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Oliver Bowen

Few Georgians did more for the cause of America's independence in the Revolutionary War and received less recognition than this gallant patriot, soldier, sailor and privateer.  No other Georgian rose to the rank of Commodore in the Navy.

On the fourth of July, 1775, we find him a delegate to the provincial Congress of Georgia.  In December, 1775, he was a member of the "Council of Safety" and took an active part in its deliberations.  In January, 1776, his name appears as Captain of Second Company of First Battalion of Georgia Continental troops.  Georgia was so thinly settled that she was required to raise only one battalion of 750 men.  This was commanded by Colonel Lachlan McIntosh, "Battalions being substituted for regiments to get rid of the rank of Colonel, which had occasioned difficulty about exchanges."  The same orders required Massachusetts to raise fifteen battalions.

As early as July 10, 1775, Captain Bowen, commanding a Georgia armed schooner carrying ten carriage guns and many swivels, and manned by a detachment of fifty picked men from Savannah, captured a British armed schooner direct from London, at the mouth of the Savannah River.  This ship was commanded by Captain Maitland and had, besides other military stores, 14,000 pounds of gunpowder; 5,000 pounds were shipped to Philadelphia, a part of which was used by the American army at Bunker Hill; 9,000 pounds were kept for Georgia and South Carolina military forces.  This was the first provincial vessel commissioned for naval purposes in the Revolution, and this was the first capture made by any order of any congress in America.

On August 28, 1776, the Committee of the Council of Safety recommended that Captain Bowen be sent to Cape Francois and letters be given him to the Governor; that he be given power to open commercial relations with her capital, merchants; that he be allowed to contract for armed vessels to the amount of 3,000 pounds; also to purchase arms, ammunition and warlike stores to the amount of 5,000 pounds, and to charter vessels, etc.; to enlist men in the service of this colony, giving them bounty and monthly salaries, and pledge the faith of this province for the same.  Also that he be furnished with a copy of the Declaration of the Independent States of America and the Proclamation of our President, offering French subjects free trade.

In the spring of 1776, when the British had captured by treachery eleven rice-laden ships at Savannah wharf, Captain Bowen, at the head of several prominent citizens, set fire to the schooner Inverness and cut her cable.  She drifted down the river and set fire to the Nelly, and in this novel way of battle many officers and men of the British Navy were killed and wounded, three vessels were destroyed, six were dismantled, and only two escaped to sea.

The following record will be of interest:

"State of Georgia:  This day, January 30, 1777, in Convention, ordered that the House do proceed immediately to ballot for a Commodore.  The House proceeded to ballot accordingly, when on closing the polls it appeared that Oliver Bowen, Esquire, was elected Commodore or Commander of our Naval Department.  A true extract from minutes of Convention.  Jas. Wood, Jr., Clerk, House of Assembly."

He appears to have had much trouble in getting his land warrant issued.  Dr. Geo. G. Smith in his Georgia History says: "To those who served in the Navy only nine land warrants were issued."

These records are to be found in the office of the Secretary of State:

"Savannah, Ga., October 28, 1783.

  Whereas, some doubts have arisen with the Governor and Council respecting the rank of the appointment of Oliver Bowen to the command of the gallies, and the Journals of the Assembly of that time being lost, we do certify that we were members of the Assembly for the county of Chatham in the year 1777, and Oliver Bowen was to our certain knowledge at the time appointed to the command of the gallies, with the rank, pay and emoluments of a Colonel in the land army.

Jas. Habersham.

Thos. Stone. 

This was allowed.                                                                                                       D. Rees,

                                                                                            Secretary of Executive Council."

"Georgia: These are to certify that Oliver Bowen, Esq., as Commodore, is entitled to 1,000 acres of land as a bounty agreeable to an act and resolution of the General Assembly passed at Augusta, August 19, 1781, and the resolution of Congress 16th of September, 1776.

Given under my hand, Savannah, 27th day of January, seventeen hundred and eighty-four.

Jno. Houstoun.

Attest: D. Rees, Secretary.

Bounty from Congress 500 acres.  Bounty from State 500 acres."

Commodore Bowen owned his own vessel, and made many captures of parties along the Georgia coast, who were carrying away provisions for the British.  He was a native of the State of Rhode Island.  He died on the llth of July, 1800, at the age of 59, and was buried in St. Paul's churchyard, Augusta, where a stone was placed to his memory by fraternal affection.

