Jefferson County Inflammation
O'Donnell , Wm.   Pistol Shot
Price , W. Drury Yell County Sore Eyes
Tyler , John F. Arkadelphia Congenital
Virginia, Wise Helena Unknown
White , Lewis Little Rock Congenital
Dodd , Michael Rockport Sore Eyes
Gray , John Woodruff County Fever
Hudspeth , A.J. Yell County Sore Eyes
Wheeler , Jonas Little Rock Accident

 

EDUCATION OF THE BLIND.

Prepared by Otis Patten, and read before the Arkansas State Teachers' Association, Little Rock, June, 1873, and revised for this report.

" Ye have the poor with you always," saith He who spoke as never man spake, and the next clause explains one of the reasons why poverty and suffering are permitted in the world : " Whensoever ye will, ye may do them good."—Mark, 14, 7.

There are, doubtless, then, good and wise reasons, which we shall not now discuss, why a certain proportion of every generation of human beings is deprived of sight, and though the doubting may ask, " Who did sin, this man of his parents, that he was born blind ?" Faith is ready with the reply of her divine author: " Neither has this man sinned, nor his parents, but that the works of God should be made manifest in him."

The proportion of blind to the whole population varies in different countries, being affected by climate and various local causes. Other things being equal, it is supposed to be greatest near the equator, diminishing as we approach the poles. In Egypt and the surrounding countries, whose surface is largely composed of arid deserts, heated by a scorching sun, and swept by winds laden with sand, the proportion of blind is fearfully large. Some writers have estimated it as high as one in every one hundred inhabitants; while others think it does not exceed one in three hundred. It is to be hoped that the latter are nearer the truth.

In Japan, where a ridiculous and injurious custom prevails of having the eyelids daily turned inside out, and then rubbed over, titillated and polished with a smooth spatula, the ratio of the blind to the whole population is estimated to be one to four hundred. We are credibly informed that in the city of Yeddo alone there are no fewer than thirty-six thousand persons without sight. In Europe, there is an average of one blind person to every fifteen hundred inhabitants—the ratio being greatest in Norway, where it is one to 540, and least in Bavaria, where it is one to 1986.

According to the census of 1870 the population of the United States is 38,558,371. Of these, 20,320 are blind—or about one in every 1897. In 1860, there were 12,635 blind in the United States—or one to every 2489 inhabitants. Why there are less blind in the United States than in any other country of the same extent, and why the number in this country has in the last ten years increased from 12,635 to 20,320, or about sixty per cent., while the general population has increased only 22.62J per cent., and how far these causes may be controlled or modified by man, are questions worthy the consideration of the philosopher and philanthropist. That an allwise and beneficent Providence designs that blindness shall not cease from the earth during the present dispensation is evident, but it is equally plain that many of the causes of blindness are within the control of man, and that by neglect, or by the strict observance of the laws of nature, he may greatly increase or reduce this affliction. Although the blind are far from being the sad creatures they are generally supposed to be, however their condition may be ameliorated by care and instruction, they are still afflicted.

One prolific cause of blindness entirely within the control of man, and which I trust I shall be pardoned for mentioning here, as it seems not to be generally understood, is the intermarriage of blood relations. Neither time nor space will allow me to enlarge upon the subject. I shall, therefore, only cite a few striking instances showing the sad effects of this infringement of natural laws, which man well understands when applied to the lower animals, but is slow in applying to his own race. In more than a score of instances of a plurality of blind, dumb or idiotic children the same family, which have come under my personal notice, I can recall only three where the parents were not related by blood, and in these, I am by no means certain that the parents were not themselves descended from blood relations. In one ease, where an uncle married his niece, four children were both blind and feeble-minded. In another instance, the father of four blind children told me that his first wife, who was not related to him by blood, bore eleven children, all sound. After her death, in his anxiety to provide a kind mother for his children, he took to wife a second cousin. The result was, four blind children out of six.

In another case, all the children of a pair of cousins, some half a dozen in number, were either blind, dumb or idiotic. The mother dying, the father married a non-relation, and raised a family of sound children.

In a large family connection, where not a single .case of blindness was known or remembered, a gentleman married his half-cousin, the daughter of his father's half-sister; four children were either born blind or became so at an early age.

