Gilpin County, Colorado
Genealogy and History

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Corbit Bacon

The subject of this biographical sketch is well known as one of the old "fifty-niners," of Colorado, whose experience, during his journey across the plains in those early days, was filled with many thrilling incidents and hair-breadth escapes at the hands of the Indians, followed by many years of hardship, amid the wild scenes of pioneer life on the borders of the Rocky Mountains. For over twenty years he has been identified with and witnessed the wonderful growth and development of the mining and industrial affairs of Colorado,

He was born in Jefferson Co., N. Y., June 21, 1825. In 1833, he left New York with his parents, who removed to Washtenaw Co., Mich., and a few years later settled at Pontiac, in the same State. While yet a boy, the subject of this sketch joined a party en route for California. The trip across the plains and mountain ranges was attended with hardship and danger; but he with the rest of the party, after quite an adventurous journey, arrived safely at their destination. At the end of six months, however, he grew tired of that country, and returned by way of the isthmus to his home at Pontiac, Mich. Here, upon attaining the age of manhood, he first entered commercial life, and continued in business there, until the fall of 1858, when he turned his steps westward, and after a short rest at Leavenworth. Kan., left that city in November, 1858, for Pike's Peak, in company with James A. Weeks, Wilber F. Parker and Mr. Alverson and son. After traveling through the scattered settlements of Kansas, the party launched out into the then unknown wilderness, having only a pocket compass for a guide, he was chosen leader of the party, and by taking his bearings by the compass to some object ahead, proceeded westward. After they had gone 150 miles, having encountered many streams and gorges difficult of crossing, they came upon a large party of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians, armed with bows and arrows. The Indians were peacefully inclined, and. riding up near the party, dismounted, and sat down in a circle. They then made signs for tobacco, which was given them, which they smoked in turn from one pipe. The party then passed on unmolested, arriving on the banks of Cherrv Creek; about thirty miles above where Denver now stands, they encamped.

The first coaches were started in the following spring, by Russell & Wadell, over the same route they had taken, which is at present marked by the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad. Mr. Bacon, accompanied by Mr. Parker, then left the camp, and went down to the camp of Auraria (new Denver), where he found one small cabin, built by Gen. Larimer and D. C. Collier, on the east side of Cherry Creek, and, on the west side, several cabins and tents. Gold had not been found in paying quantities at that time. After procuring the necessary tools from his own camp, he built a plank house with a shake roof, the first such ever built in Denver; soon after the completion of which, he proceeded to the mountains to prospect for gold.

Upon his arrival where Central City now stands, he found the place for some distance around dotted with tents and wagons; men were taking out large quantities of gold, among the most prominent of whom, was Green Russell, whose rich diggings in Russell Gulch were the most famous in the history of mining in those early days. Mr. Bacon first engaged in mining on Quartz Hill. During 1863-64, the excitement became intense, and speculation ran rife. Gold sold at high prices. He, like others, mined successfully and prosperously until after passing through the surface ore, then came upon pyrites of iron, which compelled them to wait the establishment of smelting works. After the lapse of many years, the establishment of smelting works and the successful treatment of the ores have made the mines of Gilpin Co. and the surrounding districts, among the most valuable and lasting gold and silver producing sections of the world.

Mr. Bacon has made Gilpin Co. his home since the first discovery of gold, and has experienced the varied difficulties which have attended the opening of mines and the treating of ores, until finally permanent success has been established. For the past three years, he has been engaged in mining on the Saratoga mine, situated between Russell and Willis Gulches, of which he is part owner. This mine has produced large quantities of gold of the finest quality, running as high as 950 fine.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Thomas J. Baker

This gentleman, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, was born in Shelby Co., Ohio, in November, 1836. He spent his early life on a farm, and in attending district school.

In 1860, he came to Colorado, and located in Russell Gulch, Gilpin Co., where he has since resided, engaged in mining, he owns the Trail mine, in Russell District, and is also interested in the Topeka and Junction Lodes in the same district.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

John B. Ballard

J. B. Ballard was born in Vassalboro, Kennebec Co., Me., the 20th of August, 1831, and passed his younger days in his native town, taking advantage of the excellent schools they have in that part of New England. Having served an apprenticeship at the carpenter and mill-wright trades, he left Maine in 1854, and went to Boston, where he remained until 1862, following his trades. He entered the army soon after, belonging to the Construction Corps, being located most of the time on Moss Island, S. C, and was there during the exciting days previous to the close of the rebellion. He returned to Maine after the close of the war, but remained only a short time, not wishing to settle down in staid old Maine.

He left Maine, May 18, 1866, for Colorado, and arrived here on the 5th of June following. Since arriving here, he has been engaged in business under the firm name of Mosely A. Ballard, as contractors and millwrights, and has also been interested in mining, being one of the owners of the Gunnell mine. His mining enterprises and business have thus far been very successful.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

E. K. Baxter

The above-named gentleman is one of Colorado's pioneer miners and worthy citizens. He was born in Francestown, N. H., April 20, 1805, and, at the age of manhood, began business in the city of Boston, Mass., continuing the same until 1849, then emigrated overland to California, where he devoted his attention to mining until 1852. He was among the first who successfully operated gold mining in California, but, after a few years' experience in the mines of California, he returned to New Hampshire and remained until the gold excitement of 1860 in Colorado, whither he emigrated, and has since resided at Central City, engaged in mining.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Joseph S. Beaman

Mr. Beaman was born in Baden, Germany. Oct. 23, 1834. He spent his early life in school and in learning the brewing trade. In 1851, he came with his parents to America, and spent a few months in New Orleans, then removed to Louisville, Ky., where he served an apprenticeship to the carpenter trade. He then decided to further his education, and, with that view, went to Southern Ohio, where he attended school two years, and afterward followed his trade in Cincinnati.

In 1859, when the news of the discovery of gold at Pike's Peak was heralded throughout the East, he decided to try his fortune in the new "El Dorado," and crossed the plains to Colorado, and located in Central City, and followed mining three years, he then engaged at his trade, which he continued until 1875, when he went into the bottling business, and has since been engaged in bottling soda water and liquors , through close attention to business he has built up a good trade.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

William Bennallack

Mr. Bennallack was born in Devonshire, England, March 25, 1841. He spent his early life in the copper mines in the vicinity of his native town. At the age of fourteen, he came to America, and located near Hancock, Mich., where he engaged in copper mining ten years.

In 1865, he removed to Colorado, and engaged in mining in Clear Creek Co., two years, and subsequently eight years at Central City. In 1875, he engaged in the grocery and produce business on the corner of Lawrence and Gregory streets, where he has since continued to carry on a successful business.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

J. M. Beverley

This gentleman, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, was born in Culpeper Co., Va., April 9, 1843. His parents removed to Illinois, and, while he was an infant, settled on a farm near Paris. He attended the district school until his fourteenth year, then attended the Marshall Seminary one year, after which he engaged in school teaching. In March, 1859, allured by the reports of the discovery of gold at Pike's Peak, he, in company with his father, J. R. Beverley, started across the plains with an ox team, and, after a three-month’s journey, reached Clear Creek at the point where Golden now stands. There they left the team, and, with what provisions they could carry, started for the Gregory Diggings, as the Gregory mine was then known, that being the only lode discovered at that time, arriving there after a two-days tramp. Ho located at the place since named Nevadaville, and built the first cabin in the district. At that time, the whole of what is now Colorado was a part of the Territory of Kansas, and no law existed or was recognized, except such as the miners made for their own government and protection, he engaged in gulch mining in Nevada gulch during the summer, and the following fall was elected Recorder, Sheriff and Justice of the Peace, the three offices being at that time held by one person.

At the first appearance of snow, the miners pretty much all left the district for the valley, or for their homes in the East, it being the general impression that the miners could not live in the mountains during the winter, owing to the cold and snow; but he, with twenty-five or thirty others, concluded to try it, and found the weather for the most part of the winter, mild and pleasant. During the winter, he discovered what was named, and is still known, as Beverley's Discovery, on the Burroughs Lode, which he worked with good success until 1864, when it was sold. In 1862, he built a quartz mill in Nevada Gulch, known as the Beverley Mill, which be ran five years, then disposed of it, and built another mill, which has since been disposed of.

In 1868, he was married, in Chicago, ILL., whither he removed, and engaged in the broker's business, where he has since resided. During the great fire of 1871, all his accumulations were swept away, after which he began the study of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1877, and is now engaged successfully in the practice of law in Chicago. In August, 1879, he visited Colorado, and, his former desire for mining operations being kindled anew, he purchased and located a number of mines at Leadville and in Nevada District, Gilpin Co., which he is working with good success.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

William H. Beverley, M. D.

Dr. Beverley is a son of J. B. Beverley, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, he was born in Thornville, Perry Co., Ohio, June 28, 1837. At an early age, he removed with his parents to Edgar Co., Ill., thence in 1844, to Clarke Co., same State. He spent his early life on a farm, and in attending District School, and, at the age of sixteen, pursued a course of study at the “Marshall College," at Marshall, Ill., and began the study of medicine with Dr. Card, of Martinsville, Ill.., with whom he remained one year, and subsequently, two years with Drs. F. R. & H. R. Payne, of Marshall. He then entered the Rush Medical College, at Chicago, from which institution he graduated and received the degree of M. D. in the spring of 1859. He began practice in the town of Kansas, Ill.

In the spring of 1860, he followed the tide of emigration to what was then known as the "Pike's Peak country," and located in Nevadaville, and engaged in the practice of his profession. The following fall he returned to Illinois, where he remained until the fall of 1863, when he again came to Colorado, and has since resided in Nevadaville, engaged in the practice of medicine, and has devoted considerable attention to mining. He was married to Miss Katie A. Fristoe, Oct. 28, 1861.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Andrew Bitzenhofer

Andrew Bitzenhofer, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, was born in Baden, Germany, May 7, 1835. He spent his early life in attending school, and, at the age of fourteen, served an apprenticeship at the baker trade, which he continued to follow seven years.

In 1850, he came to America, and worked at his trade one year in New York City, and during the time attended night school. He then removed to Buffalo, Scott Co., Iowa, and worked in a warehouse, on the Illinois side of the river, one year. He subsequently carried on the bakery business at Quincy, Ill., and Gallatin, Mo.

In the spring of 1860, he came to Colorado, and located in Central City, and engaged in the grocery and bakery business. In 1874, during the big fire, he was burned out, but re-established and continued in that business one year. Since 1876, he has been engaged in saloon-keeping and mining, and owns a half-interest in the Grant and Surprise mines, in the Vermillion District, six miles north of Central City.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Judge S. H. Bradley

Judge Bradley, a native of Pennsylvania, |and one of the early pioneers of Colorado, who has resided west of the Mississippi River the past thirty-six years, having emigrated to Iowa in 1844, and who has endured the hardships and deprivations of frontier life, witnessing the wonderful change and development of a barren waste into rich and prosperous States, was born June 14, 1816. His early life until his fifteenth year was spent in his father's flouring-mill, after which he clerked in various stores eight years. In 1839, he embarked in the mercantile business, at which he continued the succeeding five years.

In 1844, he removed to Fairfield, Jefferson Co., Iowa, and engaged in farming two years, after which he was elected to the office of Clerk of Jefferson Co. two terms, to that of Treasurer and Recorder one term, and of County Judge one term, which offices he faithfully discharged.

In the spring of 1860, he crossed the plains to Colorado, arriving in Gilpin Co., then Jefferson Territory, June 27, and located in Black Hawk, where he has since resided. For the six succeeding years, he was engaged in quartz milling and mining. In 1866, he was elected Justice of the Peace, which office he has since continued to hold, with the exception of two years, from 1877 to 1879, and, during the time, has filled the office of Police Justice of Black Hawk two years, of City Clerk two years, and that of Judge of the Probate Court of Gilpin Co. two terms, from 1867 to 1869, and from 1871 to 1873. Since his residence in Gilpin Co., he has been more or less identified with its mining interests, and is at present engaged in developing the Kansas and Bedford County Lodes, in Enterprise District.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Charles H. Briggs

C. H. Briggs was born in Dayton, Ohio, May 24, 1837, where he passed his younger days. He removed with his parents from Dayton to Richmond, lnd., and after residing there but a short time, moved with his parents to La Fayette, and again making but a short stay in La Fayette, came with his father's family to South Bend, lnd., where he remained until 1860, receiving his education in the public schools of that city, lie left South Bend. March 28, 1860, during the exciting days of Colorado's new discoveries, and came direct to Black Hawk, arriving there .May 9, 1860. He drove a team across the plains, making the journey without any accidents or unusual incidents to mar its pleasure.

He has since been engaged in mining operations in connection with his brothers, working the Briggs mine, well known as one of the best mines in Gilpin County. He and his brothers, although comparatively young men, can justly be called pioneers of Black Hawk. The Briggs has been recently sold to Walcott, Field & Co., of Denver, for a large sum of money.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

George W. Briggs

G. W. Briggs, the youngest of the three brothers who compose the mining firm of Briggs Bros., was born in South Bend, lnd., Sept. 3, 1843, and passed his boyhood days in his native city, receiving his education in the public schools of South Bend. On the 23th day of May, 1863, not being at that time quite twenty years of age, he left South Bend, and started for Colorado to try his fortune with his elder brothers. He came direct to Black Hawk, where he has resided ever since, and engaged in legitimate mining in connection with his brothers, working one of the most profitable mines in Colorado. Although the youngest of the three brothers, he is the resident partner, and has full charge of their extensive works. On Sept. 1, the Briggs mine was purchased by Walcott, Field & Co., and is now being worked successfully by that company.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

J. Smith Briggs

J. S. Briggs was born in the State of New York April 4, 1830, his father, Eliakim Briggs, being one of the old settlers of that State. He removed with his parents from New York to Dayton, Ohio, where he lived a few years. From Dayton he came to La Fayette, lnd., stopping but a short time, and going from there to South Bend, lnd., where he lived until he was nineteen years old.

In 1849, during the gold excitement in California, he started for that place, going through overland, experiencing the same rough life that most men did who went through to the gold fields of California in that way. While there, he engaged in mining with satisfactory results, and returned home in 1853. After remaining at home three years, he again returned to California, engaging in the same business, and remaining there three years.

Returning home in the winter of 1859, he stopped but a short time, but again started West in April, 1860, this time for the new discoveries of Colorado. He came through by stages, and settled in Black Hawk, or where Black Hawk is today. After arriving at Black Hawk, he purchased, in company with his brother Charles and others, from Gregory and Reese, 250 feet on the Gregory Lode, and from that time until the present they have been engaged in mining operations under the firm name of J. S. & C. H. Briggs, working the property generally known as the Briggs mine, which has been recently transferred to Walcott, Field & Co., of Denver.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Mrs. Clara Brown

As space was allowed in the Denver volume of Colorado's history for the biographical sketch of one distinguished lady — .Miss Alida C. Avery. M. D., it seems but fair that this volume should give spare to another. Clara Brown, better known as Aunt Clara, the first colored woman that ever crossed the plains for Pike's Peak, deserves at least a passing notice.

Aunt Clara was horn Jan. 1, 1800, near Fredericksburg, Va., a slave of one Ambrose Smith, who removed with his family and slaves to Russellville, Logan Co., Ky., in 1809. Aunt Clara was married in her eighteenth year, and was the mother of four children—three girls and one boy, viz., Margaret, Eliza, Palina and Kichard.

At the death of her master, Ambrose Smith, in 1835, she, with her husband and children, were sold to different purchasers, and they forever parted. Aunt Clara was purchased by George Brown, of Russellville, who died in 1856. She was again sold and purchased by the heirs of Mr. Brown, and emancipated.

The laws of Kentucky then requiring that all emancipated slaves should leave the State within one year, Aunt Clara, then in her fifty-seventh year, went to St. Louis. Mo., and thence to Leavenworth, Kan., spending the year 1858, in Leavenworth. Early in 1859, she joined the gold-hunting army for Auraria, Cherry Creek, now Denver, she agreeing to cook for a mess of twenty-five men, out of a party of sixty, the conditions being that they transport her stoves, wash-tubs, wash-board and clothes-box, for her services as cook during the trip. She rode with her things in one of the ox-wagons, there being thirty in the train, drawn by six yoke of oxen each, and, after eight weeks, landed in Auraria, now West Denver. After a few weeks' rest, she again packed up her earthly goods and removed to Gregory Point, thence to Mountain City, now Central City.