The inscription on this stone reads as follows:

''This stone is placed by the Fraternal affection, to the memory of Commodore Oliver Bowen a native of the State of Rhode Island where he sprang from an honourable Stock.  He departed this Life July the llth A. D. 1800 in the 59th year of his Age.

A Patriot of 1775—he was among the first in this State who steped forth in Vindication of our Rights.  His life equally with his property were often risqued in the Cause.

His Widow, his Relations, and his many Friends will ever regret the departure of the Benevolent and Honest Man."

Wm. Berrien Burroughs, M.D.
Submitted by Brenda Wiesner

Nathan Brownson

    Georgia is indebted to New England for Dr. Nathan Brownson.  He was born in Woodbury, Connecticut, on May 14, 1742, the sixth child and the fifth son of Timothy Brownson.  His grandfather was Cornelius Brownson.  His mother was Abigail (Jenner) Brownson, youngest daughter of Samuel and Hannah Jenner, also of Woodbury.

He was graduated from Yale College in 1761.  He studied medicine and probably began the practice in his native town, where he married and had one or two children.

About 1764, Dr. Brownson, at the suggestion of Dr. John Dunwody, removed to Georgia and purchased a plantation of some five hundred acres in St. John's parish, in what is now Liberty county, about two miles from the present village of Riceboro, and a little more than thirty from Savannah.  He owned a few slaves and cultivated rice.  He also followed his profession, being the first physician to practice south of the Ogeechee.

He soon acquired a reputation in the community for honesty, intelligence, and patriotism as well as professional skill, and when the cause of liberty was agitated he was put forward as the spokesman for the community.  Accordingly when the Provincial Congress was convoked in Savannah on July 4, 1775, we find Dr. Brownson with eleven other prominent citizens representing St. John's parish.

The following year, 1776, he served with Jonathan Bryan on a commission appointed by the Council to report on the advisability of an "irruption into East Florida."  They reported that "an irruption into the province of East Florida will be attended with the most salutary consequences to this province, and, of course, render service to the whole continent."

He was a delegate from Georgia to the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1778 and is credited with faithful and efficient services.  At one time during the war he served in the capacity of surgeon of a Georgia brigade in the Continental Army.  On March 28, 1781, Congress appointed him as Deputy-Purveyor of the hospitals.

At that time the Governor of Georgia was elected by the Legislature, and received a salary of five hundred pounds per annum.  Dr. Brownson was Speaker of the Legislature at the session of 1781, and on August 16th was by that body made Governor to succeed Stephen Heard.  The address of the House to him upon his election was highly complimentary to his character.  After his election he issued the following proclamation: "Since the present crisis demands the most vigorous exertions on the part of each individual to finish the glorious contest in which we are engaged, and justice requires that the weight of the difficulties still to be surmounted before we can reach that happy period should be equally divided; and since the present situation of Georgia claims the assistance of all her citizens, in consequence of a resolution of the Honorable House of Assembly of this State, I publish the present proclamation, by which it is decreed that all who consider themselves as citizens shall return hither, within the different spaces of time hereafter prescribed; that is to say, if they are in South Carolina within thirty days, if in North Carolina in sixty days, if in Virginia ninety, and if further northward four months; and we assure by these presents, all who neglect or refuse to conform to them, that in consequence of the aforesaid resolution their landed property will be charged with a treble tax, commencing from the expiration of the time fixed for their return.


Signed by my hand, and sealed with this great seal of the State at Augusta, 24th of August, 1781, in the sixth year of the Independence of America.

Nathan Brownson."

On January 8, 1782, he was succeeded as Governor by John Martin, and on the 6th of the following June was re-appointed by Congress to the care of the Southern hospitals.

After the war he still kept in touch with public affairs and his interest in public education is evidenced by the fact that in 1784 he was appointed one of the Trustees of the State College which later became the University of Georgia.  He was a member of the State Convention in 1788 which ratified the Constitution of the United States and also of the Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1789.

Under the new Constitution he was chosen first President of the Senate which met in Augusta on the 3d of November, 1789.  He served in this capacity at the sessions of 1790 and 1791.  He was also a Commissioner on behalf of the State to superintend the erection of the public buildings at Louisville in Jefferson county, whence the seat of government was removed from Augusta.

Thus it will be seen that there was scarcely any time when this conscientious and efficient public servant was not entrusted with the performance of some important duty by his fellow citizens.