In a report on the " Influence of Marriage of Consanguinity upon Offspring," made to the American Medical Association by Dr. S. M. Bennis, of Kentucky, after speaking of the difficulties of obtaining reliable information on account of the sensitiveness of the parties concerned, the Doctor says: " I feel satisfied, however, that my researches give me authority to assume that over ten per cent, of the deaf and dumb, and over five per cent, of the blind, and near fifteen per cent, of the idiotic, in our State institutions for subjects of these defects, are the offspring of kindred parents, or of parents, themselves the descendants of blood inter-marriage."

Ever since Bartimeus sat by the wayside begging, and probably long before, those like afflicted have been found similarly employed. For though in almost every age blind persons of extraordinary genius, overcoming the apparently insurmountable obstacles in their way, have attained distinction in literature, and the various walks of life, yet the great major city of the class, depressed by their afflictions and disheartened by the incredulity of friends and neighbors, have remained in obscurity and poverty. As early as the year 1860 an asylum for three hundred blind persons (tlie Quinze Vingts) was established at Paris, where it still exists. This institution was, and still is, strictly an asylum, no attempt being made to instruct the inmates..

Japan, now making such laudable efforts to profit by the learning of the west, was the first country to establish institutions for the education of the blind. In this country, says Father Charlevois, " academies are established at the public charge, degrees are conferred, and the blind are taught not only to cultivate their memories, but to frame into verse that which they have learned, and to adorn, with all the beauties of poetry and music, the finest points of history. To them is confided the charge ot preserving the records of the most important events. The annals of the empire, the history of great men, ancient titles of families, etc., were not more enduring and faithful monuments than the memories of these blind students. They communicate their knowledge to each other, and, by a sort of tradition (the correctness of which is never disputed), hand it down to posterity. They have their general and subordinate officers, enjoy a very high consideration, and are perhaps the only individuals among this people whose lives are devoted to literature.". Another writer on Japan, Mons. Edouard Fraissenel, describes two societies or brotherhoods of blind persons, founded respectively by two blind noblemen. The members of these societies are scattered throughout the empire and enjoy high respect and great privileges. The instruction of the blind in the institutions of Japan was entirely oral; and it was not until the latter part of the eighteenth century that any school for teaching the blind to read was established.

* Note - Here is a list of other Schools and where located ,  that I thought might be helpful . Tina Easley

Arkansas Institute for the Education of the Blind, U.S.A.

American Asylum for Deaf and Dumb, Hartford, U.S.A.

British Asylum for Deaf and Dumb Females, London.

Bristol Asylum and School of Industry for the Blind.

California Institution for Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.

Clarke Institution for Deaf Mutes, Northampton, U.S.A.

Columbia Institution for Deaf and Dumb, Washington.

Cardiff Institute for the Blind.

Cambrian Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Swansea.

Central New York Institution for Deaf Mutes, Rome, N.Y., U.S.A.

Deaf and Dumb Christian Association, Ireland.

Dublin Protestant Association for the Adult Deaf and Dumb.

Edinburgh Institution for Deaf and Dumb.

Glasgow Asylum for Blind.

Georgia Academy for the Blind, U.S.A.

General Institution for the Blind, Edgbaston, England

Illinois Institution for the Blind, Jacksonville, U.S.A.

Institution for the Learning of the Blind, Texas, U.S.A.

Kentucky Institution for the Education of the Blind, U.S.A.

London Association for Promoting Welfare of the Blind.

London Society for Teaching the Blind to Read.

Liverpool School for the Indigent Blind.

Liverpool School for the Deaf and Dumb.

Liverpool Adult Deaf and Dumb Benevolent Society.

Llandaff School for the Deaf and Dumb.

Missouri Institution for the Blind, U.S.A.

Minnesota Institute for the Deaf and Dumb.

Maryland Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, Baltimore, U.S.A.

Maryland Institution for Deaf Mutes, Mass., U.S.A.

Michigan Institution for the Education of the Deaf an 1 Dumb.

Nebraska Institute for the Deaf and Dumb.

New York State Institution for the Blind.

New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, U.S.A.

New York State Institution for the Blind, U.S.A.

North Carolina Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.

Northern Counties Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Moor Edge, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind, U.S.A.

Ontario Institution for the Education of the Blind, Toronto, Canada.

Oregon School for Deaf Mutes, Salem, Oregon, U.S.A.

