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 Biographies of our Colorado Governors



ROBERT W. STEELE
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911
Provisional Governor of Jefferson Territory (Colorado), was born near Chillicothe, Ross county, Ohio, January 14, 1820, and died in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1901. He spent his youth on a farm, and in the fall of 1846, began the study of law in Fairfield, Iowa. Later, he attended the Law School of Cincinnati, from which he was graduated in 1852, and then settled in Indianola, Warren county, Iowa. Removing to Omaha, Nebraska, in 1855, he there engaged in the real estate business, and was a member of the legislature of that teritory, during the session of 1858-9. Attracted by the gold discoveries in the Rocky Mountains, he started for Colorado, March 25, 1859, arriving in Denver the following May, and in June that year, located in Central City. The Gregory, the first gold hole discovered in the territory, was being opened up, and with other developments, this locality had become the center of the mining region. Mr. Steel first gave his attention to mining, and for a time was president of the Consolidated Ditch Company.

On October 1, 1859, a convention was called to organize a provisional government, which was known as Jefferson territory. A full list of territorial officers were nominated, including Robert W. Steele for governor. He defeated his opponent, St. Matthew, by a good majority. The legislature convened in December 1859, when Steele took his seat as governor. He delivered his message to the legislature of Jefferson territory , making the recommendations he thought necessary for maintaining a government at that time, when the mountains were filled with a large and transient population. This legislature enacted laws, which were published and known as the "Laws of Jeferson Territory," a rare volume, and one unique in American history. Later Jefferson territory was incorporated and included in the newly organized territory of Colorado, and in June 1861, Governor Steele turned over to Governor Gilpin, who had been appointed to that office, all executive authority. It has been claimed that a committee of republicans waited upon Governor Steele, requesting him to take an appointment under President Lincoln, as governor of Colorado territory, but he refused to consider that matter, as he was a democrat and remained true to the principles of that party. Governor Steele brought out his family from Omaha in the spring of 1860, and settling in Golden, made that place his residence, until he removed to Empire in 1862. Going into the Argentine district, in 1864, he was one of the party who discovered the Belmont silver mine, the first paying silver lode found in Colorado, creating quite an excitement at that time. It was so named for August Belmont of New York and sold for $100,000, changing ownership several times, and later was known as the Johnson mine.

Governor Steele returned with his family to Iowa in October 1865, to educate his children, and after spending some time in New York City, returned to Colorado in 1867, locating in Georgetown, where he was afterward joined by his family. In later years he made his residence in Colorado Springs where he died in 1901.

He married Miss Susan Nevin, September 6, 1848, in Hillsboro, Ohio. They had the following children: Mrs. J.c. Parsons, Harrisonville, Mo.; Miss Mary E. Steel, Kansas City, Mo.; Hugh Steele, his son, now (1911) secretary of the Colorado Pioneers Society, and Charles W. Steele, deceased 1894.

WILLIAM GILPIN
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado territory (1861-1862), soldier, explorer and author, born on the battlefield of Brandywine, October 22, 1822, died January 20, 1894, was the son of Joshua and Mary (Dilworth) Gilpin. He traced his descent to Richard de Guylpyn, in the time of King John, and down through a line of hardy ancestors, eminent as soldiers, statesmen and divines, including Bernard Gilpin, the "Apostle of the North", and to Thomas Gilpin, a soldier under Cromwell in the historic "Ironsides" regiment, one of the provost guard at the execution of Charles I.

His son, Joseph Gilpin, also a soldier under Cromwell, after the restoration of Charles H., and having also become a member of the Society of Friends, emigrated to the new world, taking up a large tract of land on the Brandywine, becoming the progenitor of the Gilpin family in this country, who were patriots in the American revolution. It was on this old homestead, historic from the days of the revolution that the future governor of Colorado was born, and from amid such scenes he was imbued with those lofty and patriotic sentiments that were characteristic of his life.

At the age of ten, he was sent to England, where he attended school two years. Returning to this country, he entered the University of Pennsylvania, of which his grandfather was one of the founders. After graduating from this institution, he was appointed a cadet to West Point by President Jackson, from which he was graduated in 1836. He was then appointed a lieutenant in the Second Dragoons, and soon after served under General Jessup in the Florida was against the Seminoles. Resigning from the army, his request being denied to be sent to the Pacific coast, he settled in St. Louis in 1839, where he became the editor of the Missouri Argus. In 1841, he located in Independence, Missouri, where he engaged in the practice of the law, and was elected secretary of the general assembly of that state. While at West Point, he had also studied law, being registered as a student with his brother, Henry D. Gilpin, who was later attorney general in 1840, in President Van Buren's cabinet.

Although successful in the practice of law at Independence, yet at heart, Gilpin was an explorer, and his ambition not being gratified caused his resignation, he again was imbued with desire to traverse the unknown wilds of the west. Retiring from the law in 1843, he started out to explore the northwest, but soon joined Fremont, then on this second expedition, and visited Fort St. Vrain that summer, while enroute to the Pacific. He assisted in the organization of the provisional government in Oregon, and was commissioned to carry the articles of agreement relating thereto to Washington. Notwithstanding the attempt at the national capital to belittle his mission, and where he was designated as the "Squatter Delegate from the Pacific Coast", he at least succeeded in advertising the resources and made public the wants and needs of the great northwest. Gilpin was accustomed to designate those opposing his mission as the "Salt Water Despots", while on the other hand, Calhoun referred to him as "A young man who desired to trade off his lieutenant's uniform for senatorial robes."

In the Mexican war, Gilpin was a major in Colonel Doniphan's famous regiment of Missourians, with which he rendered distinguished services. In 1847, he was sent with 1,200 men against Indian tribes in the west and southwest, conducting a part of his campaign in Colorado. His command suffered and endured great hardships, but he was successful in his operations against these Indians. From 1848, until 1861, he resided at Independence, practicing law, and also his lectures throughout the country concerning the west and its future greatness. Even then and in later years, Gilpin was often characterized as a "dreamer", but more than he even predicted has come to pass in the empire building that have moved onward with gigantic strides on the American frontier.

When Gilpin was appointed governor of the territory of Colorado, in 1861, by President Lincoln, the nation was engulfed in the great struggle of the civil war. Both from a civil and military standpoint, his appointment was most fortunate. He had been a prominent figure in the organization of the provisional government in Oregon, and, when he was appointed governor of this new territory, he succeeded Governor Steele, who had been governor of the provisional government of Jefferson territory, the older name, but a little more comprehensive as to area, for what is now Colorado.

He fully understood the underlying causes that lead people on the frontier to organize such forms of governments, and was in full sympathy with all efforts to develop this new region. As a soldier he began to raise and equip troops for the Union army. Although prompted by sincere and patriotic motives, it was claimed at Washington that he exceeded his authority by incurring heavy expenses in the equipment of these troops, which resulted in his resignation as governor, and the appointment of Dr. John Evans as his successor.

Governor Gilpin was a scholarly, polite and courteous gentleman of the "old school," and in every sense was one of the distinguished empire builders of the west. He owned extensive land and mining interests, more especially in the Gilpin land grant in Colorado. The last years of his life were spent by him in this state, highly honored and esteemed by all. He retired for the night, January 19, 1894, and next morning (20th) was found dead in his bed, and is supposed to have died of heart failure.

In 1874, he married Mrs. Julia Pratte Dickerson, of a very prominent southern family. Of her first marriage (to Captain John Dickerson, U.S.A.) there were born the following children: Louise, Sidney and Elizabeth, the latter the wife of Otis B. Spencer of Denver. Later to Governor and Mrs. Gilpin, there were born the following children: William (deceased) and Polly (twins), and Louis.

Governor Gilpin is the author of the following books: The Central Gold Region (1860); Notes on Colorado (1870;[sic] Mission of the North American People (1874) and, the Cosmopolitan Railway, and Fusing Together All the World's Continents (1891).

It was the old time prophecy of Governor Gilpin that a railroad would be built through Alaska, over or under Behring Stait. The rich gold discoveries in that region, and railway construction now being carried on there, may yet see it all realized.

JOHN EVANS
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born near Waynesville, Ohio, March 9, 1814, died July 3, 1897, was the son of David and Rachel Evans. His great grandfather, a manufacturer of tools, was one of the early Quaker settlers of Philadelphia, and his sons, Benjamin and Owen, continued to carry on the same business, Owen being the inventor of the screw auger. Benjamin, father of David, removed to South Carolina and married Hannah Smith, but being anti-slavery, removed to the then wilderness of Ohio, where he became wealthy in the manufacture of screw augers and in farming and merchandizing.

John Evans, the son, and future governor of Colorado, worked on the farm and attended the local schools. On beoming of age, he took a course in Clearmont academy, in Philadelphia, later studied medicine, graduating as an M.D. in 1838. After practicing his profession for a short time, near Ottawa, Illinois, he removed to Attica, Indiana, where he was successful as a physican and financier. Through lectures, articles in the press, and an address before the legislature, he obtained an appropriation from the state for the erection of an insane asylum near Indianapolis, of which he was the first superintendent. In 1845, he was elected to a professorship, which he held for eleven years, in the Rush Medical college in Chicago. Dr. Evans published a monograph, maintaining that the cholera was contagious at the time of the epidemic of that disease in 1848-49 and later, in 1865, also urged congress to establish a national quarantine.

For several years he was editor of the Northwestern Medical and Surgical Journal. Dr. Evans was the founder of the Illinois General Hosptial for the Lakes, later transferred to the Sisters of Mercy, and named the Mercy hospital. He was largely instrumental in establishing the Methodist Book Concern (publishing house) and the Northwestern Christian Advocate in Chicago, and was one of the original promotors[sic] of the Methodist Church block. He, as chairman of the committee on public schools, in the Chicago city council, 1852-53, introduced the ordinance for the appointment of the first superintendent of public schools, the purchase of a site and the erection of the first high school building in that city. He secured the right of way and valuable lands for terminals, where the Chicago Union depot now stands. He was one of the promotors[sic] of the Chicago and Fort Wayne railroad, of which he was a managing director for several years.

