Jefferson County, Colorado
Genealogy and History
A Part of the Genealogy Trails Group
History of Jefferson County
Rocky Mountain Directory and Colorado Gazetteer for 1871,
transcribed by J.S.
western half of this county lies in the foot-hills, and the eastern
half of the plains. It is bounded on the north by Boulder and Weld
counties; on the east by Arapahoe and Douglas counties; on the south
Douglas, and on the west by Clear Creek and Gilpin counties.
western limits do not extend far enough up the foot-hills to reach the
belt of gold lodes that traverse these mountains, but include a series
of copper and iron veins, which contain ores of these metals in great
quantities. Along the base of the foot-hills, in the upturned tertiary
strats, nearly the entire length of the county, coal measures of great
extent have already been discovered and extensively worked; and
fire-clay, gypsum and potter's clay also abound in unlimited
agricultural advantages of this county are unsurpassed by any other in
Colorado. In the mountain portion, the valleys of streams (tributaries
of the Platte) widen out as they approach the plains, and form quite
extensive ranches, or farms, which are actively cultivated, with large
and profitable returns. These yield oats, hay and vegetables, and when
the plains are reached, besides these, wheat, corn and barley, with
On the "plains" portion of the county,
agriculture is aided by irrigation, and ample facilities for this are
in the reach of all, as canals traverse the entire county, affording
abundant and unfailing supply of water at all seasons. Jefferson
has but little waste land. The soil, not only of the plains and
valleys, but of the mountain slopes, is unusually productive, and the
climate favorable, even at the greatest elevations in the mountains.
With these advantages, the agricultural resources of the county are
important, and will afford the means of support, and the opportunities
for the accumulation of wealth, to a large population; but from the
greater facilities afforded for manufacturing enterprises, these will,
without doubt, eventually form the principal feature of the county's
industries. The principal inducements for the investments of capital
manufactories are the abundance of cheap fuel, supplied by the immense
coal deposits' the inexhaustible supplies of excellent building
material; the existence of superior water-powers and mill-sites, and
the proximity of large deposits of minerals, including copper and iron
in the county, and gold and silver in the adjoining counties of
and Gilpin. These advantages have already been improved to a
considerable extent, and the manufacturing enterprises of the county
have assumed proportions that place Jefferson county ahead of all
counties of Colorado in such industries. These embrace the manufacture
of fire-brick, for furnaces; ordinary brick, for building purposes;
coarse earthen or pottery ware, and paper. Besides the factories
engaged in the manufacture of these indispensable articles, there are
breweries, a distillery, planing mills, saw-mills, a mill for grinding
gypsum, and several extensive flouring mills. The fuel, water-power,
crude material, and material for the construction of factories, used
all these, except that for paper, are among the products and resources
of the county, and exist in unlimited supplies. Coal for fuel,
in quality, and at cheap rates; fire, potter's, and ordinary clay, and
gypsum at the base of the foot-hills; lumber in the pine forest on the
mountains; cereals on the plains and valleys, and water-power from
Clear creek and its tributaries, which traverse the entire county from
east to west.
That these superior advantages will induce the
further investment of capital in manufacturing enterprises is
unquestionable; and no doubt, in addition to present industries, there
will soon be constructed extensive reduction works, for the treatment
of the ores of the gold and silver belts of adjacent counties. The
facilities afforded for such works are unsurpassed, and should be
advantage of at once. Besides the superior wagon roads, peculiar to
every district of Colorado already inhabited, Jefferson is traversed
a railway, the Colorado Central, which affords the medium of cheap and
ample transportation for her produce to all markets, and places her in
direct communication with all commercial centres.
city, and county seat of Jefferson, is Golden City, located in the
valley of Clear creek, near the base of the foot-hills, in the
central portion of the county, about fifteen miles from Denver. This
was first settled early in 1850, by gulch miners, and soon became
prosperous and populous, and has remained so. It is not only the chief
city of the county, but the home of her principal manufacturing,
mining, and mercantile enterprises, an educational and religious
institutions. It is surrounded, traversed and mined by coal measures,
beds of fire and potter's clay, and ledges of gypsum, and watered by
Clear creek, which affords numerous superior water-powers and mill
privileges, and is in the immediate vicinity of pine forests and
cultivated lands. A detailed history of Golden and her advantages
appears in an appropriate chapter.