Pennsylvania Working Home for Blind Men, U.S.A.

Perkins' Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, Boston, U.S.A.

South Australian Institution for the Blind and Deaf and Dumb.

Society for the Relief of Destitute Children, Randwick, N.S.W.

Swansea and South Wales Institution for the Blind.

Society for Granting Annuities to the Poor Adult Blind, St. George's Fields, Southwark, S.E.

School for the Indigent Blind, St. George's Fields, Southwark, S.E.

Tennessee School for Blind.

Ulster Society for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.

Victorian Asylum and School for the Blind.

Victorian Deaf and Dumb Institution.

Virginia Institution for Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, Staunton, Va., U.S.A.

Also more information on Schools

Source - THE BLIND ; THEIR CONDITION AND THE WORK BEING DONE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES

1919

PROVISION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND BY STATES

In the several preceding chapters we have considered the provisions which have in general been made for the education of blind children in the United States, including the organization of institutions, the arrangements for pupils sent to schools in other States, the plan of the day school, and the measures designed for higher education. In the present chapter we shall examine the provisions in the several States individually, determining to what extent and in what manner instruction has been undertaken in each.

Alabama. A school for the deaf was established at Talladega in 1858, into which in 1867 the blind were allowed to enter. In 1888 a separate institution, the Alabama School for the Blind, was set up. In 1891 the Alabama School for the Negro Deaf and Blind was created. All these schools are controlled by a single board of trustees of thirteen members, including the Governor and the State superintendent of public instruction.

The joint school was called the Alabama Institution for the Education of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind, and the Alabama Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind. The school for the Blind was called the Academy for the Blind till 1900. In 1870 a school was started at Mobile, which lasted a few years.

Arizona. Blind children have since 1891 been sent to schools in neighboring States, the State board of education being authorized to contract for their education.'

In connection with several of the homes for very young blind children, as well as in a few of the homes for adults, a certain amount of instruction is afforded.  

Arkansas. A private school was opened at Arkadelphia in 1860, which in 1868 was removed to Little Rock and taken over by the State. The Arkansas School for the Blind is in the hands of the State board of control for charitable institutions.

 In 1879 the name of the school was changed from the Arkansas Institute for the Education of the Blind. In 1893 it came under its present control, before which time it was governed by a special board of trustees.

California. The California School for the Deaf and Blind was established in San Francisco in 1860, which in 1866 was removed to Berkeley. It is controlled by a board of six directors, with supervision by the State board of charities and corrections. There is a day school in Los Angeles, opened in 1916, and conducted by the city. Provision is made for higher education.

The school was first called the California Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind; in 1861, the Institution for the Education and Care of the Indigent Deaf, Dumb and Blind; in 1867, the Institution for the Education of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind; in 1905, the Institute for the Deaf and the Blind; and in 1913, the School for the Deaf and the Blind. The State board of control has charge of the financial affairs of the school. In 1915 provision was made for the eventual separation of the blind from the deaf.

Colorado - The school was called the Colorado Institute for the Education of the Mute and Blind till 1800, when it became the Institution for the Education of the Deaf aad the Blind. It received its present name in 1805.

A school for the deaf was opened at Colorado Springs in 1874, in which in 1883 a department for the blind was created. The Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind is governed by a board of five trustees, and is visited by the State departments of charities and education.

 A department for the blind may be created at the State University when there are as many as five applicants.

 The school while in private hands received aid from the State practically from its start.

Connecticut. In 1832 the State began sending blind children to the Perkins Institution in Massachusetts, a policy that has continued to the present, though only advanced pupils are now so provided for. In 1888 a private school for young blind children was established at Hartford, to which since 1893 the State has made appropriations. It is a part of the Connecticut Institute for the Blind, which includes also a nursery department and an industrial department, all under a board of twenty-one trustees. A special board of education for the blind has charge of the instruction of blind children.

Delaware. Blind children are sent to schools in Pennsylvania and Maryland, this policy having been begun in 1835. The State commission for the blind has charge of their education.

District of Columbia. On the establishment of a school for the deaf in Washington in 1857, a department was created for the blind. In 1865 this department was closed, and since that time blind children have been sent to Maryland for education, under the direction of the commissioners of the District, after application to the president of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf.