Dr. Brownson died on his plantation in Liberty county on October 18, 1796, in the 55th year of his age.  His last words were, ''The scene is now closing; the business of life is nearly over.  I have, like the rest of my fellow-creatures, been guilty of foibles, but I trust to the mercy of God to pardon them, and to His justice to reward my good deeds."

His wife died on April 4, 1775, and he is said to have married for the second time a Southern lady who survived him many years.  In the Records of the Midway church is the birth of a son to Nathan and Elizabeth Brownson in October, 1778; the death of another son is recorded in September, 1777.

The venerable Andrew Maybank, who was personally acquainted with Dr. Brownson, related this anecdote: "Mrs. Brownson, while a good and faithful wife, was not always pliable or prompt in responding to the requests of her husband.  On occasions the Doctor has been known, in a playful way, to say to her, 'Have a care; if you do not acquiesce in my wish, when I am dead I will come back and plague you.'  Years after the Doctor's demise the old lady—his widow—as she would brush from her nose some vexatious fly or annoying insect, has been heard to exclaim: 'Go away, Doctor Brownson,' and as the persistent fly or pertinacious gnat would return she would, with emphatic gesture and in decided tone, repeat the injunction, 'Go away, I tell you, Doctor Brownson, and stop bothering me.'"

A. B. Caldwell.
Submitted by Brenda Wiesner

Jonathan Bryan.

JONATHAN BRYAN was born in South Carolina on September 12, 1708.  His father was Joseph Bryan.  His mother was Janet (Cochran) Bryan, and died when Jonathan was but three weeks old.

The first grant of land to Joseph Bryan, dated at "Charles Towne, the eighth day of November, Anno Dom., 1697," was a "plantation containing two hundred acres of land, English measure, and lying in Colleton County."  His son, Hugh Bryan, was captured in the Indian War of 1715 and was held a captive for one year, and his life was saved on more than one occasion by an Indian chief, "for the kindness he had shown the savages in former years."

Jonathan Bryan is first referred to in Georgia history by McCall as one of those citizens of Carolina who accompanied Oglethorpe on January 19, 1733, when the site of Savannah, in Georgia, was chosen for the colonists from England, who were to be the pioneers in the creation of the present great State of Georgia.

Francis Moore's "Voyage to Georgia," published in London 1744, states that at last, in March, 1736, "Mr. Jonathan Brian brought down a new Scout Boat with ten oars."

On March 30, 1736, Mr. Bryan, of St. Helena's, Berkeley county, in the province of Carolina, made a deposition before Mr. Francis Moore, Recorder of Frederica, St. Simon's Island, touching the Spanish settlements.  This deposition was read June 16, 1736, before the Trustees for Georgia in London.

Francis Moore records in April, 1736: "The 30th Mr. Oglethorpe agreed with Mr. Jonathan Brian to furnish him with eighteen hands to assist him in cutting roads through that part of Georgia which is from the River Savannah to the River Ogeechee, and for that purpose to begin by making a road passable from his own house in Carolina to the River Savannah, and thereby carry all things along with him that were necessary for the support of the men.  In the evening Mr. Bryan and Mr. Barnwell set out for Carolina, of their own accord, Mr. Bryan promising if we should be attacked they would come down with a large number of volunteers from thence."  The house referred to was either at "Good Hope," near Port Royal, or at "Walnut Hill."  Mr. Bryan began to settle this latter in 1734.  It is located on the eastern bank of the Pocotaligo River, not far from its head-waters.

On May 27,1740, Jonathan Bryan, as a Lieutenant of a company of "Gentlemen Volunteers" from South Carolina, accompanied General Oglethorpe in his unsuccessful expedition against St. Augustine.  On his return he made a sworn report to the committee of South Carolinians appointed to inquire into the merits of this expedition.

Mr. Bryan recorded in his Bible:

"John 3:5, 6.  My conversion from corruption to Christianity the time whereof (I bless God) I well remember was October 24, 1740."  The Rev. George Whitefield, the creator and benefactor of the Bethesda Orphans' Home in Georgia, had reached the mind and heart of this sturdy man, who with his nephew, Stephen Bull, in 1742, when the Spaniards invaded Georgia, entertained these orphans at their plantations in South Carolina.  He recorded in his Bible that the "Meeting House at Stono Creek was built in the year 1742;" and, according to Howe's History of the Presbyterian Church, on May 20, 1743, he was one of seven who invited the Rev. Wm. Hutson to be their pastor.  "A covenant and articles of faith were adopted" and signed on June 8, 1743 by the pastor and "Hugh Bryan and Jonathan Bryan, deacons."  This church, "The Stoney Creek Independent Presbyterian Church," was established in what was called the "Indian Land," near Pocotaligo."  It is believed that Mr. Bryan had been prior to this of the Church of England, for in 1736 "he was appointed a Commissioner with Hugh Bryan, Joseph Izard, and John Mulverin to build a chapel near Hoospa Neck, St . Helena's Parish."