The only other town of
importance in Jefferson county is Mount Vernon, a beautiful little
village, nestled among the foot-hills, about eighteen miles from
Denver, on the main wagon road from that city of Idaho Springs. It is
surrounded by quarries of limestone, which makes excellent building
material, and pine forests, affording good lumber in limited
quantities. The principal streams of Jefferson county are Clear creek
and its tributaries, and branches of the Platte-Deer, Turkey, Bear and
Coal creeks, also the North Fork of the South Platte, which flows
through the southern division of the county. They all have an easterly
direction, and flow from the foot-hills, across the county, to its
eastern limits, and are skirted by bottom lands, eminently fertile and
The altitude of the county varies from
4,800 and 8,000 feet above the sea-level, and the climate is that
peculiar to the region-healthy, invigorating, and free from all kinds
of malarious or pulmonic diseases. Extreme in temperature are unknown,
and great falls of snow never take place. Stock fatten at all seasons,
without shelter, and without food save the grasses, which are abundant
and possess all the nutritious and perennial qualities peculiar to
those of Colorado.
Jefferson has already a population which
numbers among the thousands; but still has ample room, and offers
superior inducements to tens of thousands of industrious miners,
mechanics and ranch-men.
Colorado: A Historical, Descriptive and Statistical Work on the
Rocky Mountain Gold and Silver Mining Region, by Frant Fossett
1876-transcribed by J.S.
Its Manufactories and
Coal Veins-Golden City-Facts and Figures from the Smelting
Companies-Flour and Paper Mills and Collieries-The Murphy and
Jefferson County embraces a long narrow strip of country between
and Clear Creek counties on the west, an[sic] Arapahoe and Douglas on
the east. On the north is Boulder county, and to the south, Park. East
of the foot-hills are some of the best lands in the state. The average
yield of wheat this season has been from twenty to thirty bushels per
acre. The valleys of Clear creek and Ralston, and all of the
intervening lands that have been irrigated, are filled with well-to-do
farmers, who in a few short years have accumulated what they possess.
In the mountains, the valley of Bear creek is studded with farms were
plenty and prosperity are the portion of all.
Golden, the "Lowell
of Colorado," is the main town and county seat of Jefferson. It is
fifteen miles from Denver by rail and fourteen by wagon road, and
twenty-two from Central. It is situated in a valley encircled by hills
and mountains-Table mountain shutting out the view towards the plains.
The town was laid out in 1859, and was at various periods the capital
of the territory, until Denver became the permanent seat of
Its leading men, such as Loveland and Welch and others for many years
strove to make it the railroad centre of the territory. As it is they
have secured for it a bright and prosperous future.
Golden is a
place of no little importance. It is the headquarters of the Colorado
Central broad and narrow gauge railway. Here are the repair shops, car
manufacturing shops and general office of the road. There are two
extensive smelting establishments to which ore is sent from the
mountain mining districts. There are three flour mills, supplied from
the neighboring farming sections, which turn out annually $200,000
worth of flour. Two coal mines are worked and five miles distant are
the Murphy and Ralston coal banks. There is also a paper mill and
for the manufacture of fire bricks. The former, owned by G.D.
Dickinson, turned out 125 tons of paper this season.
School of Mines is located here of which a description is given in
another chapter. Golden has population of 2,000, two weekly
an elegant school house costing $17,500 and attended by 300 pupils,
half a dozen churches. There are two bankers, (F.E. Everett and J.W.
Smith) two hotels and a number of first-class business houses.
flour mills each have two run of stone. The Barnes mill, owned by J.
Quaintance, is being enlarged and improved so as to increase its
capacity, thereby enabling it to turn out 180 sacks of flour daily.
Attached to the same building is a new kind of quartz mill, invented
the proprietor. Two stone wheels of four tons weight each, move about
a circular pan partly filled with ore. These do the crushing in lieu
stamps. The pulverized ore is washed through the screens forming the
side of the pan into a second pan below, containing quicksilver. Iron
arms keep the pulp in motion until amalgamation is completed, while
refuse is gradually carried over the rim of the pan to the creek.
Rock mills owned by Barber and Brady, turn out 120 sacks by Clear
creek, which debounces from its mountain walled canon at this point.
It also supplies several irrigating ditches with water for the farming
An abundance of water power for all future demands is
afforded by Clear creek, which debounces from its mountain walled
at this point. It also supplies several irrigating ditches with the
water for the farming districts.