Florida. The Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind was opened at St. Augustine in 1885. It is in the hands of the State board of control of educational institutions, with general supervision by the State department of education.

The school was called the Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb till 1903, when it became the School for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb. The present name was given in 1909. In 1895 a department for colored pupils was opened. The first trustees of the institution consisted of the State board of education; in 1903 it was placed under a special board; and in 1905 it came under the present plan.

Georgia. On the opening of the State school for the deaf at Cave Spring in 1846, some blind children were placed in it for instruction. The Georgia Academy for the Blind was established at Macon in 1851. It is governed by a board of seven trustees.

Idaho. Before the creation of an institution in the State, blind children were sent to schools in other States. The Idaho State School for the Deaf and the Blind was established at Boise in 1906, being removed to Gooding in 1910. It is directed by the State department of education.

Illinois. A private school was opened at Jacksonville in 1848, which was taken over by the State the following year. The Illinois School for the Blind is controlled by the department of public welfare, the department of education also having powers of inspection.7 In Chicago there are classes for blind children in connection with the public schools, begun in 1900, and operating under a State law.

Indiana. The Indiana School for the Blind was established at Indianapolis in 1847, before which time some pupils were sent to the schools in Kentucky and Ohio.1 It is directed by a board of four trustees, with supervision by the State departments of education and charities. Provision is made for higher education.

Iowa. A private school was opened at Keokuk in 1852, which the following year was taken over by the State and moved to Iowa City, being removed in 1862 to Vinton. The Iowa College for the Blind is controlled by the State board of education.

Kansas. A private school was started in Kansas City in 1864, which was taken over by the State in 1867. The State School for the Blind is governed by the State board of administration of educational institutions. Provision is made for higher education.

Kentucky. In 1842 a private school was opened in Louisville, which the following year was adopted by the State. The Kentucky School for the Blind is in the hands of a board of five visitors, and is related to the State department of education.

Louisiana. The State school for the deaf was established at Baton Rouge in 1852, in which in 1856 a department for. the blind was created. In 1871 a separate institution for the blind was set up, to be reunited with that for the deaf in 1888, and finally made a separate school in 1898.2 The Louisiana State School for the Blind is in the hands of a board of seven trustees, including the Governor and the State superintendent of public instruction, with supervision by the State board of charities and corrections. A day school was opened in New Orleans in 1917, under the direction of the city.

Maine. In 1834 the State began sending its blind children to the school in Massachusetts, a policy pursued to the present. The State board of education is in charge of their instruction, with the approval of the Governor and council.

Maryland. In 1837 the State began sending its blind children to the school in Pennsylvania for education. In 1853 an institution was established in Baltimore under private auspices. In 1912 it was removed to Overlea, a suburb of Baltimore. It is now known as the Maryland School for the Blind, with its government in a board of eighteen directors, and is practically a State institution. In 1872 the Maryland School for the Colored Blind and Deaf was created, now also located at Overlea, which is controlled by representatives of the State school for the deaf and of that for the blind.2 Both of these institutions are visited by the board of State aid and charities. In 1886 the name of the school was changed from the Maryland Institution for the Blind.

Massachusetts. A school under private auspices was opened in Boston in 1832. In the same year the State began to make appropriations for its pupils, which policy was continued till 1918. In 1913 the school was removed to Watertown, a suburb of Boston. It is now known as the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind. It is directed by a board of twelve managers, and is visited by the State departments of education and charities.The school was called the New England Asylum for the Blind till 1833, and the New England Institution for the Education of the Blind till 1839, when it became the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind, being so named for an early benefactor. It received its present title in 1876. There is also an advisory committee of visitors for the school. The Governor of the State has appointed pupils to the school, on the request of the parent, and with the approval of the department of education. In 1918 appropriations of the State ceased, by reason of the adoption of an amendment to the Constitution forbidding State aid to private institutions. Up to this time four of the trustees were appointed by the Governor.

Michigan. A joint school for the deaf and the blind was opened at Flint in 1854, though the blind did not enter till 1865. In 1880 the Michigan School for the Blind was established at Lansing. It is governed by a board of control of three members, with supervision by the State departments of education and charities. There is a day school in Detroit, opened in 1912, and conducted by the city.The school was called the Michigan Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind until 1870, when it became the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. It received its present name in 1880. Until 1857 the institution for the deaf and the blind and the asylum for the insane were under a single board of directors. In 1891 a joint board was created for the schools for the deaf and for the blind, which continued for a time.