     Mr. Bryan also records that he began to settle his new plantation in Georgia the first day of January, 1751, and removed to Georgia from Carolina with his family December 27, 1752.

On the 6th of August, 1754, Mr. Bryan was confirmed one of the ten members of His Majesty's Council for Georgia, and with Noble Jones was commissioned a Justice of a "Court of Session of Oyer and Terminer and General Goal Delivery."  On the 12th of December, 1754, Messrs. Jones and Bryan were commissioned Justices of the "General Court."

    "At a council held in the Council Chambers at Savannah 16th January, 1756, a grant was issued to Jonathan Bryan and others, their heirs and assigns, of a public lot in Savannah, known by the letter K, in Decker Ward, yielding and paying therefor annually one pepper corn if demanded, to be held in trust that a Meeting House or place of public worship be erected thereon for the use and benefit of professors of the doctrine of the Church of Scotland agreeable to the Westminister Confession of Faith."  This grant was the inception, the ultimate fruition of which was the Independent Presbyterian church, which has adorned Savannah for so many years.

On April 2, 1757, Mr. Bryan was commissioned Captain of "First Troop of Horse Militia," and Colonel Jones speaks of "Captain Bryan and a cavalcade of citizens" assisting in the reception, by Governor Ellis, of the Chiefs and Headmen of the Upper and Lower Creek Nations.

In 1766 the names of Governor Wright and the Council of which Mr. Bryan was a member, and the names of many others, appeared on what has been called the "Georgia Roll," being a form of abjuration adopted in the sixth year of the reign of King George the Third.

    Mr. Bryan recorded in his Bible: "The year 1766 memorable for the most detestable act of paramount will, the Stamp Act."  This was the almost universal impression of the colonists from Boston to Georgia.

A meeting of merchants was held in Savannah September 16, 1769.  Mr. Bryan presided.  Certain resolutions were agreed upon in consequence of the acts of the British Parliament.  Mr. Bryan was still a member of His Majesty's Council.  When informed, the King was indignant and, on December 9, 1769, directed that Mr. Bryan "should be immediately suspended from his seat at the Council Board, and removed from any office he might hold in Georgia."

    "Thus," says Jones in his History of Georgia, Vol. II, p. 115, "in the person of the Honorable Jonathan Bryan, a pure patriot, an influential citizen and a brave man, do we record the first instance of political martyrdom in Georgia.  But his deposition did not intimidate the "Liberty Boys."  It caused their number to multiply and their hearts to grow stronger."

    Learning through Mr. Lloyd, of London, that Rev. John Wesley was inclined to visit America, Mr. Bryan wrote to him from New York April 1, 1772.  After detailing the "deplorable ignorance of the Gospel among those who lived at a distance from the seaport towns and the populous parts of the provinces and the unhappy condition of our negroes, kept as they are from the key of knowledge," he added these words, "If, therefore, you are not too advanced in years, I say to you, in the name of God, come and help us.  In doing which you will oblige many thousands and, among the rest, your friend and brother."

On July 27, 1774, Mr. Bryan, being one of a committee of citizens appointed "to prepare resolutions, similar to those adopted by the Northern Colonies in consequence of the late acts of the British Parliament towards Boston, as well as the existing acts to raise a perpetual revenue without the consent of the Provinces or their representatives," and Governor Wright, becoming alarmed at the proceedings, convened the Council.  Whereupon, "a motion was made to expel Mr. Bryan from the Council, because his name appeared among the committeemen."  With patriotic indignation he informed them in a style peculiar to himself for its candor and energy, that he would "save them the trouble" and handed his resignation to the Governor.  Soon after this occurrence a handsome silver vase was presented to Mr. Bryan, upon one side of which was inscribed, "To Jonathan Bryan, Esq., who for publicly appearing in favor of the rights and liberties of the people was excluded from His Majesty's Council of this Province, this piece of plate as a mark of their esteem is presented by the Union Society of Georgia."  On the obverse is, "Union, Frendship and Love," and "Ita cuique eveniat de Republica Meruit."  Mr. Bryan was a member of this society, which is among the oldest societies in the United States.