While the coal veins of Boulder and some other counties are usually
flat, those of Jefferson are vertical or nearly so.
1872, what are known as the Golden Smelting works, were established
by Bagley and son. Afterwards they became the property of the
Golden Smelting Company. A blast furnace is used and gold, silver,
copper and lead are saved. Wm. B. Young, is manager and Gregory Board,
metallurgist. The works have been in successful operation the entire
year, with the exception of intervals when stopped for repairs or
improvements. The following is the statement of the operations of the
works for nine months of 1876. Ores rich in lead are the classes
Creek county shipped
average 7 1/2 tons.
Average value $66 per ton.
|Allowing the same value for the ores
county, this would give a yield for
works of the Colorado Dressing and Smelting Company, at Golden, began
operations late in the spring of 1876. The process is that of Swansea,
and of the Boston and Colorado Smelting works at Black Hawk and Alma.
The valuable metals are not separated at the works, but are sent by
rail in the form of matte
Black Hawk for separation. A furnace of fifteen tons daily capacity
been in successful operation for months, and has smelted from twelve
fifteen tons of ore daily. Another furnace of equal size is being
constructed, so that within a few weeks the daily capacity will be
thirty tons. Each furnace can produce two tons of matte daily.
Collom, of many years experience in smelting and concentrating ores in
Clear Creek and other counties, is general manager for the company and
all of its establishments. He has individual charge at headquarters;
that is at the smelting works at Golden. Coal is used as fuel and is
considered much cheaper than wood, and equally effective.
of the ores treated here are sent from the large concentrating works
the company at Black Hawk. A quantity, however, has been furnished by
works of similar character located one mile about Idaho Springs. The
latter operate mainly on silver ores, and as they run by water power
only, are now idle for the winter. Ores are also brought from other
localities in large quantities, the American mine, of Sunshine
The Concentrating and Dressing
establishment, at Black Hawk, occupies the great Keith Mill building
North Clear creek, which was enlarged for that purpose. This began
operations in April last. Since then it has been subjected to a number
of stoppages from a variety of causes, but from no defect of the works
outside of trouble with screens.
Altogether very nearly 10,000
tons of ore were dressed at these works from Gilpin county mines the
seven months ending November 1st, 1876. These were usually
into one-fourth and often one-fifth of their former bulk and then sent
to the smelter at Golden. Three tons per hour, or seventy-two tons in
twenty-four hours can be dressed at this place. The ore is first
crushed by crushers and rollers and then operated by machinery. A
system of jigging is used for the coarser ores, while the finer
material is handled on shaking tables. The system is that of wet
concentration, and is the invention of John Collom. The waste or
rock and comparatively worthless ore is separated from the richer
portion and the latter saved. By this means the values are condensed
into less bulk, giving very nearly the entire quantities of gold,
silver and copper in one ton, instead of in four or five.
tons of ore containing only $15 per ton, or $75 altogether would not
pay the expense of smelting alone, not to speak of mining. But if this
$75 is separated from the poorer rock so as to be contained in one
good profits can be realized and liberal prices paid. That is why
works are proving of incalculable benefit to the miner. Ores of any
description can be handled, but those rich in copper are preferred.
works treat the same grade of ores handled by the stamp mills, and
that cannot be made to pay expenses there. The stamp miles save
something over half the valuable contents of the ores, losing most all
of the silver and copper. Their average returns were $11 60 per ton in
1875, indicating the contents of the ore to be nearly $20 per ton. The
dressing works concentrate and then send the ores to Golden, when they
are smelted, and ninety-seven per cent of the gold, silver and copper
are saved. Ores that are of too poor a quality to be mined and milled,
are sold here at paying figures and then concentrated and smelted.
is some satisfaction to know that nearly the entire value is saved,
instead of forty per cent of it going down the creeks to irretrievable
waste. While $28,000,000 have been realized from the gold mines of
Gilpin county since 1859, probably is still larger amount has been
carried down North Clear Creek.
No statement has been received
of the yield of these concentrated ores. About 10,000 tons have been
handled. Allowing this quantity to contain the low average of less
$18 per ton, it should have given a return of $17 per ton, or when
reduced in bulk of over $70 per ton. This would give a yield, in seven
months, of $170,000 from Gilpin county gold ores-mainly of a class
did not pay to mine and mill before these works were built. When
under way, another season, the showing will be far better. The above
sum would represent only a part of the value of shipments, obtained
from all ores smelted by the company.