Minnesota. A joint school for the deaf and the blind was opened at Faribaulthi 1863. In 1866 a separate institution, the Minnesota School for the Blind, was created. It is directed by the State board of control. Day schools are authorized. Provision is made for higher education.Until 1880 the school was called the Minnesota Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind; until 1887, the Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind; and until 1902, the Institute for Defectives. In 1879 feeble-minded children were admitted into the school, and in 1881 a department for them was created, which continued till 1902. Up to 1917 the school for the blind, with the school for the deaf, was under a board of trustees, including the Governor and the State superintendent of public instruction. It is also visited by a board of visitors of public institutions.

Mississippi. The Mississippi Institute for the Blind was established at Jackson in 1848. It is governed by a board of five trustees. Until 1870 the school was called the Mississippi Asylum for the Blind. No provision is made for the education of colored children. For several years after the Civil War blind children were sent to the school in Louisiana.

Missouri. The Missouri School for the Blind was established in St. Louis in 1851, a private school having been begun the year before. It is under a board of five managers, and is visited by the State board of charities and corrections.8 Provision is made for higher education. In 1876 the name was changed from the Missouri Asylum for the Blind to the Missouri Institution for the Blind. The present name was given in 1881.

Montana. Before the establishment of a school, blind children were sent to other States for education. In 1893 the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind was opened at Boulder. It is under the State board of education, with a local executive board of three members, and is visited by the State board of charities and reform.The name of the school was changed in 1901 from the Montana Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum. Since 1909 there has been a department for the feeble-minded in connection with the school. The Governor, Secretary of State, and Attorney General formerly constituted the commissioners for the school.

Nebraska. Before the founding of a school, pupils were sent to schools in other States. The Nebraska School for the Blind was established at Nebraska City in 1875. It is governed by the board of commissioners of State institutions, with visitation by the board of charities and correction.In 1913 the name was changed from the Nebraska Institute for the Blind. Until 1913 the school for the blind and that for the deaf were under a joint board, with inspection by the State board of public lands and buildings.

Nevada. Since 1869 blind children have been sent to the schools in adjoining States, the State department of education contracting for them.

New Hampshire. In 1832 the State commenced to send its blind children to the school in Massachusetts, which policy is still continued. The Governor and council have control of their education, with supervision by the State board of charities and correction.

New Jersey. In 1836 the State commenced to send its blind children to the schools in New York and Pennsylvania, which policy is still pursued. Their education is in charge of the State department of charities and corrections, under the immediate direction of a special board for the blind. Day schools are in operation, under a State law, in Newark and Jersey City, the former opened in 1910, and the latter in 1911. Provision is made for higher education. In 1875 the establishment of a State school was proposed. Report of Commissioners on Proposals for Sites and Plans for Buildings for the Deaf and Dumb, the Blind, and the Feebleminded in the State of New Jersey, 1875.

New Mexico. The New Mexico Institute for. the Blind was opened at Santa Fe in 1903, and in 1909 removed to Alamogordo. It is directed by a board of six trustees, including the Governor.

New York. The New York Institute for the Education of the Blind was opened in New York City in 1832 as a private corporation. In 1834 the State began to make per capita appropriations to it, which policy is continued to the present. It is governed by a board of twenty managers. A second school, the New York State School for the Blind, was opened at Batavia in 1868. It is strictly a State institution, and is controlled by a board of seven managers. Both schools are visited by the State departments of education and charities. Day school centers are in operation in New York City, opened in 1909, there being a State law for them. Provision is made for higher education. In 1912 the name was changed from the New York Institution for the Blind. In 1895 the name of the school was changed from the New York State Institution for the Blind. It was proposed to start the school at Binghamton. The New York Institute receives pupils living in near-by counties; the New York State School, from the remainder of the State. Both are members of the University of the State of New York.

North Carolina. A joint school for the blind and the deaf was established at Raleigh in 1845, though the blind did not enter till 1851. In 1893 the white deaf were removed, leaving the blind, with a department for the colored blind and deaf. The institution is now known as the State School for the Blind and the Deaf, and is directed by a board of eleven directors, with supervision by the State departments of education and charities. In 1905 the name of the school was changed from the North Carolina Institution for the Education of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind. In 1869 colored deaf and blind children were admitted, and in 1872 a department was created for them. Laws, 1877-1873.

