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A California pioneer who recalls with interest early days in Tulare county when he took a prominent part in local affairs, is Columbus P. Majors, of Visalia, Mr. Majors was born in Morgan county, Ill., March 22, 1830, and in 1853 crossed the plains to California with an ox-team, starting April 14 and arriving at Sacramento September 13 following. The party, which came with a train of nineteen ox-wagons, was made up of Iowa and Illinois people and was under command of Captain L. M. Owen, who had made one trip to the Pacific coast in 1849. The overland emigrants were several times compelled to corral their wagons, fearing attacks by Indians, but made the journey without any very lamentable mishaps. For two years after his arrival in California, Mr. Majors worked in the Sherlock Flat mine on the Merced river, but it was not as a miner that he was destined to make his success in this state. He came to Visalia in 1855 and found the people all living in the old fort as a means of protection against the redskins, who were at that time menacing the settlers in this vicinity. He took up eighty acres of government land on the Cutler road and for many years raised cattle and sheep, and it was not until 1884 that he bought his present home ranch on Mineral King avenue. Here he has twenty acres of fine orchard, having planted all the trees with his own hands, and his peaches include Phillips cling-stones, Tuscan cling-stones, Fosters and Albertas. He has developed a fine farm on which he has met with well deserved success.

In 1861, after the Civil war had begun and while rioting was in progress at Visalia, Mr. Majors was captain of the Home Guard Cavalry, which was organized to keep order. His brother, John P. Majors, also came to California and was the first postmaster at Visalia, which was the first postoffice established in Tulare county.

In April, 1852, Columbus P. Majors married Miss Mary C. Owen, a native of Lee county, Iowa, who bore him a son and four daughters: Amador.H.; Mrs. Anna L. Arkle, who has passed away; Celestia J., who is Mrs. L. E. McCabe; Mrs. Caroline Arkle, and Mrs. Eva Sadler, deceased. During his active years Mr. Majors was identified largely with the public interests of the community and there was no call upon him in behalf of the general good to which he did not respond promptly and liberally.


Numbered among the well-known and respected citizens of Exeter who have distinguished themselves in the advancement of that place is George E. Waddell, who has been identified with the civil affairs of Exeter from its earliest history, having filled the office of its mayor as its first incumbent, and so fulfilling the duties of that office as to win the confidence of all his fellow citizens, and he has since been sought to fill many other public positions to which the people have called him. In industrial circles he has also figured prominently, having been merchant there and he is now giving most of his attention to his real estate interests which are large and varied.

Mr. Waddell is a native son of California, having been born in Lancha Plana, Amador county, September 9, 1862, the son of Isaac and Mercy B. Waddell, the former a native of Baltimore, Md., who crossed the plains to California in 1852 and began his career in the mines of Amador county. The mother came of a pioneer family who made the overland journey with ox-teams. The family made their home at Lancha Plana until 1872, when they moved to lone, where the father died in 1893, and the widowed mother after a while removed to San Francisco, where after a residence of several years she re-established their home at lone, and three years later, in 1903, occurred her death.

Beared to industrial habits and inheriting a taste for mercantile pursuits, at the age of nineteen George E. Waddell went to work for John Marchant, who was in the meat business at lone and for twelve years he remained steadily in his employ. He then leased the premises from the latter and conducted the business for about ten years, when he sold out and came to Visalia, buying a half interest in the Pioneer market business, which after conducting for about ten months, he sold. It was at this time that he came to Exeter and bought out the Exeter and Lindsay markets, which at the time were very rudimentary business places. With his son, George H., Mr. Waddell set to work with a will to build up these establishments into modern markets, remodeling and rebuilding them and introducing new and up-to-date equipments and installing a refrigerating system which made them among the best markets in the county. Since then the Exeter market has been sold, but they retain the Lindsay place of business which the son, George H., is managing with marked ability, while Mr. Waddell gives his attention to the purchase of stock. They first had built a structure at Lindsay 25x75 feet in dimension for their business, but this soon became too small and they built a new two-story brick block, 40x130 feet, in 1910 with new refrigerating and cold storage equipment, and its appointments are all modern and first-class. The marble counters and excellent tool equipment give the place an air of cleanliness and wholesomeness which bespeaks the good taste of the owner, and their product and the handling of their goods bear the most gratifying reputation in the community, it having been credited by the press at one time as being one of the finest places of its kind in the state.

In connection with this business Mr. Waddell gives attention to real estate, in which he has been most successful. He has planted and owns a very fine thirty-acre orange grove within eighty rods of the city limits, and also owns tracts in different parts of Tulare county aggregating three hundred and fifty acres in all, and beside this he owns a well-improved farm of four hundred and eighty acres about seven miles east of Stockton. With all of these interests, Mr. Waddell finds time to be most active in the affairs of his city and is a constant worker for its best interest, being president of the city board as well as treasurer of the same. In August, 1911, the city voted bonds in the amount of $42,000 for the purpose of providing an adequate water system, which was fully completed in the summer of 1912, consisting of two twelve-inch bored wells, one hundred feet deep, with mains six, eight and ten inches respectively, while the laterals are four and two inches in size. At the present time six blocks of street in the business part of Exeter are being paved, and these large movements toward improving the town have had the active interest and co-operation of Mr. Waddell in his official capacity on the city board. In fraternal relations he affiliates with the Exeter lodge, F. & A. M., and the Exeter division of the Knights of Pythias.

In 1885 George E. Waddell married Susan Vogan, a native of California and a daughter of John Vogan, who died while he was filling the office of sheriff of Amador county, where he had come as a pioneer. The widow of Mr. Vogan now makes her home in lone. Mr. and Mrs. Waddell are the parents of two children, Edwin H., born November 23, 1886, who after finishing his education at the Affiliated College at San Francisco, took up the study of dentistry and is well established in his profession at Visalia; and George Harold, born March 28, 1888, who was educated in the schools of Visalia, and is now his father's partner in the meat business. Both sons were born at lone, Amador county, and reflect credit on their training and the honored name they bear. (Pages 242-243)


A native of Gardiner, Me., Sanford Booker was born October 12, 1833. and there reared to manhood, educated and given a knowledge of the ship carpenter's trade, and later learned house building. When he was twenty years old he moved to Medford, Mass., where he worked as a carpenter about fifteen years. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in the Lawrence Light Guards of Medford, a militia company, which, as Company E, Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, was mustered into the government service after President Lincoln issued his first call for volunteers, April 15, 1861. Next day the company was ordered to be in readiness, and on the eighteenth an order to march was issued by Col. Samuel C. Lawrence, this order being taken to the members of the organization by the Colonel's brother, Daniel W. Lawrence, who on the night of the eighteenth rode from town to town for that purpose. Among those soldiers of 1861 there was a strong conviction that Lawrence rode over the same route that Paul Revere had followed on a similar errand eighty-six years before. The regiment was quartered at Faneuil Hall, Boston, until the morning of April 21, when it left for New York. When Lawrence brought the order to Mr. Booker the latter was running a mill. Going home immediately, he reported that he was ordered out and would have to go to Washington, and he went to Boston and slept that night in Faneuil Hall with his comrades; on that same night the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment was mobbed in the streets of Baltimore. At Washington the Fifth was mustered into service for three months from May 1, and it participated in the fight at Bull Run, where Colonel Lawrence was wounded and the regimental color-bearer was shot down. Ten days later the Fifth Massachusetts was mustered out of the service and soon afterwards Corporal Booker's company was mustered out at Medford. His corporal's commission is dated February 12, 1861.

About 1868 Mr. Booker moved to De Kalb county, Mo., and engaged in building until 1874, when he came to California. He stopped at Los Angeles, but soon settled at San Bernardino, where he lived seven years operating extensively as a contractor and builder and he erected there the county court house, the Congregational and Baptist churches, some school houses and several fine residences. He was the builder of the first house at Redlands, the latter the property of Frank Brown, civil engineer, who constructed the reservoir through which Redlands is supplied with water. Mr. Booker had to grub out sage brush before he could lay the foundation of the building, and he and his men boarded themselves, for there was no one living in the vicinity. In 1887 he sold his property at San Bernardino and removed to Hanford, buying a one hundred and sixty-acre ranch northeast of the town, where he farmed until 1892, and then sold his land and built himself a residence in town. He was very active in securing county division of Tulare county and the partition of Kings county in that year, and assisted with his own means to finance the movement. Indeed there was no other man at Hanford who was more influential to these ends than was he. He personally canvassed every home in the county to ascertain if a two-thirds vote for the new county would be possible if a favorable bill should be passed by the legislature. After this matter was settled he visited the World's Fair at Chicago. Since then he has lived in Hanford, which when he first saw it in 1887 was a mere hamlet containing but one store and in the prosperity of which he has been a potent factor. In 1893 he bought twelve acres of fruit land and, having suffered a stroke of paralysis which incapacitated him for work, retired from active business. When the "Old Bank" at Hanford was established he was its first depositor, having until then done his banking at Visalia.

On November 27, 1854, Mr. Booker married Miss Sarah E. Carr, at Medford, Mass. Mrs. Booker, who was a native of Massachusetts, bore her husband two children, Everett S., of Hanford, and Sarah Elizabeth, who has passed away.. Everett S. Booker married Edith O'Brien and they have a daughter, Mary Florence. Mr. Booker is identified with McPherson Post, G. A. E., of Hanford, and is a Blue Lodge and Royal Arch Mason, and he and Mrs. Booker were charter members of the Eastern Star, Mrs. Booker being past worthy matron. (Pages 248-249)


A true type of the "self-made" man is evidenced in the career of Emanuel T. Eagle, who now lives one mile east of Naranjo, in Tulare county, Cal. He was born May 8, 1833, back in Tennessee, in Hawkins county, and there attended public schools after he was old enough until he was eighteen years old, when he went to Indiana. After remaining there but a short time, he went to Iowa, where his residence was likewise brief. He returned to Indiana and from there started for California in 1854 and drove an ox-team across the plains for $10 a month and his board. He located near Eedding, Shasta county, Cal., but soon went into the mines in Mendocino county. Meeting with but indifferent success there, he made his way to Sonoma county, where he farmed until 1863. Returning to Mendocino county, he remained there a year and in 1865 came to Tulare county, and after a couple of years spent on Outside creek near the dam, he came to his present location, where he bought eighty acres of land. Soon afterward he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres, and by subsequent purchases he has increased his holdings to seven hundred and seventy-five acres, notwithstanding he has in the meantime sold two hundred and thirty-five acres. He has devoted his land to grain, and raises cattle, horses and hogs, and in each one of these several fields of endeavor he has done well.

When he came to the county, nearly all the farming was in grain, settlement had not far advanced and improvements were few and widely scattered. He had his initial experience with grain and has followed the development of agriculture, sometimes keeping in advance of it, thus profiting by every new development and having advantage of every innovation.

Beginning life with $1.50 capital, Mr. Eagle has worked and persevered, triumphing over difficulties as he has met them until he is now one of the prosperous men in his community. It is probable that two causes above all others have contributed to this achievement. He has at all times been what we are pleased to call a hustler, aggressive, active and up-to-date, and he has at the same time been always a Christian gentleman, devoted to the honorable dealings and the uplift of his community. He is widely known throughout the surrounding country for the high grade of his stock and he keeps usually about one hundred head of cattle and forty to fifty head of horses. The schools of his community have been his constant care, and he has done much to advance them.

Mr. Eagle married, September 23, 1858, Miss Eliza Ann Moffett, a native of Tennessee, who was brought early in life to California, and she has borne him thirteen children, nine daughters and four sons, all of whom are living, and all of whom are native sons and daughters of California. Mrs. Eagle's father was Hamilton Moffett, of Scotch-Irish blood, who died in Missouri when Mrs. Eagle was four years old. Her mother was Charlotte Bunn, born in Virginia, who died in Tulare county. Mr. and Mrs. Eagle are the proud grandparents of half a hundred grandchildren, and twelve greatgrandchildren.

The father of Emanuel T. was George H. Eagle, born in Virginia and died in Tennessee. His grandfather was born in Germany and settled in Virginia, where he was accidentally drowned.
(Pages 249-250)


J. D. Tyler was the oldest living representative of the original settlers on Tule river, Tulare county, Cal., and had been engaged in agricultural pursuits and the stock business here since 1859 and as a pioneer is entitled to a more than passing mention in the history of the county. Mr. Tyler was born in Marcellus, Onondaga county, N. Y., in 1827, the son of Job Tyler, a farmer and a minister of the Seventh Day Baptist denomination. His early life was rather migratory, his father going to Ohio in 1834 and to St. Joseph county, Mich., in 1836. Educational advantages in those days were limited firm in his convictions and was only the more respected for loyalty to his country.