The Ralston and Murphy
coal veins are located on Ralston creek, at the point of its issue
the mountains, fourteen miles from Denver and five north of Golden.
There are two parallel veins of unequal size but similar character,
extending through both properties. Unlike most other Colorado coal
measures, these are vertical veins. Geo. C. Munson, Esq., of Denver,
recently made an examination and gave this interesting report on them.
"Coal of a merchantable quality was the first mined in the Ralston
colliery, at a depth of thirty-five feet. Here is the upper level
is eight hundred feet long. On this level from a space five hundred
feet long, ten high, and fourteen wide, 5,000 tons of coal were sold
Denver. Double tracks of iron rails are laid for carrying coal to the
surface. The same incline that leads to the first level, passes down
eighty feet beyond, where another level has been run in both
directions, north and south. The incline is altogether one hundred and
ten feet long, attains a vertical depth of one hundred and fifteen
feet, and dips from thirty to thirty-five degrees.
continuous vein of coal is developed about the "incline" making a
vertical depth of coal below the upper level of eight feet. A level,
already one hundred and ten feet long, is being run at the bottom.
Width of the vein from fourteen to fifteen feet, two inches. Coal
clean, without faults, or foreign or worthless substance. Between the
two coal veins is a splendid body of fire-clay, twenty-nine feet wide,
and through this, a cross cut has been driven to connect them. The
or small vein for a length of thirty-five feet, or as far as opened,
measures from five feet to six feet four inches in width. J.T. Hodge,
of the Hayden survey, made the following analysis of Ralston Hodge, of
the Hayden survey, made the following analysis of Ralston and Murphy
superior quality of these coals, as far as northern Colorado is
concerned, ensures higher prices than most others. The main Ralston
opening is covered by a building with engine, etc. Half a mile south
and for a considerable distance north includes the remaining
The Murphy property commences six hundred feet
from the Ralston engine. Nine hundred feet beyond this is the main
Murphy shaft. This is sunk one hundred and fifty feet on the vein,
the surface sixty feet below that of the Ralston works. Here the veins
are a little wider than they appear in the Ralston. The large one
increased from fourteen feet on the surface to fifteen feet below, and
the small vein measures from six feet four inches to six feet eight
inches. A branch railway will be constructed within a year connecting
with the Colorado Central, on the Boulder division, or at
More powerful hoisting machinery will soon be placed over the mines.
Mr. Munson estimates the number of tons of coal "in sight" as follows:
Murphy, large vein 2,000,000; small vein 1,000,000; Ralston large vein
1,500,000; small vein 1,000,000. At both mines are engines for
and screens for screening the coal. As the veins are vertical and show
no signs of departing from their present direction, the amount of coal
that lies beneath the lower workings cannot be estimated.
Source: A Guidebook to Colorado, by Eugene Parsons 1911, transcribed
Green Russell Expedition.
The history of Jefferson County is contemporaneous with that of
The first notable fact of Colorado's history is the Green Russell
expedition. In the spring of 1858 Russell and eight other Georgians,
accompanied by thirty Cherokee Indians, set out to prospect the Rocky
Mountains for gold. On the way they were joined by a party of Kansans
who had heard rumors of finds in the South Platte River. In June the
united company consisted of 104 persons. They passed up the Arkansas
River almost to the forks; then they turned northward, prospecting
Fountain Creek, Cherry Creek, and the Platte. Weeks passed, and not
important "prospects" were located. From time to time members of the
expedition got discouraged and started back home.
Prospecting for Gold.
On June 24, 1858, the party camped on the site of Denver. Moving in a
northwesterly direction, they entered what is now Jefferson County,
prospected Cherry Creek, near where the present town of Arvada stands.
To the Cherokees belongs the credit of originating the expedition. To
the white men of the party belongs the credit of finding gold. The
Cherokees lost hope and abandoned the quest. Russell and a dozen
comrades had the virtue of stick-to-it-iveness; they stayed longer to
prospect the streams of the eastern slope, and their persistence was
finally rewarded. No gold to speak of was found at Arvada, but later
they undiscovered deposits of the glittering dust in the Platte and
Creek, a little south of Denver of to-day. That was the real beginning
In the summer and fall of 1858 upward of a thousand
men found their way to Cherry Creek and the Pike's Peak country. Some
them panned out the sands of Clear Creek, getting colors to the value
of a dollar or so a day, which was not encouraging. They wandered
through the foothills, looking for gold nuggets. They found
"prospects," but no gold to amount to anything.