North Dakota. The North Dakota School for the Blind was opened at Bathgate in 1908, before which time blind children were sent to the schools in South Dakota and Minnesota. It is directed by the State board of control. A school was planned in 1895. In 1911 the name of the school was changed from the North Dakota Asylum for the Blind. Until 1911 the school was under a special board of trustees. When pupils were sent to schools in other States, the Governor had charge of them.

Ohio. The Ohio State School for the Blind was established at Columbus in 1837. It is governed by the State board of administration, with inspection by the board of charities. Day schools are in operation, under a State law. in Cincinnati, opened in 1905; in Cleveland, opened in 1909; and in Toledo, opened in 1915. Provision is made for higher education In l910the name of the school was changed from the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind. Until 1911 the school was in the hands of a special board of trustees. From 1852 to 1856 a single board directed the schools for the deaf and for the blind and the asylum for the insane.

Oklahoma. A private school was opened at Fort Gibson in 1897, to which public aid was granted. In 1907 it was taken over by the State, being removed to Wagoner, in 1908 back to Fort Gibson, and in 1913 established at Muskogee. The Oklahoma School for the Blind is governed by the State board of education.  In 1909 the Industrial Institute for the Deaf, the Blind, and Orphans of the Colored Race was created at Taft. It is directed by a board of five trustees, including the State superintendent of public instruction and the Auditor.4 Both schools are visited by the State departments of charities and education. The first school was known as the Lura A. Lowrey School, and later as the International School for the Blind. At the beginning the Governor was authorized to contract for the education of the blind, this after a time being placed with the regents of the State university.

Oregon. The Oregon State School for the Blind was established at Salem in 1873. It is directed by the State board of control. Until 1907 the school had the name of the Oregon Institute for the Blind. Until 1913 it was in the hands of special trustees, usually consisting of State officers, or of the State board of education.

Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind was established in Philadelphia in 1833. It is a private corporation under a board of twentyfour managers, including the Governor as patron. It has received per capita appropriations from the beginning. The Western Pennsylvania Institution was opened in Pittsburgh in 1890. It is also a private corporation, with a board of nine directors. It is similarly aided by the State. Both these schools are visited by the State departments of charities and education. Day schools are authorized.

Rhode Island. Since 1845 blind children have been sent to the school in Massachusetts. The Governor of the State now makes the appointments, with cooperation with the State board of education.

South Carolina. In 1834 provision was made for the education of some blind children at the school in Massachusetts. In 1849 a private school for the deaf was started at Cedar Springs, in which in 1855 the blind were allowed to enter, and which in 1857 was taken over by the State. It is now known as the South Carolina Institution for the Education of the Deaf and the Blind, and is under a board of five commissioners, including the State superintendent of education. Provision is made for higher education. In 1894 the name of the school was changed from the South Carolina Institution for the Education of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind. A department for colored children was created in 1883.

South Dakota. Before the opening of a State institution, blind children were sent to other States for education. The South Dakota School for the Blind was established at Gary in 1899. It is under the direction of the State board of control. In 1903 the name of the school was changed from the South Dakota Blind Asylum. There is also a visiting committee for the school, appointed by the Governor.

Tennessee. A private school was opened at Nashville in 1843, which was taken over by the State two years later. The Tennessee School for the Blind is in the hands of the State board of control.Until 1871 the school was called the Tennessee Institution for the Blind. A department was created for colored children in 1881. Until 1915 the school was under a special board of trustees.

Texas. The Texas School for the Bund was founded in 1856 at Austin. The Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institution for Colored Youths was established in 1887 in the same city. These schools are each under a board of six trustees. A day school was opened in Houston in 1917, conducted by the city. The school was called the Texas Asylum for the Blind till 1905, when it became the Institution for the Blind. It received its present title in 1915. The school was for a time affiliated with the State university. In 1915 a special board of trustees was created,consisting of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Attorney-General.

Utah. A school for the deaf was opened at Salt Lake City in 1884, in which in 1896, on its removal to Ogden, a department was created for the blind. The school is now a joint one, known as the Utah School for the Deaf and the Blind, and is controlled by a board of six trustees, including the Attorney-General. Until 1907 the name was the Utah State School for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind.