At his home, two miles east of Porterville, Tulare county, J. D. Tyler passed away November 18, 1895, at the age of sixty-seven years and eleven months. Religiously he was not bound by any creed, but he believed and followed implicitly the Golden Rule: "Love thy neighbor as thyself." Politically he was a stanch Republican, ever ready to battle for the cause. Too much a lover of home to care for the emoluments of office, yet he was ever ready to work and aid the ones whom he believed were the best fitted to hold the reins of government, and if they were defeated he always bowed to the inevitable and gave the victors all honor and support. Moral-ly, he was an earnest, conscientious citizen. As every nation must have soldiers to defend its honor and maintain its rights, so every town or precinct must have its citizens to uphold its integrity. Citizens who realize that the moral atmosphere of the country permeates the homes and adds or detracts from their happiness and glory recognized such a citizen was Mr. Tyler. His influence and work were ever in the cause of temperance, and he always by his own acts strove to influence the young to walk morally upright, and gave his aid and countenance to the uplift of humanity. His sickness was of long standing, dating really from the hardships endured in coming to California. His system never rallied from the strain then received. In 1893 he began to fail perceptibly and in 1894 he gave up work entirely and after going to the polls on November 6 he did not again leave his home. In his death his country has lost a loyal, zealous citizen, his town an earnest worker for its good, his neighbors a faithful, true-hearted friend, his children a noble-hearted father, his wife a faithful, loving, trusting companion, and each and all mourn his earthly loss. On the afternoon of the 20th of November services were held at the homestead by Rev. J. G. Eckels, pastor of the Congregational church, and, surrounded by his most intimate friends and loving relatives, he was laid to rest in the beautiful cemetery in which he took so much interest and of which he was president and superintendent for many years.


When the hill of life twas steepest,

When the forest frown was deepest,

Poor hut young, you hastened here,

Came when solid hope was cheapest;

Came a pioneer.

Toil had never cause to doubt you,

Progress' path you helped to clear,

And your wonder tvorks outlast you,

Sleep, old pioneer!

(Pages 250-255)


A pioneer of 1852, a busy and patriotically active citizen since 1865, John Holmes Huntley, of Visalia, Tulare county, was ever a factor in the upbuilding of his community whose influence has been potent all along. Born in Canajoharie, N. Y., September 7, 1829, a son of Oliver D. and Mary (Stark) Huntley, he was educated in the public schools of his native county and at Ames academy, and to a considerable extent in a bookstore in Albany, N. Y., where he was employed two years. His father was a native of Stonington, R. L, and his mother was born in Connecticut, a daughter of Joshua Stark, a farmer, who passed away in New York. John Holmes Huntley was but six years old when his mother died. His father was brought up to the mercantile business and sold goods many years; his second wife was a sister of his first. By each marriage he had six children. He died at the age of sixty-five years.

John H. Huntley was the third child of his father by the first-marriage and inherited industry and thrift from ancestors who had behind them unnumbered ancestors of Scotch blood. In 1852, when he was about twenty-three years old, he started for California by way of the Nicaragua route and arrived in November that year. In the Sonora mining district he kept busy and made some money buying and selling stock till October, 1861, when he enlisted for Federal service in the Civil war in Company E, Second California Cavalry. He was mustered in at San Francisco, was on duty for a time against Indians on the northern border, was transferred to Tulare county, served at the time of the Owens River outbreak, acting as sergeant-major of a detail of his regiment, and was mustered out in 1864 after a continuous service of three years and four days. In the mines of Nevada he speculated a year after the war, then returned to Tulare county and engaged in loaning money in Tulare, Kern and Fresno counties. From time to time he bought land till he owned eight hundred and forty acres in the San Joaquin valley, mostly devoted to stock-raising, and acquired a fine residence on the Mineral King road, two miles east of Visalia.

In politics a Republican, Mr. Huntley served his party in various offices of trust, having been internal revenue collector for Tulare, Kern, Inyo and Fresno counties for five years, until the office was abolished, and was also gauger of liquors and surveyor of stills until he resigned. He was a member of Gen. Wright Post, G. A. U., of Visalia.

On August 3, 1879, Mr. Huntley married, at San Rafael, Nina R. Willfard, born at Southampton, Eng., and they were the parents of two sons: Willfard H. and Chester S. In 1900 he moved his family temporarily to Berkeley, in order to afford his children good educational advantages. In all matters that have advanced the social, political and educational welfare of Tulare county Mr. Huntley was always eagerly helpful, evidencing a public spirit commensurate. with his conspicuous integrity. He passed away at the home ranch near Visalia, February 24, 1912.

When the old high school in Visalia was built, Mr. Huntley bought the entire issue of the bonds, amounting to $40,000, and as they ran from one to forty years, some of them have twenty-five years yet in which to mature. He invested largely in ranch property in Tulare county, his first purchase of this kind being the Lewis Creek ranch of one hundred and sixty acres, which he later sold. One of his holdings was the Cross ranch at Bakersfield, a hundred and sixty acres; another, a second ranch in the Bakersfield neighborhood, a hundred and sixty acres, and both of these he rented. He bought the Cameron Creek ranch of a hundred and sixty acres, stock and timber land, and gave it to his son Chester S. Three hundred acres of the old Dr. Halsted ranch he bought and transferred to his wife and son. Mrs. Huntley and her son have also large ranch holdings in Tulare and Kern counties and are extensively engaged in stock-raising.

There is one feature of Mr. Huntley's biography of which he seldom talked in later days, yet which should be made a matter of record. Before the railroad came, he rode pony express three trips a month between Visalia and Fort Tejon. (Pages 255-256)


The well-known and popular proprietor of the general merchandise business in Orosi, Cal., which enjoys such a flourishing and gratifying trade there, is George W. Knox, whose influence in the commercial, industrial and political fields in this state as well as in the middle states has been most effectively exerted. Unusual executive ability, a most sagacious reasoning power, a clear mind and the forceful spirit to bring to a successful issue all that he set out to accomplish have been the means of Mr. Knox's brilliant achievements in the political field, and the state of Minnesota especially has reason to hold him in high esteem and to ever silently thank him for his activities toward the welfare of that vicinity.

A native of Columbia county, Wis., the son of George and Julia A. (Jackson) Knox, George W. was born November 20, 1852. His parents were both natives of Essex county, N. T., coming to Wisconsin at an early day and settling down to farming for a long period of years. Persevering, hard-working people, they here reared their family and became well-to-do farmers of their day, giving to their children the benefits of a good education and imparting to them that rare good training which has made of so many of our citizens the well-balanced men they are today. The latter years of their life was spent in California whence they had come in 1904, and in Grangeville the father passed away, at the age of ninety-three years, his widow dying a short time later at Orosi at the same age.

At the common and high schools of Kilbourn, Wis., George W. Knox received his educational training, working during the summers with his father on the home farm. Mercantile life early attracted him and upon graduation from school he became clerk in a drug store for a few years, later embarking in that business for himself at Elroy. Wis., which engaged his entire time for several years. In 1874 with his brother he drove across the plains to Boise City, Idaho, but remained here but a short time, returning east to locate in Aitkin,. Minn., where his brother D. J. Knox was then living. His career here covered the period between 1876 and 1908, during which time he became a central figure in industrial and political circles, and became most prominent through his efforts in the legislature to bring about the improvement of many conditions there. With his brother D. J. Knox he engaged in the wholesale and retail mercantile business, lumbering and logging, which they carried on until the former's death; he then continued alone until his removal to California, at that time selling out the business. A stanch Republican in political sentiment, he soon became prominent in local affairs in Minnesota, and held the office of county auditor, being later superintendent of schools in Aitkin county. His exceptional ability soon attracted the attention of politicians, and he was elected to serve for two years on the State Board of Equalization, which office he filled with such satisfaction to his constituents that he received the election to the State Legislature for the term of 1907-08, and served two years as member of the staff of Governor VanSant, with rank of colonel. He was chairman of Aitkin County Central Committee for years and during his incumbency many long-felt wants of the county were fulfilled, the county being benefited in many directions by his presence on this committee. With all movements tending to the growth and development of Minnesota and the surrounding country Mr. Knox had a great interest, and was usually instrumental in aiding in their furtherance. He had many opportunities in his business to find these deficiencies and his experience in the lumbering business had taught him the value of certain conditions which he sought to bring about.

For many years the business of Mr. Knox in Aitkin was the lum-bermen's headquarters in this country, they being the most extensive outfitters in that section in their day. After relinquishing his interests here in 1908 he decided to come to California, whence his parents had preceded him, and accordingly came to Orosi, which has since been his place of residence. In Minnesota, Mr. Knox had married Ella H. Smith, a native of Illinois, who passed away in Minnesota, and one son was born to this union, Walter DeF. Upon arriving in Orosi, Cal, he investigated conditions there, finally deciding to establish himself in his own line of business, and on January 1, 1909, the business of Bump & Knox was begun, dealing in lumber and builders' supplies, and this has grown and increased to such an extent that a wholesale and retail business is carried on, Mr. Knox now being sole proprietor. He has a general merchandise business in connection and enjoys a wide and profitable trade, gaining his patronage chiefly by his sagacious handling of his wares and his courteous yet business-like manner.
In 1909 Mr. Knox married in Los Angeles, Christina (Thompson) Smith, and they make their home in Orosi, being well-known members of society there. Mr. Knox has been a prominent Mason in Minnesota as well as in California; he is a 32d degree Scottish Rite Mason and Knight Templar Of York Rite, member of Osman Temple of St. Paul, Minn., and past master of Blue lodge at Aitkin, Minn.; member of the Knights of Pythias of Orosi; and is also a member of the Blue lodge of Masons of Orosi. He has one sister, Mrs. S. J. Knowlton, widow of E. G. Knowlton, who is residing in Orosi.

It is of interest to add that Mr. Knox has become very interested in drainage systems in Minnesota, and his entrance into the legislature was for the furtherance of the project to secure appropriations for that purpose. During his term of service $400,000 was secured under his bill, and the appropriation has been continued ever since under the same ratio, thus perpetuating the influence and accomplishments of its loyal instigator and friend. Mr. Knox's career has spelled power and success from its inception, and he has earned the deepest gratitude and admiration of all who have come to know him. (Pages 256-258)


Among the well-known pioneers of Tulare county is numbered Andrew J. Scoggins, son of David Green and Martha (Breedlove) Scoggins, who was born May 28, 1828, in Alabama. His parents were natives of North Carolina. The family moved at a comparatively early date to Tennessee and were among pioneers in Roane county and later in another county in that state and the father prospered fairly as a farmer and as a tanner. When Andrew was twenty-two years old he settled in Arkansas, but finding the country unhealthy removed to southwest Missouri. In 1848, before leaving his old home in Tennessee, he married Miss Julia Buttram, a native of that state, who bore him a daughter, Martha Ann, who eventually married the Rev. L. C. Renfroe of the Methodist church and bore him children, Maud and Louis. Mrs. Scoggins died October 3, 1853. On October 3, 1856, he married Miss Rebecca Cleek, a native of Tennessee, whom he brought across the plains to the Far West. The journey was made in the warm part of the year 1857 and he started with two hundred head of cattle and lost a few by the way. The start was made from Fort Scott and the Platte river was reached at Fort Kearney. The latter part of the journey was made by the southern route and Mr. Scoggins settled in Yolo county, then a wild country in which he found wild oats higher than his head. By his second marriage Mr. Scoggins had nine children: Margaret:M: Byron, Josephine, Nettie, John L., Frank, Pearl W., A. J. and an infant unnamed. The three last-mentioned have passed away. Margaret M. married C. Fremont Giddons and has three sons and a daughter, Byron has not married. Josephine married Travers Welch and bore him one child who has won success as a teacher at Fresno, where the family live. Nettie married C. L. Knestric of Dinuba and has a daughter. Frank married Belle Ellis, daughter of J. W. Ellis of Visalia, and has two sons and a daughter. Mr. Scoggins has nine grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.
Mr. Scoggins crossed the plains the second time, the journey being made in comparative safety, there having been no trouble with the Indians. He came to Hanford in 1866 and lived south of that town for ten years. He bought land of the railroad company at 12.50 an acre and passed through the experiences which culminated in "the Mussel Slough tragedy and the subsequent settlement of questions at issue between settlers and the railroad company. One of his recollections is of having seen Mr. Crow after the latter had been shot down. He went for a time to Texas to raise sheep and fed many sheep in Colusa county, Cal. He had now entered upon what may be termed his second period of prosperity. In 1870 he had paid taxes on property valued at $350,000 and the opening of the year 1876 had found him poor. He began to raise grain, operating extensively in Colusa county, where he grew ten thousand sacks of wheat in one memorable season and was known as a leading wheat producer in that part of the state. In the spring of 1888 he owned eleven thousand sheep and sheared four hundred. His house in Colusa county, a brick structure which cost $15,000, was the finest house in the county at the time of his residence there. On coming to Dinuba he bought fifty acres of land a mile and a half southwest of the town and has given ten acres to his heirs. He has thirty acres in grapes and a fine family orchard.