At the time Denver was building near the confluence of the Platte and
Cherry Creek, two little gold camps (or, rather, camps of
grew up on Clear Creek about 15 or 16 miles farther west. That was in
the fall of 1859. The following year Golden City was founded, and at
once it became a rival of Denver. It was nearer to the new mountain
towns-Central City, Idaho Springs, Boulder, Georgetown, and
Breckenridge; and its position as the natural gateway to the mining
camps led to greater enterprise on the part of its citizens than was
exhibited by the Denverites.
Capital of Territory.
"By the close of 1859," says Hall, "there were seven hundred residents
in Golden. The influx during the next year or two was steady, though
not large. . . In 1861 the War of the Rebellion and the
subsidence of the gold mining excitement caused the tide of
to recede back to its original source. In 1862 stagnation set in . . .
Golden did not greatly improve between 1863 and 1867. It was made the
capital of the Territory in 1862, and held the well-nigh empty
distinction five years, when it was moved to Denver. Governor Cummings
was the only chief magistrate to make his headquarters there, and he
only for a short time."
School of Mines.
With the building of the railroad, in 1870, a new epoch of progress
came, and the town made tremendous advances. Mills were built, a
brewery, and various industries established, such as the making of
fire-brick and pottery. In 1874 the School of Mines was founded here,
and the State Industrial School for Boys was opened in 1881. Meanwhile
other towns were started in the county, which has for a long time been
accorded a place in the front rank of Colorado's counties.
Name of County.
The county was named in honor of the statesman who penned the
Declaration. In early days the Territory itself was called Jefferson.
Then the name was changed to Colorado, after the great river of that
name whose headwaters are in the Rocky Mountains. Colorado is a
word meaning "colored" or "colored red." The canon of the Colorado
River has many richly tinted rocks and cliffs; hence the
appropriateness of the name.
Jefferson County is bounded on the
north by Boulder County, on the east by Adams, Arapahoe and Douglas
Counties, and on the west by Park, Clear Creek, and Gilpin Counties.
The Platte River forms its eastern boundary for a considerable
distance. It is wedge-shaped, 72 miles long, terminating at a point at
the southern extremity. The northern border is 20 miles long.
The surface is exceedingly varied. The northeast corner consists of
rolling plains, suited to agriculture. The hogback, or range of
foothills, traverses the county from north to south. In the southern
part are peaks from 11,000 to 12,000 feet or more in height. Says
Captain E.L. Berthoud; "Fully two-thirds is comprised in high
and foothillls, the remaining third being undulating prairies over
5,000 feet above sea line, and which to-day are occupied for
agricultural and pastoral purposes." (History of Jefferson County, p.
Area. The area is
840 square miles, of which 61,224 acres, or 11 percent were under
cultivation in 1900. The cultivated area in 1909 was upward of 100,000
acres. The mean yearly precipitation is about 15 inches, and the
average temperature 45 to 50 degrees. In 1900 the county had 9,306
inhabitants; the population in 1910 was 14,231.
are varied. Mining, manufacturing, stock-raising, fruit growing,
farming and gardening are successfully carried on.
The county is rich in natural resources, having coal and petroleum
beds, fine clay, kaolin, mica, lime, copper, lead, gold, silver,
mineral paint, building and monumental stone, basalt used for paving
stone, and rhyolite tuff (an eruptive rock used in buildings).
Jefferson might be called a self-sustaining commonwealth, for its
products include nearly everything needed by a civilized people. The
cattle on a thousand hills furnish beef. The ground brings forth
cereals and vegetables in abundance. Apples, pears, and small fruits
Among the '59ers was David K. Wall, of Indiana, who may be considered
the father of agriculture in Colorado. In May, 1859, he arrived in the
present site of Golden. He brought with him garden seed, a plow, and
other farming implements. Wall had been to California, where he had
seen irrigating done. In the bottom lands of Clear Creek he plowed and
irrigated between two and three acres, where he raised "bonanza" crops
of grain and vegetables. Now there are 80,000 acres tilled and
artificially watered in Jefferson County. The pioneers found wild
cherries and wild plums growing here in profusion and of most
flavor. The first fruit trees in the State were planted near Golden,
1860. Now the county has thousands of acres devoted to orchards and
The county seat is Golden, 16 miles west of Denver on the Colorado and
Southern Railway. Its altitude is 5,693 feet. In 1900 the town had
2,152 souls; the population in 1910 was 2,477. The pottery and brick
manufacturies of Golden are especially noted. They obtain in the
vicinity superior brick-clay and clay fit to the finest china ware.