In 1853. Dr. Evans advocated the founding of the Northwestern university and, with others, selected it location in Evanston, which was so named in his honor. Within two years this great university was established. He endowed the chairs of Latin and Mental Philosophy of this institution with $50,000, which he increased to $100,000; was the first president of the board of trustees, and remained with that board for forty-two years. In 1855, he removed his family to Evanston, then a wilderness. When Mrs. Garrett founded the Garrett Biblical institute in Evanston, he was made a member of the board of trustees, a position which he held several years. Dr. Evans was a shrewd financier, and, in Chicago, laid the foundation of his great wealth in the purchase of large tracts of land that rapidly increased in value with the growth of the city.

In 1860, Dr. Evans was a member of the republican state convention of Illinois, which was the first to nominate Lincoln for president, and actively participated in that campaign. In 1861, he carried on a spirited controversy, in the Chicago Evening Journal, with Judge Scates of the Illinois Supreme court, advocating the emancipating of the slaves, as a war measure, his position therein being vindicated in subsequent events. Dr. Evans was a candidate from Chicago for congress on the know nothing or American ticket, but was defeated.

In the autumn of 1861 President Lincoln, who was his warm personal friend, tendered him the governorship of Washington territory, which was declined, but in 1862, he accepted the position of governor of Colorado, becoming the successor of Governor Gilpin. He became a leader of men in Colorado, as he had been in Illinois and Indiana, and the founder and promotor[sic] of vast enterprises in this state and the west. In education, morals, railroads, finance, and in politics, here in Colorado he became an empire builder, as he had been in the Mississippi valley. He completed the work of raising troops in Colorado to suppress the rebellion, and defend its people from the terrible ravages of Indian warfare on the plains.

He retired as governor in 1865, having filled that office with marked ability during one of the most trying and critical periods in its history. He was elected United States senator from Colorado when the first state organization was effected in 1865, and passed the winters of 1865-66 and 1866-67 in Washington. Colorado was admitted to statehood at both these sessions, but President Johnson vetoed both these bills and Governor Evans was not permitted to take his seat in the senate. During the session of congress, 1869, he procured the passage of the Denver Pacific land grant bill and the road was completed to Cheyenne in June, 1870. The previous year he had been a delegate to the national convention in 1868, that nominated Grant for president and while at Washington, had been elected president of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. In 1872, with others, organized the Denver, South Park and Pacific Railroad Company. He was Colorado's first great railroad builder, and, among his later enterprises, was the old Denver and New Orleans Railroad,  now a part of the Colorado and Southern system.

Governor Evans was among the leaders of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was one of the founders of the University of Denver, first established under its old charter of Colorado seminary.

Governor Evans married, Miss Hannah, daughter of Dr. Joseph Canby, an uncle of General E.R.S. Canby. She died in 1850. Three years later he married Margaret, of illustrious colonial ancestry, daughter of Samuel Gray of Maine. She was one of the most cultured and dignified of the pioneer women and a patron of painting and sculpture in the University of Denver; she died September 7. 1906. They were survived by the following children: William G., Evan E. and Anne.

ALEXANDER CUMMINGS   
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Territorial governor of Colorado, appointed October 17, 1865, by President Johnson, resigned about April 21, 1867, had one of the stormiest careers in the early days, and his administration of two years was characterized with wrangling and much political bitterness. He had come into political prominence in 1862, as the founder of the New York Daily World. He came from Philadelphia, at a time when Colorado had been greatly wrought up over a political campaign in which the Sand Creek fight with the Indians had been an issue. The turbulent condition of the public mind, and the intensity of the strife between the contending factions of Colorado would have put to the test any man of the strongest force of character, and great executive ability.

Cummings was a scholarly and able man, but not in touch with western ideas and spirit, and naturally dictatorial in policy, he unfortunately added flame to the excited condition of affairs, instead of exerting a pacifying influence. Governor Cummings opposed the statehood plan, and had strong backing in the east, where he had been an active supporter and friend of Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania. Bills to admit Colorado were twice vetoed by President Johnson, thus preventing the seating of former Governor John Evans and Jerome B. Chafee, who, under the expectation that Colorado would become a state, had been elected to the United States senate.

In issuing his Thanksgiving proclamation, Governor Cummings advised the people to "assemble at their places of worship and render to God devout thanksgiving for the riches of his grace, manifested through his Son, Jesus Christ." This act alienated from him the Hebrew influence, those of that faith claiming that he had excluded them from taking any part in the thanksgiving exercises, and all attempts made to have Governor Cummings modify the proclamation were without effect, he explaining that he had not intended any discourtesy or to exclude them.

Samuel H. Elbert, later governor and chief justice of Colorado, was then territorial secretary. Governor Cummings took from him the great seal, and, later, the former resigned. General Frank Hall, not wishing the place, was finally induced to accept the office of secretary of the territory, and later Governor Cummings made a successful fight to have him removed. There was trouble over election returns and other public matters, and the territory kept in constant turmoil by the contending political factions, until the governor finally resigned.

Outside of political matters, Governor Cummings attempted to promote the development of the material resources of the territory, having great faith in the future growth and richness of Colorado. He encouraged investment in mines, when that industry was at a low ebb. At this time, the placer mines not yielding so large a product, and silver mining not yet made a prominent feature, many thousands were returning to the east declared that Colorado was a fraud and that Pike's Peak had "busted." Governor Cummings attempted to allay this excitement and stem the reaction that had set in. He encouraged the building of the railroads, and made a special study of this feature. In his message to the legislature, January 5, 1866, he discussed at some length the freight question, and the necessity for railroads, as all the necessities of life were then hauled across the plains by wagons. Commenting on this he said:

"Probably no data could be collected which would show accurately the immense amount of traffic between the east and the west. I am informed that a keeper of a toll bridge on the Santa Fe road, which traverses southern Colorado 200 miles, kept a register of the number of men, wagons and animals, employed in the transportation of freight on the road for the six months ending November 20, 1865, and reports as follows:

Number of men employed...........5,197
Number of animals employed...45,350
Pounds of freight carried.... 26,123,400

"From a single house of the Overland Dispatch Company was shipped to Denver City, during the seven months ending and December 1, 1865, 3,076,000 pounds, and through Colorado to Salt Lake the additional amount of 2,871,000 pounds. Besides this, a very large amount of freight has been shipped by the forwarding houses from Atchison, St. Joseph, Omaha, Nebraska City, Plattsmouth, Leavenworth, Kansas City and Independence, so that it is estimated that with railroad transportation it would require forty cars a day to remove the  amount of freight that would be required to supply the present demand."

These are interesting figures to compare with the railway traffic, of which Denver is now the center. Governor Cummings then discusses the exorbitant freight costs of that period. He comments in this same message on the statement of J.T. Herrick, the engineer appointed to survey a railroad route a distance of less than twenty-five miles from Golden to Black Hawk, who stated that upon inquiry, the merchants of Central (City), Nevada, and Black Hawk, had paid during the past year, principally during the summer and autumn, for freight for supplies taken over this distance between Golden and those towns, more than $650,000. This is also interesting data, considered in the light of the freight questions of today.

After his resignation, Governor Cummings was appointed collector of internal revenue for the Fourth district of Pennslyvania.

ALEXANDER CAMERON HUNT
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Territorial Governor of Colorado (1867-69) was born Dec. 25, 1925. He was educated in the public school in Freeport, Ill., where his father had removed in 1836. Leaving home at the age of sixteen, to make his own way in the world, he went to California, returning to Freeport a rich man, in 1850. Then he engaged in the grain and commission business, and in 1856, was elected mayor of Freeport. Losing all in the financial crash of 1857, he followed the Pike's Peak excitement in 1859, crossing the plains with his wife and child in an ox wagon. Locating in Auraria (West Denver) in a cabin without a door or window, he opened a restaurant, but as he was too generous with his provisions, the enterprise proved a failure. Engaging in the lumber business, he met with better success. He was elected president of the Peoples' Courts in 1860, and was U.S. marshal, 1862-66. He was a member of the antistate faction, and supported Gov. Cummings in the latter's opposition to the admission of Colorado as a state, thus becoming one of the central figures in the heated political strife then waged in Colorado. He ran for congress as an independent against Geo. M. Chilcott, the nominee of the Union republicans. It was a campaign waged wth great bitterness, the vote was close, but after much wrangling over the election returns, and the matter brought up in congress, Chilcott was seated.

In 1867, he was appointed Territorial Governor of Colorado by President Johnson, as well as superintendent ex offcio of Indian affairs. No executive possess to a greater extent the confidence and good will of the Indians of this region, and he was successful in maintaining these friendly relations, which resulted in the treaty of 1868, by which the Utes ceded to the United States all their lands east of the 107th meridan.  On being removed by President Grant in 1869, he turned his attention to railroad building and construction, becoming associated with Gen. W.J. Parker, who was in charge of the old Kansas Pacific, then being pushed across the plains of Denver. They originated the Denver & Rio Grand system, of which Gov. Hunt later became one of the directors. In his investigation of new routes, laying out town sites, and other enterprises, he began and encouraged a development of Colorado's resources, that materially aided in the founding of a great state. In 1871, Gen. Palmer and Gov. Hunt, were joined by Dr. William A. Bell, and their combined efforts saved the road from threatened bankruptcy.

While a resident of Freeport, Ill., he married Ellen E. Kellogg, of White Pigeon, Michigan. In 1880, he lost his wife, a daughter and two sons. Prostrated with grief, he left Colorado, and followed Gen. Palmer to Mexico, where the latter was again engaged in investigating railway possibilities in the region. Gov. Hunt's home and mansion was one of the  most imposing residences in the early history of Denver, and was a noted place in the suburbs of the city. The result of the investigation by Palmer and Hunt, was the construction of the International Railroad. Hunt, after having accumulated a fortune of half a million dollars, dissolved with Palimer in 1883. Then engaging in coal mining and railway enterprises in Texas, he lost heavily, and with failing fortune, came loss of health. In 1891, while in Chicago, en route to Denver, Gov. Hunt was stricken with paralysis, and for two years and nine months lay helpless and speechless. He died May 14, 1894. in Washington, D.C. and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery. A son and daughter survive him.

EDWARD MOODY McCOOK
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Soldier, territorial governor of Colorado, son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) McCook, was born in Steubenville, Ohio, June 15, 1833. His grandfather, George McCook, was an Irishman of Scotch descent, who becoming involved with the United Irishmen in 1780, fled to the United States. His sons, John (father of Governor McCook) and Daniel were known as the "fighting McCooks," distinguished as the "Tribe of John and the Tribe of Dan."