The country in this region was new when Mr. Scoggins first he-held it. Sheep and cattle were fed everywhere, wild game was plenty and he often saw large herds of antelope which at a distance looked like bands of sheep. Not only has he participated in the development of the country, but as a public-spirited citizen he has aided it in every way possible. In politics he calls himself a Bryan Democrat. He has long been a Mason and is also an Odd Fellow. He and members of his family are communicants of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.


The honor which belongs to the pioneer and to the leader in affairs of importance to the community attaches to the name of the late Hon. Tipton Lindsey, of Visalia, Tulare county, Cal. Mr. Lindsey was born in St. Joseph county, Ind., May 21, 1829, and was reared on a farm there. Educated in public schools near his boyhood home, he was well advanced in the study of law by the time he was twenty years old. In 1849, as a member of a party of thirty, he made the journey with ox-teams across the plains to California and mined for a time at Placerville. He then settled in Santa Clara county, whence he came to Tulare county, in November, 1860, driving a band of cattle. He pre-empted a piece of government land near Groshen and turned his cattle out to range, but they died in a dry season four years later. He then went to Visalia, completed his study of the law and was admitted to the bar, entering upon a successful professional practice. From the first he took an active interest in public affairs and from time to time was called to fill responsible officials positions. He was for. twelve years receiver of the United States Land Office at Visalia, was long a school trustee, served one term as supervisor and represented his district four years in the senate of the state of California. During all his active life he took a deep and helpful interest in public education and the Tipton Lindsey grammar school of Visalia, named in his honor, is a monument to his activities as a' promoter of educational advancement of the city. Indeed, it may be said of him that there was no local interest tending to the improvement of the people at large that did not receive his public-spirited support. Comparatively early in the history of Visalia he bought sixteen home lots in the town for $800, and the lot on which his widow now has her home has been owned in the family forty-six .years. Her fine ranch of one hundred and sixty acres, three miles west of town, he purchased forty-six years ago. The property formerly bore prunes and peaches on trees which he set out, but eventually he had them taken out and devoted the land to alfalfa, and for several years it has been operated by tenants. Fraternally he affiliated with the Masons, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He was identified with the California Society of Pioneers, the headquarters of which are at San Francisco, and helped to organize the Tulare County Society of Pioneers. His recollections of 1849 were very comprehensive and very interesting. In these days, when the high price of foodstuffs is so much discussed, readers should be interested in his narratives of a time when water sold for $1 a gallon and eggs for $1 each in San Francisco. This honored pioneer passed away on his ranch west of Visalia in 1894.

In 1859 Mr. Lindsey married Miss Eliza Fine, niece of John Fine, who crossed the plains with her uncle in 1853. When she came to Visalia it was only a village; she saw the trees set out and the homes built in her vicinity, and has watched the development of the city to its present proportions and importance. She recalls many entertaining experiences of her journey across the plains. In every direction she saw long emigrant trains until they looked small and dim on the horizon. She remembers a stampede of buffaloes in which a herd of thousands bore down on her train, threatening death to humans and cattle alike, a tragedy which was prevented by a diversion in the path of the maddened bison which took them past the camp without inflicting injury to anything in it. She recalls the flood of 1868 at Visalia, when for more than twenty-four hours water stood a foot deep on the property which is now her home, and tells how after the water subsided tons of fish were left on the plains west of Visalia. The flood interfered with travel in the country round about to such an extent that for two months not a letter or newspaper was received in the town. Mrs. Lindsey has two children, Charles F., of San Francisco, and Mrs. M. P. Frasier, of Los Angeles, who has a son named Harold.


In 1849, during the days of the gold excitement, which was the booming of California and the misfortune of many of its pioneers who had not learned that grain is more golden than gold, Joseph C. Brown, a native of Kentucky and a man of unusual ability, came across the plains in the historic wearisome way and mined for a time at Placerville. Then he bettered his fortunes by turning school teacher, holding forth to a few pupils in the Deep Creek school-house in Tulare county, a structure which can be dignified only by describing it as a log cabin. But there was a career before him. He had a taste for politics and was a forcible and convincing public speaker, and in those times and in this then remote region the public speaker had a distinct advantage over his less voluble neighbor. He represented Tulare county in the California legislature in 1866, 1867 and 1868, and the records show that he served on important committees and did good work for his constituency.

Later Mr. Brown ranched in the White Eiver mountains, near Exeter, Tulare county, where he operated two hundred and forty acres of land in the raising of hogs, the bacon from which he enterprisingly sold in the mines. He homesteaded a one hundred and sixty-acre ranch of government land, two and one-half miles southeast of Exeter, which he developed into a productive farm on which he lived out his life and died April 25, 1896.

Of the California constitutional convention of 1876 Mr. Brown was an active and influential member, representing Tulare county, and in political circles he was widely and favorably known throughout the state. At the time of the flood of 1868, when he was living in the White River mountains, his food supply was cut .off temporarily and for a while he had nothing to eat but boiled barley. He married Mollie M. Lovelace, who bore him children as follows: Stanly B., Volney A. and Lucretia E., now Mrs. L. Martin.

On his father's ranch near Farmersville, Volney A. Brown grew to manhood, and in the public schools near the home of his boyhood days he acquired his education. When his father's estate was divided, eighty acres fell to his share and it is now his home, and he has improved it and made of it such an up-to-date ranch as would be the pride of any farmer in his district. He has set out a new prune orchard, which produced eleven tons in 1911, and raises barley, hogs and. stock cattle. In connection with his. homestead he farms a ranch in the hills under lease. He has also invested in valuable town lots in Exeter, and has just completed a fine residence - on his premises, where he and his wife and one son, Joseph C. Brown, enjoy all the comforts of a happy home.

Some of his father's public spirit and concern in public affairs was inherited by Mr. Brown, who has an enviable reputation as a liberal-minded and very helpful citizen who has at heart the best interests of the community.


A prominent citizen and successful builder of Tulare county, and a native son of the Golden State, George A. Noble was born in Soquel, Santa Cruz county, in 1856, a son of Augustus and Johanna M. (Short) Noble. His parents were both born in Massachusetts, and his father is living at Soquel at the age of ninety years.

The elder Noble came to California on board a sailing vessel by way of Cape Horn in the year 1849, a member of a party of thirty-nine men who were three months in reaching their destination, and he is one of the few '49ers surviving in this state. On the voyage the supply of meat was exhausted and some of the people on the ship died of scurvy, for a time there being no fresh food but fish. Soon after his arrival fir. Noble began mining on the Feather river, and in nine months took-out gold to the value of $20,000, sending some of his nuggets back East. Later he returned to his old home, married and brought his bride to California. Locating in the mining district of Marysville, he set himself up in business as a cooper, working over the material of old whisky barrels into kegs, which he sold profitably to miners, but he was burned out at Marysville, losing his all. After a time he went to San Francisco, bought a cooper shop near Black Point, operated it successfully two years and then sold it in order to remove to Soquel, Santa Cruz county, where he has since made his home. He bought an undivided one-ninth interest in the Soquel ranch of two thousand acres and in the Argumentation ranch of nine hundred acres, which he still owns. He was one of the early justices of the peace on the Pacific slope and is a member of the Pioneer Society of California. His wife, who died in 1907, bore him children as follows: Mrs. Charlotte M. Lawson, of San Francisco; George A., of this review Edward T.; Frederick Dent; Prof. Charles A., of the University "of California at Berkeley; and Walter.

In Soquel, Santa Cruz county, Cal., George A. Noble grew to manhood, acquired his education and gained practical familiarity with fruit growing. He began his independent business life in 1878 as a fruitman near Fresno, on a tract of eighty acres, twenty of which was in vineyard, forty in fruit and the remaining twenty in alfalfa. In 1888 he moved to Seattle, Wash., where he was for a time a successful contractor and builder. Eeturning to California, he bought eighty acres at Savilla, near Atwell's Island, Tulare county, but owing to failure on the part of the vendors to furnish water, according to their agreement he was compelled to abandon his holdings after two years' work and many improvements made on it. He then removed to Fresno, where he devoted his time to the cultivation of Indian corn. In 1900 he settled at Yisalia, renting twenty acres, which he afterward bought and still owns. He developed it into an orchard and is now doing well as a grower of peaches. His property, lying within the city limits of Yisalia, is exceedingly valuable. In connection with his fruit growing he has done much contracting and building at Visalia since 1905, having erected, among other buildings, the Episcopal church, five houses for J. S. Johnson, the W. B. Pigg home, the M. J. Wells home, the Willow district schoolhouse and Mrs. Dyer's home. In the year 1912 he built the Bliss, Cutler and East Lynne schoolhouses in Tulare county and is at present engaged on the new Presbyterian church at Visalia. The residence of Mrs. Oaks, opposite the new Baptist church in Visalia was also completed by him. Besides buildings of the classes mentioned he has built numerous cottages in different parts- of the town, and his work has been such as to give him high standing among the builders and contractors of the county. He is a charter member of the local organization of Modern Woodmen, and as a citizen is progressive, public spirited and helpful to all good interests of the community.

In 1877 Mr. Noble married Miss Otto, a native of Germany, whose father, long in the employ of Claus Spreckels, built in Wisconsin the first beet sugar factory in the United States and later erected the Eldorado sugar factory, near San Francisco. Mrs. Noble has borne her husband six children, Augustus, Edgar, Bosa, Ewald, Gertrude and George. Bosa is the wife of Clarence Brown of Visalia. Mr. Noble has recently organized the California Building Co., which has platted the Nobles Subdivision to Visalia and is now engaged in building houses and selling off lots to prospective homemakers, this being the finest available residence district in Visalia. The family home is at No. 820 West Mineral King avenue, Visalia.


As far back as the ancestral records can be traced the home of the Belz family has been in Germany. Christoff Belz, a Saxon by birth and a machinist by trade, came to the United States and settled in Eome, N. Y., in 1854, and in that city he followed his trade throughout the remainder of his life. He married Margaret Schnuer, also a native of Saxony, who died at the home of her son, Andrew G., when she had reached the advanced age of eighty-nine years. She bore her husband four children, of whom Andrew G., the eldest, was the only one to make his home in California. In their religious belief Christoff Belz and his wife were Lutherans, devoted to their church and contributing to the limit of their ability to all its various

In Saxe-Meiningen, Germany, Andrew G. Belz was born January 31, 1832. In his youth he learned the machinist's trade, attending a mechanical school, in which he specialized as an ironworker and a locksmith. Subsequently he served for two years in the army of his native country, as required by law, but the service was so distasteful to him that he fled to the United States to escape the third and last year. In 1854 he accompanied his father to the United States, settling in Rome, N. Y., where his first occupation was burning charcoal. From New York state he went to Pennsylvania, subsequently to Jefferson county, Wis., and finally, in 1862, he came to California. In 1864 he became a pioneer settler in Visalia, where he set up the first blacksmith shop, and here it was that he welded the first four-inch wagon tire that was made in the county. He continued to follow the blacksmith business here with good success until the '80s, when the failure of his eyesight made it necessary for him to give it up. Following this he became interested in the hotel business, and on the site of his blacksmith shop he erected the Pacific lodging house. As this was near the Southern Pacific depot it had a good patronage from the first and is still dispensing hospitality to the weary wayfarer. At Watertown, Wis., August 17, 1874, Mr. Belz was married to Miss Caroline Wegman, a daughter of George J. and Caroline (Wennerholdt) Wegman. A sketch of the former will be found elsewhere in this volume. Three children have blessed the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Belz, as follows: George A., Frank A. and Eliza M., the latter the wife of E. Blair. George A. is a graduate of the San Jose state normal school, class of 1902. Frank attended the grammar school, passed three years in high school, and then attended Santa Clara college. Finally both sons entered the University of Wisconsin and graduated from the college of agriculture connected with that well-known institution. They are now engaged in carrying on scien-tific farming and dairying on the old Wegman estate, and associated with them are Mr. and Mrs. Blair. The sons are young men of much ability and of the highest integrity, who carry into their business the high ideals that made the names of their father and grandfather honored wherever they were known. Mr. and Mrs. Wegman followed their daughter to California in 1875 and settled on what is now known as the Wegman ranch, three and one-half miles northeast of Visalia.