She soon founded the first laundry ever started in Gilpin Co. The prices being paid her were for blue and red flannel shirts, 50 cents, and other clothes in proportion. In a few years she had accumulated property valued at about $10,000. At the close of the war, she went to her old Kentucky home, and hunted up all her relatives that could be found, thirty-four in number, and brought them to Leavenworth by steamboat, and then purchased a train, crossed the plains, and settled her relatives in Denver, Central City and Georgetown. Feeling the approach of old age, she has recently removed from Central City to Denver, and built herself a little cottage home near the corner of Twenty-third and Arapahoe streets. She is now doing all she can in dispensing charity to all the needy. She is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and has been for the last fifty years. Many interesting incidents might be added of her long and useful life, would space allow.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Samuel R. Brown

This gentleman, better known as one of the genial proprietors of the Teller House from January, 1879, to July 1, 1880, was born in Lowell, Mass., Nov. 27, 1843. His early life was spent on a farm and in attending school. In the spring of 1861, on the breaking-out of the rebellion, he enlisted in Co. F, 1st N. H. V. I., for three months' service, and, in 1862, re-enlisted in Co. D, 12th Vt. V. I., for nine months' service, and was with his regiment through all of its engagements until honorably mustered out of the service. He then returned home and engaged in agricultural pursuits.

In 1870, he came to Colorado, and followed mining in Lake Gulch in Gilpin Co. one year, after which he engaged in house-painting in Central City. In the fall of 1872, he served three months as night clerk in the Teller House, and then accepted the position of steward, in which capacity he continued until January, 1879. Then, in connection with Oscar Venettisch, he succeeded W. H. Bush in the Teller House.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

William M. Brown

W. M. Brown was born in Winchester, Scott Co., Ill., May 17, 1848. He removed with his parents to Virden, Ill., in his eighth year. He attended school and worked on a farm until his seventeenth year, then learned telegraphy in a railroad telegraph office, after which he took charge of an office at Pontiac, Ill. He has since had charge of offices at various places, including Chenoa, Virden and Chicago, in Illinois; Milwaukee, La Crosse, Madison, and St. Paul, in Wisconsin.

In 1877, he removed to Denver, and engaged in the wholesale commission business on Holladay street. On March 1, 1878, he closed up his business in Denver, and came to Central City, and took charge of the Western Union Telegraph office. The following fall he purchased the interest of Beck, in the drug store of Beck & McMoran, and was engaged there about five months. He then sold out, and has, since January, 1879, had charge of the Western Union office, in connection with which he runs a cigar stand.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Hon. James Burrell

The subject of this sketch was one of the early pioneers of the country, coming to Colorado in 1860. He was born in Bucksport, State of Maine, March 29, 1815, and lived at his father's homestead on a farm there until fourteen years of age, when, upon the death of his mother, he was apprenticed to a house and ship joiner in Bangor, in the same State. His education was only such as good common schools of his time afforded, but he so improved the privileges of those schools that he became a teacher therein himself during two winters after his term of apprenticeship had expired. He was actively connected with, and principal manager of a commercial and building association, doing business between Bangor and Appalachicola, Florida, from 1837 to 1841, when Florida was a Territory, and the Seminoles were being driven from its everglades. Afterward he settled in Boston, Mass., doing business in Boston until the year 1838, when, with his family, be removed to Grinnell, Iowa, and from there to Colorado in 1860. He assisted in putting up and operating for Messrs. Hawk & Nuckols in 1860, the quartz mill in Chase's Gulch, Gilpin County, afterward known as the Casey mill. During the winter of 1860 and 1861, he assisted the Griffith brothers, George F. and David T., in completing the organization of the Griffith Mining District, commenced but a few months before, in Clear Creek County, and was elected its first President, and at the same time Judge of the Miners' Court, to fill vacancy. The erection of the first quartz mill there, "built in Lower Georgetown, when the boys had to sit up nights to keep the beaver from undermining the dam," was superintended by him.

In May, 1862, he was appointed First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster of the Second Colorado Volunteer Infantry, then being raised for the war, in which he honorably and faithfully participated, filling also by appointment important positions in other departments of the service in addition to the duties of his own until its close. He returned, in 1865, to Colorado with the Government expedition under charge of Lieut. Fitch, U. S. A., with a corps of engineers, that laid out the stage road from Fort Riley, Kan., to Denver, known as the Butterfield route, via Smoky Hill.

Since his return from the war, he has been honored with various civil positions in Gilpin and Clear Creek Counties, and is, at the present time, a United States Commissioner of the Circuit Court for the District of Colorado in the First Judicial District, residing and doing business in Central City, though making his home with his daughter, on a farm in Jefferson County.

When in 1877, a re-union of the soldiers of his old regiment was held in Denver, he was chosen and is still acting as historian for the Second Colorado Volunteer Infantry up to the time of its consolidation with the Third Infantry, and their formation into the Second Colorado Cavalry.

In regard to his parentage, his father participated in the war of 1812, and his grandfathers, both on his father's and mother's side, in the war of the Revolution, and he has in his possession some of the old Continental money, with which they were paid off for their services.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Hugh A. Campbell

One of the pioneers who has resided in Central City from its earliest existence, a small camp of tents and cabins, to the present time, and who was instrumental in no small degree in building up the city, is H. A. Campbell, he was born in Adams Co., Penn., Aug. 7, 1826. At an early age, he removed with his parents to Darke Co., Ohio, where he spent his early life on a farm and in attending district school, he was one of a party of adventurers who, in 1850, crossed the plains and wended their way through the wild, mountainous regions into California, where he engaged in mining in the placer mines of Nevada Co. eight years. He then returned to Ohio by way of the Isthmus and New York route, and spent one year traveling through the States. In the spring of 1859 the news of the discovery of gold at Pike's Peak caused him to again turn his steps westward, and he started for the Rocky Mountains, arriving in Auraria (now Denver) June 1 of that year, where he remained a short time. He then came to where Central City now stands, and, in connection with Jesse Trotter, opened a miners' supply store in a brush shanty, where Miller's Block now stands, and during the summer, erected a log building on the opposite side of the street (now known as Lawrence street), into which they removed their goods. His partner took charge of the store, and he engaged in mining in Russell Gulch. During that summer, he and his partner were the first to put up a sign, changing the name of the city from Mountain City to Central City. This sign they placed over their store, and, by having their letters directed to Central City instead of Mountain City, and by drawing and signing all legal papers in that manner, the name soon began to be recognized and adopted by others, and thus gradually the name as Central City became permanently established, although it was not recognized by the Post Office Department until several years later. In the fall of 1859 Mr. Campbell removed to Denver to spend the winter, believing that heavy snows would prevail in the mountains and render it unsafe to remain during the winter. Meantime, he built the Atchison House at Denver, and in the spring of 1860, returned to Central City. Daring the summer months of the succeeding three or four years, he was engaged in building and mining, but spent the winter months in Denver, and in the States, since which time he has resided permanently in Central City. He is the discoverer of the Cincinnati Lode on Casto Hill, in Gilpin County, and is the owner of 10 acres of placer mines on the southern slope of Quartz Hill; also 30 acres on Pine Creek, the Globe. Progressive and Centennial Lodes, on Guunell's Hill; the Greenback Lode, on Casto Hill, the Inter-Ocean and Gettysburg, on Quartz Mill, and other mining interests; also real estate in Central City. He was married to Miss Mattie W. Whitsitt, of Centreville, Ohio.

[History or Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Ezra T. Carr

This energetic miner was born in West Dresden, Yates Co., N. Y., Dec. 23, 1838. He spent his early life in attending school, and. at the age of seventeen, clerked one year in his father's store, in his native town. In his eighteenth year, he went to Minneapolis, Minn., near which place he engaged in agricultural pursuits the following spring. In the spring of 1868, he removed to Des Moines Co., Iowa, where he continued the same pursuit. In 1869, he came to Colorado and located in Russell Gulch, where he has since resided, engaged in mining. He owns the Springdale Lode, in Russell District, and is otherwise extensively engaged in mining. He was married, Oct. 7, 1862, to Miss Ludie Tucker.

[History or Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Henry Chatillon

Mr. Chatillon, one of the pioneers of Colorado, who was early identified with its mining and milling interests, was born in Carondelet (now South St. Louis) Sept. 24, 1832. He spent his early life in steamboating on the Mississippi River in the capacity of pilot and clerk. In 1856 he removed to Belle Plaine, Scott Co., Minn., and engaged in the mercantile business. In the spring of 1860, he closed up his business and followed the tide of emigration to Pike's Peak, to try his fortunes in the new El Dorado of the West, arriving in Russell Gulch, Gilpin Co., Aug. 28, and engaged in prospecting. The following fall, he bought a quartz-mill, which was afterward known as the Chatillon Mill, and continued to run it until the explosion of the boiler, in 1861. He then resumed prospecting, and discovered the noted Harkaway Lode, in Russell Gulch, which he continued to work until 1863. He then went to Montana, and found that, three weeks previous to his arrival, he had been elected Recorder of the Nevada District, having been vouched for by Richard Sapp and Dr. A L. Russell, he immediately took charge of the office, which he honorably filled one term, and meanwhile engaged in the mercantile business with Dr. A L. Russell. In May 1864, he returned to Colorado, and in connection with F. J. Marshall, engaged in buying and selling mines and prospecting. He spent the winter of 1864-65 in St. Louis, and on returning to Colorado in the spring, became engaged in mining operations with John Fitz Porter and Lewis E. Johnson, on the Brice, "Harkaway and other lodes, continuing until 1870 he then returned to his home in St. Louis, where he remained six years, and, during that time, served two years in the City Civil Engineers' Department. In 1876, he again came to Colorado for the purpose of developing and working his mining claims, only to find that they had been "jumped" under the laws of Congress called the "Chaffee laws," that were passed during his absence. He then began prospecting anew, and has since discovered the Irene, Paul, Harry and various other lodes on Negro Hill, among which he again named one Harkaway, which he is at present engaged in developing, he was married, Sept. 23, 1861, to Miss Adaline Paulette.

[History or Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Hon. David G. Collier

Among those who took an active part in originating the measures, and fostering the enterprises and institutions established during the pioneer days of Colorado, the nuclei from which has subsequently grown and developed the great and prosperous State of Colorado, few are more familiarly known or have devoted more time and labor to the advancement of these various enterprises than the subject of this sketch. Judge Collier is the present Judge of the County Court of Gilpin Co., which position he has honorably filled for a number of years, and is regarded as one of Gilpin Co s most able jurists. For many years past, he has enjoyed a prominent position in the legal profession, which he had attained through his industry and diligence in the study of the principles of law. He is a native of New York, and was born in the township of Mina, county of Chautauqua, in that State. Oct. 13, 1882. He is descended from Scotch ancestry, on his father's side, and on his mother's side from the old Plymouth stock of 1620. In 1852 leaving the old homestead, he went to Ohio for educational purposes, and entered upon a regular classical course of study at Oberlin College. He supported himself during the entire course of five years, and graduated in August, 1857. He then turned his steps westward, after graduating, and, as he had spent several months at Leavenworth, Kan., the year previous, concluded to return to that State, and, proceeding thither, he located at Wyandotte, where he began the study of law, remaining until October, 1858. He then started for Colorado; leaving Kansas City Oct. 7, in company with four others, traveled across the plains, behind an ox team, by the Arkansas River Route, and after a slow and tedious journey of two mouths, arrived on the site of Denver, Dec. 5, of that year, he spent his first winter there, and in the early part of that winter (1859) hung out his sign as a lawyer, the first such office in Colorado, about where the south corner of Larimer and Fifteenth streets now is. He remained there until July, 1862. Meanwhile, he built several houses, having built the first house on the east side of Cherry Creek, and became the owner of considerable property there at that time. His summers were spent in mining, and on exploring expeditions through Gilpin and Clear Creek Cos., and far down the White River, along the whole length of the Uncompahgre; thence, along the head-waters of the Arkansas and Del Norte Rivers; thence, through the San Juan region, returning home across the headwaters of the Arkansas, in the vicinity of where Leadville now stands. In 1862 he removed to Central City, where he opened an office and began the practice of law. In July of that year, Mr. Alfred Thompson, the editor and proprietor of the Register, a four-paged tri-weekly newspaper, which he had established, issuing the first number July 28, obtained Mr. D. C. Collier's assistance as an editorial writer upon the paper, which duties Mr. Collier entered upon a few days after the first issue. His acquaintance with local and national politics rendered his services almost a necessity during the exciting political campaign which followed, at the end of which his name was placed permanently in the headlines of the editorial columns, he continued in that capacity until April, 1863, when he, in company with Hugh Glenn and George A. Wells, bought out Mr. Thompson, and continued the journal under the firm name of Collier, Glenn & Co., making various changes and improvements until October, 1865. Frank Hall then entered the business, changing the firm to Collier & Hall, which firm existed until June, 1873, when failing health, from excessive mental labor, compelled Mr. Collier to retire from the business, sidling his interest to W. W. Whipple. After recovering his health, he again entered upon the active practice of law, and has continued the same up to the present time. Judge Collier became identified with the early educational interests of the county, and was elected the first Superintendent of Public Schools. Oct. 11, 1862. During the same month, he divided the county into districts, and published a notice of the same. Shortly after, a meeting was called in the several districts for organization, etc. At the, first school meeting in Central, only three were present, viz.: D. C. Collier. Hiram A. Johnson and A. Jacobs, who voted a tax of $800 for school purposes, and immediately established a school.

[History or Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Capt. William Z. Cozens

The name of William Z Cozens is familiar to all old miners and early settlers of Colorado. His career, from his first encampment in the "Gregory Diggings," in 1859, was conspicuous in the history of the industrial and municipal affairs of the district. First, serving as an officer, under Jack Keeler, for many years subsequently he held an official position in the administration of the laws of the settlement, when the protection of the settlement and the ends of justice were only maintained through difficulties and danger. He was born in L'Orignal. Canada. July 4, 1830. His parents were originally from New York and Vermont, who, after residing a few years in Canada, returned to the United States, and settled in Russell, St. Lawrence Co., N Y., where the subject of this sketch remained until eighteen years of age, enjoying such educational advantages as were then afforded by the public schools. He then preferred to follow mechanical pursuits, rather than the profession of his father, who was a lawyer, and entered an apprenticeship to the carpenter's trade, which business he subsequently followed in New York until 1856. Thence, leaving that State, he went to Chicago, and for the succeeding three years followed his trade in that city and in Joliet and St. Louis, respectively, until the breaking-out of the Western gold fever. He left St. Louis, March 22, 1859, and, after a tedious and harassing journey of two months in crossing the plains behind an ox team, he arrived in "Auraria," now Denver, and after a short rest there, he proceeded to the mountains, camping at "Gregory Point," or Mountain City, as it was called later. Here he engaged in mining and prospecting, like the rest, and, one year later, entered the employ of Jack Keeler, who was engaged in a general merchandise business, continuing there until Jack Keeler was elected Sheriff of the Arapahoe County District, in Gilpin County, in the spring of 1860. He then received the appointment of Deputy Sheriff, but at the end of six months, was elected Sheriff of Gregory Mining District. Upon the organization of the Territory of Colorado, in 1861, he entered the convention as a candidate for nomination to the shrievalty of Gilpin County, but the opposing candidate, Jesse L Prichard, was nominated and elected, who immediately appointed him his Deputy, which position he held until the fall of 1862when he became Sheriff for the remainder of Mr. Prichard's term, who had been commissioned Major of the 3d Colo. V. I. which had been organized during the winter. In September, 1863, he was elected Sheriff, and filled that position creditably for his term of two years, during which time he also served as Deputy U. S. Marshal. In the fall of 1864, the Indians became troublesome and cut off communication between the States and Denver, murdering and driving off the settlers down the Platte Valley. In the absence of regular troops, a regiment of mounted infantry, ninety-days men, was raised. Mr. Cozens took an active part in raising the two companies from Gilpin County, and upon the completion of the regiment, Jan. 17, 1865, he was commissioned by Gov. Evans, Captain of company C under the command of Col. Samuel L. Browne. They spent the winter on the plains, stationed at Lydian Springs, opened communication with the States, and served as escort for the U. S. Mail and emigrants, west to Valley Station, and east to Buffalo Station. At the cessation of hostilities in the spring, he returned to Gilpin County, and upon the expiration of his second term of office as Sheriff, went East, and after one year's absence, returned to Colorado. He was then elected City Marshal, for two years, of Central City: after which he removed to Middle Park, now Grand County, where he purchased a ranche of 320 acres; since which time he has been chiefly engaged in the stock business. His ranche is located on Fraser River, Grand Co., Middle Park, the whole of which is fine grass land, admirably adapted to the stock business. In the fall of 1878, he was elected Commissioner of Grand County, which position he now holds, he has also filled the position of Postmaster at Fraser since September, 1877. He was married in Denver, by Bishop Machaebeuf, Jan. 1, 1861, to Miss Mary York, daughter of John and Mary York, of Buffalo, N. Y.