Edward M. McCook was educated in the public schools, settled in Minnesota at the age of sixteen, and later followed the Pike's Peak excitement, reaching Denver August 6, 1859. He was a member of the Kansas legislature in 1860, where he was known as "the Gentleman from Arapahoe." At this time there was a provisionl government in what is now Colorado, known as "Jefferson Territory" which had executive offices, a legislature, a judiciary and also miners court. Some claimed that this region was still "Arapahoe county, Kansas," which formed the basis of electing McCook a member of that legislature.

McCook engaged in mining and the practice of the law, with more or less success, but when Sumter was fired on he hastened to Washington. Before entering the field in a recognized capacity, he became a member of Jim Lane's "Kansas Legion," which with the "Kentucky Legion" were the only commands then in the city, loyal to the government. He was one of those especially detailed to guard the white house and President Lincoln. McCook volunteered to carry dispatches to General Scott, communication having been cut off by the Maryland state troops. Although Baltimore was in a state of insurrection, he succeeded in returning with dispatches, walking all the way back on the trailway track. He made a gallant record in the civil war; entered the Union army, second lieutenant, First United States cavalry, May 8, 1861, first lieutenant, July 17, 1862; in volunteer service as major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel, second Indian volunteer cavalry; brigadier general volunteers, Aprrl 27, 1864; mustered out of volunteer service, January 15, 1866. General McCook was breveted; first lieutenant, April 7, 1862, for battle of Shiloh; captain, October 8, 1862, for battle of Perryville; major, September 20, 1863, for battle of Chickamaugua; lieutenant Colonel, January 27, 1864, for cavalry operations in eastern Tennessee; colonel, March 13, 1865, for captrue of Selma, Alabama; Brigadier general, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the field during the war; major general volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services, etc.

Resigning from the regular army, May 9, 1866, he was minister to Hawaii, 1866-69, where, during his term, he negotiated a treaty of commercial reciprocity. In 1869, he was appointed by President Grant territorial governor of Colorado. He strengthened the public school system, established a board of immigration, encouraged the building of railroads, was identified with the organization of the Denver water works, and other important enterprises, and became one of the largest taxpayers in the city.

It is now interesting to note that he advocated woman's suffrage. McCook had supplanted Hunt as governor, the latter having been during his term, ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs. Hunt had been the friend of champion for Cummings, his predecessor as governor, and their administration had been all interspersed with bitter factional fights and partnership. Feuds again broke out, and Hunt's friends, with other, made trouble over alleged irregularities in the conduct of Indian affaris, in 1873. Sanuel H. Elbert was appointed March 9, that year, territorial governor. Then ensued the stormy incidents of the McCook-Elbert controversy, resulting in the re-appointment of McCook as governor, January 27, 1874, who served until the beginning of the adminstration of Governor John L. Routt, who was appointed governor, March 29, 1875.

Governor McCook then engaged in various large business and commercial enterprises. He was largely interested in a European telephone syndicate, and at one time was one of the purchasers of the Batopilos, the rich silver mine of Mexico. He was a well-known orator, and was selected to deliver the funeral oration of General Thomas. He married twice; first, Mary Thompson; second, Mary McKenna. He died in 1909.

SAMUEL HITT ELBERT
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born in Logan county, Ohio, April 3, 1833, died November 27, 1899.

His first American ancestor emmigrated from Devonshire, England and settled prior to 1683, on the eastern shore of Maryland. He there became the proprietor of a large plantation, which is still owned by his descendents. Dr. John Lodman Elbert, his paternal great grandfather was a surgeon in the American Revolution, and for his services in that war was voted a large tract of land by the Maryland legislature. He was a member of the Order of the Cincinnati. His mother, of Huguenot origin, was descended from a Virginia colonial ancestry. His father, Dr. John Downs Elbert, was eminent as a physican and surgeon, who held honorary degrees from Cincinnati and Philadelphia medical colleges. In 1840, the family removed to Iowa.

Samuel H. Elbert, the son, returned to Ohio in 1848, and was graduated from the Ohio Western University in 1854. During the  next two years, he studied law in Dayton, Ohio, and was there admitted to the bar. He came west in the spring of 1857, and opened a law office in Plattsmouth, Nebraska, building up an extensive practice in that state and Iowa. In 1860, he was a delegate from Nebraska, to the republican convention that nominated Lincoln for president, and the same year he was elected to the Nebraska legislature. In 1862, he was appointed by President Lincoln, Secretery of Colorado Territory, serving in that position under Governor John Evans. As secretary of the territory, he was frequently acting governor, adn promoted the mobilization of the 2nd and 3rd Colorado regiments for the civil war, and was a prominent figure in dealing with the Indian hostilities, then prevailing on the plains. In  1864, he was a delegate to the national republican convention that re-nominated Lincoln for president.

After serving four years as secretary of the territory, he resumed the practice of the law, forming a partnership with J.Q. Charles, under the firm name of Charles & Elbert. In 1869 Judge Elbert was elected to the territorial legislature. In 1870, he was the secretary, and in 1872, the chariman of the republican central committee of the territory. Upon the urgent request and the petition of the citizens, Judge Elbert was appointed governor of Colorado Territory in 1873. The territory was then a hot bed of political intrigue, and torn by wrangling and partisan politics, and notwithstanding the ability with which Judge Elbert administered the affairs of the territory, he was superceeded in that office in 1874.

During his short term as governor, he began an agitation that still continues-the question of the reclamation of the arid lands. He called a meeting of delegates from the western states and territories, in the summer of 1873, at which he delivered an address on this then, and now, great western question: It was the first large convention on the publ[sic] and arid land problem, to be followed by others, even up to the present time. After Gov. Elbert's removal, the whole matter was explained to President Grant, that he had been misinformed as to conditions in Colorado. After leaving the governor's chair, Judge Elbert visited Europe, spending a year abroad, in the study of social and political conditions.

When Colorado became a state, in 1876, Judge Elbert was elected on the republican ticket to the Colorado Supreme Court, in which he drew the six year tenure, and later assumed the duties of chief justice. On the expiration of his term in 1882, he refused to accept a re-nomination, owing to ill health. He afterwards, consented to beome a candidate, was elected, and again became a member of the Colorado Supreme Court in January 1886, but owing to failing health, he withdrew in 1888.

His alma mater conferred upon him the degree of L.L. B.

In June 1865, he married, at Evanston, Ill., Miss Josephine, daughter of Governor John Evans of Colorado, whose death with their only child in 1868, was his greatest bereavement.

JOHN LONG ROUTT
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born in Eddyville, Caldwell county, Kentucky, April 25, 1826, and died in Denver, was the son of John and Martha (Haggard) Routt. The family is of Welch origin. Daniel, son of the founder of the family in this country, was a pioneer in Kentucky, making his home about three miles from Boonville, when he died at the age of 85. John, son of Daniel was born in Clark County, Kentucky, and engaged in farming in Caldwell county, that state, where he died at the age of 34.

During the war of 1812, he was a member of Captain Long's company. Martha Haggard, his wife, was born in Clark County. Her father, David Haggard, of Welch descent, but native of Virginia, enlisted at the age of 17, in the army in the American Revolution, serving until its close, and then became a pioneer settler in Clark county, Kentucky. In after years he cultivated a farm in Trigg county, that state, but spent his last days with relatives in Bloomington, Ill., when he died at the age of 85. About 1885, Martha (Haggard), widow of John Routt, and the mother of the future governor of Colorado, removed with her family to Bloomington, Ill, having in the meantime married Henry Newton of Kentucky. After a residence of two years in Hancock county, that state, she removed to McDonough county, and later to McLean county, where she died at the age of 77. Her family consisted of two sons and two daughters, two surviving her, John L. Routt, and Mrs. Elizabeth Newton.

John L. Routt was an infant at the time of his father's death, and was about ten years of age when his mother removed to Ill. He was educated in the public schools, and was then apprenticed to a builder and machinist to learn that trade, and continued in the business until 1851, when he began to deal in town property and public lands, with varied success. After holding some minor offices, in 1860, he was elected sheriff of McLean county, that then ranked second in population and importance in Ill. He entered the United States military service in 1862, as captain of Company E, 94th Ill. Volunteers, his first year's service being spent in Missouri and Arkansas. At the battle of Prairie Grove, he was in the thickest of the fight, three bullets passing through his clothing in one day. Next, he served with his regiment under Gen. Grant, before Vicksburg, remaining until the surrender of that city. His bravery in this campaign and his gallant record, coming under the personal notice of Grant, there began that strong friendship, that developed with the years following, which bound him and the great commander with the closest ties. Routt was at Port Hudson and served in Texas, but returned to Baton Rouge after the defeat of Gen. Banks.

Returning home from the war to Bloomington in 1865, he found that he had already been elected during his absence, treasurer of McLean County, so great was his popularity. After serving two terms in that office, and refusing a third election, he became Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the 2nd Assistant Postmaster General, in 1869. The following spring, President Grant appointed him  U.S. Marshal for the Southern District of Ill. When holding this office, he conducted the taking of the 9th U.S. census in that district. Then as 2nd Assistant Postmaster General, he made a splendid record, handling about $20,000,000 a year in his department.

In 1875, he was appointed Governor of Colorado, by President Grant, and began at once to cement the wrangling factions of the republican party that then agitated the territory, and push the statehood idea. Colorado was admitted by proclamation of the President, Aug. 1, 1876, and he was elected governor on the republican ticket. Thus, he was the last territorial and the first state governor of Colorado. He was later elected and served as governor of the state for the term of 1891-93. making the longest record of any one up to the present time, in that office.

As  Colorado began statehood under his administration, he helped to lay the foundation for the future greatness of this commonwealth. His hitherto large experience, both in Ill. and with national affairs, in conducting public business, as well as his ability to command and direct, as displayed in the army, eminently fitted and qualified him to fill the position of governor, during a critical period in the state's history. He showed great skill and prudence in directing the early land policy and finances of the state. During his adminstration, one of the most exciting as well as bitter struggles occurred in the legislature halls to maintain order. He called both factions in counsel, and as an old soldier, explained the bad precedent of such action, advised moderation, and refused to send in the troops. At critical times, he always brought order out of chaos. He showed the same marked ability as mayor of Denver. He was a prominent figure in state and national politics, and was one of those who amassed a fortune in the Leadville mines.