Just fifty years have passed since Mr. Belz came to California by way of Panama in 1862. From San Francisco, where he landed, he first went to Sacramento and then to Stockton, where he stacked about one thousand acres with wheat for Mr. Newton. All was destroyed in a flood, a circumstance which discouraged Mr. Belz with any future attempts at farming. After coming to Visalia in 1864 he worked for several men in the capacity of blacksmith before setting up a shop of his own. The passing of years has obliterated the memory of early discouragements and disappointments, and in the enjoyment of his present prosperity he rejoices that he persevered, adjusting himself to circumstances and conditions.


The life story of Judge Justin Jacobs is interesting and should be instructive to the ambitious young man who desires to get on in the world in a high-minded way and to win substantial and creditable success. Justin Jacobs was born in Troy, N. Y., in 1844. His father. who had been an officer in the Seminole war, was connected with the United States arsenal at Troy until he was crippled for life by the explosion of ordnance in that military establishment. Then he went to Wisconsin and in 1847, when his son was three years old, the family settled near Waupun, where the future jurist was educated in the common school. When the Civil war broke out he was sixteen years old and, responding to President Lincoln's call for volunteers. he became one of the very young soldiers in the Federal army. On the same day he enlisted in the Sixteenth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, which was under command of Colonel Fairchild; his brother Curtis enlisted in the Third Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. The Sixteenth Wisconsin was assigned to the Department of the Tennessee and followed Grant and Sherman in all their long and brilliant campaigns in the west. Private Jacobs took part in many hotly contested engagements, including that of Shiloh, where he was one of those who stood in the historic "Hornet's Nest." Exposure and bad surgical treatment resulted in the loss of one of his eyes and he was discharged from the service in March, 1865, so nearly blind that he was unable to resume his studies for a year and a half. However the sight of his remaining eye was restored, and he soon became a student at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. After the junior year he entered the law department of that institution, from which he was graduated in 1871, and after two years spent as principal of the Waupun public schools, he began the practice of his profession. He came to California in 1874 and until 1876 was connected with Tipton Lindsey of Visalia in professional work. In the year last mentioned he moved to Lemoore and built the first dwelling house in the town on land which he bought from the railroad company which was promoting development there. During the legal struggle between the settlers in what was once known as "the Mussel Slough Country" he was their attorney and ably defended them in the courts. In 1883 he sold his property at Lemoore and until 1885 was the law partner of L. H. Van Schaick, of San Francisco. Returning to Lemoore he was until 1891 the leading lawyer in Western Tulare county, and in that year he took up his residence in Hanford, where for a year he had as his law partners M. L. Short and B. T. Mickle. When the western part of the county became settled and developed and a movement for the creation of a new county took form he was one of the advisors who supplied the legal knowledge upon which the work of separation and re-establishment was carried to success. This fact gives him standing in history as having been one of the founders of Kings county in 1893. He was elected superior judge of the new county and re-elected to succeed himself, and he won the reputation of being one of the ablest judges of the Superior Court of California. He was foremost in all the work of general development so long as he lived, instrumental in bringing about the bonding of the county for public school" purposes and in establishing the Union high school and in securing good roads throughout the county. In the founding and building up of the First Unitarian church of Hanford he was a factor and of its congregation he was a member until he passed away.

At Janesville, Wis., in 1872, Judge Jacobs married Miss Annie M. Lowber, a native of New York, and they had three children, Clara Belle, H. Scott and Louisa M. Fraternally he was an Odd Fellow, a Knight of Pythias, a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and of the Grand Army of the Republic, and passed all the chairs in each of these orders. He died September 23, 1898.


Not only by reason of identification with California during its early formative period, but also by virtue of his long association with the stock and farm interests of Tulare county Mr. Stokes holds a leading position among the citizens of the community. When in the winter of 1855 he came to the vicinity of his present location in Visalia few attempts had as yet been made to place the surrounding country under cultivation. Visalia was a very small village, surrounded by a wilderness, and Mr. Stokes drove his cattle along the foothills east of Visalia, where now stand the thriving towns of Exeter and Lindsay. Game of all kinds abounded and it was not uncommon to see three hundred elks in one band.

A native of Missouri, John W. Stokes was born in Daviess county, July 2, 1837, the son of Yancy B. Stokes, a native of Kentucky. Removing from Kentucky to Missouri in an early day the latter engaged in farming and stock-raising, and became well known throughout the middle west through his large stock transactions. From 1840 until 1850 he made his home in Iowa, and on April 10 of the last mentioned year he took up the march across the plains for California. He was accompanied on the trip by his son John W, then a lad of about thirteen years, and the incidents of the ox-team journey covering seven months proved a source of unfailing interest to the youth. The party arrived at Hangtown on October 12 and the first winter was passed in Stockton, the father suffering ill-health the greater part of that season. It thus devolved upon the son to take care of the stock that winter, and with the opening of the spring father and son went to the Curtis Creek mines. They were especially fortunate in their mining experiences during the three months they were there, but all to no purpose, as the entire accumulation was stolen from Mr. Stokes' trunk. From there he went to Mokelumne river, Calaveras county, remaining there until the spring of 1852, when he located in Marysville on the Yuba river. The following spring and summer were spent in prospecting in the mines, after which he returned to Stockton. In the fall of that year he returned to Iowa and in 1853 he brought his family to California across the plains. The journey was broken by a stop in Carson Valley, where the family spent the winter, and the following spring they located in Contra Costa county, near Martinez. One year later, December 25, 1855, they came to Tulare county, locating on government land which Mr. Stokes took up six miles west of Visalia. Here he engaged in general farming and stock-raising until selling the property to his son, after which he bought another tract in the same section, his holdings at the time of his death amounting to sixteen hundred acres. He passed away March 4, 1886. His wife, in maidenhood Elizabeth Moore and a native of Missouri, also died in California.

A family of six sons and five daughters was born to this pioneer couple. Only three of the children, S. C, B. F. and J. W., are living in Tulare county. Two daughters, Martha J. Sanders and Hattie Webb, are residents of the state, and Mrs. Rachel Brewer, the eldest of the children living, makes her home in Iowa. The school advantages that fell to the lot of John W. Stokes were limited, for his entire boyhood was passed on the frontier, first in Iowa and later in California. In 1853, while his father returned to Iowa for the remainder of the family, he went to the mines at Hangtown with a brother, buying flour and other stuff which they sold to the emigrants, flour bringing $1 per pound. They raised water melons in Carson valley and sold them for $1 each. Coming to Tulare county with the family, J. W. Stokes was for some time associated in general farming and stock-raising on property which was later sold to the son, as previously stated. The latter afterward branched out along the same lines on a large scale and at one time owned as high as sixteen thousand acres of land. Considerable of this has since been disposed of, although he still owns valuable farm lands in the county. He can truly be numbered among the extensive and successful stockmen of Tulare county.

It was in Tulare county that Mr. Stokes' first marriage occurred, uniting him with Rachel M. Gibson, a native of Missouri. She died in San Luis Obispo county, Cal., leaving the following children: Christina, the wife of S. N. Chase; John Thomas; Elta; Miles Andrew and Claud. Subsequently, in Visalia, Mr. Stokes was married to Nancy Liggett, a native of Tennessee. The two children born of this marriage are Henry J., a rancher near Goshen, and Roxanna, the wife of C. B. Dorrity. Mr. Stokes espouses the principles of the Republican party, as did his father before him.


As rancher, stockman and horticulturist James H. C. McFarland has become one of the most prominent citizens of his community. His activities date from 1891, when he bought his property south of Tulare. He was born in Springfield, Greene county, Mo., August 19, 1849, son of William and Martha (Roberts) McFarland, "the youngest of their family of three sons and five daughters, all of whom grew to maturity and five of whom are living. William McFarland was taken to Cooper county, Mo., by Jacob McFarland, his father, who was a native of North Carolina, and there he grew up, was educated and learned the work of the farmer and stockman. IF was as such that he was engaged during the active years of his life five miles from Springfield, where he passed away in 1863. A Whig and a Union man, he organized the first Home Guards in Greene county. Each of his three sons was a volunteer in the Union service: George, now of Springfield, having borne arms in a Missouri regiment; John, also of Springfield, in the Eighth Missouri Cavalry; and James Henry Clay in Company F, Fourteenth Missouri Cavalry, into which he was mustered at Springfield in March, 1865, when he was in his sixteenth year. William McFarland married Martha Roberts, a native of east Tennessee, whose father, John Roberts, took his family to Cooper county, Mo., and later to Greene county, where he died. Mrs. McFarland's death occurred in 1880.

On his father's farm in Missouri James H. C. McFarland was reared to manhood. He attended the district school near his home until he was obliged to leave it in order to go to work. After his enlistment as a soldier his regiment was detailed for frontier duty against Indians in western Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico. A battle with the Cheyennes and Comanches was fought at Salt River and the Indians were defeated, but the cavalry remained on the ground until the government effected a treaty with the Indians, where Wichita, Kans., now stands. Mr. McFarland was mustered out of service at Fort Leavenworth in November, 1865, and was later discharged at St. Louis. He was at that time a few months past his sixteenth birthday, and he went back to school, but left it soon afterward to become a farmer and stockraiser on his own account. He successfully conducted an eighty-acre farm five miles from Springfield until 1887, when he came to California and located in Tulare county. He rented three .hundred acres of the Bishop Colony land, east of Tulare, for two years; Then he rented two hundred and forty acres of the Zumwalt ranch for a year and forty acres belonging to Mrs. Traverse. In the .spring of 1891 he bought twenty acres of the Oakland Colony tract, which he put in alfalfa. He also rented two hundred and forty acres of the Gould ranch in the Waukena section, which he farmed to grain for three years. In the fall of 1894 he and his brother-in-law rented four thousand acres, east of Lindsay, which was a part of the Tuohy ranch, and farmed it one year. The following year they farmed the Gould ranch and in 1896 operated two hundred and forty acres of the Woods place in the Poplar section. He also bought three hundred and twenty acres on the bayou, three miles south of Tulare, where he raised stock. That place he sold in 1904 and bought sixty acres adjoining his twenty acres in the Oakland Colony tract, which he put under alfalfa. There he lived until 1910, when he sold the property and bought eighty acres of the John Shufflebean ranch, two miles west of town, all of which he operates himself and on which his residence is located. He has installed an electric power plant for pumping.

In 1869 Mr. McFarland married, near Springfield, Mo., Miss Martha J. Wharton, a native of Greene county, that state, and a daughter of Emsley Wharton, born in North Carolina, who settled early in Missouri and died there some time after the Civil war, in which he saw service in the Eighth Missouri Cavalry, U. S. A. To Mr. and Mrs. McFarland have been born two children. Their daughter Clara married W. J. Abercrombie of Tulare. Their son Charles G. is a rancher near that city. Mrs. McFarland is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics Mr. McFarland is Republican.


Of those who are engaged in ranching and stock-raising in the vicinity of Hanford, Kings county, none stand higher in public favor than L. Y. Montgomery, who came to this county in January, 1881, and during the long time that has elapsed since has demonstrated the value of industry and fair dealing in the making of a career of usefulness and honor. Mr. Montgomery was born in East Tennessee on May 17, 1857, the son of William Glaspy and Mary Jane (Burton) Montgomery, natives respectively of Tennessee and Virginia. Both passed away on the old homestead, the father when about seventy years old, and the mother also lived to pass her seventieth year. L. Y. Montgomery was educated in public schools near the family plantation and at Maryville College. He was early instructed in all of the details of successful farming as conducted in that part of the country at the time, and may be said to have been in the fields since he was a lad of ten years. After he left college he assumed charge of his father's business, managing it for a short time, and in January, 1879, he went to Louisiana, where he was much enthused over the fine opportunities which the farming interests of that state offered to a young man, and in leaving there he felt that he was turning his back on fortune, besides leaving behind many appreciated friends whom he had made among the planters. However, falling a victim to malaria, he decided to seek a change of climate and came to California.