[History or Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Col. John Shiel Dormer

Editor of the Daily Register Call, of Central City, was born in Kingston, Ontario; in 1844. His father, an Irish physician of note, his mother, a native of Devonshire, England. At an early age, he entered a printing office, afterward made a collegiate course at Regiopolis College, Kingston, where he matriculated in 1860, then entering the law office of Hon. Ed S. Bragg, in Fond du Lac, Wis., remaining one year. Returned to Canada, and entered the civil service of the Canadian Government, as a deputy civil engineer, on the confines of the Hudson Bay. In 1864, he returned to the United States, and again took up his first love, printing. Worked on several papers South, in Mississippi, Louisiana. Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri; came to Colorado in 1876, and took the position of editor of the Pueblo Republican. In 1876, he took an important part in the Hayes campaign, on the stump. In the fall of 1878, came to Central City and became editor of the Evening Call, and afterward of the Register Call. Was appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue in February, 1879, and elected Superintendent of Schools in the same year He is an active man in the community, a fluent writer and an effective stump speaker.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Henry Dennis

Henry Dennis, senior member of the firm of Dennis Bros., who carry on a fine market on Main street, in the Dostal Block, was born in Cornwall. England, Oct. 10, 1846, receiving his education there, and also learning his trade there, which was that of a miner. In 1866, he emigrated to the United States, and settled in Keweenaw Co.. Mich., where he remained about two and a half years. He came to Colorado in 1869, and went to mining in Nevadaville. He returned to England in 1875 on a visit, staying about eight months, when he went back to Michigan, and resided two and a half years, and then again came to Colorado, and has since carried on the market business in Mountain City and Central City, where he enjoys the respect of all who have had business or social relations with him.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

William Edmunson, M. D.

Mr. Edmunson is one of Central City's tried and successful practitioners in medicine and surgery, and one of her esteemed and best citizens. He was born in Burlington, Iowa, May 4, 1841. At an early age, he removed with his father to Oskaloosa, Iowa, where he attended private schools, and completed an academic education in his twentieth year. Having the desire for a professional life, he began the study of medicine, Dr. D. A. Huffman being his preceptor. In his twenty-second year, he entered the medical department of the State University, at Keokuk. Iowa, from which institution he graduated and received the degree of M. D. in February, 1865. He then served as Assistant Surgeon in the Post Hospital at Keokuk, until the following fall, after which he attended a term of lectures at the Bellevue Hospital College, in New York City. He then returned to Iowa, and began practice in Dahlonega. In the fall of 1868, owing to failing health, he came to Colorado, and located in Central City, where he has since been actively engaged in the practice of his profession. In the fall of 1879, he was elected President of the State Board of Health, of which he has been a member since its organization, in 1877. Dr. Edmunson possesses those characteristics of industry, perseverance and honesty of purpose which lead to success, and has used well the powers given him and enjoys the respect and confidence of the entire community.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

William C. Fullerton

The subject of this sketch is one of the rising young lawyers of Gilpin Co., having, during his short residence here, taken a leading position at the bar, where, among his brothers, are numbered some of the most eminent men of Colorado. A son of Capt. Sam Fullerton, an old sea captain, of Maine, he was born at Readfield, twelve miles from Hallowell, in Kennebec Co., March 6, 1843. His mother, whose maiden name was Catharine McClintock, died when he was six years old, when he went to live with his aunt, Mary H. Reed, on Swan Island, in the Kennebec River, where he stayed about four years. He took two sea voyages with his father, and, after he returned, he spent one year at the Litchfield Institute. In 1854, he removed to Minnesota with his father, locating on a farm in Washington Co. He spent the summer on the farm, and attended school in St. Paul, in the winter, for a number of years. In 1860, he went into a grocery store as clerk, at St. Anthony's Falls, for his uncle, where he remained until 1861. The beginning of the war found young Fullerton working industriously at his calling, and then but eighteen years of age. Like so many young men at the critical period of our country's history, he enlisted, serving in Co. E, 1st Minn. V. I., until February, 1862, when he was sent on detached service to the Western steamboat flotilla, serving on mortar-boat No. 38, at Island No. 10, Ft. Pillow and Memphis, and at Vicksburg the first summer. In December, 1862, he was transferred to gunboat Louisville, and was on the Yazoo River at the time of Sherman's defeat there; he was also at Ft. Hindman, on the Arkansas River, where he was wounded, and was sent home from the navy on account of disability April 8, 1863, and received his discharge from the 1st Minn. V. I., Nov. 16, 1863. He again enlisted Feb. 26, 1864; in Hutch's Independent Battalion, serving on the frontier in Dakota and Minnesota until June 5, 1866.

After leaving the army, he entered the Hambline University, at Red Wing, Minn., where he remained until 1868. In September, 1868, he was married to Alice F. Brooks. He studied law with Mitchell & Yale, of Winona, Minn., and was admitted to the bar in 1871, and then practiced his profession in Monticello, Wright Co., Minn., until 1874. In 1875, he came to Colorado, locating in Central City.

In 1875 and 1876, he taught school in Nevadaville, but since that time has been following his profession, and is building up a lucrative practice, and by his diligence, energy and persistent application to the interests of his clients, has gained for himself the reputation of a safe and careful counselor and an able lawyer.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Wilbur W. Flagg

This gentleman was born in New York City Jan. 20. 1851. His early life was spent in attending public schools. In his fourteenth year, he attended the Phillips Academy, at Andover, Mass., graduating in 1868. He then came to Colorado, and spent five months traveling through the State. The following year, he entered Yale College, from which institution he graduated in 1873. He then spent two years in the Stock Exchange, in Wall street, and subsequently engaged in the hat manufacturing business at Yonkers, N. Y. In 1877, he came to Colorado, and located in Russell Gulch, where he has since resided, engaged in mining. He is Superintendent for the Emerson Gold and Silver Mining Company, of which he is the principal stockholder. He is also engaged in working the Atlantic mine at Hughsville, and in developing the Garfield and Belle Isle Lodes, on Fall River, and in prospecting in the Gunnison country.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Lorenzo M. Freas

L. M. Freas, proprietor of the Granite House, has for twenty-five years, been one of Central City's most prominent merchants and business men. His interests have been, and are, identical with those of the city which has so long been his home, and to whose prosperity he so largely, in common with many other good citizens, contributed, lie was born in Philadelphia Co., Penn., Nov. 24, 1818.

In 1859, he came to Colorado, bringing with him a stock of goods, arriving in Central City in July, and engaged in a general mercantile business on Lawrence street. He continued to transact a very successful business up to 1876. During the dark years of the war, he rendered valuable aid in the organization of the first two companies of troops from this county, for the Union army, by furnishing necessary supplies, and trusting to the future action of Congress for pay, and his bill was one among the first from this State, that was recognized. In 1871 during the big fire, he was partially burned out, but re-established his business, and also built the Granite House. In 1876, he closed up his mercantile business, and has since been engaged in running his hotel, the Granite House, on Lawrence street.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

William Gilpin

Governor of Colorado territory (1861-1862), soldier, explorer and author, born on the battlefield of Brandywine, October 22, 1822, died January 20, 1894, was the son of Joshua and Mary (Dilworth) Gilpin. He traced his descent to Richard de Guylpyn, in the time of King John, and down through a line of hardy ancestors, eminent as soldiers, statesmen and divines, including Bernard Gilpin, the "Apostle of the North", and to Thomas Gilpin, a soldier under Cromwell in the historic "Ironsides" regiment, one of the provost guard at the execution of Charles I.

His son, Joseph Gilpin, also a soldier under Cromwell, after the restoration of Charles H., and having also become a member of the Society of Friends, emigrated to the new world, taking up a large tract of land on the Brandywine, becoming the progenitor of the Gilpin family in this country, who were patriots in the American revolution. It was on this old homestead, historic from the days of the revolution that the future governor of Colorado was born, and from amid such scenes he was imbued with those lofty and patriotic sentiments that were characteristic of his life.

At the age of ten, he was sent to England, where he attended school two years. Returning to this country, he entered the University of Pennsylvania, of which his grandfather was one of the founders. After graduating from this institution, he was appointed a cadet to West Point by President Jackson, from which he was graduated in 1836. He was then appointed a lieutenant in the Second Dragoons, and soon after served under General Jessup in the Florida was against the Seminoles. Resigning from the army, his request being denied to be sent to the Pacific coast, he settled in St. Louis in 1839, where he became the editor of the Missouri Argus. In 1841, he located in Independence, Missouri, where he engaged in the practice of the law, and was elected secretary of the general assembly of that state. While at West Point, he had also studied law, being registered as a student with his brother, Henry D. Gilpin, who was later attorney general in 1840, in President Van Buren's cabinet.

Although successful in the practice of law at Independence, yet at heart, Gilpin was an explorer, and his ambition not being gratified caused his resignation, he again was imbued with desire to traverse the unknown wilds of the west. Retiring from the law in 1843, he started out to explore the northwest, but soon joined Fremont, then on this second expedition, and visited Fort St. Vrain that summer, while enroute to the Pacific. He assisted in the organization of the provisional government in Oregon, and was commissioned to carry the articles of agreement relating thereto to Washington. Notwithstanding the attempt at the national capital to belittle his mission, and where he was designated as the "Squatter Delegate from the Pacific Coast", he at least succeeded in advertising the resources and made public the wants and needs of the great northwest. Gilpin was accustomed to designate those opposing his mission as the "Salt Water Despots", while on the other hand, Calhoun referred to him as "A young man who desired to trade off his lieutenant's uniform for senatorial robes."

In the Mexican war, Gilpin was a major in Colonel Doniphan's famous regiment of Missourians, with which he rendered distinguished services. In 1847, he was sent with 1,200 men against Indian tribes in the west and southwest, conducting a part of his campaign in Colorado. His command suffered and endured great hardships, but he was successful in his operations against these Indians. From 1848, until 1861, he resided at Independence, practicing law, and also his lectures throughout the country concerning the west and its future greatness. Even then and in later years, Gilpin was often characterized as a "dreamer", but more than he even predicted has come to pass in the empire building that have moved onward with gigantic strides on the American frontier.

When Gilpin was appointed governor of the territory of Colorado, in 1861, by President Lincoln, the nation was engulfed in the great struggle of the civil war. Both from a civil and military standpoint, his appointment was most fortunate. He had been a prominent figure in the organization of the provisional government in Oregon, and, when he was appointed governor of this new territory, he succeeded Governor Steele, who had been governor of the provisional government of Jefferson territory, the older name, but a little more comprehensive as to area, for what is now Colorado.

He fully understood the underlying causes that lead people on the frontier to organize such forms of governments, and was in full sympathy with all efforts to develop this new region. As a soldier he began to raise and equip troops for the Union army. Although prompted by sincere and patriotic motives, it was claimed at Washington that he exceeded his authority by incurring heavy expenses in the equipment of these troops, which resulted in his resignation as governor, and the appointment of Dr. John Evans as his successor.

Governor Gilpin was a scholarly, polite and courteous gentleman of the "old school," and in every sense was one of the distinguished empire builders of the west. He owned extensive land and mining interests, more especially in the Gilpin land grant in Colorado. The last years of his life were spent by him in this state, highly honored and esteemed by all. He retired for the night, January 19, 1894, and next morning (20th) was found dead in his bed, and is supposed to have died of heart failure.

In 1874, he married Mrs. Julia Pratte Dickerson, of a very prominent southern family. Of her first marriage (to Captain John Dickerson, U.S.A.) there were born the following children: Louise, Sidney and Elizabeth, the latter the wife of Otis B. Spencer of Denver. Later to Governor and Mrs. Gilpin, there were born the following children: William (deceased) and Polly (twins), and Louis.

Governor Gilpin is the author of the following books: The Central Gold Region (1860); Notes on Colorado (1870;[sic] Mission of the North American People (1874) and, the Cosmopolitan Railway, and Fusing Together All the World's Continents (1891).

It was the old time prophecy of Governor Gilpin that a railroad would be built through Alaska, over or under Behring Stait. The rich gold discoveries in that region, and railway construction now being carried on there, may yet see it all realized.

[Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.]

John Gray

Prominent among the citizens of Gilpin Co., and one of its most successful miners, is the man whose name heads this sketch. He was born in Scioto Co., Ohio, in 1831. At five years of age, removed with his father's family to Elkhart, Ind., where he received a common school education, and worked on the farm fifteen years. In the fall of 1851, he left home to seek his fortune in the great West; spent the first winter on an island in the Mississippi River, chopping wood for the steamboats.

Early the following spring, he reached Council Bluffs and, joining a large party with a train of sixty wagons, the 8th of May, started across the plains to California, and, on Sept. 3, struck Hangtown, now Placerville, with only $3.75 in his pocket, which was all gone in a few days. He then obtained a small outfit of provisions and tools on credit, and commenced mining, and the first week paid for the outfit and had $50 left; worked out the pocket in a few weeks, and then invested in the dry diggings; in December, sold out and started for the Feather River country; passed through Sacramento during the great flood of 1852, and made a temporary home at Wyandotte; engaged in mining with good success, making $14 per day until February, 1853; in March, fitted out a prospecting party for the hills, during that season worked hard, lost everything, and returned to Wyandotte; again went to mining in the spring of 1854 and made some money; during the years 1855-56-57, mining and prospecting with varied success; finally returned to Wyandotte in October, 1857, totally out of funds.

About this time, glowing accounts from Frazer River, reached California, and in April, 1858, Mr. Gray started for that El Dorado. On account of the heavy snows, he could not reach the mines so early in the season, and went at shingle-making in Whatkam, on the sound. Here he met with the misfortune of a broken leg, and through the inefficiency of the doctor, lay nine weeks through the warm weather, flat on his back. In August, he shipped on a vessel to San Francisco, where, in two months' time, the doctors had him up on crutches. In the fall he went to Wyandotte, and the following April returned to Wisconsin. He was married in November, 1860, and taught school during the following winter. In the spring of 1861, he leased a farm and worked it, and, in September, enlisted in the 11th Wis. V. I.; served in the army eleven months, and on account of sickness, was discharged. The following winter he taught school, and in May, 1863, with his family, started across the plains, and on July 28, arrived in Central City, where he has since resided. Surrounded by strangers, without funds, he was obliged to work by the day until the next spring. In April, 1864, he commenced gulch-mining and continued for three years, and, during the years 1867-70, worked the Whiting and Gunnell mines with some profit. In January, 1871, in company with two other men, leased the Jones & Matson Lode, now called the English-Kansas, and in nine months took out $46,650, and Sept. 1, sold out the lease for $25,000, and dissolved the partnership. During the time from 1872 to 1878, he was engaged in various mining and prospecting enterprises, in Georgetown and other localities, without positive or profitable results.

In July, 1878, Mr. Gray made an arrangement to open the Fanny mine, on Silver hill, for one-fourth interest, an investment that has fully justified the expectations of its owners, and already paid a net profit of $12,000. In 1870, Mr. Gray and his estimable lady suffered a great bereavement in the death of a member of the family, aged seventeen, the daughter of Mrs. Gray by a previous marriage, a young lady of superior attainments, an active member of the Order of Good Templars, and a prominent worker in the Sabbath school and church; one held in high esteem by her associates, and deeply lamented by the entire community.

In polities, Mr. Gray is a Republican; an active Odd Fellow, and a member of the Grand Lodge of the State; of positive religious convictions, acquired early in life by the teachings of the Disciples, of which church his father is an active minister.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

David S. Green

Mr. Green is one of the enterprising pioneers of Colorado, who crossed the plains at an early date, and remained amid the hardships and disadvantages of frontier life, witnessing the wonderful changes and development of a barren waste into a rich and prosperous country. Like so many of our Western men, he owes his success to his own perseverance and industry. He is a man of amiable disposition and sterling honesty, which commend him to the respect of all who know him, and render him one of Central City's best citizens.