He married first, in 1845, Esther A. (daughter of J. Woodson), born in Springfield, and died in Washington, D.C. 1872. They had the following children: Minnie (wife of state senator, Charles Hartzell), who died in Denver; Birdie, wife of attorney W.H. Bryant of Denver; Frank; John H.; and Mrs. Emma Butler of Denver. He married second, Miss Eliza Pickrell of Springfield, Ill. now dead, who was one of the most beloved women of Colorado. They had one child, Lelia Elkin.

FREDERICK WALTER PITKIN
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born in Manchester, Conn., Aug 31, 1837, died in Pueblo, Colorado, Dec 18, 1886, was the son of Eli and Hannah (Torrey) Pitkin.  He was descended from the Pitkins and Griswolds of Connecticut, where for many generations his ancestors had been highly honored, both in public and private life. His father, a prominent citizen of Manchester, was descended from William Piktin, born near London 1635, settled in Hartford, 1659, who was a member of the General Court and the Colonial Council, His grandson. William Pitkin, was governor of Connecticut, 1766-69.

Frederick W. Pitkin was prepared for college under careful instruction, and was matriculated at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. in 1854, from which he was graduated with high honors in 1858. Then entering the Albany Law School and completing the course in 1859, he located in 1860 in Milwaukee, where he soon established himself as a lucrative law business and became a member of the firm of Palmer, Hooker & Pitkin.  Owing to failing health, and following the advice of his physicians, in 1873, he went to Europe, where he became worse, and during two months in Switzerland little hope was entertained for his recovery. Returning to his native land, he visited Florida, spending the winter there, but without recuperating his health.

In 1874 he came west and spent three years of camp life in Colorado with beneficial results, roughing it in summer and residing in the towns during the winter. He made his home in southwestern Colorado, and through the practice of the law and by mining investments in the San Juan region, became identified with that section of the state and one of its most popular citizens. From the San Juan came an earnest demand for his nomination in the gubernatorial race. He was nominated by acclimation by the republican state convention in 1878 and elected by a majority of nearly 3,000 in a total vote of less than 30,000. His successful administration, during which there were difficult Indian and labor questions and troubles to be solved, met with the hearty approval of his party and the people generally. Appreciative of his faithful services, he was nominated by the republicans for a second gubernatorial term and was elected by an increased majority.

Soon after Governor Pitkin entered upon the duties of his first term, there came severe tests of his executive strength, but he handled all these public affairs with marked ability. In the summer of 1879 came the railway war between the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and the Denver & Rio Grande, when both companies with armed bodies of men were fighting for the right-of-way through the royal gorge of the Arkansas. In the fall of that year followed the Ute War, the defeat of Maj. T.T. Thornburg and other complications with the Meeker massacre. It was also the period of the great carbonate and mining excitement at Leadville where serious troubles arose in 1880. No governor of Coloardo had such varied and momentous questions so rapidly thrust upon him, yet Gov. Pitkin ever remained the master of the situation, amid the excitement of Indian war, labor and railway troubles.

His firmness, timely orders, and the tone of his dispatches, both to state and national leaders, brought quiet and peace out of the Ute was. At the time of the great Leadville strike in 1880, when armed and threatening bands of excited men were parading the streets, and the civil authorities were powerless, he promptly declared martial law, thus saving both life and property. The settlement of the railway war in the royal gorge, has remained undisturbed to this day. His second term as governor was more peaceful, and he was given more time in this administration to foster and build up the real interests of the state.

When Senator Teller became Secretary of the Interior in President Arthur's cabinet, it fell to Gov. Pitkin to appoint a successor to Teller in the Senate, and there was intense feeling  and rivalry between the several candidataes. Gov. Pitkin appointed George M. Chilcott to fill the temporary vacancy, and at the next session of the legislature came the election of two U.S. senators. Pitkin reached within two votes of an election but could not quite overcome the strong combination of the politicians. Had not the appointing power fell to Gov. Pitkin to name a temporary successor to Teller, over which there was such a wrangle, there is but little doubt that he would have filled as well as graced the office of U.S. Senator from  Colorado. Gov. Pitkin was one of the purest, ablest and most conscientious men that ever filled that office in Colorado.

In 1862 he married Fidelia M., daughter of John James, of Lockport, N.Y., who comes from an old and well known family.

They had four children: Robert J, lawyer, Denver; and Florence, wife of Earl M. Cranston, the law partner of her brother; and Frederick W. and Samuel, who died in infancy.

JAMES BENTON GRANT
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
The formative days of Colorado's history developed no finer product than James Benton Grant, miner, founder of one of the first smelters, governor, banker, "captain of industry." Indeed, his activities in all lines of worthy effort, are known beyond the borders of his own state. On the occasion of the visit to this country of Prince Henry, of Battenburg, 1902, Governor Grant was invited to attend the "captains of industry" banquet given the royal guest, by J. Pierpont Morgan.

Governor Grant was born in Russell county, Alabama, January 2, 1848 and died at Excelsior Springs, Missouri, November 1, 1911. His father, Thomas McDonough Grant, was a physcian and cotton planter. His grandfather, James Grant, imigrated from Scotland, and settled in Norfolk, Va., in 1746. In the Jacobite wars, the Scotch Grants fought the Pretenders, Governor Grant's ancestors being in the thick of the hardest campaigns. His mother was Mary Benton, a daughter of one of the old southern families.

Favored by nature and circumstances, in a lineage of purposeful, hard-headed ancestors, and possessing advantages of education and opportunity, which he was able to acquire through the wealth of his uncle, James Grant of Davenport, Iowa, who, having no children of his own, undertook to educate fifteen or twenty of his nieces and nephews, whose parents being in the south, were practically penniless at the close of the war, Governor Grant came to Colorado in 1877 with an equipment that was bound to make him a leader among men.

Governor Grant was extremely fortunate in his educational advantages. He attended Iowa Agricultural college; later going to Cornell. From there he went to Frieburg, Germany, where he took a course in mineralogy.

Governor Grant went first to Central City, where he engaged in assaying and mining. From the beginning, he was successful, stepping naturally into a position of leadership in a community where ruggest competition was most intense. In those early days, when Colorado had her beginning, only the fittest survived, but they, tested in nature's own curcible, came out strong, tough and durable. If the battle was hard, the rewards were large. The names of the successful ones are written bold on the pages of the state's history, and that history is the record of their achievements.

It was characteristic of Governor Grant to look beyond limitations of the field in which he was engaged, and to recognize greater opportunities of the mining industry. When only one year out of college he established and operated the Grant smelter. From 1877 down to the time of his death he was actively interested in the smelting industry of the west. He was vice-president of the Omaha and Grant smelter form 1882 until 1899, and then became a director and member of the executive committee of the American Smelting and Refining Company.

His southern birth and training placed Governor Grant in the democratic party, and although politics was with him only an incident of his busy life, he consented to the party's demand and accepted the nomination in 1882. Although his candidacy was regarded as a forlorn hope, the people rallied to his support, and he was triumphantly elected. During his administration, from 1883 to 1885, peace prevailed and the state prospered.

Although his smelting interests were extensive enough to claim the undivided attention of any ordinary man, Governor Grant was one of the organizers of the Denver National Bank and continued as vice-president of that institution from the time its doors were open in 1884 until his death. He found time to make a searching investigation of the physical condition of the Leadville district and to prepare an exhaustive report of his findings. This report was translated into Dutch and submitted to Holland capitalists by General William J. Palmer. The possibilities of the district, as shown by Governor Grant's report, constituted the convincing argument which induced the Dutch capitalists to buy the bonds of the Denver & Rio Grande extension from Canon City to Leadville.

His survey of the Leadville district convinced Governor Grant that the production of the famous camps might be greatly increased by the construction of a tunnel driven through the lower levels. In 1892, he financed the Yak tunnel enterprise and work was begun after plans drawn by A.A. Blow, the well-known mining engineer. The Yak tunnel has reached a length of four miles, and wil be driving two thousand feet farther.

Governor Grant married Mary Goodell, at Leadville, in 1881. They have two sons, Lester E. and James B. Jr.

Among the local clubs of which Governor Grant was a member are the Denver Club, University Club, Denver Althetic Club, and Denver Country Club.

BENJAMIN HARRISON EATON
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born near the town of West Bedford, in Coshocton county, Ohio, December 15, 1833, died October 29, 1904; was the son of Levi and Hannah (Smith) Eaton, pioneers in that state. His first American ancestor, Benjamin Eaton, and there married a Quaker lady. His son, Benjamin, became a sea captain, after which he removed to Kentucky and later to Ohio. His son, Levi, born in Harrison county, Ohio, married Hannah Smith, and they were the parents of the future Governor of Colorado. Educated in the public schools in Louisa county, that state, for two years. He then engaged in teaching and farming in Ohio two years, returning to Iowa in 1858, and a year later he joined a party from that state, following the Pike's Peak excitement to Colorado, in 1859.

After some thrilling adventures with Indians in crossing the plains, they expored the regions bordering on Boulder and Clear Creeks. Mr. Eaton was a pioneer in California Gulch; a member of the second Baker expedition to the San Juan of Southwestern Colorado, in 1860-1861, exploring what is now Baker's Park, Silverton, and other points in that region. He suffered many privations, and nearly perished of cold and hunger. Then renting land on the Maxwell Land Grant in New Mexico, he remained there until 1863, when he returned to Colorado and entered a small farm, twelve miles west of what is now Greeley, in Weld county. To this then dreary waste he brought water from the Cache la Poudre, which was the begiining of one of the greatest irrigating systems in the world's history.

Realizing what could be accomplished by irrigation, he negotiated with the land department of the Union Pacific for 25,000 acres of land contiguous to the present towns of Eaton and Greeley, at $1 an acre, on long time. He divided this body of land into tracts ranging from 160 to 640 acres, and began developing his system of irrigation, and entered upon his career as a scientific agriculturist. In 1901, Mr. Eaton had under cultivation 16,000 acres, his annual income therefrom estimated from $200,000 to $300,000. He became one of the original stockholders in the Union Colony at Greeley in 1870.