Mr. Montgomery's first employment in the Golden State was in the redwood lumber camps controlled by San Francisco parties, and in June, 1881, he found work in the harvest fields for a time. In the latter part of that year he came to Grangeville, then Tulare county, and for the following two years was paid well-earned by G. H. Hackett for ranch work. After he had saved some money he leased land and for some time was successful as a farmer on his own account; still later on, as success smiled on his efforts, he became a land-owner and engaged in general farming and stock-raising. At this time he owns his home place of eighty acres, five miles north of Hanford, besides two hundred acres in Fresno county, all of which is well improved. He has forty acres in fruit, to the cultivation of which he gives considerable attention. He is interested in irrigation projects and is a director of the People's Ditch company and also of the riverside Ditch company. For four years, from 1906 to 1910, he served as supervisor from the third district of Kings county and while a member of that body the new county hospital was erected and the courthouse park was enlarged.

On November 30, 1891, occurred the marriage of L. Y. Montgomery and Miss Jennie G. Latham, who was a native of Sutter county, born on August 7, 1870. They have three sons, Cloyd Burton, a student in Heald's Business College at Fresno; Russell Latham and Creed Litchfield. Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery are members of the Kings River Methodist Episcopal church and both belong to the order of Rebekahs, and he is a member of the Odd Fellows. In all matters pertaining to the well-being of the county or the people, Mr. Montgomery has always shown his public spirit and has advocated and supported measures to the best of his ability along those lines. To such men as he the county owes its development and standing among its sister counties of the state.


The wise counsel, good judgment and progressive spirit of Ezra Lathrop have been factors in the upbuilding and prosperity of Tulare. Cal. Mr. Lathrop came from his old Iowa home to Nevada, but soon afterward, in 1866, came to California, and since 1873 he has lived in Tulare. His family is of English descent and was early established in the state of New York. William and Perrin Lathrop, his grandfather and father respectively, were born there, but settled in Susquehanna county, Pa., where the former died. The latter became a pioneer at Cascade, Dubuque countyr Iowa, but soon went to Center Point, near Cedar Falls, in Blackhawk county, where he improved a farm. Later he farmed in Louisa county, that state, but passed his declining years in Blackhawk county. Clementine Dowdney, who became his wife, was of Eastern birth, but passed away near Center Point, Iowa. She bore her husband two sons and a daughter: Ezra of Tulare; Gilead P., who died in the Civil war, a member of the Eighth Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry; and Mrs. Mary Ellen Brown, who lives in Tulare county, north of Visalia.

At Rush, near Montrose, Susquehanna, Pa., Ezra Lathrop was born in 1839 and there he began attending district schools. He was ten years old when his family went to Iowa and sixteen when his mother died, and then he set out to make his own way in the world.

For a time he was employed on farms, but in 1864 sought fortune in the West as a member of an emigrant party that crossed the plains. The Indians were unusually troublesome at that time, but the train went unmolested up the Platte and by way of Salt Lake City to Nevada, where Mr. Lathrop began farming on the East Walker river. In 1865 he was teaming at Dayton and in 1866 he was farming near Suisun, Cal., whence he removed three years later to Montezuma Hill. In 1873 he came to Tulare and built the residence which has since been his home and found employment as a driver of six-horse teams in mountain freighting. In 1874 he homesteaded eighty acres of government land north of Tulare, which, with other lands, he began to cultivate six years later, and by adjoining purchases he came to own four hundred and thirty acres. He formerly owned the Round Valley ranch of thirty-eight hundred acres. At this time his holdings comprise four hundred and forty acres in one body, all under ditch; five hundred and sixty acres, south of Tulare; and eighty acres southeast of that city. He was for a time a director in the Rockyford Irrigation Ditch Company.

In 1882 Mr. Lathrop embarked in the lumber business and soon built up a valuable trade, but after eighteen months a concern that had been his most bitter competitor and which he had worsted sold out to Moore & Smith, a company financially very strong. Unable to hold his own against such opposition, he sold out in 1884 to the Puget Sound Lumber Company, which appointed him its local agent. In 1886 the two concerns were merged as the San Joaquin Lumber Company and his agency was continued. When the new company was incorporated he became its manager and had its affairs in charge until November, 1898, when it retired from business. He was one of the promoters of the Gas Company of Tulare, was financially interested in it when it was incorporated, January, 1884, and has been its president since May, 1885. Its electric light plant dates from 1890 and since 1894 it has manufactured no gas. His patriotic work in bringing about the compromise with the bondholders of the Tulare Irrigation district resulted in a grand jollification and bond burning which is a part of the history of Tulare. He has performed efficient service as fire commissioner and school trustee and has helped the people of the town by his wise and conservative judgment in financial affairs. In 1885 he assisted in the organization of the bank of Tulare the oldest in the town, of which he was president from that day to the time of his death, November 17, 1908, and which has been an important aid to the welfare of the people. It is apparent that a record of the life of Mr. Lathrop is in a sense a record of the progress and development of Tulare, for he was inseparably identified with many of its leading interests. Politically he was a Democrat until 1896. Then, unable to support the financial theories of Mr. Bryan, he became a Republican. Fraternally he affiliates with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, which has a flourishing lodge at Tulare.

In Iowa, Mr. Lathrop married Miss Virginia Blake, a native of Oakland, that state, who bore him twin daughters and died in 1898. One of the daughters, Martha Adeline, married G. W. Bauman, a biographical sketch of whom will be found in this volume, and the other, Matilda Eveline, married W. J. Sturgeon.

On January 20, 1908, Mr. Lathrop married Mrs. Lena Aver, whose maiden name was Lena De Vine, born in Nova Scotia. Mr. and Mrs. Ayer came to California from Boston, Mass., December, 1890.


The profession of medicine and surgery is becoming more and more specialized as time passes, and its two principal branches are today more distinct and individual than they have ever been before. One of the medical profession In Kings county, Cal., who is becoming well known in central California through his successful devotion to surgery is Charles Tilden Rosson, M. J)., of Hanford, who was born in Vergennes, Jackson county, III., in 1876, and was there educated in the public schools. In 1894, when he was about eighteen years old, he came to Tulare county, Cal. It was in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of San Francisco that he finished his professional education and was graduated with the M. D. degree in 1903, and in that and the following year he was house surgeon in the City and County Hospital at San Francisco. In 1904 he came to Hanford and for a time made the office of Dr. Holmes his headquarters, but it was not long before he established an independent office, which is now located in the Emporium building.

It is to surgery that Dr. Rosson has given special attention and it is as a surgeon that he has developed an ability and won a success that have made him known throughout a wide territory surrounding Hanford. An idea of his progressiveness and of his initiative in his chosen field may be conveyed by the statement that he was one of the first to perform laparotomy in Kings county. Until 1911 he was for some years surgeon in Central California for the Santa Fe Railway system and he is now Southern Pacific Railroad surgeon and physician. He is a member of the San Joaquin Medical Society, the Fresno County Medical Society, the California State Medical Society and the American Medical Association, and is president of the Hanford Sanitorium, Inc. Though he is in constant demand as a family physician, he is in still wider demand as a surgeon and does a large share of the capital surgery in the county; his work in this line is gradually extending to neighboring counties. In 1901 Dr. Rosson married Miss Burnett of Tulare, who has borne him three sons, John, Charles and Robert. Socially he affiliates with the Improved Order of Red Men and with Hanford Lodge No. 1259, B. P. 0. E. Politically he is patriotically interested, and as a citizen he gives his aid to the development of Hanford and its interests and to the uplift of its people of all classes.


It was in Decatur county, Iowa, that S. C. Stokes was born, November 15, 1845, and one of his early recollections is of fishing in the Platte when he got on his hook a large catfish which might have pulled him into the river if his mother had not come to his rescue and helped him land it. He was then nearly five years old. His parents were Yancy B. and Elizabeth (Moore) Stokes, the father and mother both born in Kentucky in 1814. In 1850 they started overland to California, bringing their children; their youngest, a daughter, was born later in Carson valley, Nev. They were six months in making the journey and their adventures were many. In parties before and behind them numerous men and women died of cholera; Mrs. Stokes was .attacked by that dread disease, but was saved by the prompt administration of burned brandy. At Rocky Ford there was an Indian attack and a Frenchman was chased into camp, barely escaping with his life. After mining for a time at Hangtown, Mr. Stokes returned to Iowa with $6,000 in gold slugs of the value of $50 each, arriving in 1852. Returning to California by way of the isthmus of Panama he secured fifty head of Spanish heifers in Mexico, which he drove to his destination. His activities were then centered in Cottonwood and Grapevine, and he bought three hundred and twenty acres of railroad land at $5 an acre, improving it with a house and other buildings and appurtenances and he entered upon a career of measurable success.

In 1866 S. C. Stokes married Sarah J. Lytle, a native of Missouri, who was brought across the plains by her parents in the early '50s, and she bore him these children: Mary, Charles, William, John, Robert, Prentice and Corinthia (twins), and Harry. Mary became the wife of Nathan Bristol, a Civil war veteran, and has borne him a son and a daughter. Charles married Mary Johnson and has children named Erma, Ella, Iva and Florence; his home is near Visalia. William married Charlotte Vasques and they live in Cottonwood valley; their children are Stokley, Ruby, George, Gladys, Odetta, Shirley, Lottie, Neavie and Rachel. John married Clara Enorgan and lives at Portland, Ore. Robert married Rebecca Mankins and lives in Fresno county, where he deals in horses. They have a son named Rucen. Prentice, who lives in Goshen, married Hazel Steams. Corinthia married Wallace Evans and has a son named Marshall, their home being at Cottonwood; they have two children. Harry married Nellie Adams.

Pioneers and men of prominence in earlier days, of every char-acter, were well-known to Mr. Stokes. He relates that Sontag and Evans, who won historic distinction as stage robbers, lived in the mountains near him for four years. He has from young manhood been prominent in public affairs, has been active as a Republican and has for a number of years held the office of school trustee. He tells that in 1856-57 antelope were as numerous in Stokes valley as rabbits and grizzly bear were plentiful in the woods all round about. Once, when he was fishing, he came upon a female bear with cubs. She chased him for some distance. He threw his hat in her face and she tore it to pieces while he made good his escape. In his younger days he killed many elk, which he took home in his big wagon. There is a tree standing on Stokes mountain in the shade of which he rested when he was only thirteen years old. He and others went to Mexico and bought a lot of Spanish cows, which they bred to American cattle until they had a herd of three thousand. In 1857 a bear killed several hogs in the neighborhood and John McHuam, Y. B. Stokes, three of the Halsteads and John Stokes went after him and found him, much to their own discomforture; for he killed several dogs, treed the men and gave them a fight which lasted nearly all day, then escaped from them and killed nine sows that cost $50 per head. Mr. Stokes's mother killed many antelope with her grandfather's gun, the barrel of which is a valuable family possession at this time. He remembers that in 1862, just after the big flood, a party of hunters chased a band of antelope twenty miles without getting an animal. Mr. Stokes remembers when a neighbor. Cook Everton, set a spring gun in his apple orchard for bear and was himself accidentally shot by it. Y. B. Stokes served in the Indian war of 1856, and he was one of the original locators of the Mineral King mine.


The Tulare County Co-operative Creamery Association, the largest institution of the kind in the country, was organized in 1903 and has branches at Visalia and at Corcoran. Its officers are: S. B. Anderson, president; P. E. Beinhart, vice-president; M. G. Cottle, secretary; the above mentioned and William Small and Charles Meador, directors; Wooster B. Cartmill, manager. The main station, at Tulare, occupies a modern brick building, which is equipped with up-to-date machinery and appliances of all kinds necessary to its successful operation. Its output of two tons of butter daily is sold in bulk to the Los Angeles Creamery. The milk consumed, that of four thousand cows, is supplied by dairymen in the vicinity of Tulare.
As stated above, the active and practical- management of this great industry is in the hands of Wooster B. Cartmill. This gentleman, well known personally or by reputation in dairy circles throughout the San Joaquin Valley, is a native son of California. He was born in Amador county, Cal., in 1857, a son of Dr. W. F. and Sophia (Barnes) Cartmill. His father was a native of Ohio; his mother was born in Missouri. In 1861, when the immediate subject of this notice was four years old, his family moved to Tulare county. There he was reared and educated and there he obtained a practical knowledge of California farming, under his father's thorough instruction. For years he assisted the elder Cartmill on the family's big ranch of twelve hundred acres, and later he took charge of it and managed it successfully until about 1898. It included eighty acres of prunes, peaches and grapes, a hundred and sixty acres of alfalfa and a fine dairy. His father upon coming to Tulare county made his beginning as a dairyman, by running a farm dairy from 1862 to 1870. He made butter which he sold at the mines in Tulare and Inyo counties in the early and interesting days, and became one of the leaders in the industry. Naturally, the younger Cartmill early in life acquired a practical knowledge of dairying. He operated the old D. K. Zumwalt creamery from 1889 to 1900, and in the latter year established a skimming sta-tion of his own at Tulare, which was really the beginning of the his-tory of the Tulare Co-operative Creamery Association, as the company took over that enterprise and its visible property in October, 1903. Mr. Cartmill was one of the original directors of the Tulare Irrigation Ditch District. He was one of its most enthusiastic and efficient promoters and was personally active four years in its establishment and maintenance. He is the owner of a two hunderd and forty-acre tract near Tulare, which he rents out. In all the interests of the city and county he takes a public-spirited interest. He is a Mason and as ""such is identified with local organizations of the order, and he also affiliates with the order of Woodmen of the World.