He was born in Licking Co., Ohio, Nov. 23, 1838. His father, Hon. Isaac Green, was a native of the same county, and represented his district in Congress a number of terms. His mother, Elizabeth Brown, was a native of Madison Co., Ky. In 1847, he removed with his parents to Crawford Co., Ill. In 1850, his father went to California, where he died four weeks after his arrival, leaving his son David in charge of the homestead, consisting of 1,000 acres, which he continued to conduct until the fall of 1858. He then removed with his family, consisting of his mother, three sisters and a niece, to Marshall, Clark Co., Ill., for the purpose of educating his sisters.

In the fall of 1860, he came to Colorado, and engaged in buying and selling stock at Denver, and afterward purchased a ranch on Platte River, nine miles north of Denver. The following February, he returned to Illinois, and fitted up a train of horses and wagons, and again started for Colorado, on the memorable 12th of April, the day on which the South fired on Ft. Sumter; bringing with him his mother and sisters, his mother at the time being an invalid. She, however, soon began to recover, and, by the time of their arrival in Central City, in June, had entirely regained her health. He then purchased a hotel known as the Briggs House, and the Eureka Lode, in Eureka Gulch, near Central, and engaged in hotel-keeping and mining.

In the spring of 1863, owing to failing health, he sold the hotel, and left the mine in charge of his brother Basil after which he removed to the valley, and purchased a dairy, six miles west of Denver, consisting of 200 cows, and continued in that business until the summer of 1864. He then rented his dairy, and took a Government contract for putting up hay on the Arkansas River.

The following January, he removed his family to Mt. Pleasant. Iowa, for the purpose of further educating his sisters, and while there organized the Mt. Pleasant Gold Mining Company, for the purpose of working the Range Mountain Lode, on Chicago Creek, in Clear Creek Co., Colo. He then returned to Colorado, bringing with him a train of supplies, and a force of men, having outfitted at Plattsmouth, Neb., and engaged in developing the mine.

In the fall of 1865, he went to Ottawa, Ill., and there organized the Eureka Cold Mining Company, for the purpose of working the Eureka Lode, near Central City, Colo. The following April, he started a large train of horses, wagons, machinery, etc., for the company, across the plains, in charge of his brother Basil, himself coming across by stage. On the arrival of the train, he took charge of the working and development of the mine. In the spring of 1867, he went to Denver, and engaged in the mercantile business, continuing four, years.

In the spring of 1871, he closed up his business in Denver, and formed the South-Western Colony, on the Platte River, seventy-five miles south of Denver. The colonists named the colony town, in honor of the founder; Green City, he remained with the colony until July, 1874, when he again returned to the mountains, and has since resided in Central City, engaged in mining.

In 1879, he formed the St. Louis Gold Mining Company, for the purpose of working the Ralls County Lode, on Quartz Hill, on which they have since erected some of the finest hoisting machinery in the county. Mr. Green controls the Bald Eagle, Kinda and Thanksgiving mines and is also variously connected with numerous other mines in Gilpin Co.

He was married, March 8, 1866, to Miss Louisa J. Dunnavan, of La Salle Co., Ill., and has a family of four sons.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Hammond B. Gilbert

This enterprising miner was born in Hillsboro, Co.. N. H., Sept. 11, 1833. He spent his early life on a farm, and, at the age of fourteen, engaged as sailor on the ocean three years. In 1851, he went to California, by way of the isthmus route, and engaged in mining in Yuba, Sierra, Nevada and Plumas Cos., fourteen years and eight months. He then returned home, where he remained a few months.

In the fall of 1865, he came to Colorado and spent the winter prospecting in the vicinity of Black Hawk. The following July, he removed to Nevadaville, where he has since resided, and has been engaged in mining in the Nevada District, and in the northern part of Clear Creek Co. He discovered the Clifford silver mine Aug. 15, 1877, and, in connection with A. Beverly, discovered the Clifford No. 2, War Eagle, Little Chief and Rosita, on Clifford Mountain, in Clear Creek Co. He owns a one-half interest in the Paris mine, in Nevada District.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Hon. Silas Briggs Hahn

Judge Haln is well known in business and professional circles as a man of large experience and ability, and has always maintained a clear record and high standard of excellence, both in the legal profession and business life. As a citizen of Central City, he has long held a position of influence and prominence, inviting the confidence and respect of all. Born Dec. 7, 1819, and is descended on his father's side from German ancestry. His mother was of the well-known Bradford family, of the old Plymouth stock, of English extraction, and a direct descendant of William Bradford, first Governor of Plymouth colony. His father, Jacob Hahn, was a manufacturer of edged tools, and at one time, Sheriff of Lincoln Co., Me. Early in life, the subject of this sketch removed with his parents to Monmouth, Kennebec Co., Me., where he fitted himself for college by teaching and studying alternately, and afterward received a collegiate education at Bowdoin College, Maine, from which institution he graduated in 1843, after which, he resumed teaching, and held the position of Preceptor of the Belfast Academy for the two succeeding years. Meanwhile, he was also engaged in the study of law. In 1845, he went to Boston, Mass., and read law two years, then visited Virginia, and became interested in the lumber business with his brother, in King and Queen Co., near the head of York River. After spending two years there, he returned again to Boston, and completed his law studies under the instruction of Judge Benjamin Pond, still Judge in that city, and was admitted to the Suffolk bar of Boston in 1850. He at once began the active practice of law, and continued in a large and successful practice in that city for fifteen years, dining which time he held various important and responsible offices of public trust, serving two years as a member of the city government, and several years as a member of the Board of Education; was elected Alderman in Ward No. 2, of the city, and served as Justice of the Peace and Quorum during the latter seven years of his residence in Boston, he was also one of the Board of Trustees of the Boston Soldiers' Subscription Fund, during the war, and resigned that position when he left Boston for Colorado, in 1865.

At that time, he crossed the plains with a mule team, and settled in Central City. His life in Colorado has since been one of activity in various official and business relations, aside from his occupation in the active practice of law. He has served several years as President of the School hoard of Central City, also two years as County Superintendent of Public Schools, and two years as a member of the city government. He served as State Senator in the Colorado Territorial Legislature of 1870, and was reelected to the same position in the last Territorial Legislature, in all of which offices he served honorably and well.

Judge Hahn is a man of excellent culture, refined and courteous in demeanor, and is known to be one of the most careful and prompt business men, and, among the citizens of Central City, one of the most enterprising and public-spirited. He is the owner of much valuable real estate in the city, and is identified largely with the mining interests of Gilpin Co. He is one of the owners of the New Boston mine, situated within the limits of the city of Central, and at the base of Mammoth .Mountain.

He was married first, June 2. 1852, and the second time on Sept. 15, 1880, to Mrs. Lottie E. Hurd, daughter of the Hon. Z. L. Beebee, of Syracuse, N. Y.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Benjamin P. Haman

Mr. Haman, a "fifty-niner," and one of a party of adventurers, who in 1850, crossed the plains and journeyed through the wild, mountainous regions, and across the range into California in search of gold, was born in Berkeley Co., Va., Oct. 5, 1824. While he was yet an infant, his parents removed to Brown Co., Ohio, and, subsequently, to Clark Co., same State, where he spent his early life on a farm and in attending school. Reared a farmer, it was but natural as well as wise for him to begin life for himself, on attaining his majority, by following in the footsteps of his father.

In 1849, he removed to Burlington, Iowa, and the following spring went to California by the overland route, and followed mining in various parts of the State two years. He then returned to his home at Burlington, and removed to Louisa Co. same State, where he again engaged agricultural pursuits.

In 1856, he sold his farm and removed to the town of Nevada, in that State, and engaged in hotel-keeping, in the spring of 1859, when the news of the discovery of gold at Pike's Peak, was heralded throughout the East, he joined the tide of emigration then pouring into the new "El Dorado," arriving in Denver April the 11th. He followed gulch-mining on the Platte River, three miles north of Denver, a short time. He then went to Idaho Springs, in what is now Clear Creek Co., a few days subsequently, on the breaking out of the excitement on the discovery of the Gregory Lode, at Gregory Point, he wended his way thither, and engaged in mining. The following spring, he built the first hotel that was built in Central City, known as the Haman House, which he ran two years. He then sold the hotel, and followed mining and teaming, he removed to Russell Gulch, Gilpin Co., where he has since resided, engaged in mining, prospecting and teaming. He was married Jan. 7, 1847, to Miss Rachel M. Berry.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Peter C. Hansen

Mr. Hansen, superintendent and one of the owners of the Hidden Treasure mine, on Quartz Hill, Gilpin Co., was born in Fangel, Denmark, March 1, 1849. He spent his early life on a farm and in attending school. In his twenty-second year, he served six months as soldier in the standing army. In 1872, he came to America, and located at Negaunee, Marquette Co., Mich., where he engaged in burning charcoal, and in iron mining.

In 1875, he came to Colorado, and located in Nevadaville and engaged in mining and prospecting. In 1878, he purchased an interest in the Hidden Treasure mine, of which he has since been superintendent, and is otherwise variously engaged in mining. He is at present running a livery stable in Nevadaville, and in connection with a hack and express line between Central City and Nevadaville.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Richard Harvey

The subject of this sketch was born in Cornwall, England, July 9, 1826, and lived in England until he was about twenty years of age; emigrated to this country in 1845, and located in Wisconsin Oct. 5 of the same year; after in Wisconsin for some time, he removed to Galena, Ill., in the spring of 1847, where he lived until 1863, when he came to Colorado and settled in Central City, Gilpin Co., Oct. 5, 1863.

In April 1873, he was elected a member of the City Council for the Third Ward, and, in October, 1878, was elected a member of the Legislature, of the second General Assembly; he was also appointed Register of the United States Land Office for Central City, by President Hayes, Aug. 9, 1879, during the interim of Congress, and re-appointed in December, 1879, and confirmed by the United States Senate during the same month. He still resides with his family, on Casey street, in Central City, where his sociable manners and genial qualities give him a large acquaintance, and hosts of friends.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Henry J. Hawley

H. J. Hawley. President of the Hawley Merchandise Co., of Central City, was born in Stephenson Co., Ill., May 13, 1839, and lived with his parents until twenty-one years old. In the great milling excitement of 1860, Mr. Hawley, in company with a party, crossed the plains to Colorado, and located in Central, Gilpin Co., and followed mining with varied success for eight years. In 1868, he formed a partnership with B. Lake, in the grocery business. In I869, introduced the soliciting and free-delivery systern in the retail trade, thereby increasing their sales in three months, from $1,300 to $1,500 per month. In 1872, he dissolved with Mr. Lake, and formed a partnership with Mr. Manville. The great fire of 1874 swept the firm completely off their feet, and left them $10,000 in debt; but not disheartened, the next day after the fire, they purchased the grocery department of the firm of Roworth & Lake, and, with true Western pluck, commenced again; with a record of fair dealing, they retained the old patronage, and by strict attention and hard work, soon established a flourishing business, and, in a short time, paid off the old debt with interest in full. In 1877, he bought out Mr. Manville, and for three 3 years conducted the business alone. After working twelve years, late and early, fifteen or sixteen hours a day. Mr. Hawley, during the past winter, decided to make a change, one that would give his mind relief from constant strain, and enable him to attend to some personal matters, and also assist deserving young men into business. In March of the present year, the Hawley Merchandise Co. was organized, with a capital stock of $30,000 in 300 shares, with six stock-holders. This company carry the largest stock of groceries, provisions and miners' supplies to be found in the county, and deal hugely in the product of mines. They have in connection with their store on Main St., a large warehouse, with a capacity of ten car-loads, aggregating in amount from $25,000 to $30,000, and are doing an annual business of $250,000.

The subject of this sketch was married, March 22, 1868, and since that time, with his family, has been closely identified, socially, with Central City. In politics. Republican, but not a politician. Identified with the Methodist Church, but not a sectarian. A warm friend and public-spirited citizen. A hard worker for twenty years, conquering difficulties that would crush most men, achieving success almost unparalleled, with a record for integrity unimpeachable. Without $5 capital to start with, H. J. Hawley may be styled emphatically a "self-made man."

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Edward W. Henderson

This gentleman is well known to the citizens of Central City and vicinity, as one of the pioneers in the early history of Colorado, who conspicuous among the first mining operators in the Rocky Mountains, and for a number of years subsequently was identified extensively with the development of its mineral resources and milling interests. He was born in Austinburg, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, Nov. 29, 1818. He spent his early life upon his father's farm until attaining the age of manhood, meanwhile, enjoying the educational advantages afforded by the public schools of his native place. Before eighteen years of age, he began teaching school, which vocation he followed during the winter months, for the succeeding seven years. Leaving Ohio in 1844, he located in Denmark, Lee Co., Iowa, where he spent the first two winters in teaching and in farming during the summer. He then settled upon a farm, and was engaged in agricultural pursuits for the succeeding ten years. In 1856, he sold his farm and removed to Lewis, Cass Co., Iowa, where he embarked in the mercantile business; but, like hundreds of other merchants, he became embarrassed and succumbed to the pressure of the financial crisis in 1858.

He then turned his steps westward to begin anew in business, and arrived in Auraria, now Denver, April 26, 1859. He immediately began prospecting and mining along the streams in the Platte and Boulder Valleys, finally bringing up on May 16, of that year, at the Gregory Diggings, in Arapahoe Co., Kan., now Gilpin Co., Colo. On May 29, in company with Ames Gridley, he purchased the Gregory claims from John H. Gregory, the discoverer of that famous mine. He worked these diggings successfully during the summer, realizing about $18,000. After spending the winter of 1860 in the East, he returned again to the Gregory mine, and continued working the same during the summer. At the same time, he built a quartz-mill, at what is now known as the Eureka Foundry, in company with D. A. January. Judge Lackland and Ely R. Lackland; soon after, however, his partners having become discouraged, he assumed entire control of the mill and operated the same until the spring of 1862, when he abandoned the enterprise and disposed of the mill at a great sacrifice. He then devoted his entire attention to his Gregory mining property, and during the winter of 1863, came upon a very rich pocket, from which, working fifteen men, he received about $6,000 per week. He then purchased a mill in company with Amos Gridley, at Gregory Point; but shortly afterward, leaving his partner in charge of the mill and mine, he returned to the States, and during his absence, difficulties arose which resulted in heavy loss in his business. This required his immediate attention, and returning, he assumed control of the business, which he conducted successfully, making from $1,000 to $1,500 per week until the spring of 1864, when he consolidated his property with four other claims, embracing 500 feet of the Gregory Lode, which the company sold to New York capitalists, for $1,000 per foot, his portion being $100,000, a large part of which he lost, through the defalcation of his trusted agent. In 1870, he became associated with the Western Smelting Company, in charge of the financial affairs of the company, and one year later, was elected Treasurer of Gilpin County, in which office he served creditably until the expiration of his term of two years, and much of the success achieved in the restoration of the credit of the county, and in the advancement of its warrants, from 45 to 95 cents, was due to his efforts and business ability. In the fall of 1873, he received the appointment of Receiver of the U. S. Land Office at Central City, which office he now holds. He was married in Denmark, Iowa. April 26, 1846, to Miss Sarah Houston, daughter of Deacon John Houston, formerly of Lyndeboro, N. H.

Mr. Henderson has filled honorably and well his position as a public officer, discharging his official duties with the same marked ability which has distinguished all of his business enterprises; which has won for him personal popularity and many warm friends. In politics he is a Republican. He has always taken a live interest in religious matters, having united with the Presbyterian Church in his native town in Ohio, and subsequently, upon his removal to Iowa, became a member of the Congregational Church, of which he was chosen Deacon; soon after his arrival in the Gregory Gold Diggings, he assisted Rev. Lewis Hamilton in organizing a Union Church and was chosen Deacon. In 1863 that church was disintegrated by the organization of churches of different denominations. He then united with the Presbyterian Church in Black Hawk, and was chosen its first Elder, which position he still occupies.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Hon. Nathaniel P. Hill

Nathaniel P. Hill is descended from an old and highly respected family of New York, and was born in Orange Co., in that State, in 1832. His father, of the same name, was an extensive farmer, owning a large farm a few miles from the banks of the Hudson River. He was a man who possessed in an eminent degree the respect of his fellow-citizens, who manifested their confidence by sending him as their representative in the General Assembly of the State. He also held the office of County Judge for a number of years. He was a Democrat of the old school of Jefferson and Jackson, and, besides being a thorough gentleman, was possessed of those principles of unwavering integrity which have also marked the business career of his son.