In 1864, he build the Eaton Ditch and within the next fifteen years he constructed the Mill Power Canal at Greeley; the Number Two of the Union County; the High Line, including the Larimer and Weld Canals, and others, involving nearly one hundred miles of waterway, redeeming many thousands of acres to fertile and fruitful production. At the time of his death all of his original 25,000 acres were yielding bountiful harvests. His largest work is the Windsor Reservoir and the canal of the Windsor Reservoir and Canal Company. He constructed the large floruing mills at Eaton, the town being named in his honor. In selecting the types of citizens representative of special lines of work in the founding and upbuilding of Colorado, the portrait of Governor Eaton was one of the sixteen chosen to fill the niches that had been reserved in the panels of the dome of the State Capitol Building. He was given this distinguished honor as the graet pioneer farmer and developer of the vast irrigation system of Northern Colorado.

Governor Eaton was a Republican, except in 1896, when he was chosen to the electoral college on the Bryan ticket. In 1866, he was elected justice of the peace, holding that office nine years; was six years county commissioner, four of which he was chairman of the board; elected to territorial legislature, 1872, and secured passage of the law forbidding the waste of waters of the public streams; member of territorial council (Senate) in 1875; and in 1884 he was elected Governor of Coloardo on the Republican ticket.

Fraternally, he was a member of the Masonic order, a Knight Templar and a Shriner. In church matters, he leaned toward the Methodists.

Governor Eaton married, first, in 1856, in Ohio, Delilah, daughter of James Wolfe. She died May 31, 1857, leaving a son, Aaron J. Eaton, later a wealthy farmer and business man of Eaton, Colorado.

In 1864, he returned to Iowa, and in Louisa county married Rebecca J., daughter of Abraham Hill, and then came with her to his Colorado home. Of this second marriage three children were born,, A. Lincoln, died at age of fourteen; Bruce G., succeeded his father at Eaton as one of the extensive farmers and wealthy men of Colorado; and Jennie B., wife of John M. Petrikin, former postmaster of Greeley and later cashier of the First National Bank of that city.

ALVA ADAMS
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Coloardo (1887-89, 1897-99, and beginning a third term, Janurary 10, 1905, and serving until March 16, 1905), born in Iowa county, Wisconsin, May 14, 1850, was the son of John and Eliza (Blanchard) Adams, he a native of Kentucky, and she of New York. His father was a merchant and farmer. In 1842 the family settled in Wisconsin, where he continued in the line of merchandising and farming.

Alva Adams, the son, grew to manhood on the farm, receiving a fair education in the public schools, which he has supplemented by general study and reading in the home life, and during his early business career, being espectially interested in historical subjects. Thus, although not a college graduate, he has added to his successful business and political life, the close application of the student, and the selfmade man has become well known for his liberal culture and many attainments. Owing to the sickness of his brother, the family removed to Colorado in 1871. Young Alva, then but twenty-one years of age, in seeking work found employment in hauling ties for the Denver & Rio Grande railroad, then building south of Denver, which led to fortunate business connections later.

After a short service with the Denver & Rio Grande, he went to Colorado Springs, in the employ of C.W. Sanborn, a lumber and hardware dealer. While in Sanborn's employ he built a small structure on Cascade avenue, for lumber office, hardware store and dwelling. This building was completed August 7, 1871, and was the first house erected within the present limits of Colorado Springs. Here he conducted the business for Mr. Sanborn until October, when he bought the stock of his employer, paying therefor $4,100, and for want of cash giving his notes for the greater part of it, at two per cent a month. Succeeding in business, he admitted J.C. Wilson to partnership in 1872, and leaving the latter in charge in Colorado Springs, Mr. Adams removed to Pueblo in 1873, where he established a branch store. Disposing of his interests in  Colorado Springs, he continued to enlarge the business in Pueblo, and started other stores in the San Juan region and southern Colorado.

An ardent democrat, Mr. Adams soon became a prominent figure in the public life of the state. His first official position was held in 1873, when he was elected trustee of South Pueblo. In 1876, when twenty-six years of age, he wa elected a member of the house of representatvies of the Colorado legistlature, from Rio Grande county. In 1884, Mr. Adams was the democratic nominee for governor, but was defeated. Colorado was then a rebuplican state, and the splendid record that he had made in the previous campaign induced his party again to nominate him for governor in 1886, and he was the only democrat elected. He gave the state a careful and business-like administration. He declined a renomination and after the close of his first term as governor retired to private life, continuing his extensive and well-established business.

In 1896, as the democratic nominee, Governor Adams was re-elected governor. In 1902, he came within a close vote of election to congress, being the candidate at large against Franklin E. Brooks, republican and was defeated by only 839 votes; Mr. Brooks receiving 85, 207, as against 84,368 for Mr. Adams.

In 1904, the democrats placed Mr. Adams at the head of their ticket against James H. Peabody, who had been renominated for governor by the rebuplicans. This campaign followed close on the Cripple Creek strike and war of the preceeding administration of the latter (Peabody) and was one of the most hotly contested elections in the history of the state. On the face of the returns the republican state ticket was elected with the exception of Governor Peabody, who was defeated on the showing made by the official canvass, the plurality for Govenor Adams being over ten thousand. Then began the memorable contest of Governor Peabody against Governor Adams. The latter under the returns had been sworn in as governor, and thus began his third term as governor. Governor John L. Routt served three terms as governor, but one of these was that of territorial governor, to which he was appointed by the president. Routt wa elected twice by the people, and appointed once, and thus assumed the office of chief executive of Colorado for three terms. Governor Adams was the only other thus far in the history of the state, who entered upon a third term in the gubernatorial office.

In defending his right to the governor's chair, Governor Adams faced a legislature that was overwhelmingly republican. While the republicans charged that the democrats had committed great frauds in the city and county of Denver, the democrats set forth that the republicans had benefitted by extensive election frauds in Huerfano and other counties in the southern part of the state. In the meantime Governor Adams had delivered his third inaugural address, and was preceeding with the administration of public affairs. On March 16, 1905, the repbulican legislature, by a vote of 55 to 41, declared that Peabody was elected, but ten republicans in the legislature voted in favor of Governor Adams, who recieved the solid support of the democratic members. Governor Peabody served but one day, resigning on March 17, and was succeeded by Jesse F. McDonald, the republican lieutenant-governor.

Governor Adams was the leading candidate for United States senator, before the legislature at the regular session of 1911. when that body was called upon to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator Charles J. Hughes Jr. It was a long and strenuous fight in which there were no election, but Governor Adams continued his lead to the end of the session. Governor Adams is one of the great leaders of his party in Colorado, and one of the state's most gifted orators. He has travelled extensively, and in his private library of 6,000 volumes, are many rare books.

Governor Adams married, in 1872, Miss Ella Nye, a gifted and cultured lady of many graceful accomplishments. They have one son, Alva Blanchard, born October 29, 1875, a graduate of Phillips Academy., Yale college, and the law department of Columbia college, New York.

JOB ADAMS COOPER
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Late governor of Colorado and original owner of the Cooper building in Denver, was born at Greenville, Bond county, Illinois, November 6, 1843. His grandfather, Thomas Cooper, was a paper manufacturer in Kent county, England, but late in life he came to America with his family, including his son, Charles, the father of the subject of this sketch. The elder Cooper died in Yolo, California, at eighty-nine year[sic] of age.

Charles Cooper was fifteen years old when he arrived in America with his father. He learned the carriage trade at Newark, New Jersey, and when twenty-two years old he entered the lumber business in Cincinnati, Ohio. Later he removed to Greenville, Illinois. His wife was Maria Hadley.

Job Adams Cooper was attending Knox college at Greenville, when he enlisted in Company C. One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Infantry. He served until he was mustered out the latter part of the same year. He was stationed at Memphis when the Confederate general Forest made his raid. After his army experience, the young man returned to Knox college, from which he graduated in 1865 with a B.A. degree. Three years later his alma mater conferred upon him the Master of Arms degree. He entered the law offices of Judge S.P. Moore, at Greenville, and read law until he was admitted to the bar in 1867. The following year the future governor of Colorado opened a law office in his native city, but soon afterward he was elected clerk and recorder of Bond county and served in that position until 1872, when he resigned to come to Denver.

He arrived in Denver May 14, 1872, and was admitted to the Colorado bar September 1, 1872. Immediately he formed a law partnership with A.C. Phelps, under the firm name of Phelps and Cooper. Afterward he became interested in a fire insurance company, but after two years' experience in this he was given a position with the German bank, which later became the German National Bank of Denver. From then on his ascent was rapid.

A few men had begun to buy Texas steers, fed them on the ranches of Colorado, and ship them to the eastern markets. Mr. Cooper was quick to see the possibilities of this busines. He invested heavily in Texas cattle and became one of the biggest dealers. Oftentimes he shipped as many as two trainloads of cattle from Brush on one day. In 1888 he was a candidate for governor against Thomas M. Patterson, editor of the Rocky Mountain News, and was elected with a plurality of 10,000 votes. He was inagurated governor January 1, 1889. On his retirement from the office of chief executive, Governor Cooper began the erection of the Cooper building, one of the finest business blocks in Denver. The same year he was elected president of the Chamber of Commerce, where he remained until he retired in 1897. He built his residence at Grant street and Colfax avenues in 1888.

Governor Cooper died January 20, 1899. His body lay in state in the Capitol and was viewed by thousands of his fellow citizens. At the time of his death he was a member of the board of capitol managers.

Governor Cooper was married September 17, 1867, at Galesburg, Illinois, to Jane O. Barnes, daughter of the Rev. Romulus E. Barnes, one of the early Congregational ministers of Illinois. Four children were born to them. They are: Olivia D., wife of Edward S. Kassler; Mary Louise, wife of Lucius J. Storrs, of Springfield, Mo.; Charles J., and Genevieve P., wife of Dwight E. Ryland.

DAVIS HANSEN WAITE
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor (1893-1894) of Colorado; born in Jamestown, New York, April 9, 1825, died 1901; was the son of Joseph and Olive (Davis) Waite. His father, Joseph Waite, a native of Vermont, was a lawyer, and district attorney of Chautauqua county. He removed to New York with his wife in 1815.