Twice has Mr. Cartmill married, the first time, in 1883, to Miss Hatch, and she bore him a daughter, who is Mrs. W. C. Eldridge. His present wife, whom he married in 1894, was Mrs. Jane Henry. They have three children-May, Eva, and William G. Cartmill.

Mrs. Cartmill's maiden name was Jane Gilmer. She is the daughter of Rufus Gilmer, of Visalia. By her first husband, Albert Henry, who died in 1891, she had two children. Eufus and Albert are farmers, operating the old Henry farm near Porterville.


This pioneer farmer and business man, whose ranch is three miles northwest of Hanford, Kings county, Cal., has come to his present prominence only after a struggle in which he wrung success out of situations that to many another man would have spelled ruin. When he first saw Kings county, in 1874, it was a desert, sandy and practically worthless, but irrigation, which he long advocated, has resulted in its' reclamation. The land, then worth next to nothing, is now valued at $250 an acre and upward.

To the student of history genealogy is a fascinating pursuit and it is to be regretted that the lack of printing in the earlier ages rendered an interesting work so difficult. Cassius M. Blowers is descended from an Englishman, John 0. Blowers, his grandfather, who early settled in Crawford county, Ohio, where he pre-empted government land on which he died in his eighty-fifth year. Not only was he a pioneer farmer, but he was a pioneer preacher of the Methodist faith, who often discoursed to the people of Bucyrus. His son, Lemuel Lane Blowers, born on the pioneer's Ohio farm, came to California in 1850, making the trip overland. For a time he mined on the American river, but in 1854 he took up land in Yolo county, where he died in 1855. He had married Caroline Foster, of Ohio birth, and she had died in 1849, leaving five children, of whom Cassius M., born December 20, 1845, was the fourth. The boy was about four years old when his mother died and between nine and ten year-old when his father passed away, aged thirty-eight years.

When Mr. Blowers was ten years old he was brought to California by his uncle, E. B. Blowers, who became a pioneer fruit grower in this state and grew the first California raisins. The boy lived on his uncle's ranch near Woodland, Yolo county, then began business for himself, teaming to Nevada and the mountain district when he was but fifteen years old.

His next venture was as a farmer in Yolo county, but in 1874 he transferred his interests to Kings county, where he has since lived. He bought a railroad land claim for $600, but the land was a waste of desert sand, unfit for cultivation. In so doing he was planning for the future and he soon became one of the promoters of the Lower Kings river, Last Chance and People's irrigation ditches, which were completed in 1877. Then Mr. Blowers sowed his land to wheat and the next year he set out a few vines. In 1883 he shipped the first raisins which were boxed in Tulare county, which then in-cluded the present Kings county, and he originated the system of employing fruit cutters at piece prices instead of on salary. At that time there were but three canneries in the state, San Jose, San Francisco and Sacramento. All had been paying day wages for employees, and Chinese and white workers were intermingled in one large room. In 1886 Mr. Blowers went to Sacramento and induced the management of the cannery there to try piece work, which was done. The orientals were separated from the whites and so successful was this method that it has been generally adopted by all fruit growers throughout the state.

In his home ranch Mr. Blowers has two hundred and forty acres, forty acres devoted to vines, seventy to peaches, apricots and other fruit, the remainder to grain and alfalfa. He owns also a stock and alfalfa ranch of two hundred and fifty acres in Kings county, formerly in Fresno county prior to the annexation, and a fruit, vine and alfalfa farm of eighty acres near Lemoore.

The marriage of Mr. Blowers, January 19, 1875, united him with Miss Susie McLaughlin, and their eight children were born on the home ranch in Kings county. Hubert Lane is operating a ranch of thirty acres not far from his father's. Russell M. is farming and growing fruit on thirty acres of land given him by Mr. Blowers. Olive G. married George Blowers, who is the proprietor of a machine shop in San Francisco. Francis is ranching on fifty acres of land given him by his father. Bessie, who died in 1905, was the wife of Fred Arthur, who is farming in Kings county. Mary, Ralph and Viola Susan are members of their parents' household. Mr. Blowers has long taken an active part in the affairs of the Raisin Growers' association and has been for about a quarter of a century president of the Last Chance Ditch corporation. Politically he is a Republican. His interest in school affairs impelled him to fill the duties of school trustee about twenty years, and his public spirit, many times tried, has not been found wanting.


The name of White has long been associated with affairs in the United States, dating in fact from the historic Mayflower, when Peregrine White came to these shores and endured the hardships and trials which are woven in the history-making of the Atlantic coast. From this intrepid pioneer have descended men of valor in war and painstaking industry in times of peace. During the Revolutionary war Silas White, a native of New York state, enlisted in a company from that state, and as captain of the company, led his men into the thickest of many a struggle with . the opposing Tory forces. No less valiant was a son and namesake of this Revolutionary captain, who left his native state, New York, and in 1842 settled on the Pox river in Illinois, becoming a pioneer farmer of La Salle county. He did not long survive his immigration to the then frontier, for he passed away six years after locating upon his farm. He was a man whose life had been uniformly upright, with character unstained, and it was this heritage that he left to his widow, who long survived him. In maidenhood she was Maria MacClave. The MacClave family came from Scotland to America in an early day and settled in New York, and it was in Albany, that state, that Maria MacClave was born. She lived to attain the venerable age of ninety-eight years, dying in Illinois. Of the ten children who attained mature years three are now living, one of whom, Selem, is a resident of Coal City, Grundy county,. Ill. He served throughout the entire period of the Civil war, holding the rank of captain of a company in the Fifty-third Illinois Infantry. Mrs. Cyrus W. Cook, a daughter, is residing at Sandwich, Illinois.

Harrison White was born in Syracuse, N. Y., June 28, 183G. At the age of six years he accompanied his parents to Illinois, there obtaining a primary education in the public schools, after which he alternated teaching school with attendance at Wheat on College. The breaking out of the Civil war at this time was destined to add an important chapter to his interesting life. He responded to the call of President Lincoln for three-months men and in April, 1861, he became a member of Company F, Eleventh Illinois Infantry. When his three-months term had expired and he was honorably discharged. from the service, he determined to enlist in the cavalry branch of the army, and accordingly he assisted in the organization of Company B, Fourth Illinois Cavalry, which was mustered into service at Ottawa in August of 1861, and from there made its way to Cairo. Among the engagements in which he participated were those at Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth and Vicksburg. It was in the siege of the last mentioned city that his company was detailed as an escort to General Grant, continuing as such until the latter was ordered east as commander-in-chief. Soon afterward Captain White wa> placed on detached service and for a short time was assistant quartermaster at Vicksburg, after which he joined his regiment and aided General Custer in Louisiana during the reconstruction period. In Memphis, Tenn., January 26, 1866, he was honorably discharged with the rank of Captain, having been promoted to that office as a reward for meritorious service at Vicksburg. Previous to this he had served as an orderly sergeant. Notwithstanding the fact that he was often in the midst of fierce struggles, and witnessed the wounding and death of comrades on every hand, he escaped without injury until the battle of Shiloh, where a piece of shell killed his horse and knocked him senseless. Soon recovering, however, he joined his comrades.

Following his retirement from the army Captain White made his home on a rented plantation at Yazoo Pass, Miss., but both climate and occupation proved unsuited to his health and it was on this account that he returned to Illinois. For several months he conducted a mercantile establishment at Sandwich, Ill., but in the fall of 1868 he sold the business and left Illinois. Traveling up the Missouri he reached Fort Benton, and from there went to Helena, Mont., where he engaged in merchandising, and subsequently he carried on a store in a mining camp. The fall of 1869 found him in Illinois on a visit to friends and relatives, and in the spring of the following year he came to California, settlement being made in Porterville, Tulare county. For the first two years of his residence there he was interested in the sheep business, having also purchased a ranch, but five years later he again became interested in the mercantile business, conducting a general store in connection with Porter Putnam. His identification with Yisalia dates from the year 1877. Three years after making this city his home he was appointed deputy to the internal revenue collector, William Higby, whose district embraced Kern, Tulare, Fresno, Merced and Stanislaus counties, with headquarters in Visalia. Captain White retained the office of deputy until 1889, during which time he also continued his ranch and sheep interests and still owns a ranch of two hundred and forty acres on the Tule river, the property now being leased to a tenant. The land is partially under irrigation, water being provided by means of a pumping plant connected with wells. His holdings also include grazing lands. It was during 1891 that Captain White was appointed under-sheriff to Sheriff Overall, an office which he held for eighteen months. Subsequently, from 1893 to 1895, he served by appointment as United States gauger. It was in 1898 that he was appointed to the position which he held until retiring in 1911, that of supervisor of the southern district of the Sierra Forest reserve, comprising more than two million acres in Kern, Fresno, Tulare and Inyo counties, with headquarters in Yisalia. It goes without saying that the position entailed many responsibilities, but he has proved amply qualified to discharge every duty with a master hand, his long experience in many avenues of activity having equipped him with a breadth of knowledge and extent of information both rare and valuable.

It was after coming to Visalia that Captain White formed domestic ties by his marriage with Miss Hattie Pauline Anthony, a native of Watertown, N. Y. By right of his service in the Civil war Captain White is associated with the Grand Army of the Republic, twice serving as commander of Gen. George Wright Post No. 111. Under appointment by Governor Waterman he held the position of major and quartermaster on the staff of General Budd, of the California National Guard. A leader in the ranks of the Republican party, for twelve years or more he was secretary of the Republican county central committee and for two terms officiated as its chairman. He took an active part in the councils of that body, as he did subsequently as a member of the congressional committee. It is unnecessary to state that a man of his breadth of character should be loved and respected by all, irrespective of party affiliation, for the position which he holds represents the possession of ability of high order, sterling qualities and a breadth of patriotism that knows no party distinction.


A native son of California, William J. Higdon was born in Nevada county, in 1876. When he was seven years old his parents moved to the Capay valley in Yolo county, where he was educated in the public schools an acquired some knowledge of farming. In 1898, when he was about twenty-two years old, he followed the lure of the gold-seeker to Alaska, where he remained a year and a half and in 1901 he came to Tulare county and for three years was in tin livery business, first as proprietor of the Dexter stables then of the Grand stables, and finally of the City stables. After a year and a half spent in Tulare following his retirement from this business, ho moved on to the I. N. Wright ranch of two hundred and fifty-four acres, one hundred and seventy-four acres of which was within the city limits, and there engaged in farming, stock-raising and dairying milking fifty to eighty cows. He owns two hundred and forty acre-of other land, eighty acres of which is half a mile southeast and one hundred arid sixty acres three miles southwest of his homestead. The larger tract is used for farming and grazing and the smaller one is rented and devoted to the production of corn and other grain. One hundred and sixty acres of the home ranch is in alfalfa. Mr. Higdon keeps an average of about two hundred and fifty hogs and one hundred head of stock besides his milch cows. He is a stockholder in and a director of the Dairymen's Co-operative Creamery Co., and the Rochdale Store Co. of Tulare, and is a stockholder in the New Power Co. He has also been secretary of the Tulare County Dairymen's association since its organization.

Fraternally Mr. Higdon affiliates with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His public spirit has led him to identify himself with many movements for the general benefit. On November 23, 1904, he married Miss Hattie M. Wright, a native of Tulare and a daughter of Isaac N. Wright, who was instrumental in securing the location of the city of Tulare where it has been built, and who is mentioned fully elsewhere in this publication. Its boundaries include the old home place where his daughter was born. Mr. and Mrs. Higdon have a son and a daughter, Alice Charlotte and Newton Elliott, who are now (1913) aged respectively seven and four years. Mrs. Higdon, a graduate of the State Normal school at San Jose, was for ten years a teacher in the public school at Tulare.