At the age of sixteen years, young Hill was left in charge of the paternal estate, and in that way acquired an experience in the management of affairs and the control of men, which has been of great value in his subsequent life. He found time during the winter seasons to prepare for college, and. at the age of twenty-one, became a student in Brown University, at Providence. R. I. Although an apt student in all the branches of study in the college curriculum, the science of chemistry was his especial delight, and much of his time was spent in conducting experiments in the chemical laboratory. Be acquired such proficiency in this science that, in 1856, he was made a tutor in the chemical department of the university, and, in 1860, was elected by the Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry, and continued to occupy that chair with credit until 1864. At that time, so great a reputation had he acquired as a scientist and a thoroughly reliable gentleman, that a few wealthy men in Providence and Boston were induced to place at his disposal a sufficient amount of capital for the thorough examination of the Gilpin land grant in Colorado.

This visit to the Territory led to a second visit the following year, at which time he made a most complete and exhaustive examination of the mines of Gilpin Co. It was during these visits that his attention was drawn to the imperfect methods of treating the ores of that region, and he devoted much study to the subject, with a view to engaging in his present business. The better to acquaint himself with his subject, he visited the extensive reduction works at Swansea, in Wales, having first resigned his professorship in Brown University.

He spent the winter of 1865-66 in studying ore-reduction in Europe, and, in the summer of 1866, made a second voyage to Europe, taking with him seventy tons of Colorado ore for experimental treatment at Swansea. Returning in the spring of 1867, he organized the Boston & Colorado Smelting Company, and at once came to Colorado as a permanent resident. It is not the purpose of this sketch to recount the history of the grand enterprise of which Prof. Hill has since been the head and front, and a full account of which will be found in the historical part of this work. We give the following extract from the columns of the Syracuse Courier of January, 1879, written by one who is evidently well acquainted with Prof. Hill and his work in Colorado:

"From time to time he created and organized these works (meaning the Boston and Colorado Smelting Works), putting in whatever money of his own he had saved, and drawing on these Eastern capitalists for such sums as he thought it safe and profitable for them to invest. Of course, his uniform success is due mainly to his splendid attainments in science and practical knowledge of his business, his superior executive abilities and his pluck and perseverance. But all these would have been of little avail if he had yielded to the theories and influences which seemed to take possession of everybody in Colorado during Prof. Hill's earlier life in that region. All the miners, learned and unlearned, were looking for bonanzas; but, till the recent silver discoveries, they were not to be found in Colorado. But promising gold mines, and, after a few years, still more promising silver mines, were discovered in all the mountainous regions of the then Territory. Still, none of them were rich enough to yield profit in spite of the enormous cost of labor, provisions and fuel, super-added to the proverbial ignorance and extravagance of the mining superintendents; and the consequence was every mining stock company organized in the East, and absorbing fabulous amounts of capital, proved a total or partial failure. From the first, Prof. Hill took in the situation and entertained the true theory. He neither indorsed, nor invested in, any of these speculative projects, and yet he had the sagacity to discover that the products of these mines could be purchased at a profit to the producer, when they were worked with fair economy, and reduced and separated with still greater profit through his system of smelting.

He established his first works at Black Hawk, and purchased all the valuable ores brought to his establishment at their true value, according to assay. This arrangement was highly advantageous to the miners, as they could thereby prosecute their business with very little capital. Besides this advantage, it enabled each and all of them more nearly to determine the real value of their claims. The construction of the railroad connecting these mountains with the Eastern States, soon after gave a great impetus to this smelting business. Several other smelting concerns were established in various parts of the States, although none of them achieved any such success as Prof. Hill's."

The works were removed to Denver during the year 1878, and the thriving suburb of Argo established, where they cover about seven acres of land. The Company stinted with a paid-up capital of $250,000, which has since increased until they now employ in the business fully $800,000, while the products have increased from less than $300,000 in 1868, to over $2,250,000 during the year 1878. To the information, discretion and energy of Prof. Hill is due the success which the establishment has attained. He continued to devote his entire attention to his important and arduous business affairs, taking no active part in political matters until the spring of 1879, when he was brought forward as a candidate for the position of United States Senator, and, after one of the most active and able contests in the political history of Colorado, was elected, His Congressional career has been confined to the extra session of Congress, convened in the spring of 1879, to consider the appropriation hills, and which, therefore, afforded little opportunity for the introduction of general legislative measures.

Senator Hill, however, introduced a bill making the branch mint in Denver a coinage mint, with every prospect of success when Congress shall meet in regular session. He also introduced a bill for the encouragement of irrigation to allowing any person to enter all the Government land that he will irrigate, up to 640 acres. This measure, if successful, cannot fail to result in the reclamation of a large part of the arid lands of the State. On the financial question, which possesses such an interest to the people of Colorado, he is a firm believer in the bi-metallic standard, and uses all his efforts to promote that end.

Although Mr. Hill has accumulated an ample fortune, he has done so through the steady prosecution of legitimate business enterprise, and not by any lucky turn of Fortune's wheel or the exceptionally fortunate issue of any speculative schemes. Contemporaneous, therefore, and proportionate to his own success, has been that of others engaged with him in business, as also the prosperity of Colorado's most important industry, and of a large number of men to whom his vast enterprises have furnished remunerative and steady employment.

Whether in business, social or political life, Senator Hill is an example of the refined, courteous and honorable gentleman, resorting to none of the deceptions and intrigues so common in polities, and doing what he does from motives of exalted principle.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Joseph W. Holman

This gentleman is well known throughout the entire Rocky Mountain region, through his prominence in mining circles, with which industry he became identified in the earliest settlement of Gilpin Co., being one of the two men who discovered the celebrated Bobtail mine, of which he was the sole owner of the discovery for several years, since which time, with the exception of a few years' residence in New York City, he has been closely allied to the mining and milling interests of Gilpin Co.

He was born in Ft. Wayne. Allen Co., Ind., May 5, 1825. He remained at his father's home, who was a physician, receiving an education in the public Schools, until sixteen years of age, then went to Richmond, Ind., where he spent three years in the Quaker schools of that city. He then began his first business as clerk in the dry-goods house of Seaton & Holman, in Indianapolis, his brother being a partner in the firm; at the end of three years he became a member of the firm, as successor to Mr. Seaton, changing the firm name to G. G. & .J. W. Holman. Four years later, he purchased his brother's interest in the business, and continued the same for a time alone. In 1859, his brother again entered the firm, and in February, 1860, they sold out to William T. Morton, of Richmond, Ind.

In April following, he emigrated to Colorado, and engaged in mining at Black Hawk, on the Bobtail Lode, which his partner, William H. Hurlbut, and himself, had discovered in October, 1859. Soon after his arrival in Black Hawk, he purchased his partner's interest in the mine, and continued to operate the same until May, 1864, when he sold the mine to the present company, who have operated it since that time. He then removed to New York City, and, during the succeeding eight years, conducted a large stock-brokerage business.

While there, in May, 1868, he was married to Mrs. Emily J. Smith, third daughter of Capt. Robert Clarkson, of Brighton, England. Leaving New York in 1872, he again came to Colorado, and has since resided in Central City, devoting his attention exclusively to his mining interests. He is the resident agent and manager of a number of mining companies, among which are the Denmark, Sleepy Hollow, Cashier, Empress, Duchess, Eagle, Golden Age, and Little Hatchet, in each of which he is a large shareholder, being also a third owner in a thirty-five stamp mill at Black Hawk.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Thomas Hooper

Mr. Hooper, one of Central City's early pioneers, is of English descent, and was born in the town of Hay, Wales, May 23, 1844. His father. Thomas Hooper, a physician, came to America in 1845, and located in New York City, where he practiced his profession five years. In 1850, he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he engaged in the wholesale drug business and the practice of medicine until 1855. He subsequently practiced medicine five years in Nebraska City, Neb., whither he removed.

In 1860, during the Pike's Peak excitement, he crossed the plains to Colorado, and located in Central City. His son Thomas spent his early life in attending school. On their arrival at Central City, he engaged with his father in the drug business, eighteen months, and subsequently in the grocery business with his brother-in-law, J. K. Rutledge. In February, 1863, he enlisted in the 3d Colo. V. I., which was afterward consolidated with the Second and formed the 2d Colo. V. C. He served in Missouri and Arkansas until near the close of the rebellion, and was then sent out on the plains against the Indians, where he served until November, 1865. He was then mustered out of the service, and went to Nebraska City, Neb., where he spent the winter.

He was married to Miss Missouri E. Feeley, May 3, 1866. He then returned to Central City, and engaged with his father in the manufacture of brick, and has, since the death of his father the following fall, successfully carried on that business. In the spring of 1868, he was elected City Treasurer, the duties of which office he honorably discharged one term.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

James Hutchinson

James Hutchinson, one of the most experienced mining foremen in Colorado, was horn in the town of Reeth, Yorkshire, England, Nov. 17, 1837, and lived in his native country until he was eleven years of age. In 1848, in company with his parents, he came to America, going direct to Dubuque, Iowa. He remained there four years, attending the public schools during that time. After leaving Dubuque, he came, with his parents, to Shullsburg, Wis., where he lived until 1863. While living there, he worked in the lead mines of that place, where he familiarized himself with mining.

In January, 1863, he left Wisconsin and came to Colorado, where he has remained ever since. During all of this time he has been mining foreman of the Briggs Brothers' celebrated mines. He was married before leaving Wisconsin.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

John Lundgreen

This prosperous and enterprising ranchman and cattle grower is far from the land of his nativity and the associations and companionships of his early life, but he is well established in his new home, and through difficulties and privations, toils and dangers, he has attained to a substantial competence and an elevated place in the regard and confidence of his fellow citizens therein.  He was born in Denmark, on September 5, 1849, the son of Par Hoganson and Ellen Magdalene (Holnengreen) Lundgreen, natives of Sweden, but early in their lives residents of Denmark, where he worked diligently at his trade as a cooper.  They had seven children, one dying in infancy, and the others still living.  The father died in 1865 and the mother in 1879.  Their son John was educated at the state schools to a limited extent, while a mere boy beginning to learn the cooper trade under instruction from his father.  After the death of the latter he carried on the business three years, and at the end of that time, in 1869, went to Sweden, and during the next four years worked at his trade.  In 1873 he came to the United States and located at Chicago, where he again was employed at his trade, remaining until 1877.  He then moved to Omaha, and after passing three years in that interesting city, came to Colorado in 1880, and settled at Rollinsville, Gilpin county, where he passed the summer in placer mining.  In the fall he returned to Omaha, and soon afterward moved to Nebraska City.  Here he worked at coopering until spring, then came once more to Colorado and, locating at Aspen, turned his attention to prospecting, continuing his operations until 1885.  At that time he found profitable employment in the smelters and later in the lumber industry, working for a number of different firms, but never out of a job.  His last move was to locate the ranch on which he now lives and conducts a thriving farming and cattle business.  This he took up as a pre-emption claim and has since improved it and brought it to an advanced state of cultivation.  It comprises one hundred and sixty acres, half of which was naturally tillable and well adapted to the production of hay and grain.  Portions of the rest have been made productive by irrigation and other artificial means.  In addition to the ordinary farm products, Mr. Lundgreen raises numbers of good cattle. In political matters he supports the Republican party.  He is much please with Colorado and warmly interested in the state and his county, omitting no effort on his part to promote their substantial welfare and the comfort and advancement of their people, among whom he is highly esteemed and has a serviceable influence for good.

[Source: Progressive Men of Western Colorado, Publ 1905. Transcribed by Anna Parks]

Richard Mackey

The demand for men of skill, energy and ability to push forward the development of the rich mines in Gilpin Co. has received a response from many such men among whom is Richard Mackey, who has been prominently identified with the mining interests of Colorado the past fourteen years, and is considered one of her most skillful and prominent miners. He was born near Limerick, Ireland, and spent his early life in attending school. In 1863, he came to America, and spent about six months in Iowa, he then decided to go to California, by way of the New York and isthmus route, but on his arrival at New York City, abandoned the trip and engaged in iron mining in New Jersey one year. From there, he went to Northern Wisconsin, where he followed mining one year in the Lake Superior Copper mines.

In 1866, he came to Colorado, and located in Nevadaville, where engaged in taking contracts to sink and develop mines. The following year he went to Elizabethtown, Mexico, and followed mining one year. He then returned to Colorado, and has since resided in Nevadaville. His first mining enterprise after returning was the purchase of the Suderberg mine in Nevada District, which he engaged in developing He sunk the shaft 225 feet before striking pay, then, to use the miner's phrase, "struck it rich," realizing from $7,000 to $8,000 per month. He continued to work it for some time, then for obvious reasons, shut down, and the mine has since then remained idle.

In 1874, the Gunnell Mining Co., that had leased the Gunnell mine, offered him a two-eleventh interest in the lease, and $150 per month to superintend the working of the mine, which he accepted. In September, 1876, the shaft-house and hoisting-works were burned; after which, the lessees purchased the property of the bondholders for $50,000, being money they had realized from the mine. A solid stone building was erected, and first-class hoisting machinery and pumps were set at work. They afterward purchased 800 feet of the western part of the lode, of J. C. Fagan, known as the Grand Army property. Mr. Mackey continued to act as Superintendent until June, 1878, when work ceased, owing to litigation over 200 feet of ground between the Gunnell and the Grand Array. The entire lode yielded, under Mr. Mackey's careful management, over $650,000 in the four years preceding the summer of 1878. He had previous to this time, discovered a part, and purchased the remainder, of the Kent Co. Lode, on Quartz Hill, in Nevada District, which he engaged in developing and working. It is now paying him large returns, being one of the leading veins on the hill. In 1877 he leased a quartz-mill in Nevadaville, near the mine, with which to treat the ore. He is interested in the Burroughs mine, on the same hill; also in some good mining property at Leadville.

He was married, September, 1872, to Miss Mary Slattery, of Nevadaville.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Peter McFarlane

Peter McFarlane was born in Bedeque, Prince Edward Island, in 1849. Without the advantages of an education, at the age of sixteen he commenced to learn the carpenter's trade, and, at twenty, started from home to seek his fortune in the region of Pike's Peak. Four months after reaching Central, Colorado, he formed a partnership with his brother, under the name of W. O. McFarlane & Co., contractors and builders, carrying on the business from 1869 to 1874, with varied success, in the surrounding county. In 1874, the city of Central was swept by the great tire, which necessarily gave the building interest a great impetus, of which the young firm were not slow to avail themselves. From a small beginning eleven years ago, by industry and integrity, this firm now do a yearly business of $60,000, and have invested in real estate, mining and other stocks, $24,000. The financial success and popularity of this firm is the well merited reward of persistent effort and close application to legitimate business.

The subject of this sketch was married in 1877. In 1875 chosen Alderman of the city, and twice re-elected, and, in 1878, while absent from home, elected Mayor without opposition. Mr. McFarlane is a young man yet, and, with his energy and business capacity, his future financial success would seem to be well assured.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Charles McKee

Mr. McKee, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1810. At an early age, he entered a cotton-mill, and was engaged at cotton-spinning until his thirty-second year.

In 1842, he came to America, and located in Milwaukee, Wis., where he worked in a potash manufactory three years. In 1845, he removed to Baraboo, same State, and engaged in the lumber business.

In 1860, he came to Colorado, and followed mining at Gold Dirt, Gilpin Co., two years. He then removed to Russell Gulch, same county, where he has since been engaged in mining. He owns the Grizzly Lode, in Russell District, and is otherwise variously interested in mining.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Richard W. Mosley

R. W. Mosley, of the firm of Mosley & Ballard, contractors and millwrights, of Black Hawk, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., Feb. 22, 1834. His early life was spent in attending the public schools of that city. In his sixteenth year, he served an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade. In 1852, he removed with his parents to Gentry Co., Mo., where he followed his trade three years.