Davis H. Waite, the son, was educated in the common schools of his native village and at Jamestown Academy, after which he began the study of the law in his father's office. He located in Fon du Lae, Wisconsin, in 1850, and removed to Princeton, that state, in 1851, where he engaged in merchandising. In 1856 he was elected as a republican to the legislature of Wisconsin. In 1857 he removed to Missouri and became the principal of the Houston high school of that state. Being a union man, he left Missouri at the outbreak of the civil war, removing to Warren Pennsylvania, and then to Jamestown, New York, where he was admitted to the bar. Mr. Waite then became editor and part proprietor of the Chautauqua Democrat, a republican newspaper, and later the Jamestown Journal. Removing to Larned, Kansas, in 1876 he resumed the proactice of the law, also engaging in ranching. In 1879, he was a member of the Kansas legislature and cast the deciding vote that re-elected John J. Ingalls to the United States senate. Then removing to Leadville in 1879, he practiced law in that mining town until 1881. In the latter year, he went to Aspen, where he resumed the law practice, and edited the Union Era, a reform labor paper. He was the first superintendent of public schools in Pitkin county, Colorado.

Political questions which led to the organization of the Populist party, were agitated in the west, and Waite became a follower and a leader in the advocacy of those principles.

He was a delegate in 1892 to the St. Louis conference, that organized the peoples party, and also to the national convention of that party, held in Omaha, July 4, that year, when Weaver and Field were nominated for president and vice-president. On July 27, 1892, he was nominated for governor by the peoples party, and was endorsed by the state democratic convention held in September. The republican nominated Joseph C. Helm, and a small contingent of the democrats, known as the "white wings", placed the name of Joseph H. Maupin at the head of their ticket, having refused to follow the endorsement of Waite. After a heated and memorable canvass, Waite was elected governor of Colorado and then followed one of the most exciting periods in the state's history, during his administration (1893-1895).

Many of his reform measures were opposed by a hostile legistlature, and he called a special session. A few of his recommendations were enacted into laws. During his administration an act was passed, submitting a constitutional amendment, later adopted, which gave women equal suffrage in Colorado. At this time the silver agitation was at its height. In 1894, the Cripple Creek district, then in El Paso county, but now in Teller, became involved in a strike, Governor Waite called out the militia, but soon recalled them; he then suggesting arbitration. The withdrawl of the troops was followed by strife between the union and non-union miners. The mine owners appealed to the sheriff, and several hundred deputies were sent to his aid from Denver. A fight ensued between the strikers and deputies, in which one of the deputies was killed and several wounded on both sides. The governor again called out the militia, and then recalled them, going to Cripple Creek, and there addressing the miners, attempted a settlement. but in the meantime, warrants had been sworn out, charging certain men with having blown up the Victor shaft house. The miners fortified Bull Hill, and there was continued strife and agitation for some time before there was a peaceable settlement.

Governor Waite was also involved in a "city hall war" in Denver, in which the troops were called out, the question involved being the right of the governor to remove members of the fire and police board. About three hundred men were at the city hall to defend it from the troops, and the citizens were apprehensive. Matters were quieted by the supreme court taking jurisdiction, and later sustaining Waite. He was re-nominated for governor (but was defeated.[sic]

He married first, September 15, 1851, Frances E., daughter of Robert Russell, at Sanquoit, New York. They had three children. He married, second, January 8, 1885, her cousin, Mrs. Celia Maltby, and of this marriage, was born a son, Frank H. Waite.

ALBERT WASHINGTON McINTIRE
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado, born Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, January 15, 1853, was the son of Joseph Philips and Isabel (Wills) McIntire. His grandfather, Thomas McIntire, was engaged in the transportation business in Maryland, in which enterprise he was associated with his brothers. While he was serving as an officer with the volunteers, in the wor[sic] or 1812, their property was destroyed when the British burned Washington. His paternal ancestor in America imigrated from Ayreshire, Scotland, coming to this country about 1745. His maternal ancestor came from Belfast in 1790, and from England, at an earlier date. Both his paternal grandfathers fought on the American side in the revolution, and his maternal grandfather was state's attorney in Pennsylvania.

Albert W. McIntire prepared at Newell Institute, a private academy at Pittsburgh, and when sixteen years of age, entered Yale college, from which he was graduated with the following degrees: A.B., 1873, and LL.B. 1875. In June of the latter year, he was admitted to the Connecticut bar, and the following November, to the bar in Pittsburgh, and after practicing for about a year in the latter, he removed to Colorado, locating in Denver, in 1876. He settled in 1880, in the San Luis valley, Colorado, engaging in mining and stock ranching, where he established a ranch of 4,000 acres. From 1883 to 1886, he was county judge of Conejos county, having been nominated by both republicans and democrats; and, although a republican, he was elected by both parties to that office. At the end of the three years, he declined a re-nomination, returning to his law practice and the management of his large ranch interests. He adjudicated (1889-91) the water rights of the Twentieth district, Governor Routt appointed him judge of the Twelth district in 1891, and he continued in that position until he was nominated for governor in 1894, by the republican state convention.

He was elected, defeating Governor Waite, who had been renominated. The great cry by the republicans in this campaign was "redeem the state," in the attacks made upon the Waite administration. His plurality was nearly 20,000, and he served during the biennial term of 1895-97. The tenth general assembly, which convened under his administration, met January 2, 1895, and was the first to occupy the legislature chambers in the new capitol, where all sessions have since been held. The most important event in the general assembly was the re-election of Edward O. Wolcott to the United States senate. There had been so much trumoil and agitation during the Waite administration, that by a quiet conduct of public affairs, Governor McIntire enabled the state to recuperate from the excitement and bitterness of the past two years. The main distrubing influence was the silver question, which later split the republican party, and raised issues and dissentions, that threatened the politics of the state for years to come.

Governor McIntire was a scholarly gentleman, and well know linguist. He could either speak or read German, Spanish, French, Latin and Greek.

He married, first, July 16, 1873, Miss Florence, daughter of Wiliam Sidney Johnson of New York City; married, second, June 26, 1899, Ida Noyes Beaver, M.D. He removed to Cleveland, Ohio, in February 1899, and to Puget Sound, Washington, December, 1900, and now resides at Everett, that state.

CHARLES SPALDING THOMAS
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado (1899-1901), lawyer, born December 6, 1849, in Darien, Georgia, was the son of William B. and Caroline B. (Wheeler) Thomas. Although born in the south, he is of northern ancestry, his parents both being natives of Connecticut. The family is of Welsh origin, and intermarried with the English. His mother was the daughter of Amos H. Wheeler of Bridgeport, Connecticut. His youth was spend in Macon, Georgia, where he received his earlier education in the private schools. His father died when Charles S. was but four years of age. When fifteen years of age, his mother sent him to a perparatory school in Connecticut, she in the meantime having removed to Michigan, where she died in 1866.

In 1869, Mr. Thomas removed to the latter state where for some time he was employed on a farm, beginning the study of law at Kalamazoo. Entering the University of Michigan, he was graduated from the law department of that institution with the degree of L.L.B. in 1871, and in December, that year, removed to Colorado, entering the law office of Sayre & Wright, then a leading law office in the west. Later, he opened a law office for himself, and in 1873, formed a partnership with Thomas M. Patterson, continuing until the election of Mr. Patterson as territorial delegate in 1874, when it was dissolved. Mr. Thomas was city attorney of Denver in 1875-1876, and in 1879 resumed his partnership with Mr. Patterson, Mr. Thomas removing to Leadville, where he remained until 1885, attending more the mining litigation of the firm in that great mining town. In the latter year, he returned to Denver and in 1890, dissolving with Mr. Patterson, he became the senior member of the law firm of Thomas, Bryant & Lee, which continued until 1893. The firm then reorganized as Thomas, Bryant & Malburn, and has since been enlarged, the present (1911) name being Thomas, Bryant, Malburn & Nye.

Mr. Thomas has made a specialty of mining litigation, with his general practive[sic] of the law, and from the time he opened an office in Leadville in 1879, he has been a prominent figure in the most important mining suits in Colorado, and throughout the west. From the hard struggle of the young lawyers, he advanced by degrees to more lucrative practice, but with the expensive mining litigation that came with the great mineral discoveries in Leadville, Aspen, Cripple Creek, Creede and other parts of the state, the services of Mr. Thomas were and are still sought in all the most important and difficult mining litigation. From this source, he soon acquired a well-earned forturne, and is now in the prime of life in the practice of his profession.

He was a faithful and earnest worker and supporter of the democratic party in Colorado, when it was a republican state, and loyally bore more than his share of the burden, in finally bringing about those victories that placed his party in power. In 1884 he was defeated for congress on the democratic ticket. For twelve years he was national democratic committeeman from Colorado (1884-1896). In 1898, he was nominated by his party for governor and was endorsed by the silver republicans and populists and was elected by a large marjority.

No governor of Colorado ever came into office facing so many state financial difficulties as were forced upon Governor Thomas. The state institutions were sadly in need of money, the revenues having run far behind. Through his recommendations, and the measures he advocated, there was the beginning of a retadjustment[sic] of the state's finances, and the outline planned for more efficient revenue laws. Governor Thomas, although in hearty sympathy in all efforts to raise revenues sufficient to support the institutions of the state, yet advocated economy in its use and expenditure. During his term of two years, there was not time to carry out all his views, but it was due to this executive ability and influence that a good start was made that placed the state income upon a basis commensurate with its needs. Politically speaking, it is not always a popular thing to encourage the enactment of revenue laws, but Governor Thomas, seeing the necessity of having it done, possessed the nerve and courage to endorse that policy, and made his view of the condition of affairs so plain, that he received the endorsement of the masses of the people both as to the rectitutde and wisdom of his administration.

Governor Thomas believes in good, strong and effective platforms upon which candidates should stand and be elected. Although a consistent and ardent democrat, yet, when in his opinion, his party is in error and fails to meet and carry out a policy for the best interests of the people, he is quick and ready to criticize it therefor.

Governor Thomas has for many years been prominent in the national councils and conventions of the democratic party. Among other strong traits, he is also a fair, quick and skilled parliamentarian. At the national convention held in Kansas City in 1900, he was the temporary chairman. His address was eloquent and patriotic, dealing with the issues of the day in an able and logical manner.