A native of Illinois, Mr. Dodge was born December 2, 1858, on the farm where his parents settled in 1839, in Dunham township, McHenry county. His parents, Elisha and Susan Dodge, were pioneers of that part of the west, coming from New York state to Illinois. They were of New England stock, Elisha being a native of Vermont, and his wife, who was Susan Smith, a native of New York state.

The subject of this sketch was the eighth living child of their union, and was reared on the farm. His mother died in 1863 and his father subsequently married Mrs. Abigail Harkness. After the farm was sold they established a residence at Harvard, Ill., where Fred entered the public school, and remained in that city until he completed the branches taught there at that time. His father died in February, 1878, and in the following summer he drove by team west to Parkersburg, Iowa, where his older brother, Frank L. Dodge, was engaged in the publication of a weekly newspaper called the Eclipse. There he entered the printing office and learned the printer's trade. In 1880 he purchased an interest in the Eclipse, and subsequently, with his brother, established the Allison Tribune, a weekly newspaper at Allison, the county seat of Butler county, Iowa. The two brothers conducted these papers for a number of years, but finally dissolved partnership, Fred becoming sole proprietor of the Parkersburg paper, which he edited and published until August, 1§87, when he sold it.

On February 28, 1882, Mr. Dodge was united in marriage, at Parkersburg, Iowa, to Miss May F. Davis, a native of Maine. A daughter was born to them in Parkersburg, and in 1887 they moved to Hanford, Cal., where they purchased five acres of land on the edge of what was then the town limits. Here they erected a cottage, and Mr. Dodge entered the office of the Hanford Sentinel, which was established by David and Frank L. Dodge in February, 1886. Sub-sequently he purchased the half interest of David Dodge, and the firm of Dodge Brothers continued to publish the Sentinel until 1897, when Frank L. sold out his interest to J. E. Richmond. The firm name was then changed to Dodge & Richmond, since which time Fred A. Dodge has been the editor and Mr. Richmond the business manager of the paper.

Mr. and Mrs. Dodge are the parents of two children, born in Hanford, George Raymond, born February 3, 1891, and Florence Mildred, born November 16, 1895. , Mr. Dodge has for more than thirty years been in the harness of a newspaper man, most of the time engaged at editorial work. While he has served many terms on boards of education, boards of library work, and on business and commercial committees, he has never sought political office.


That strong financial institution, the First National Bank of Lemoore, the policy of which from the first has been to extend to the business community all accommodations consistent with sound banking and which has been a potent factor in the upbuilding and development of Lemoore and its tributary territory, was organized June 9, 1905, and began business in July following. Its original capital stock was $25,000, all paid up. The first officers and directors were: B. K. Sweetland, president; Stiles McLaughlin, vice-president; F. J. P. Cockran, cashier; E. G. Sellers, C. H. Bailey, John Trimble and E. P. May. In February, 1912, its capital stock was increased to $50,000. The bank has erected a fine two-story building, covering a ground space of seventy-five by one hundred feet, at Fox and D streets. It is a modern brick structure, containing fine banking offices and the best facilities for the keeping of cash and valuable securities. It is the belief of the bank officials and of the general public that this banking establishment is as nearly fireproof and burglar-proof as it is possible to make it.
The First National Bank of Lemoore has from the day of its opening steadily grown in the confidence of the business community of the city and surrounding country, and numbers among its de-positors many of the wealthiest and most important business men and citizens of that part of the county. The following are the names of its present officers and directors: C. H. Bailey, president; E. G. Sellers, vice-president; W. E. Dingley, cashier; G. B. Chinn, Stiles McLaughlin, L. S. Step, and J. K. Trimble.


To be successful in the field of mechanics a man must necessarily possess thorough training in the science which he attempts to represent. The world of today demands skill in every line of labor, and the man who is not prepared to compete with his expert neighbor is beaten ere the fight begins. Apropos of the above subject, Visalia is godmother to a plumbing and heating company of which she is justly proud, and, having helped to maintain its popularity, feels that she has a share in its success and growth. The most difficult points in the work of installing heating and plumbing apparatus, the erection of windmills, tanks and troughs, etc., are accomplished by the Visalia Plumbing and Sheet Metal Company with the greatest skill and ease, as may be attested by the many citizens who have been fortunate enough to secure their services.

Visitors to the showrooms of the Visalia Plumbing and Heating Company feel well repaid for their trip, for there are displayed many models of the most up-to-date appliances for toilets, bathrooms, furnaces, etc., and they are conceded to have the finest and most up-to-date showroom of that character in any town between Fresno and Bakersfield. This business was started about five years ago in the Odd Fellows and Masons building on Church street opposite the court house. Their fine sheet metal work is not the least of their accomplishments, as countless illustrations may testify. The mechanics whom they employ are the best that can be secured, and as they guarantee every detail of their work they have given general satisfaction. The business has grown rapidly and now its annual output amounts to $50,000 worth of business and the plant is indicated as one of the successful enterprises of the growing and prosperous city of Visalia. Against the moderate charges for services, no complaint has ever been received; on the contrary, the people of Visalia and locality are unanimous in their opinion that the terms are low in comparison with the standard of perfection maintained in their work The firm is owned and controlled by Isaac Clark and Frank A. Newman, long established citizens of the community.

Isaac Clark was born in Frankfort, Maine, January 12, 1870, and upon completion of his education learned the stone-cutter's trade, which he conducted nine years in his home town, removing thence to Augusta, where he worked two years at his trade. He then served three years as an apprentice to Malcolm & Dyer, plumbers, after which for five years he filled the position of custodian of the Augusta city hall In 1905 he immigrated to California, and choosing Visalia as his permanent location, accepted a position as sheet metal worker for the Cross Hardware Co. Upon the erection of the factory of the Pacific Sugar Co., Mr. Clark was engaged by said company to do the sheet metal work, accomplishing the work most satisfactorily. In 1907 he joined Frank A. Newman and C. B. Porter in establishing a general plumbing business. Two years later Mr. Porter withdrew from the firm, leaving Mr. Clark and Mr. Newman sole proprietors.

In 1897 Mr. Clark was united in marriage with Miss Mary A. Beck, also a native of Maine. They have two charming children, Marjorie F. and Addison W. Mr. Clark is a valued member of the Knights of Pythias, Calantha Lodge, No. 52, and the Bethlehem Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 135, both of which he joined in Augusta, Maine.

Frank A. Newman was born in Cooper county, Mo., January 31, 1869. His father, Jesse Newman, died before his son reached manhood, and in the fall of 1884 the mother, formerly Elizabeth Hill, brought her little family to California. Frank A. Newman ranched several years and also served as foreman of the Harrell stock and grain ranch. Later he conducted on his own account a three hundred and twenty-acre wheat farm in the Stone Corral district, Tulare county, and he then became an apprentice to the Cross Hardware Co., and upon completion of this service engaged in the plumbing business with Isaac Clark. The partners started their venture in a small way, but their trade grew steadily and they now employ twelve able assistants.

Following is a list of the buildings which this company have equipped with plumbing and heating fixtures: The Exeter high school building, the Lemoore high school building, the new hotel at Lemoore and the new high school building at Delano. They have also recently installed the heating apparatus in the Kingsbury grammar school; the sheet metal and heating work in the Reedley grammar school; all the sheet metal work on the First National Bank building at Porterville; also on the three-story Blue building on Main street, Visalia. They have replaced the old plumbing for new throughout the county jail, the three-story Harrell building, and put in all the new plumbing in the Merriman building and the Tipton and Lindsay grammar school. For years Mr. Clark has made a thorough study of the matter of proper heating for public as well as private buildings and uses the gravity and mechanical systems in order to produce complete circulation, replenishing the air in a room from six to ten times during one hour. He has obtained the most satisfactory results both regarding even temperature and sanitation. Among the residences thus equipped by him may be mentioned those of A. Lewis, H. F. Miller, E. E. Hyde and the M. E. Church of Visalia. The company has also installed plumbing and heating systems in the residences of E. F. Cross, Capt. H. White, Ralph Goldstein, Meyer E. Eiseman, two houses for J. F. Carter, Mrs. Oaks' home and numerous other private residences in Visalia and throughout Tulare county.

Both Mr. Clark and Mr. Newman by their rigidly fair and honest dealings have won the trust and favor of their many patrons. In every movement pertaining to the development of the locality they are always prompt to tender their practical assistance.


Among the prominent men of Tulare and Kings counties mention is made of the efficient supervisor of the third district, W. T. Vaughan, who was born at Visalia, Tulare county, June 21, 1865. In September of the same year he was taken by his parents to San Luis Obispo county, where he attended school and lived until 1877, when the family moved to Pima county, Ariz., and that territory remained his home until 1900. After his arrival in Arizona the young lad begun work on cattle ranches. He had but little opportunity to attend school and until he was nineteen years of age his education was obtained by contact with the primitive conditions to be found on the frontier. He grew up on a cattle range and was connected with the stock interests of that part of the country until his removal back to California in 1900. At the age when most, boys are in school he was superintending a large ranch and becoming an expert in the handling of stock, enduring privations, but developing a strong and sturdy constitution and laying the foundation for his future success. When he was about fourteen he was conducting a meat market in Ramsey's canyon and going to the school at that place. He would sit so he could watch the door of his shop and when a customer would come he would have to leave the school room and attend to his wants and then return to his books. He was also a member of the Territorial militia and was compelled to keep his gun within reach at all times should a call come to defend the settlers against the Indians. After he was eighteen he attended the University of Southern California at Los Angeles for a time and says he got more education during that short time than in all his former years.

His days for book-learning over, he returned to Arizona and as he succeeded he built up a cattle business of his own and carried it on very successfully until 1900, when, having sold his six thousand cattle and closed out his other interests in the territory, he returned to California and, with his father and brother, bought three hundred acres of land one mile north of Hanford, upon which were erected buildings suitable for their needs and began the development of the land. He now has one hundred and fifty-five acres in fruit and the remainder in alfalfa. In 1911 he sold eighty acres at a good profit. He is the owner of eighty acres a mile south of Hanford, which he put into alfalfa and leases to others, also has ten acres west of the city, which is in fruit and which he bought in 1901.

The father of W. T. Vaughan, James Upton Vaughan, was born September 9, 1841, in Mississippi, went to Texas and in 1852 crossed the plains to California. He passed away in Kings county November 7, 1911. His widow makes her home with her children. A brother, Andrew Henry Vaughan, came to Kings county with William T., and they had interests together for several years. On September 25, 1892, Mr. Vaughan was united in marriage with Miss Elenora Sorrells, a native of Phoenix, Ariz., born July 13, 1874, daughter of A. B. and Melvina (Parker) Sorrells, who were natives of Arkansas and California respectively. Mrs. Vaughan received her schooling in Arizona and was there married to Mr. Vaughan. They have four children, Merle E., Pearl E., William J., and Bertha L., all members of their parents' household; the two eldest are attending the Hanford high school.

Mr. Vaughan has invested in residence property in San Diego, Cal., is a stockholder in the First National Bank of Hanford, owns shares in the Lacy Oil company, operating in the Devils Den country, and in the Castle Oil company of the Coalinga field; is a member of the Hanford lodge of Elks, has passed all the chairs in the local lodge of the I. O.O. F., and for one year served as District Deputy Grand Master; he also belongs to the K. of P. and with Mrs. Vaughan belongs to the Daughters of the Rebekahs. Always interested in politics he has taken an active part in local and state affairs. In the fall of 1910 he was elected to the board of supervisors, representing the third district of Kings county, and is serving with fidelity those interests that placed him in office. He has had charge of the road building of his district in every detail and devotes his energies towards the faithful discharge of his duties. He represents Kings county in the matter of the erection of a counties building at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915 at San Francisco. It is safe to say that no man has become so closely allied with the people in all things tending towards public betterment than has W. T. Vaughan.