On October 28, 1774, twenty-two headmen, warriors and chiefs of the Upper and Lower Creek Nations, for themselves and the rest of the Creek Nations, agreed to and signed their names to a lease for ninety-nine years of "all that plantation, tract or parcel of land known by the name of the Locheway and Appalache Old Fields," in Florida, to Mr. Bryan, his heirs and assigns, "in consideration of the great regard they bear to the said Jonathan Bryan and the payment of one thousand pounds of the lawful money of the Province of Georgia, at or before the sealing and delivery of these presents," and the annual payment thereafter of "one hundred bushels of Indian corn."  This lease does not appear complete, but is on record in the Department of State at Atlanta.  The Governor and Council made strenuous objections to this transaction and incited the indignation and opposition of the Indians then assembled at Savannah.  Colonel Jones, the Georgia Historian, says, "'Had Mr. Bryan carried his intention into effect and withdrawn from Christ Church Parish into the wilds of Florida, Georgia would have lost one of her purest, best and most influential citizens, and the 'Liberty Boys' a strong friend, a trusted adviser and a brave leader."

    Mr. Bryan represented the town and district of Savannah in the Provincial Congress, which met at Savannah July 4, 1775, and on December 11, 1775.  He was appointed a member of the Council of Safety, and at a meeting of this Council, May 16, 1776, he took the oath as one of the Justices of the "Quorum."

On June 18, 1776, the Council of Safety appointed Mr. Bryan and John Houstoun, his son-in-law, as members of the Council, and Colonel Lachlan McIntosh a committee to proceed to Charleston for the purpose of conferring with General Lee.  On July 5, 1776, this committee reported to the Council what they represented to General Lee relative to the state of the provinces.

It appears from documentary evidence that Mr. Bryan acted as Vice-President and Commander-in-Chief of the State of Georgia and Ordinary of the same on March 26, 1777, and April 14, 1777, in the period of Governor Gwinnett's administration.  He was elected a member of the "Executive Council" by the Legislature which met on May 8, 1777.  He was present at the last meeting of the Council of Safety held February 22, 1777.

In December, 1778, in consequence of the then threatened attack upon Savannah by the British, Governor John Houstoun directed Captain John Milton, the Secretary of State, to pack and move by boats the State records to Purysburg, and thence to the residence of Mr. Bryan, at his Union plantation, which was situated about twelve miles above Savannah and on the Carolina shore of the Savannah River.

It will be remembered that an attempt was made, to capture Governor Houstoun at the Union plantation. Major-General Prevost writes January 18, 1779: "On the first of January Lieutenant Clark, of the Phoenix, was detached with row-boats seventeen miles up the River Savannah, above Savannah, upon the information that the late rebel Governor of Georgia was at a plantation on the Carolina shore.  He did not get the Governor but returned with one Bryan, a notorious ringleader of Rebellion."  This capture occurred at the "Union" plantation, already mentioned.  James Bryan, the son of Jonathan Bryan was captured at the same time and place.

    The General Assembly of the Royalists met at Savannah in May, 1780, and passed an act disqualifying the parties involved and rendering them ever afterwards incapable of holding or exercising any office of trust, honor or profit within the limits of Georgia.  Among those mentioned was "Jonathan Bryan, Rebel Counselor."

    Mr. Bryan and his son were held prisoners on Long Island for two years or more.  Almost immediately after his return to Georgia, early in 1781, he was appointed by the Executive Council of Georgia a member of that body, and on August 30, 1781, his son, James Bryan, was elected Treasurer of the State.  There are extant two letters of Mr. Bryan to Mrs. Bryan at "Brampton," dated Long Island, January 2, 1780, and June 3,1780, and one from Mrs. Bryan dated June 11, 1780, directed "To Jonathan Bryan, Esq., Prisoner of War at Long Island, and to the particular care of the Commissary of Prisoners."

    Their son, James Bryan, was born in South Carolina, September 22, 1752.  He volunteered with Captain Bowen, Lieutenant James Jackson and Thomas Hamilton to burn several vessels at Savannah, which were loaded with rice, to prevent their capture by the British naval vessels.  His name appears as Lieutenant on a roll of officers of the Continental Line of the Georgia Brigade.