During the session of the eighteenth (1911) general assembly of Colorado, he was a candidate for the United States senate, to fill the vacancy caused by the lamented death of the later Senator Charles J. Hughes Jr. Governor Thomas stood with the highest in the number of votes received for that high office, but owing to party dissentions, there was no election. He is a member of the University of Denver Athletic Clubs, Denver, and is a member of the Knights of Pythias.

Governor Thomas married, December 29, 1873, in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Miss Emma, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Fletcher of that city. During his term as governor, Mrs. Thomas, as the first lady of the state, filled that position with dignity and grace. Governor and Mrs. Thomas occupy a position of high social standing, and whether in public or private life, their beautiful Denver home is known for its hospitality. Five children were born to them: Helen (wife of William Pl Malburn), Edith, Charles S., Hubert F. and George K.

JAMES BRADLEY ORMAN
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado (1901-02), railroad builder and financier, born in Muscatine, Iowa, November 4, 1849, was the son of John and Sarah Josephine (Bradley) Orman. He worked on his father's farm and attended the public schools during his youth, and when twenty years of age came to Denver, in 1869, depending upon his own energy and exertions to push his way up in the world.

Denver was then the center of the railway building and activity, and with shrewd business foresight, he anticipated the need of horses and draft animals for the completion of the railroads then in course of construction toward this city.  Together with his brother, William A. Orman, he bought and sold horses and mules at a good profit. In the fall of 1869, the Orman brothers were awarded the contract for the construction of the old Kansas Pacific (now a part of the Union Pacific system) from Sheridan, Kansas, to Denver. This work, satisfactorily performed, was but the beginning of Mr. Orman's long and successful career as a railway contractor and builder in Colorado and the west. He has constructed more miles of railroad in Colorado than any other man in the state. He has been awarded and filled many contracts with the following roads: Kansas Pacific, Denver and Rio Grande, Colorado Midland, Canadian Pacific, Oregon Pacific, Elk Mountain, Texas, Sante Fe and Northern, Florence and Cripple Creek, Crystal River, Colorado and Northwestern Denver, Northwestern and Pacific and other railroads. Mr. Orman has also constructed some of the largest irrigation canals in the west.

As he began to accumulate wealth, he made large investments in Pueblo, Denver and Trinidad real estate, also possessing valuable holdings in Huerfano county coal lands. His business houses and palatial home, which he erected in Pueblo, identified him with that city as one of its more progressive citizens. He was interested in, and for five years, was the president of the Pueblo Street railway, of which he was one of the organizers in 1879. He also became interested in the Bessemer irrigating ditch and additional coal properties in Pitkin and Gunnison counties, and mines in Cripple Creek. The government canal near Montrose was built by him, and he became the president of the Bankers' Consolidated Mines, near Ouray, and the Oro Hondo mine in Lead City, South Dakota.

Mr. Orman, early in his career, became a dominant figure in Colorado politics, as one of the leaders of the democratic party. For several terms he was a member of the Pueblo city council, and in 1880 was elected a member of the Colorado legislature, being re-elected in 1882. He was a candidate, in 1883, for the short term in the United States senate (to fill the unexpired term of Henry M. Teller, who had resigned and been appointed secretary of the interior), and received the unanimous vote of the democrats in the legislature. The democrats were in the minority, but he received their solid vote, and from two to five republican votes, receiving on one ballot, twenty-seven votes and within three of an election. He declined the democratic nomination for governor in 1888 and 1890, but in 1900 accepted, also being endorsed by the populists and silver republicans, and was elected. During his term of two years, he gave the state an honest, conservative and business-like administration. In 1892, he was a delegate to the national democratic convention, and in 1897, was elected mayor of Pueblo. When mayor of Pueblo, and governor of Colorado, he followed and carried out those principles that had made him a successful business man.

Governor Orman is a thirty-second degree Mason, and prominent in that order. He and his wife are members of the Episcopal Church and are among the most prominent in social and church work in Pueblo.

He married, September 27, 1877, Miss Nellie, daughter of William P. Martin of Pueblo. Two children were born to them: Frederick B., graduate of Princeton university, and engaged in business in Pueblo; and Enda A., who died.

JAMES HAMILTON PEABODY
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Born at Topsham, Orange county, Vermont, August 21, 1852. His father was Calvin Peabody, farmer, born at Salem, Massachusetts, May 26, 1798, died at Pueblo, Colorado, April 22, 1879. His mother was Susan Lucinda Turner, born at Tunbridge, Vermont, March 16, 1828, the daughter of Charles and Lucinda Turner.

The first of the house to arrive in America was Lieutenant Francis Peabody, born in 1614. He was a resident of St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England. He was one of the leaders of a band of sturdy colonist who left the mother country to found a new nation in the land of promise over seas.

When twenty years of age Mr. Peabody left his native state and came to Colorado, reaching Denver October 20, 1872. He entered the mercantile business immediately, and in 1874 formed a partnership under the firm name of Peabody Brothers, dry goods merchants. The next year, 1875, he went to Canon City, becoming associated with James McClelleand in the dry goods and clothing business. Under his direction the business prospered so that in 1878 he was able to buy out his partner's interest. Thenceforth until 1885 it was continued under the firm name of James H. Peabody and Company. In that year he disposed of his mercantile interests and organized the First National Bank of Canon City. He was elected president of the institution and continued at its head until 1908, when his extensive business interests in Denver demanding his entire time, he disposed of his bank stock and retired from its management.

While Governor Peabody is more widely known through his connection with politics, and his service to community and state in various offices, he has also a splendid name as one of the prominent business men of the state. A partial list of his activities in a business way shows the active and intelligent interest he took in the development and growth of the cities in which he has lived. He organized the Canon City Water Works Company and was its secretary until the plant was sold to the city. He also organized the Canon City Electric Light & Power Company and was its president until it was sold to the Colorado Light & Power Company.

While Governor Peabody has been essentially a business man, he has always taken an active interest in politics and the business of government.  Shortly after he went to Canon City he was made city clerk, and two years later, in 1880, he was made city treasurer. From 1882 to 1890 he served as a city alderman, and during part of that time, from 1885 to 1889 he was county clerk and recorder of Fremont county. The esteem in which he was held by his fellow townsmen is evideneed[sic] by the fact that concurrently with his other positions he served as president of the school board from 1883 to 1890.

For an interval of several years he retired from politics to devote himself entirely to his increasing business affairs, but in 1898 his neighbors again called upon him and he was made mayor of Canon City. He served for two terms and was still in that office when the republican state convention, meeting at Denver in 1902, named him to head their ticket in the general elections of that year, and he was triumphantly elected governor, although in 1900 the democratic candidate had received a majority of about 15,000 votes.

Shortly after his induction into office labor troubles, which had been brewing for some time, broke out at Cripple Creek, Clear Creek, Telluride and the southern coal fields in Las Animas county. Business became unsettled and numerous outranges were perpetrated. In his determination to preserve order General Peabody ordered the national guard into the field in the several districts and kept them there until the end of the troubles. At the conclusion of his first term he received a renomination from his party and won re-election at the polls after showing to the satisfaction of the entire state that thousands of fraudulent votes had been counted against him in Denver county.

Governor Peabody's part in the memorable contest which he waged at that time for the preservation of an undefiled ballot, won for him the grateful commendation of all right thinking people. It was Governor Peabody's action which broke up the long-existing crooked election conspirators and landed more than a score of them behind prison bars. Since the election of 1904 an honest count has been the rule in Denver.

After receiving his certificate of election from the legislature Governor Peabody resigned the office on March 17, 1905. Since that time he has devoted himself to his business interests.

Governor Peabody was married March 19, 1878, to Frances Lilian Clelland, daughter of James Clelland of Canon City. They have one son and two daughters: James Clelland Peabody, Cora May Peabody and Jessie Anne Peabody.

Governor Peabody is a member of the Denver club.

In the Masonic order, Governor Peabody has long been an active member, has filled every election office in both subordinate and grand bodies; has been a member of the jurisprudence committee of the grand lodge for a period of twenty-five years and is a thirty-third degree inspector general honorary of the Scottish rite.

JESSE FULLER McDONALD
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Mine Operator, former Governor of Colorado, was born June 30, 1858, at Asthabula, Ohio, son of Lyman M. and Caroline Bond McDonald. His mother was the daughter of Benjamin and Caroline Bond. His earliest American ancestors were Robert Cushman, who came from England and settled at Plymouth, Mass. in 1621, and James McDonald, a native of Scotland, who settled in Maine in 1750. His ancestors on both sides served with distinction in the Colonial, Revolutionary and Civil Wars. The McDonalds are a long-lived race, his father, born in 1831, living to the age of 79.

At the age of 21, Gov. McDonald, having enjoyed the advantages of a sound, practical education, received in the public schools and an academy in his  native state, started west and joined the rush to Leadville. From that year, 1879, down to the present, he has called the Cloud City his home, except for two years, 1905-1906, when as governor of his adopted state, he resided in the capital city.

In 1884 he formed a partnership with George M. Robinson as civil and mining engineers. It proved a profitable association for both.

In 1887 he became general manager of the Robinson Consolidated Mining Company's properties, a position he held for ten years. His mining interests at the present time are large. He is owner of the Penrose mine, the Harvard and others. In addition to his mining ventures, he is vice-president of the American National Bank at Leadville, and Manager of the Eli Mining & Land Company.

The high regard in which Governor McDonald is held by those who know him best is testified by the fact that for three successive terms, from 1899 to 1905, he was, as a Republican, elected mayor of the Democratic city of Leadville. From the Lake county district, also Democratic, he was elected state senator in 1902, but through operation of partisan politics, he was not permitted to retain his seat. Political justice was meted to the party which decreed his sacrifice then, for at the next session of the legislature he was, as lieutenant goveror, elected to the presidency of the body to which he had been elected. A few months later he succeeded to the governor's chair and gave to the state of Colorado an administration that still stands as a model of business capacity.

In 1910 Governor McDonald was called to the chairmanship of the Republican organization. In the face of many adverse circumstances he won victory for a considerable number of his party's candidates for office.

Gov. McDonald married April 26, 1890, Miss Flora S. Collins. They have no children living.

He was given the honorary degree of Mining Engineer by the Coloardo School of Mines in 1905.

Gov. McDonald is a Mason, Knight Templar, thrity-second degree Scottish Rite, Shriner, and member of the B.P.O. of Elks.