He was married, Sept. 28, 1854, to Miss Barbara Ann Hardin. In 1855, he removed to Weston, same State, and subsequently, in 1859, to Atchison, Kan., continuing to work at his trade. In 1863, he came to Colorado, arriving in Denver in the latter part of September, where he followed his trade until the Cherry Creek flood, in May, 1864, swept away all his accumulations. The following July, he removed to Black Hawk, Gilpin Co., where he has since resided. After his arrival in Black Hawk, he worked at his trade until 1868, when he formed a partnership with J. B. Ballard, and has since been engaged in contracting and millwrighting.

Mr. Mosley is one of the owners of the Gunnell mine, near Central City, and is also interested in the Centennial mine, in Chase Gulch, and the Bugher mine, in Central City.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

James Miller

The subject of this sketch was one of the early pioneers of the country, coming to Colorado in 1860. He was born in Westmoreland Co., in the State of Pennsylvania, Sept. 18, 1823. He followed steamboating on many of the Western rivers from 1851 until 1860, when he came to Colorado and engaged at once in mining and milling in Gilpin Co. He built and operated a mill in Prosser Gulch, then known as Miller & Wise's Mill. It was owned by himself and Lewis Morris. He was connected in his mining operations with Joseph A. Thatcher, now President of the First National Bank of Central, and their ore productions were treated or milled in the Miller & Wise quartz mill. In the year 1864, he sold out his interest in the mill and mines to the Gunnell Central Gold Company, of New York.

In the spring of 1866, he bought the property upon which site, after the great fire of 1871, he erected and now owns what is known as the Miller Block, on the corner of Main and Lawrence streets, in Central City.

In the spring of 1868, he built and operated what is now known as the Polar Star Mill, in Black Hawk, near Chase Gulch. He subsequently sold his interest in the same to its present owners. After mining and milling in different localities in Gilpin Co., he accepted and now holds the agency of the La Crosse Gold Mining Company, of Colorado, in Gilpin Co. That company owns the La Crosse Tunnel and property on the Burroughs Lode, on the Kansas Lode, on the Monroe Lode, on the Ashtabula Lode, and other smaller properties in Nevada Mining District. He is also agent for the American Flag Gold Mining Company, of Colorado, and agent for the working of their property on the celebrated American Flag Lode, in Nevada Mining District.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Matthew Motle

Mr. Moyle was born in the Parish of Kerwin, England, May 7, 1846, and lived in England until he was about nineteen years of age, when he came to the United States, and went direct to the Lake Superior mining region, locating at Eagle River, where he remained one year, and then went to Marquette Co., where he stopped four years, holding the position of foreman of an iron mine.

He came to Colorado in 1870, locating at Black Hawk, where he has resided ever since, and during seven years of that time has been foreman of the Consolidated Bobtail mine, one of the leading mines of Gilpin Co.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Joseph L. McCubbin

The following sketch of the gentleman whose name appears above is necessarily brief on account of the absence of further data. His history dates back to the very earliest settlement of the country. He was appointed the first commissioner of Arapahoe Co., Kan., now Colorado, by James W. Denison, Governor of Kansas, and came thither with his commission to assume charge of the affairs of that office in the fall of 1858. While thus discharging his duties as commissioner, he began his first mining along with the other pioneers in Russell Gulch and Virginia Canon, since which time he has been constantly engaged in that pursuit, and resides at the head of Virginia Canon.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Valleys, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Lyne S. Newell, Jr.

This enterprising young business man, of the firm of Westman & Newell, was born in Indianapolis, Ind., Feb. 10, 1857. At an early age, he went to Findlay, Ohio, to live with his grandfather, Hugh Newell, where he attended school until his eighteenth year, graduating in the Union High School of that place. He then returned to Indianapolis, and took a one year's course in Latin and Greek, under Prof. Patrick Jennings, with the intention of preparing for college, but, owing to failing health, abandoned that idea and came to Colorado and spent eighteen months in the southern part of the State. In the fall of 1877, he came to Central City, and worked in the Register-Call office until the spring of 1879. During the winter of 1878-79, he built the skating-rink between Lawrence and Gregory streets. During the spring of 1879, he, in connection with his brother, Samuel V. Newell, engaged in the hay, grain, coal and transfer business, on Lawrence street, and established a branch hay and grain store on Main street in Black Hawk. On April 1, 1880, his brother sold his interest to Anion Westman. They have since added coal to the grain business in Black Hawk, and through integrity and close attention to business are building up a good trade.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Samuel V. C. Newell

Mr. Newell, treasurer and part owner of the Hidden Treasure mine, on Quartz Hill, Gilpin Co., was born in Indianapolis, Ind., April 28, 1854. In his ninth year, he went to West Virginia to live with his great-uncle, John Newell, and remained with him on a farm seven years. He then went to Findlay, Ohio, where he attended the Union High School two years. In his eighteenth year he came to Colorado, and located on North Clear Creek, three miles west of Central City, and engaged in book-keeping for his cousin, W. T. Newell. In January, 1878, he took an interest in a lease on the Hidden Treasure mine and engaged in working it about eight months. He then purchased an interest in the mine, and was elected Treasurer, which office he still continues to hold. He is also interested in a lease on the University and Ophir Kansas Lodes. In May, 1879, he, in connection with his brother, L. S. Newell, engaged in the hay, grain, coal and transfer business on Lawrence street, in Central City, and established a branch hay and grain store on Main street, in Black Hawk, continuing in that business until April 1, 1880; he then sold his interest to A. Westman, and has since devoted his attention to his mining interests. In the spring of 1879, he was elected Alderman for the First Ward, which office he still holds.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Col. James R. Oliver

Col. Jas. R. Oliver, the present editor, and founder of the Black Hawk Post, was born in Morristown, N. J., June 2, 1838, where he lived until he was fifteen years old, when he removed with his parents to Farmington, Iowa, where he received his education. From Farmington, he went to Bethany, Mo., where he resided until 1860, following the trade of printer. In 1860, he came to Colorado, stopping in Denver for awhile, and going from Denver to Mosquito. Alter remaining in Mosquito for a short time, he located in Fair Play, and went into the publishing business in company with Dick Allen, publishing the Fair Play Sentinel, he resided in Fair Play three years, and in 1864, came to Black Hawk. He was a member of a company sent out after the Indians in 1864, called the Tyler Rangers, and also enlisted in the celebrated Moonlight Regiment sent out in 1865, for the education of his wards of Uncle Sam. He was elected Lieutenant Colonel of this regiment.

The 9th day of September, 1876, he issued the first number of the Black Hawk Post, which he has continued to edit and publish ever since, making it one of the best and most successful weekly papers in Colorado.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Harper M. Orahood

Harper M. Orahood is a gentleman of unimpeachable public and personal honor, and has achieved a very excellent reputation for thoroughness and ability in the legal profession. He is one of the pioneers of Gilpin Co., and was identified with her business interests in her infancy as a merchant of Black Hawk Subsequently, he rose rapidly to positions of trust and influence, and has gained for himself popularity and warm friendship among his fellow citizens through the honorable discharge of his duties as a public servant, and efficiency as a member of the bar of Central City. His policy has always been one of generosity in the support of all measures both of a public and private nature for the advancement of the interests of the county and for the public rather than for mere personal gain. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, June 3, 1841. Shortly after his parents moved to Mt. Vernon, Ohio, and resided there until 1851, thence removed to Earlville, La Salle Co., Ill. Here he received a liberal education in the public schools, and academy, and, in the fall of 1858, removed to Rock Island, Ill., where he remained until the gold excitement and tide of emigration in the spring of 1860 carried him across the plains into the mountains of Colorado. He arrived in Black Hawk in .June of that year, and was engaged in mining on the Bates Lode until the following' winter, when he took a clerkship in J. E. Scobey's grocery house at Black Hawk. He remained with that, firm until July, 1861, when he embarked in the drug business in company with Frank Gunnell, whose interest he purchased in 1863, and remained in that business until 1872, during which time he purchased drugs to the amount of $25,000, and carried on a branch store in Central City, as the firm of Mather & Orahood. Shortly after he entered the drug business, he built what is now known as the Post Office Building at Black Hawk, and removed his drugs to that place, remaining until he discontinued the drug business and removed to Central City in 1872. He also held the office of Postmaster at Black Hawk from Nov. 1, 1861, to 1872. During the Indian troubles in 1864, he entered the hundred day service as Captain of the 3d Colo. Cav., and had command of the east division of the forces at the battle of Sand Creek. He held the office of County Clerk and Recorder from 1865 to 1867, and was City-Treasurer of Black Hawk from its organization in 1866 to 1872. He began the study of law in Black Hawk in the office of Hon. Alvin Marsh just previous to his removal to Central City in 1872, at which time he entered the law office of H. M. & W. Teller, and was admitted to the bar in October, 1873. He has since continued in the active practice of his profession, and has secured a large patronage. In April, 1875, he was elected City Attorney, and has since, held that office. In November, 1878, he was appointed District Attorney by Judge Beck, and held by appointment until elected to that office in the fall of 1879, which office he now holds. He was married. Oct. 1, 1863, at Black Hawk, to Miss Mary E. Hurlbut, daughter of Hiram Hurlbut.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

- - - - - - - - - -

Harper M. Orahood was born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1841. He received his early education in the public schools of his native state and in Illinois, to which state his parents moved in 1851. Whatever his deficiencies in education, however, he obtained an excellent training in mercantile pursuits and studied medicine for a time. He gave up the latter when the Pike's Peak gold excitement came on and walked to Colorado, arriving here in 1860.

He located in Black Hawk for a while, and then studied law with Henry M. & Willard Teller, being admitted to the bar in 1873. Before that time he was postmaster at Black Hawk. At present he is associated with Willard Teller and has been so associated since 1873. He is a thorough lawyer and has a large circle of clients. He is a public spirited citizen and has always been active for the good of the city and state.

[Denver Evening Post, Denver, Colorado, published February 24, 1900; submitted by cddd]

Newton D. Owen

Newton D. Owen is one of Central City's honored and influential citizens, and well known in mining circles as one of the prominent and enterprising mining operators of Gilpin Co. He was born in Whitestown, Oneida Co., N. Y., Jan. 4, 1845, and is descended from Welsh and New England ancestry. His father, David H. Owen, was, by occupation, a carpenter and builder, and died at Whitestown, when the subject of this sketch was nine years of age. Thus thrown chiefly upon his own resources, he received but limited educational training, and. at the age of fourteen, began an apprenticeship to the carpenter and joiner's trade. He followed that business until attaining the years of manhood, when he embarked in the same business for himself, with C. P. Raymer, as the firm of Owen & Raymer. This firm existed about one year, when they dissolved partnership. He then left New York for New Mexico, and located at Paraje, in the southern part of that Territory. There he embarked in a general mercantile business, in company with his uncle, Henry D. Hall. The business was carried on almost entirely by trading, as the Mexican people were without money, thus they were compelled to receive, in exchange for goods, the products of the country, which they disposed of without loss as Government supplies, having, fortunately, secured such a contract from the Government. In 1868, he sold his interest in the business to his uncle, who continued the same until his death, in 1874, and removed to Colorado, arriving at Central City April, 1868, on election day. He followed his trade, working on the Winnebago Mill, since burned down, until June of that year, when he formed a partnership with Wesley Critchet, to engage in the business of contracting and building. This firm existed until the summer of 1870. Meanwhile, he built the present school building, and numerous other buildings, some of which were destroyed in the fire of 1873, in which he lost heavily. From 1870 to 1874, he carried on the contracting business alone, and built the Teller House, Episcopal Church, and others. After the great fire of May 21, 1874, which destroyed almost the entire city, he went East on a visit, and remained in the State of New York until February, 1875, when he again returned to Central City, and has since resided here, having devoted his attention chiefly to mining. Through his perseverance and industry, fortune has favored him in his operations, and his mining interests are among the most valuable in the county. The chief of these, is the "Boss Mine," in Quartz Valley, which he owns in partnership with Hal Sayer, and is now being extensively worked in the most economical and improved manner, under his management. Mr. Owen is a Republican in polities, and a man of sterling worth as a citizen. He was married, at Whitestown, N. Y., Dec. 16, 1869, to Miss Sarah E. Bush, daughter of Lee Bush, of Sangerfield, Oneida Co., N. Y., and has two children, a daughter of ten, and a son of four years.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Thomas J. Oyler

Mr. Oyler, one of the pioneers of Black Hawk, was born in the city of Reading, Penn., March 6, 1827. At an early age. he removed with his parents to Columbus, Ohio, where he remained nine years, attending, while there, the Covert Academy, at that time considered one of the best educational institutions in the State. He then removed with his parents to Freeport, Ill., where he engaged in the grocery business six years. From there, he removed to Vinton, Iowa, where he again engaged in the grocery business. In 1860, he crossed the plains to Colorado, and located in Missouri City, then quite a prominent mining camp in Russell Gulch, in what is now Gilpin Co., and followed mining two years. He then removed to Black Hawk, where he has since resided, and engaged in the bakery business a short time. In 1872, he opened a fruit and grocery store, which he still continues to run. Since his residence in the State, he has at all times been more or less connected with its mining interests.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Dr. Henry Paul

Dr. Henry Paul was born April 7, 1841, in Hardin Co., Ky., where he resided until ten years of age. He then, with his parents, removed to Ralls Co., Mo. From that place they removed again, in 1855, to Adair Co., in the same State, where he resided with his parents, occupying his time upon his father's farm and attending the district school until 1859, when he came to Denver, and, after spending the summer there and in the mountains, returned to Adair Co. and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. J. W. Lee, at Paulville in that county, teaching school a part of the time until 1863. He then came out again to Colorado and engaged in mining in California Gulch.

From there, he came to Gilpin Co. in the fall of 1863. Here he has been engaged in mining and farming. At one time, he owned two ranches in Russell District or this county. He attended the Iowa Medical College one term, during the winter of 1869-70. He has been largely engaged in prospecting for and developing mines in Gilpin and other counties, having himself discovered the Hazeltine, Helmer, Powers and Searle Lodes, in Willis Gulch, in this county, and the Security Lode, in Park Co., on Mt. Bross, besides two or three hundred lodes in Gilpin, Clear Creek, Boulder and Park Cos. In the fall of 1873, he was elected at the head of the Gilpin Co. delegation to the Lower House of the Territorial Legislature, where he served one term, and was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Mines which drafted the present mining law of the State, which was passed at that session. He was one of the Colorado delegation to the National Democratic Convention of 1880 at Cincinnati that nominated Gen. Hancock for President. He was married to Emily E. Eaton, sister of Hon. B. H. Eaton, of Greeley, in this State, in 1871. They have three children, two boys and one girl, he is at present superintendent of the Missouri and Defiance mines, in this county, for a Chicago company, in which he is a large stockholder. He is also one of the members of the Hawley Merchandise Company, of Central City, and a stockholder in a number of mines in the State.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Benj. F. Pease

Among the men who sought homes in the West, few have had a more vivid experience in pioneer life, or have spent more years on the frontier, than Benj. F. Pease. Having settled first in Kansas, in 1855, he remained during the border-ruffian troubles, and was in active service under Jim Lane, in the terrible contest with the bushwhackers in that territory. At the beginning of the Pike's Peak gold excitement, he pushed on across the great plains of Colorado, to find a permanent home in the mining settlements of Gilpin Co., where he has since remained, as a prominent miner and merchant, he was born in Chicopee, Hampden Co., Mass., March 23, 1834, and is descended from an old pioneer family of Massachusetts. Leaving home at the age of eighteen, he went to Springfield, Mass., and there learned the machinist's trade. At the close of his apprenticeship, in March, 1855, he emigrated to Kansas, and located on the Neosho River, where he assisted in laying out the town of Hampden, on the side of the Neosho River, opposite the present city of Burlington. In the fall of 1855, he moved to Lawrence, Kan., where he was engaged in the express and freighting business, until 1860, with the exception of several months' service in the noted Kansas border-ruffian war. He left Lawrence, Kan., in April 1860, for Colorado, and arrived in the mountains, at Nevada mining district. Gilpin Co., in May of that year. After prospecting a short time, he concluded to establish himself in a general merchandise business, for which purpose he made a trip East, purchased goods, and freighted the same across the plains and mountains to Nevada-a very difficult enterprise in those days. For five years, he continued merchandising and mining together, then discontinued the former, and gave his attention entirely to mining, partially in Nevada, but chiefly in Peck Gulch, Vermillion District, where he worked several lodes, among which were the Mann, Grant, Rescue and others, and built and operated a twelve-stamp mill. In 1869, he rebuilt the mill, and was engaged in mining on the Kansas, Newfoundland and others at Nevada from that time until 1874. He became the owner of a portion of the Kansas Lode as early as 1860, and is at present the owner of 260 feet of the same. In 1874, he again entered mercantile business, opening a store in Central City, since which time he has resided in Central City as one of her worthy citizens and prosperous merchants and miners. He was married in Central City, in April, 1875, to Miss Hattie E. Levings, daughter of P. R. Levings, of Rockford, Ill.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Philo Potter