Vermont. In 1833 the State began sending its blind children to the school in Massachusetts, which policy was continued till 1912. In this year a joint school, the Austine Institution for the Deaf and Blind, under private auspices, but with State assistance, was established at Brattleboro. In 1917 the department for the blind was discontinued. The sum of $50,000 was bequeathed for the "Austine Sanitarium," which was incorporated in 1904 as a "hospital for the temporary treatment of strangers and local invalids peculiarly situated." In 1908 the legislature allowed the name to be changed, and the money to be applied to the establishment of the school.

Virginia. The Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind was established at Staunton in1839. It is governed by a board of six trustees, including the State superintendent of public instruction. The Virginia State School for Colored Deaf and Blind Children was created at Newport News in 1910, and is controlled by a board of five visitors. Both these schools are visited by the State board of charities and corrections. In 1898 the name of the school was changed from the Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.

Washington. Prior to the opening of a school in the State, blind children were sent to Oregon for education. In 1886 a joint institution for the deaf and the blind was established at Vancouver. In 1913 a separate school, the Washington State School for the Blind, was created. It is directed by the State board of control. Day schools are authorized.

West Virginia. Before the creation of a school in the State, blind children were sent to Virginia and Ohio for education. In 1870 the West Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind was established at Romney. It is under the State board of regents, which has charge of educational institutions.In 1887 the name of the school was changed from the West Virginia Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind. Until 1909 control was vested in a special board. Colored children are sent to Maryland for education.

Wisconsin. The Wisconsin School for the Blind was established at Janesville in 1849. It is directed by the State board of control. Day schools are in operation, under a State law, in Milwaukee, begun in 1907, and in Racine, begun in 1900. Provision is made for higher education.

Wyoming. Since 1886 blind children have been sent to the schools in neighboring States for education, the State board of charities and reform having them in charge.When there are as many as twelve applicants, a State school for the deaf and the blind is to be established at Cheyenne under a board of three trustees, such having been provided for in 1897. A building was erected for the purposes of a school, but was set aside for other uses.

The American Possessions. Outside of the United States proper only limited provision has been made for the education of the blind. In the Philippine Islands a joint school for the deaf and the blind was opened at Manilla in 1909, which is conducted by the city. In Alaska the blind have been looked after to some extent by missionaries. In Porto Rico, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Panama Canal Zone the instruction of the blind has not been undertaken.

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS FOR SCHOOLS FOR THE

BLIND Extent Of Provisions

In all the States of the Union the education of the blind has been effectually accomplished by statutory action on the part of the legislatures. But in certain ones, to render this a formal and permanent duty, there have been incorporated in the organic law provisions requiring such bodies to give due heed to the matter. Attention of this kind has been demonstrated not to be necessary in actual practice for the support and continuance of the schools for the instruction of the blind; while by some students of constitutional law the view is held lhat the organic law should confine itself only to fundamental principles of government, leaving the working out of details, as they arise, to the chosen representatives of the people. Yet, however it be considered, the inclusion in express terms of the regard by the state for the education of the blind is quite commendable, and bespeaks a praiseworthy solicitude for their welfare.

These constitutional provisions relating to the blind are found in twenty-eight States: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina. South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia. The provisions are more direct in some States than in others, and vary from a specific command to a mere incidental reference. In most instances they refer both to the care and to the education of the blind, though they are evidently intended to mean mainly the latter.

The first State to make reference in its Constitution to the education of the blind was New York in 1846. Michigan, however, in 1850 was the first State to provide directly for their education as a requirement on the part of the legislature. It was followed in 1851 by Indiana and Ohio. Of the forty-two States adopting Constitutions, new or revised, since 1846, twenty-eight have made reference of some kind to the blind, while fourteen have failed to do so. Of the twenty-two States adopting Constitutions since 1889, eighteen have made such provision.  It thus appears that the more recent a Constitution, the more likely it is to have a provision respecting the blind. For a number of the States without such a reference, it is to be observed that their Constitutions date far back in our National history, and were adopted before attention was called to the needs of this class. Hence in general it is not to be concluded from the mere presence of constitutional mention that certain States are more regardful of the educational welfare of the blind than are others.