HENRY AUGUSTUS BUCHTEL
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Clergyman, chancellor of the University of Denver, and former governor of Colorado, born near Akron, Ohio, September 30, 1847, was the son of Dr. Jonathan B. and Eliza (Newcomer) Buchtel, grandson of Solomon and Maria (Reber) Buchtel, and great grandson of John Buchtel, thr progenitor of the family in America, who in 1753, came from Germany, and settled in Pennsylvania. This John Buchtel, the American ancestor, was a man of learning, an astronomer, and was imbued with progressive ideas. John R. Buchtel, a cousin of Governor Buchtel's father, built and equipped Buchtel college, at Akron, Ohio.

In 1848, Dr. Jonathan B. Buchtel, the father of the subject of this sketch, removed from Akron, Ohio, to Indiana, first setttling at Elkhart, and later at South Bend, where the future governor of Colorado received his early education, mostly in private schools. After a year's study at Asbury (now De Pauw) University, he spent several years in business. For some time he was foreman of the country order department of a wholesale drug house in Chicago, and subsequently held a partnership in a wholesale and retail grocery business at South Bend, Indiana. Meanwhile, having become more and more interested in religion, and deciding to enter the ministry, he resumed his work at the university and was graduated in 1872.

His careeer is shown in outline as follows: A.B. Asbury (De Pauw) 1872;
A.M. 1875;
ordained minister in the Methodist Episcopal church, 1872;
missionary to Bulgaria, 1873;
pastor, Greencastle, Indiana, 1873-6;
Knightstown, Indiana, 1876-9;
Richmond, Indiana 1879-82;
La Fayette, Indiana, 1882-1885;
Evans chapel, Denver, Colorado, 1885-1886;
Trinity church, Denver, Colorado, 1886-91;
Central Avenue church, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1891-6;
Calvary church, East Orange, New Jersey, 1897-9;
chancellor of the University of Denver since January 1, 1900;
governor of Colorado, 1907-9.

While preaching in the east in 1899, he was recalled to Colorado, to become chancellor of the University of Denver. After a vigorous and systematic campaign, he raised $260,000, clearing the property of all mortgage incumbrances, but all floating indebtedness was not wiped out until the total amount secured was one-third of a million dollars. At this writing, November, 1911, the total amount of the gifts of the friends of the university since Chancellor Buchtel came into service, aggregates two-thirds of a million dollars.

The University of Denver is the pioneer school of higher learning in Colorado, having as many graduates as the University of Colorado and the State School of Mines combined. Since the beginning of his administration, the annual attendance was greatly increased.

In the fall of 1906, the republican party of Colorado, in an emergency, and when in need of a strong man to lead their ticket, offered the nomination for governor to Chancellor Buchtel after the regular nominee had resigned. As a preacher, lecturer, and chancellor of the University, he had often canvassed the state, and was well known as an orator. He made a vigorous and memorable campaign, and was elected by a majority approximating 20,000. Governor Buchtel was inaugurated in Trinity Methodist Episcopal church, which was built while he was pastor. He concluded his inaugural address with a prayer which was followed by the Lord's prayer.

The following are the principal events of his administration; all appropriations for the biennial period, as well as all deficits of former adminstrations, were paid in full, and the administration turned over to its successor a cash surplus of three hundred thousand dollars. The sixteenth general assembly of Colorado, which was convened during Governor Buchtel's term, made a splendid record in the wholesome laws that were enacted. Indeed, every pledge of the republican party was fulfilled in the record of the sixteenth general assembly. No other general assembly in the history of the state can boast of having kept all the promises made during the political campaign.

The laws enacted which are of special importance are as follows: a pure food law, a law providing for the inspection of building and loan associations, a civil service law, laws establishing state employment agencies, a juvenile court, and detention houses for child offenders, one of the best local option laws adopted by any northern state, a law to provide labor for prisoners on public highways. and a meat and slaughter-house inspection law, as well as enactments regulating banking, insurance and railroads. Retiring as the chief executive of Colorado, January 12, 1909, Governor Buchtel, devotes his entire time to his duties as chancellor of the University of Denver. He is also one of the leading speakers in the Chautauqua field. In 1884 and 1900, respectively, his alma mater conferred upon him the honorary degrees of Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws.

He married, at Greencastle, Indiana, February 4, 1873, Miss Mary, daughter of William N. Stevenson of that city. They have two sons, Dr. Frost Craft Buchtel and Henry Augustus Jr. who died in 1901, and two daughters, Emma (Mrs. William G. Lennox) and Mary.

Mrs. Buchtel comes from a distinguished American ancestry, and during her husband's term as governor, she honored and dignified the position she held as the first lady of the state.

JOHN FRANKLIN SHAFROTH
Source: Sketches of Colorado, William Columbus Ferril, 1911, transcribed by J.S.
Governor of Colorado (1909-1910, re-elected for 1911-1912, congressman first district, Colorado, 1895-1904), lawyer, born in Fayette, Howard county, Missouri, June 9, 1854, was the son of John and Anna (Aull) Shafroth. John Shafroth was born September 3, 1810, in Switzerland, and when a young man came to this country, settling first in St. Louis, where he remained three years. He then removed to Rocheport, Missouri, and at the end of a year, located in Fayette, which became his permanent residence, where he died., May 8, 1866. For twenty-five years, John Shafroth was a prominent merchant and one of the leading citizens of Fayette. November 9, 1840, he married Anna Aull, and to them were born six children: Sophia, William, Laura, Louisa, Carrie and John F. Shafroth, the latter being the future congressman and governor of Colorado.

John F. Shafroth was educated in the public schools of his native town, and then attended the University of Michigan, from which he graduated with degree of B.S. in 1875. In 1909, his alma mater, conferred upon him the degree of L.L.D. Entering the law office of Samuel C. Major, at Fayette, he was admitted to the bar in 1876, and soon thereafter formed a partnership with him, continuing the practice until October, 1879, when Mr. Shafroth came to Denver. Soon after his arrival in this city he formed a partnership with Judge A.W. Brazee, and about two years later became a member of the law firm of Stalleup, Luthe & Shafroth. In 1887, Mr. Shafroth was elected city attorney of Denver on the republican ticket, and was re-elected in 1889, serving a continuous period of four years. When Mr. Luthe, one of his law partners, was elected district attorney for the second district in 1882, Mr. Shafroth was appointed his chief deputy, a position which he filled with marked ability for three years. It was while serving in the office of the district attorney, that Mr. Shafroth developed into the forcible and logical speaker and orator for which he has since become distinguished. His first term as city attorney was ably conducted and easilty assured him a re-election. In 1887, he formed a partnership with Judge Platt Rogers, the firm later becoming Rogers, Shafroth & Gregg.

In 1894 Mr. Shafroth was elected to congress on the republican ticket, in the first Colorado district, defeating Lafe Pence, who had been re-nominated by the populists. It was a special campaign, in which he won by a vote of forty-seven thousand seven hundred and ten to thirty-four thousand two hundred and twenty-three for Mr. Pence. In 1896, he left the republican party, and assisted to organize the silver republicans, being dissatisfied with the republicans on the silver and other questions. In the campaigns of 1896, 1898 and 1900, he was re-elected to congress as a silver republican. In the campaign of 1902, he ran for congress a a democrat against Robert W. Bonynge, republican and on the fact of the returns, Mr. Shafroth receiving forty-one thousand four hundred and forty votes, and Mr. Bonynge thirty-eight thousand six hundred and forty-eight, the latter contesting the election on the charge of election frauds in the city of Denver. Three days after examing the ballots, which he and his opponent had stipulated should be sent to congress to be opened for the first time. Mr. Shafroth found evidences of fraud and not wishing to retain a seat tainted with either fraud or the suspicion of fraud retired. It was a memorable scene in the house of representatives, when Mr. Shafroth arose in that body, briefly explained his position in the matter, resigning February 15, 1904, and the day following Mr. Bonynge was sworn in as a member of congress.

In 1904, he was the democratic candidate at large for congress on the democratic ticket, but was defeated by Franklin E. Brooks, republican, of Colorado Springs, yet he received a large vote, polling one hundred and twelve thousand three hundred and eighty-three as against one hundred and twenty-one thousand two hundred and thirty-six for Mr. Brooks. In 1908, he was nominated by the democrats for governor and was elected, defeating Governor Jesse F. McDonald, republican by a vote of one hundred and thirty thousand one hundred and thirty-nine to one hundred and seventeen thousand three hundred and seventy. He was re-elected governor as a democrat, in 1910, defeating former state senator, John B. Stephen, republican.

During the sesson of the legislature in 1911, in which the election of a successor to fill the unexpired term of the late Senator Charles J. Hughes, Jr., was held, he refused to enter the contest for United States Senator, although his name was prominently mentioned for that position.

Governor Shafroth married, October 26, 1881, in Fayette, Missouri, Miss Virginia, daughter of John and Eliza Morrison, her father being one of the most prominent citizens of Howard county, Missouri. Her great-grandfather, William Morrison, came from Wales, and soon after his arrival in this country, settled in Jessamine county, Kentucky, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Alfred Williams, formerly of Virginia. Their son, Alfred W. Morrison, the grandfather of Mrs. Shafroth, was born November, 25, 1802. When a small boy, his father died, and his mother married Lawrence J. Daley, an accomplished teacher. In 1820 they removed to Howard county, Missouri, where Alfrew[sic] W. Morrison was for ten years county surveyor, also sheriff, and in 1851, was appointed state treasurer of Missouri to fill a vacancy, and was then elected for three terms to that position. The Shafroth, Morrison, Talbot, Ward, Sebree, and other prominent families of central Missouri are intermarried, and occupying high positions of honor in the army, navy, and public life. Mrs. Shafroth is a cousin of Admiral Sebree, recently retired. Of this same family was the later Ralph Talbot, regent of the State University of Colorado, and Thomas Ward, United States District Attorney, for Colorado, and manager of the Denver Times.

Governor and Mrs. Shafroth have the following children: John F. Shafroth, Jr., graduate (1908) in United States Naval Academy, now ensign on United States Battleship Virginia; Morrison Shafroth, graduate of Michigan University, 1910, admitted to practice law in Supreme Court of Colorado in 1911; William Shafroth, now attending Michigan University.


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