The president of the Hays Cattle Co., John N. Hays, a prominent -business man of Kings county, Cal., has had a career the history of which thus far is both interesting and instructive, and it should be an encouragement to young men who would succeed in spite of lack of capital and in the face of many obstacles. Mr. Hays was born in Missouri, February 3, 1854, and came to California in September, 1872, when he was in his nineteenth year. The first eighteen months of his life here were spent in Mariposa county, where he was employed by some relatives who had come on before him. Late in 1873 or early in 1874 he came to Lake Tulare (then in Tulare but now in Kings county), where his people took up land on the border of the lake. For two years they farmed on rented land in the Dingley Addition, now the site of Lemoore, Mr. Overstreet, his stepfather, having been in o charge, and there Mr. Hays remained until 1886, when he disposed of his interests at the lake and moved to Cholame valley, Monterey county, where he lived and labored ten years. At the expiration of that time he came back to Lemoore and went into the stock business and in 1894 he bought three hundred and twenty acres of land, a mile and a half west of Guernsey, which he devoted to grazing. He operated independently until 1911, increasing his business from year to year till he took rank with the big cattle men of central California. He then organized and incorporated the Hays Cattle Company, of which he is president; Roy D. Hays, vice-president; and R. W. Forbes, secretary. The company expects to dispose of about six hundred to eight hundred cattle annually, its last year's business having amounted to six hundred, and is renting forty thousand acres of pasture for its stock.

Oil development in the Devil's Den country has interested Mr. Hays, who has investments there, and he owns also an interest in oil lands in the Cholame valley district. He has from time to time had to do with business of other kinds and his interest in the community makes him a citizen of much public spirit. Fraternally, he affiliates with the Circle and with the Woodmen of the World. He married Miss Lillie Mills in 1882 and she passed away in 1891, leaving three daughters and a son. Floy is the wife of R. W. Forbes, of Lemoore. Roy D. is vice-president of the Hays Cattle Company. Pauline married Clarence Esrey of Lemoore. Alice is Mrs. William McAdam and her husband is operating in the oil field. In 1907 Mr. Hays united his life with that of Mrs. Jeanette Bryan, who has borne him children whom they have named Richard Upton, Dorothy and Ann.


The forceful character of the citizenship of J. D. Biddle during the past quarter of a century has given him for all time a place in the annals of the state as well as of Hanford, which has been his permanent home during this time and the scene of his activities to a large extent. A native of Tennessee, born in Bedford county, April 30, 1852, he passed his boyhood, youth and young manhood in the vicinity of his birth and the home of his parents, and at the age of twenty-seven, in 1879, made his first trip to the west. After a stay of two months he returned to the south, but in 1882 retraced his steps and this time remained six months. It was in 1887 that he made his third and last journey to California, his two prior trips of inspection thoroughly satisfying him that here as nowhere else were opportunities awaiting the young man of push and determination. Having disposed of his merchandise and milling business in Shelbyville, Tenn., in 1887 he came that same year to California and located in Hanford, his first work here being as auctioneer of livestock. As an adjunct to this business he bought livestock and sheep, as well as wool, the latter being gathered from a large territory, extending from Mexico to the Oregon line. His shipments of this commodity are large, being made to all parts of this country, as well as to Canada. His first experience in the wool business was in his early days in the west, when he was a representative for the Thomas Dunnigan & Son Co., a well-known wool house of San Francisco. The live stock which Mr. Biddle handles he secures from all parts of the state, and he has had as high as twenty-five thousand sheep in his possession at one time.

In financial circles throughout the San Joaquin valley few names are better known than that of Joseph D. Biddle, and to his splendid judgment and conservatism may be. given much credit for the substantial character of the monetary institutions with which he has had to do. Among the latter may be mentioned the Sacramento Bank, German Savings & Loan Society of San Francisco, Savings oUnion Bank of San Francisco, Union Trust of San Francisco, and he has also made large loans of money through independent capitalists. He also represents several of the largest and best insurance companies of San Francisco, and is largely interested in the oil industry. His first venture in this field was the purchase of some of the best oil lands in the Coalinga district, and following this he organized several oil companies which are now organizations controlling great wealth, these and the banks through which the business is carried on representing a combined capital of over $150,000,000. Mr. Biddle made large expenditures in drilling on his oil fields, but owing to the low prices of oil at the time it was deemed advisable to suspend operations until it demanded a better price. The property is still owned by the various companies, in all of which Mr. Biddle is a director, as follows: Investment Oil Company and the Phoenix Oil Company. Other companies were also organized in the Bakersfield district, but these have since been disposed of. Not only was Mr. Biddle a pioneer and moving spirit in the industries above mentioned, but he has been equally forceful along agricultural and horticultural lines. During his early years here he bought and platted the Bonanza vineyard, embracing a tract of three hundred acres. Later acquisitions were the Silvia ranch of one hundred acres, the Griswold apricot orchard of eighty acres (at that time the largest orchard of the kind in that section, but which has since been sub-divided into small holdings), the Haywood vineyard of eighty acres, the Redwood vineyard and orchard of one hundred and twenty acres, the Savings Bank vineyard and orchard, consisting of eighty acres south of Hanford, which has since been sold, the Happy Home vineyard of twenty acres and the A. P. Dickenson ranch of eighty acres. For five years he also leased and operated the Banner vineyard of three hundred and twenty acres and for a number of years also leased Mrs. M. S. Templeton's vineyard of one hundred and sixty acres northeast of Hanford. In connection with his large fruit interests Mr. Biddle erected a grading plant on the Bonanza ranch, where he was prepared to dry, cure and bleach the fruits from his various ranches, all of which found a ready sale in eastern markets. Besides handling and shipping all of his own fruit, he also bought raisins and peaches all over this section, paying the local packers in the country to pack his raisins and peaches under his own brand and ship them direct to the eastern markets. In order that none of the fruit should be wasted, he bought peaches and sacked them at the depots when the packing house was filled to its capacity.

Mr. Biddle's interests in another direction are apparent in a number of substantial structures in Hanford. One of his first ventures along this line was the rebuilding of the block formerly occupied by the city stables, the site now occupied by the Old Bank. He also owns the building occupied by the Hanford Mercantile Corporation. This organization is capitalized for $100,000- and Mr. Biddle is one of its largest stockholders and secretary, and a director also. He was also one of the prime movers in the organization of the Hotel Artesia, which was built by the corporation of which he was a member and subsequently sold to B. J. Turner. Through an exchange of property Mr. Biddle became the owner of the Axtell block at the corner of Seventh and Irwin streets, the name of which has since been changed to the Sharpless block. He also moved the postoffice from its old site and placed it on Irwin street; and he moved both telegraph offices into the Hotel Artesia, their present locations. He at one time owned what is now the Vendome hotel, and he also bought and moved the first hotel erected in Hanford to the corner of Fifth and Douty streets, remodeling it and ultimately selling it to B. J. Turner.

Reference has elsewhere been made to Mr. Biddle's interest and activities in the stock business. It was no uncommon thing for him to have on hand from ten to twenty thousand hogs on the McJunkin ranch, one and a half miles north of Hartford. It was during his earliest experiences in the business that he attempted to fatten his hogs on grain that had been saved as salvage from a large fire in Stockton. He purchased the damaged grain to the extent of one hundred thousand sacks, or one hundred cars, and shipped it to Hanford. It required all of the vehicles available to haul the grain to the Bonanza vineyard, where it was spread over eight acres of ground to dry in the sun. It was then resacked and stacked in the dry yard, the whole presenting the appearance of hay stacks in a field. He then bought steam engines and large tanks in which to steam the wheat., after which he fed the grain thus treated to the seven or eight thousand hogs which he had on the ranch at the time. The experiment proved a failure, it being demonstrated that charred grain was injurious to hogs, as they sickened and died under the diet. The experience was a costly one, but it did not deter Mr. Biddle from making further investigations as to the most desirable methods of feeding.

Owing to his wide experience and versatile knowledge it is not surprising that Mr. Biddle has been called upon from time to time to act in the capacity of administrator and transact other business of a similar nature. On numerous occasions when a difference of opinion arose as to the proper settlement of legal matters he has been called into consultation with attorneys, not only in Hanford, but also in Fresno, Visalia, Sacramento and even to San Francisco. At one time he was called to Portland, Ore., to settle a law suit involving $30,000, and he was also called to Nevada in the adjustment of a suit with Carmen & Richey involving $1,000,000, and this also was equably adjusted. At the present time Mr. Biddle is interested in the live stock, wool, oil, insurance, real estate and merchandise business, being in close touch with all of the details of each, and he is also actively interested in all of the organizations of his home city which have for their objects the uplifting of the citizens and the general welfare of town and county. He is a valued member of the Chamber of Commerce and he was also a member of the committee appointed to attend the convention held in Los Angeles for the purpose of discussing matters relative to the Panama canal. He has also been an active member of a committee appointed by the supervisors of Kings county for the purpose of preparing a petition for bringing the main highway through Hanford, the county seat. through Visalia to Bakersfield. He has also been appointed a member of the highway commission to meet in Sacramento in January, 1913, when the above matter will come before the commission for discussion and settlement.

In the early days when Hanford did not boast a railroad Mr. Biddle started a donation to get the Santa Fe to run its road through Hanford and the valley. The completion of the road was celebrated in royal style, and in this too Mr. Biddle took the lead. In the display was one wagon to which were attached twenty-four large white horses, followed by three large wagons loaded with one hundred bales of wool, another wagon showing the quality of sheep and hogs, and still another containing a large prune tree which Mr. Biddle dug from his orchard, full of growing prunes. Mr. Biddle had the honor of shipping the first three carloads of wool from Hanford over the road, the cars bearing large banners on which was printed in large letters, "Hanford the first city to patronize the Santa Fe railroad out of the Valley."

On May 1, 1878, Mr. Biddle was united in marriage with Miss Sallie M. Landis, a native of Tennessee. The success that has rewarded Mr. Biddle's efforts is commensurate with his industry and perseverance. It is rare indeed that one is privileged to meet a man of such versatility, resolute character and determined will as Mr. Biddle possesses, and Hanford is proud to claim his citizenship.


In 1908 Robert McAdam, who is now a resident of Pasadena, Cal., bought sixteen hundred acres of land, formerly known as the Paige and Monteagle orchards, five miles west of Tulare. Of this tract he sold all but about nine hundred acres, and this he divided among members of his family, Annie McAdam receiving eighty-five acres, Robert, Jr., and Fred McAdam two hundred and five acres, William J. two hundred and twenty acres, Mrs. Isabelle McAlpine eighty acres, Frank S. McAdam one hundred and eighty acres, and Robert McAdam, Sr., one hundred and sixty acres.

These ranches, all in one body, are irrigated with water developed on them, there being six wells with an aggregate flow of five hundred inches, besides numerous other wells for watering stock. The water developed by the nine large wells, which is used solely for irrigation, is pumped by five motors and three gasoline engines; two of the wells are artesian. The entire combination of ranches is supplied with cement irrigation pipe and galvanized iron surface pipe. There is six miles of the cement pipe and the iron pipe is used instead of ditches. This notable irrigation system will be connected and completed before the end of 1913.

The McAdams have put on the place all the improvements that now add to its utility and attractiveness, including a new $3500 concrete residence on the Frank S. McAdam ranch, a new barn, occupying ground space of 40x45 feet, and a new tank and dairy house combined, with a power separator in the dairy house. On the William J. McAdam place there are two new 56x60 foot barns. Another improvement is eight miles of wire hog-tight fence between the different ranches. The farms of Mrs. McAlpine, Robert McAdam, Jr., and Fred McAdam are rented on a cash basis and that of Robert McAdam, Sr., is operated by a tenant on shares, and the combined annual cash rentals of the above ranches aggregate $11,800, and all has been developed in the last five years.


Chas. B. Boyce, county assessor Carbon county; (Rep.); b. Sept. 21, 1869, Visalia, California; s. of Isaac E. and Caroline K. (Wilkins) Boyce; educ. pub. Schools. And Burnet Institute, Burnet, Texas; engaged in cattle raising in Texas until 1890; taught school, Kimble county, Texas, 1888-0; located in Carbon county, Wyoming, 1891, in cattle and sheep business; clerk and bookkeeper in Baggs, Wyoming, 1896-1906: engaged in ranching and stock raising same periodp; estab. The Snake River Sentinel in Baggs, May 18, 1906; sold newspaper 1910: asst. chief clerk, Wyo. State Senate, 1907; postmaster, Baggs, Wyo., 1907-11; county assessor Carbon county, Wyo., 1911-15; re-elected, 1915-17; mem. Elks; I. O. O. F.; W. O. W.; M. W. of A. Address: Rawlins, Wyoming. [Source: Men of Wyoming, By C. S. Peterson, Publ 1915, Transcribed by Richard Ramos]

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