Golden is a popular picnic ground for Denver excursionists. Chimney
Gulch is a picturesque locality.
Leaves from Geological Records.
The vicinity of Golden was once a volcanic country. Table Mountain is
portion of what must have been an immense lava bed. This small mesa of
lava is 250 feet thick. North of Golden are other lava masses, mute
witnesses to the terrible volcanic eruptions that devastated this
section ages ago. To the west is the surpassing pageant of mountain
scenery, and in other directions one may gaze upon a variety of
landscape. In various places between Golden and Denver stumps of palms
and palmettos have been found, also fossil leaves of tropical trees,
ferns and other forms of vegetation common in southern Texas and Old
Mexico. This district once abounded with luxuriant forests, which
formed the coal beds that lie beneath the surface of Jefferson County,
extending from its northern border to Wolhurst. The region about
is one of the most attractive places within easy reach of Denver. It
also historically interesting. Up Golden Gate Canon surged the
gold-seekers of early days on their way to the mountains.
Morrison, 17 miles southwest of Denver, was founded in 1874. It
is the terminus of a spur of the Colorado and Southern Railway. In
the place had a population of 251. The State Industrial School for
Girls was established here in 1887. Morrison has an altitude of 5,766
feet. The "Tent City" and other spots in the environs of Morrison are
good places to take the rest cure and build up physically. The bright
sunshine by day and the cool nights (even in mid-summer) make living a
joy. Nearby is excellent fishing.
Many fossils have been found near Morrison. Here have been unearthed
some of the richest treasures of paleontology of the West. Among other
finds is that of the thigh bone of an atlantosaurus, the largest land
animal known to the scientific world; the bone is 9 feet long and 28
inches in diameter. This saurian had ribs 10 feet long and 4 inches
thick. It must have been 80 feet in length, and over 35 feet tall,
standing. In the strata of the rocks have been found bones belonging
extraordinary animals and reptiles, such as the extinct Triceratops,
which had a skull form 6 to 8 feet long. Scientists have dug up
fragments of skeletons of other enormous reptiles of a far-off time
when dinosaurs swam the inland seas of this continent. In other
localities of Jefferson County have been uncovered the teeth of
mastodons and bones of monsters that had their day and disappeared
ago. Morrison also boasts of soda lakes. The mineral salts were
out of the surrounding formations.
In the neighborhood of Morrison are many picturesque and romantic
features. At a little distance southwest of the town stands Mount
Falcon, and winding up its wooded slopes and defiles to its top is a
scenic roadway for autos and carriages. It is known as the Mount
High Line Drive. The Indian Burying Ground is an attraction in the
fascinating region between Morrison and Golden. Some 3 miles or so to
the south, in Turkey Creek Canon, is a tall rock, where, tradition
says, an Indian maiden, crossed in love, leaped to her death, followed
by her cooper-skinned lover, hence it is called Lovers' Leap.
Overlooking the town on the west is the famed Park of Red Rocks, a
wonderful aggregation of moss-grown cliffs and massive sandstone
formations, with caves and cool grottoes. A mile ride up the Incline
Railway to the summit of Mount Morrison (7,900 feet) is a thrilling
experience. On this rugged eminence one is favored with enchanting
views of the surrounding country.
Other towns in the county are
Arvada, Edgewater, Evergreen and Critchell. In the early '60's the
noted scout, Jim Baker, lived a short distance east of Arvada, and
a toll-bridge over Clear Creek. Troutdale, near Evergreen, has idyllic
surroundings. Buffaflo and Pine Grove, in the southern part of the
county, are adjacent to localities where hunters and fishermen enjoy
The climate of the foothill district has been much
praised. "The moment we enter the foothills," says Berthoud, "the
extremes of a continental climate have lost their severe forms, and we
reach a delicious blending of continental and Alpine climates, without
the rude, unpleasant extremes of either."
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