Among the early pioneers of Colorado who have endured the hardships and deprivations of frontier life is the subject of this sketch. He was horn in Salem. Penn., July 12, 1821. At an early age, he removed with his parents to Holmes Co., Ohio, where he spent his early life on a farm, receiving such education as the schools of that early day afforded. In 1847, he removed to Lee Co., Iowa, and engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the spring of 1860 he followed the tide of emigration to what was then known as the "Pike's Peak Country," and followed carpentering at Gold Dirt Gilpin Co. one year He then removed to Russell Gulch, same county, where he has since been engaged in mining, prospecting and wood chopping. He owns a one-half interest in the Simon Kenton Lode, in Russell District, which he is at present engaged in developing. He was married, March 6, 1847, to Miss Winney Holland, and has three children, who reside in Iowa.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

John H. Price

J. H. Price is one of the early pioneers of Colorado, whose father, Isaac J. Price, was for many years a prominent physician in and around St. Louis, having emigrated there from Pennsylvania in 1817. He was born near St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 4, 1837. He spent his early life on a farm, whither his father had removed, receiving a limited education. In his seventeenth year, he went to St. Louis, and engaged in the commission business two years. He was then engaged as superintendent on a fruit farm three years, after which, he spent eighteen months traveling in the South. In 1860, he came to Colorado and located in Denver. The first thirteen months, he spent in regaining his health, which had been impaired by the trip across the plains, after which he was employed at various occupations for the space of two years. In 1863, he came to Black Hawk and worked at the machinist's trade for A. G. Langford & Co., for one year, and afterward for Hendrie & Co., in Central City, about two and a half years. He then ran engines in stamp mills one year, and was afterward variously engaged in carpentering, engineering and mining, until 1879, since which time he has devoted his attention to mining and surveying. He was married to Miss Carrie Dutcher, of Central City, March 14, 1866.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, 1880; submitted by cddd]

Hon. George Engs Randolph

George Engs Randolph was born at Quincy, Ill., March 29, 1840, and is descended from an old and highly respected family of Newport, R. I. He is one of Colorado's honored pioneers and representative men, and has long been identified with the mining and milling interests of Gilpin County. He received his early education in the public schools of Providence, R. I., and left school to enter business when twelve years of age. He was engaged in the shoe and leather business until the opening of the war of the rebellion, when he entered the army in September, 1861, as Captain of Battery E, in the 1st R. I. L. A. In 1862, was made chief of Artillery in Kearney's Division, 3d Corps, and early in 1863, became Chief of Artillery, 3d Army Corps, he served until the spring of 1864, when he resigned, and in the fall of that year came to Colorado in the employment of capitalists of Providence, R. I., who were interested in the Gregory, Bobtail and other mines in Gilpin County. In 1868, he became Agent and manager of the Ophir Gold Mining Company, and resided at Nevadaville until 1871. He was elected to the Colorado Territorial Legislature in 1873, and served one term. In 1877, he was elected Mayor of Central City, and served one term. Since 1871, he has resided in Central City, and, during the last five years, has been constantly engaged in mining and milling. Whether in business, political or social life, he is a man of refined and courteous demeanor, and actuated by honorable motives and exalted principles.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

J. W. Ratliff

J. W. Ratliff, one of the early pioneers of Colorado, was born near Carthage, Ill., Oct. 18, 1832. At an early age, he removed with his parents to Des Moines Co., Iowa, and spent his early life on a farm, receiving a limited education, such as the district schools of that early day afforded. In 1852, he went to Oregon, by the overland route, and engaged in mining near Jacksonville. In 1854, he went to California, and followed mining at Yreka. The following year, he returned home by the isthmus and New York City route, and engaged in agricultural pursuits. In 1859, he started for Colorado, but at Fort Kearney, turned back with the stampede on their way back to the States. In 1860, he crossed the plains to Colorado and engaged in mining and prospecting in the mountains. The following December, he came to Nevadaville, and clerked in a store for David Ettien. In 1861, he was appointed Postmaster for Nevadaville, which position he has since held. In 1862, he was elected County Assessor, and in 1863, Coroner and Justice of the Peace; with the exception of three years, he has since filled the last-named office. In 1862, he was appointed Notary Public, which office he has since consecutively filled, and has twice been appointed by the Governor, to fill vacancies as County Commissioner, he is a very prominent member of the Masonic. I. O. O. F., and Good Templar Orders, and aided in organizing the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons, the Grand Lodge and Grand Encampment I. O. O. F. and the Grand Lodge of Good Templars in Colorado. He was elected Grand Secretary and Grand Scribe at the organization of the Grand Lodge and Grand Encampment I. O. O. F., and represented the Grand Encampment of Colorado, in the Grand Lodge of the United States, held in Baltimore in September, 1873, and attended the Re-union of the Last Grand Representatives, held in Philadelphia, in 1876. He has filled the office of Grand Worthy Chief Templar of Colorado, and was a delegate to the Right Worthy Grand Lodge of the World, held in Bloomington. Ill., in May, 1875, and has filled various other important offices in the different orders.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Dr. Charles B. Richmond

Prominent among the young physicians of Gilpin Co. is the above-named gentleman. He was born in Princeton, Ill., April 24, 1854. Having availed himself of the educational facilities of his native town, he went to Chicago and entered the Chicago Medical College, taking a three-years course, and graduating with high honors, receiving the second prize for what the Chicago papers termed "a masterly essay on Physiological Action of Jaborandi." After graduating here, he was appointed assistant physician at the Chicago Obstetric Hospital for Diseases of Women, where he remained nearly a year, when he returned to his native town and entered upon the practice of his profession, remaining there two years. In June, 1879, he came to Black Hawk and continued the practice of his profession. Dr. Richmond is well known as a careful and able physician, and by close attention to the well-being of his patients has succeeded in obtaining a fair share of the public patronage.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Andrews N. Rogers

The mining and milling industry is justly regarded as one of the most important and interesting subjects to the citizens of Colorado, being second to no other in commercial importance and wealth-producing capacity. Among the men who have been identified with the mining interests of Gilpin Co. for the past decade, and who have brought the highest order of business talent to bear in operating its mines, is the gentleman whose, name heads this sketch. Born May 15, 1827, in the town of Canaan, Wayne Co., Penn., situated upon the line of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co.'s Railroad, then in course of construction, with which road his father was prominently connected for many years. At an early age, the subject of this sketch became identified with this work in company with his father, thus gaining a valuable and practical experience, which resulted in his choosing the avocation of a civil engineer. He was aided in this by the friendly advice and kindly' interest of Mr. James Archbald, the Chief Engineer and General Manager of the Pennsylvania Canal Co.'s Railway, and commenced his engineering ca-reer as chainman upon that road, in the spring of 1849. He was soon promoted to the charge of a division, thirteen miles in length, the construction of which he completed and returned the final estimates in the winter of 1850. In the spring of 1851, he was placed in charge of an important division of the Lackawanna & Western Railroad, which was completed in the fall of 1852. During the following winter, he was engaged on other preliminary surveys, and, in the early spring of 1853, he was placed in charge of a party to survey the Memphis it Clarkesville Railroad, in Tennessee. Thence, he was transferred to the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, and made the final location of the southern division of that line, from Bowling Green to Nashville, under Capt. Gould, the resident engineer. While engaged upon this work, in the summer of 1854, he was tendered the position of Resident Engineer of the Warren Railroad, in New Jersey, which position he accepted, and was subsequently made Chief Engineer of this important enterprise, where he remained until the fall of 1856. Previous to this, however, in November, 1855, he was married to Miss Mary E. Seymour, daughter of James Seymour, who was a prominent engineer in his day, and a pioneer in railroad construction, having been associated with Mr. James Archibald on the Delaware it Hudson Railroad, the first railroad constructed in the United States. While engaged on the Warren road, in the fall of 1856, Mr. Rogers was tendered the position of Superintendent and Chief Engineer of the Lackawanna & Bloomsburg Railroad, in Pennsylvania, which position he accepted, and held for one year, he then engaged with others in the foundry and machine business, at Corning. N. Y., to which he gave his personal supervision until the spring of 1859, when he was tendered and accepted the position of Resident Engineer of the Macon & Brunswick Railroad, in the State of Georgia, and, shortly after, was made Chief Engineer of this work, in which he continued until September, 1861, when, by proclamation of the President of the Confederacy, he, with others, was required to take the oath of allegiance to that Government. He chose, rather, to resign and join his friends and family, at that time in Pennsylvania. In the spring of 1862, he became connected with the operations of the Fall Brook Coal Co., at Corning, N. Y., and while there designed and constructed a very extensive establishment for the storage and transshipment of coal. This was a work of magnitude and importance, novel in general arrangement and detail. When the work was completed, Mr. Rogers resigned his position to make some surveys for Col. Wells, President of the North Branch Canal, at Athens, Penn., where he spent the winter of 1863-64. In the spring of 1864, Mr. Charles Minot, General Superintendent of the Erie Railroad, engaged his services to design and construct a system of coal works, at important stations along the line of the New York & Erie Railroad, and, while engaged at this work, he was tendered the position of agent and Manager of the Bobtail Gold Mining Co., whose mine, the well-known Bobtail, was one among the first discovered at Central City, Colo. Mr. Rogers came to Colorado to take charge of this mine, crossing the plains during the Indian troubles, in the fall of 1864, and arriving in Central City in October of that year. Subsequent to that date, he has made Central City his home, and has been prominently identified with the mining and milling interests of the county. He has been continuously in charge of the Bobtail enterprise, from its inception to the present time, besides acting as agent for a number of other companies, at different times during this period. Mr. Rogers is regarded as the first civil, mining and mechanical engineer of Colorado, and, under his able management, the Bobtail has become the leading mining enterprise of the county, and the only one of the original companies that has survived the mishaps of those early days of inexperience and wasteful management. Although the active development of the Bobtail mine was commenced in the fall of 1864, no mills were constructed by the company, and it soon became apparent that none were needed under the circumstances, as no permanent success could be attained until a radical change had taken place in the system of mining then prevalent. This could only be accomplished by enlargement of the workable territory constituting the basis of a mining enterprise, reduction of general expenses of organization, and more systematic development, all of these being attainable by the consider-ation of contiguous properties. With this conviction, Mr. Rogers earnestly undertook the work of uniting the separate interests upon the Bobtail, and, after years of effort, aided by Hon. Jerome B. Chaffee, he has seen the work accomplished. The problem of development and equipment of the consolidated property next claimed consideration, and resulted in the construction, at a large outlay of money, of the well-known Bobtail Tunnel, which cuts the vein about five hundred feet below the surface of the mountain. This tunnel had been commenced at an early day and abandoned. Mr. Rogers, in the interest of the Bobtail Co., purchased the controlling interest on the tunnel enterprise, and re-organized the same in 1870. He was then elected President of the new company, in which capacity he has acted since that time. The construction of this work was completed early in 1873, which has since been of great service in operating the mine. These changes in the methods of mining, placed the Bobtail on the firm basis of prosperity, which may be justly claimed for it, the success of which has exerted a lasting influence upon the industries of the county. He is also Superintendent of a promising enterprise in Russell Gulch, known as the Republic Gold Mining Co., which was organized on the well-known Pewabee, and other lodes contiguous thereto. In July, 1879, he was appointed by the United States Court as Commissioner in the celebrated Grand Canon controversy be-tween the D. & R. G. R, R. and A., T. & S. F R. R. Co. This commission consisted of three engineers, viz.: Gen. William Sooy Smith, of Chicago; Col. George F. Gray, of California, and Andrews N. Rogers, of Central City, who were to advise the court of and concerning the matters in controversy, among which were the following: Whether two lines could be constructed through the Grand Canon of the Arkansas, at a reasonable cost; if so, what should be the location of the second line, whether one line had already been constructed wholly or in part; what was its location, and what was its value. This commission reported to the Court the result of its deliberation, and a further decree was made respecting the matter on Jan. 2, 1880, in which decree Mr. Rogers was again appointed sole Commissioner. First, to ascertain and fix the points at the mouth of the Grand Canon, and at or near the mouth of the South Arkansas River, where the road already built, or partly built, may be connected with another line. Second, to compute the cost of the road already built, or partly built, between the above-named points. Third, in case either of the parties' should elect to build a second road through the Grand Canon and valley of the Arkansas to Leadville, the Commissioner was to direct the location of the same, and the revising of the existing line; also to take charge of both lines at points of conflict, in order to protect the interests of both parties. He discharged the duties of this responsible position in an able manner, preliminary to the adjustment of the case, which involved a large amount of money and many difficult points for adjustment, and, on March 23, 1880, submitted his award and report to the Court, which was received with satisfaction by both of the parties, and pronounced to be eminently fair and just.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

John Q. A. Rollins

John Q A. Rollins was born in Gilmanton, N. H. the 16th of June, 1816. His father was a Baptist preacher of considerable note, and his mother a Christian woman of much strength of character, and the son, consequently, received the strict religious training of the time, he was also favored by a good common-school education, adapted to the active business life which he has since led. He was early initiated into the conduct of practical business, as farming, milling, mercantile pursuits, and other branches, beginning his engagement in these as early as twelve years. This early practical education, conferred by wise parents, has been of great benefit to Mr. Rollins during a very remarkably active business life. He has experienced the extremes of varying fortune, but his spirit has always been buoyant, and so hopeful and energetic that he quickly recovers from any business adversity.

Made self-reliant by his early education and thorough business training, at the age of eighteen. Mr. Rollins left his home in Moultonboro, N. H., to try his independent fortune, and arrived in the city of Boston in 1834, and found employment with Curtis Guild, wholesale grocer, No. 28 Merchants Row, near old Faneuil Hall. The young man Rollins, proved so capable that within one year he was intrusted with the charge of the receiving and disbursing of all the goods of the store, at that time one of the largest wholesale establishments of the kind in Boston. But a young man of his restless, adventurous and speculative turn of mind, could not stay contentedly in a Boston store, so, in 1835, he determined to go West, and, with carpet-bag in hand, took a boat to New York and Albany, thence went by rail to Schenectady over the first railroad westward; thence by canal, part of the way working his passage on the "tow path," to Buffalo, thence to Detroit by steamer, and thence to Chicago on foot, making forty-five miles a day, and glorying in beating the stages and boats into the young city. His first experience there was an attack of the measles, so severe that he came near dying, and would have died but for, as he ex-presses it, a cast-iron will, and constitution to match. His next experience was being robbed of $60, and an old watch, all his earthly possessions. But, nothing daunted, he got possession of the ground between Clark and Randolph street bridges, by the river bank. 400 feet, for $200 and soon after sold out to Dyer & Chapin for $400, quick sale, and large profits, but now the property is worth millions.

Feeling that he now had ample capital to operate on, he took up a quarter-section of land on the west side of the North Branch of the Chicago River, running nearly to the forks of the North and South Branches, on which land he cut 200 tons of hay the first year, and sold the same, and a part of the land to Mr. Clybourn, for $2,000, and abandoned the rest of the land, as it was then nothing but a mud-hole, and thought to be worthless, though now all built over with the most costly buildings of Chicago, and worth millions. This speculator's next venture was in land again, in company with Mr. Dyer, at one time Mayor of Chicago; selling again at a profit. Mr. Rollins went to Belvidere, where, in company with R. S. Maloney, ex-member of Congress, and his brothers R. S. and Plummer, took up about 2,000 acres of the best land in Illinois. This fine estate was put in the control of Mr. Rollins, the whole of which was fenced, and 500 acres broken and put into crops in the spring of 1836. Here he concluded to make a home, and, in April of that year, was married to a lady whom he represents as one of the purest Christian women that ever lived, and this testimony to her character and worth, is borne out by all who ever knew her. She died at his present home, Rollinsville, Colorado, the 6th of March, 1880, having been for nearly fifty years a member of the Presbyterian Church, and having performed all life's duties in the most faithful manner, making a happy life for her husband and family, and dying in perfect Christian trust. At Belvidere, Mr. Rollins soon divided the big farm with the Maloneys, and he, led by his restless, enterprising spirit, engaged in trading in merchandise, and in stock-driving over nearly the whole State of Illinois, having branch trading houses extending all the way from Belvidere to Chicago, where he did a large wholesale business with Messrs, Barrett, King & Co., E. Hemsted, and other firms. Besides this, he run a large number of teams yearly to the Wisconsin pineries, carrying most of the surplus product of Boone County, as well as that of his own 1,000 acre farm, to the pineries for sale, exchanging it for sawed lumber, which he rafted down the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers, from two to six million feet annually, for about ten years, selling it at Dubuque, Galena, Rock Island, Quincy, Keokuk, Alton and St. Louis. He has sold many a million feet of lumber to the old St. Louis lumber dealers. The extent of his business operations at this time may be inferred from the statement that in one spring he had 500 men employed in running lumber and logs on the rivers, and at the same time carried on his large farm at Belvidere, where his family resided; and also continued his business as a cattle drover, and conductor of State lines, also mining at Galena, Dubuque and other points. Without too much particularizing, it may be stated in general that Mr. Rollins was one of the most active of the active men who led in the settlement of Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska and Colorado; the perfect type of a bold, pushing, organizing, civilizing frontiersman. Not only has he been a pioneer and explorer in the States named, but, in 1865, took a hundred Mormons to Utah, and a train of thirty-nine teams loaded with goods for the Salt Lake merchants.

In the spring of 1860, Mr. Rollins caught the Pike's Peak gold fever, and, outfitting at his Bel-videre farm with nineteen teams, started for Colorado in company with Col. James McNassor, now of Denver. From Omaha, with machinery and supplies added, they rolled out with thirty teams, about the middle of July, bound for the land of gold, silver not thought of then. The incidents of the journey across the great plains, trading with the Indians, and contact with fellow-pilgrim gold-seekers, seem to have made a deep impression on Mr. Rollins' mind, as he relates them with so much zest.

Arriving at Denver, late in the season, the partners divided their goods, and Mr. Rollins sent a part of his to a new town, which he and others had started at the junction of the Platte and Cache la Poudre Rivers, and part to Gold Dirt, in Gilpin Co., where he set up a quartz-mill in the winter of 1860-61. This was a six-stamper, completed in February, and the first week's run resulted in a clean-up of $1,475, from six cords of ore taken from his own claim on the famous Gold Dirt Lode. This encouraged him to enlarge his mill to sixteen stamps, and to buy all the claims he could get hold of on the Gold Dirt. Here he continued to mine and mill the ores, and trade in mines and mills, until 1864, when he went to New York and was there one of the moving spirits in the organization of the Hope, Eagle, Perigo and Rollins Mining Companies, in each of which he had large stock interests. The New York stockholders had an eye only to speculation in the stock of these companies, says Mr. Rollins, and, when the opportunity for this ceased, the companies went to pieces, followed in a short time by the sale of all their property for debts contracted by inexperienced or reckless managers, and for taxes, which mean death to mining companies that do not mean business.

Knowing better than any other living man the intrinsic value of the Gold Dirt Mines, Mr. Rollins never lost sight of the district, but watched, and as fast as mining companies or discouraged individuals abandoned their claims, he re-located them under the law of 1872, which requires a certain amount of annual work, or forfeiture of right, he has proved his "stay-ing quality," by remaining on the ground, while others wandered off, following every fresh mining excitement. He states that he has expended above $300,000 of his own money in the purchase, re-location and improvement of mining property in this district, so that in 1870, he became the owner of 20,000 linear feet of gold-bearing veins; 300 acres of placer gold-mining claims, and 2,000 acres of the best farming and timber land in the State, all in and around old Gold Dirt, and his residence at Rollinsville, where he cultivates his large mountain farm, the value of which crop is about $8,000 annually.

This immense estate in lands and mines has been made the basis of a great mining enterprise, organized in New York by Mr. Rollins in person. The capital stock of the company is fixed at $5,000,000, divided into 200.000 shares. The original members were of New York's best men: Hon. Richard B. Kimball, Isaac Freese, Mathew Taylor and Elisha Cole, besides Mr. Rollins. After this, in 1879, Mr. Rollins sold to gentlemen of New York and of Middletown, Conn., one-half of all his stock for a large sum of money, serving as a working capital for putting mines and mills and placers in good condition for paying dividends-all being done under the personal superintendency of Mr. Rollins himself, who has, the past season, made as good a showing of substantial improvements as any company in the State, as appears by the following report (somewhat condensed) recently made of the Rollins Gold and Silver Mining Company:

This company is composed of the following-named gentlemen: John Q. A. Rollins, President; A. J. Severance, Vice President; Elisha Cole, Secretary and Treasurer; Richard B. Kimball. Counsel. Trustees-John Q. A. Rollins, Rollinsville, Colo.; Isaac Freese, Horatio Reed, Richard B. Kimball, Matthew Taylor, New York; C. F. Collins, Middletown, Conn.; Ezra White, Elisha Cole, David C. Ferris, New York; Sam'l L. Warner, G. Gillum, Middletown, Conn.; Robert Sherwood, A. J. Severance, New York.

This report, substantially as follows, was made by Mr. Rollins, September 13, 1880, to the company, as its Superintendent.

Their properties lie in Independent Mining District, and consist of about 300 acres of patented placer mining ground, well in preparation for hydraulic operations another year, with "Little Giant" hydraulic machinery now in place on the ground, and fully prepared for successful work when spring opens to fill the ditches and flumes just completed.

They also have the following-named patented lodes in the immediate vicinity of the placer ground: Comstock Lode, 1,500 linear feet; Ophir Lode, 1,500 linear feet; Virginia Lode, 300 linear feet; Crown Point Lode, 1,500 linear feet; Savage Lode, 1,500 linear feet; Colorado Lode, 1,500 linear feet; Perigo (three entries) Lode, 3,300 linear feet; New York Lode, 1,500 linear feet; White Pine, 1,500 linear feet. Also the following-named lodes in course of being patented before the close of the year: Silver Lode, Waterman Lode, Tonawanda Lode, Wallace Lode, Ezra White Lode, Benton Lode, Detroit Lode, Baker Lode. They also have 2,000 acres of farming and timber land patented.

During the past summer, the company have raised over $8,000 worth of produce for the subsistence of workmen and teams, consisting of 50 tons of hay, 75 tons of oats and wheat for feed, and 2,000 bushels of potatoes, besides a considerable quantity of garden vegetables.

The company have on hand, as stated above, in farm products, $8,250; in horses, wagons, har-ness, farm implements, etc., $2,094; hydraulic pipe and fixtures at cost, $1,052; merchandise on hand, $3,569.13; Perigo engine in Gold Dirt mill, $950; total, $15,915.13.

The company pay-roll during the month of August, 1880, had the names of 140 miners, mechanics and laborers. The following are some of the improvements made during the summer, or rather since the organization and systematic operations of the company com-menced. They have concentrated the waters of various streams, lying above their operations, into flumes and ditches, to that amount, if needed, sufficient to run 200 stamps, and all in the immediate vicinity of their united properties and operations.

There have been expended in improvements upon ditches and flumes constructed up to Sep-tember. $7,626.56; cost of Little Giant, pipe and fixtures. $1,052; shoveling snow from road and placing machinery on Perigo Lode, $300; cost of work and tunnel on Perigo Lode. $6,488.04; cost of Crown Point Tunnel, $2,716.53; cost of Colorado Tunnel, $2,924.44; cost of White Pine Tunnel, $691; cost of Ezra White Tunnel, $300; cost of New York Tunnel, $100; cash laid out on different lodes as per report, $1,055; cash laid out repairing buildings, $500; cash laid out repairing roads, $100; cash laid out-farm expense, $782; cash laid out building mill, $3,075.05; cash paid for personal property, horses, wagons, harnesses, farm implements, etc., $2,417.10; merchandise on hand, $3,569.13; general expense account, $3,280.67; total money expended, $36,967.50, deduct company assets as per report, $15,915.13, company prop-erty debit to cash balance, $21,050.37; total number feet tunnel run and timbered, 1,033; total number feet shafts sunk and timbered, 290.

Since his arrival in Colorado, Mr. Rollins has been engaged in a number of important business enterprises besides those mentioned. He was at one time the partner of D. A. Butterfield, of early overland stage and freight line fame. He put $75,000 into the business of the firm of Butterfield & Rollins, of Denver, most of which was lost, he also put $60,000 into the salt works, in South Park, and into mines in Park County, in this State. He and his son John A. Rollins, of Belvidere, Ill., are yet the owners of the South Park Salt Works, and also of the principal part of the famous Phillips Lode, at Buckskin Joe, or Laurette, in Park County, out of which, in the early day, over $400,000 was taken by its then owners, Stancel, Harris and Bond, he was also one of the firm of the Rollins, Lane & Ball Salt Works Company, in South Park, putting about $40,000 cash into this enterprise.

Mr. Rollins also ranks among the first of Colorado road builders, being the projector and constructor of the wagon road from Rollinsville over the Snowy Range to Hot Sulphur Springs in the Middle Park, when he built a bridge across Grand River that has been in use for six years, most of the time free. This road is forty miles long, and cost Mr. Rollins $20,000. He was also at one time half-owner, and kept in repair the old toll road from Denver, by way of Golden, to Black Hawk and Central City, in Gilpin Co. Resides this, he has expended about $20,000 in building free roads in and about Gilpin Co. for the benefit of the country.

At the time of the excitement attendant on the building-up of the city of Cheyenne, in Wyoming. Mr. R. was on hand to take advantage of it, and built a large $30,000 hotel there. This enterprise was intended for the benefit of a brother, but was not fortunate, owing to the removal of the machine-shops of the Union Pacific Railroad to Laramie City.

Mr. Rollins' long experience on the frontiers of the Far West has given him an intimate knowledge of the Indian character, and has often brought him and his men into conflict with the "red devils," as he calls them, who always came out second best in any contest with him. He was in the neighborhood at the time of the massacre on the Little Blue, in 1865, when the savages killed and mutilated in the most shocking manner about forty white men, women and children, and there helped to bury some of the poor, unfortunate settlers. The next spring, when the Indian war had spread over all the plains and into Montana and Utah, Mr. Rollins was called to Salt Lake to look after a train of thirty-nine wagons he had sent there laden with goods for the Mormon merchants, and, during this perilous journey, had some contests with Indians and many narrow escapes, and was a witness to the falling of many a soldier and settler before the merciless savages. As instances of their barbarous cruelty, he mentions seeing two teamsters or emigrants tied to their wagon, and all the goods the fiends did not want to carry off were piled about their victims and set on fire, burning the two men at the stake. A little further on were found an old woman and child bound up in a feather bed, which was on fire, and the woman and child were burned to death. After the settlement of his business in Salt Lake City, he found that all travel and communication eastward had been cut off by the Indian war; but, determined to return, he started on foot for Denver across the wide, unsettled country, with only one man for a companion, and he feels that only a protecting Providence, preserving his life for some good purpose, kept him to his journey's end.

The foregoing imperfect sketch can serve but as a hint to a life full to overflowing with boldly conceived business enterprises, and with startling border events, more, perhaps, than have befallen to any other one man, and which deserve permanent place in the pioneer annals of Colorado. Of the many generous, manly deeds that mark the career of Mr. Rollins, there is one to which he refers with special pride, and which he says, gives him more satisfaction than any other act of his life. He took the occasion, in 1865, when he had plenty of money, to visit the old home in Moultonboro, N. H., where his aged parents still lived, and there bought for them an old favorite farm of 210 acres, formerly owned by them, thus securing them a loved and beautiful home, where the family still reside. Mr. Rollins says that he has been accused behind his back of all sorts of rascalities, but that no man can stand before his face and say in truth that he ever robbed another of one cent, and that no man, either rich or poor, ever came to his house hungry and went away empty. To do good to all mankind is the only religion he professes.

It is many years since he left Boston with no capital but a lightly filled hand-valise, a clear conscience, a clear brain, a strong constitution and an iron will. What he has accomplished during a busy life may serve as an inspiring example to young men starting out to make their way in the world, and ambitious to become a power in their generation.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

Mansel H. Root

This gentleman is prominently known as one of the early pioneers of Gilpin Co., whose sub-sequent career has been one of activity, in assisting in the development of the mineral resources of this district, but is chiefly known though his prominence as a contractor, and is regarded as one of the most efficient building contractors of Colorado. He has been extensively engaged for the past forty years upon public and private contracts of various kinds, in his native and other States and upon numerous private contracts in this State. From the time of his arrival in Gilpin Co., he has been one of the chief contractors in erecting stamp-mills and extensive buildings and machinery for developing and operating deep mines. He has also erected a number of the principal buildings of Central City, including the Teller House, M. E. Church and the public school building, extending his operations to Denver and to various mountain towns. He was born in Stratford, Orange Co., Vt., Aug. 28, 1818. At the age of twenty, he served an apprentice-ship at the mason's trade. In his twenty-third year, he was employed as foreman in the con-struction of the Indian Orchard, Holyoke, and a number of other dams, and in bridge-pier building for various incorporated companies in Massachusetts, which position he held during the succeeding six years, after which, from 1847 to 1852, he was outside Superintendent for the Glasgow Gingham Manufacturing Co., at South Hadley Falls, Mass., having charge of the receiving and shipping of goods, and the oversight of a large number of men variously employed around the mills, he then went to Richmond, Va., where he was engaged one year in running a number of drays, after which, he took a contract to build a section of the Richmond & Danville Railroad, completing it in fourteen months. In 1851, he returned to .Massachusetts, and superintended the building of the Goshen Reservoir Dam, at the town of Goshen, nine miles north of North Hampton. In the spring of 1855, he removed to Westfield, Iowa, where he engaged in contracting. He erected the Northern Iowa University and a number of mills and various other public and private buildings. In the spring of 1860, he crossed the plains to what was then known as the "Pike's Peak country," and located in Lake Gulch, in what is now Gilpin Co., and engaged in taking contracts for stripping placer mines (removing the surface dirt from off the pay dirt) and for building wagon roads. The following fall he was employed by Smith & Chaffee to superintend the Bobtail and Kent County mines, holding that position one year. In the fall of 1862, he returned to Iowa and the following season engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the spring of 1864, he again came to Colorado, and has since resided in Central City, en-gaged in contracting and the superintending of various kinds of work. The past five years, however, he has devoted his attention principally to agriculture, having eight hundred acres of patented lands in Gilpin and Clear Creek counties. He owns an interest in a number of prominent mines in Gilpin Co.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]

William M. Roworth

Among the pioneer business men of Gilpin County, and one who has, by fair dealing and perseverance, established himself as one of the prominent merchants of Gilpin County, is W. M. Roworth. He was born in Livingston Co., N. Y., in 1831. In the spring of 1860, started from St. Joseph, Mo., and crossed the plains to Colorado, and located in Central the 24th of May, and immediately opened a bakery, and from that worked into groceries. In 1864, added hardware and general merchandise, with good success. He was chosen Mayor in 1866, and twice re-elected. In 1869, elected to the Legislature: was one of the Directors in the Rocky Mountain Bank of Central for a number of years. In 1872, he purchased a house in Denver, where his family now reside. Mr. Roworth passed through the great fire of 1874, without serious loss, his being the only store left standing on Main street, and the day after the fire, sold out the grocery department, and since then has dealt in hardware exclusively. For eight years, he has been stock-raising to some extent. In 1878, became a stockholder and Director in the Colorado National Bank of Denver. During these years, he has been variously associated in business. The original firm was Roworth & Cannon, then W. M. Roworth, then Roworth & Bro., then W. M. Roworth & Co., then Roworth & Lake, and the last three years, W. M. Roworth. He now occupies two stores on Main Street, besides magazines, and carries an immense stock of hardware and miners' supplies; is agent for the Hazard Powder, and State Agent for the Giant Powder Company; is doing an annual business of $100,000. Mr. Roworth was married in 1867, is a gentleman of pleasing address, and a successful financier.

[History of Clear Creek & Boulder Counties, Colorado, with a History of Gilpin County & Biographies, 1880; transcribed by cddd]


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