On the 21st of May, 1782, says Ramsay, "Colonel Brown at the head of a considerable party marched out of the garrison of Savannah with the apparent intention of attacking the Americans, when General Wayne met him and routed the whole party.  Mr. Jonathan Bryan, a respectable citizen of Georgia, though nearly eighty years of age, was among the foremost on this occasion and showed as much fire and spirit as could be exhibited by a young soldier in the pursuit of military fame."

    The "First Bryan Baptist Church" in Savannah has a history which originated through the interest which Mr. Bryan had in the welfare of the negroes.  One of his servants, Andrew by name, then Andrew Bryan and finally the Rev. Andrew Bryan had been baptized by the Rev. George Liele.  The Rev. Andrew Bryan preached first at "Brampton" plantation and then in Savannah until his death in October, 1812.  At his burial eulogies were delivered by the Rev. Mr. Johnson, of the Baptist church, and by the Rev. Mr. Kollock, D.D., of the Independent Presbyterian church, and by Mr. Thos. F. Williams.

    The Georgia Gazette of Thursday, March 13, 1788, gave notice of Mr. Jonathan Bryan's death, which occurred March 9, 1788, at his "Brampton" plantation and where his remains were interred.  In the language of the Gazette: "He may be justly styled one of the principal founders and fathers of Georgia.  Zealous in the cause of Christianity, he considered modes of worship as secondary, whilst a great first principle with him in all true religion was universal charity."

    ''Being in the late war taken prisoner he was made to undergo a series of persecutions and hardships scarcely to be paralleled and never to be justified, but the strength of his constitution and the unshaken firmness of his mind, even at the advanced age of seventy years, rose superior to all difficulties, and at length brought him to die in the arms of peace."

    White, in his Statistics of Georgia, described Mr. Bryan as "a tall and large man, of wonderful strength and of imposing appearance."

A new county was laid out in 1793 south of the Great Ogeechee River in Georgia, and named Bryan, in honor of Jonathan Bryan, "One of the men of mark in Georgia."

T. F. Scheven.
Submitted by Brenda Wiesner

Gardner, William M., was born in Georgia, entered West Point as a cadet, completed his course in 1846 and participated in the Mexican war as brevet second lieutenant of the First infantry.  He won the rank of brevet first lieutenant by gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco.  When Georgia withdrew from the Union in 1861 he resigned his commission and went to Virginia as lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth Georgia regiment.  He was severely wounded at the first battle of Manassas, in July, 1861; was assigned to the command of the military prisons east of the Mississippi, except those in Alabama and Georgia, and on Nov. 26th following was commissioned brigadier-general.  After the war he lived in Augusta for a time, but later removed to Rome and still later to Memphis, Tenn.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Renae Donaldson)

Holt, Hines, lawyer and legislator, was a native of Georgia. He received a liberal education, studied law and was admitted to the bar. In February, 1841, he was elected representative in Congress, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Walter T. Colquitt, and served until the expiration of the term on March 3, of the same year. In 1859 he was elected to the state senate, and upon the establishment of the Confederate government was elected congressman from the Third district. He also held other positions of trust and responsibility in the service of the state.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Jones, Dr. Noble W., who has been called "one of the morning stars of American liberty," was born near the city of London, England, about 1724. His father was made a member of the Georgia council and treasurer of the province, and when he came to America to assume the duties of the position the son came with him. At the beginning of the dissensions between the colonies and the crown Doctor Jones cast his lot with the patriots and soon became active in the cause of liberty. In November, 1768, he was elected speaker of the assembly and was reelected two years later. Governor Wright negatived his second election because he had issued an addressed to the king two years before. He was a member of the Provincial Congress of 1775, and was chosen as one of Georgia's representatives in the Continental Congress of that year, but did not attend out of respect for his father's wishes. As a member of the Council of Safety he was active in thwarting the designs of the British and Tories; was a delegate to Congress in 1781; a member and president of the convention which met in May, 1795, to revise the constitution, and one of the leading physicians of his day. He died Jan. 9, 1805.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

King, Henry Lord Page, the second son of Thomas Butler King, graduated at Yale university and the Harvard law school, and was admitted to the bar in New York. When Georgia seceded from the Union he returned home and in June, 1861, enlisted in the Confederate army. He passed unhurt through the battles of the Peninsula, Richmond and Sharpsburg, was at the capture of Harper's Ferry, and fell at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. Captain King was noted for his gallantry and fidelity to the cause in whose service he had enlisted. In his report of the battle of Fredericksburg Maj.-Gen. Lafayette McLaws, commanding a division in the Confederate army, says: "My aide-de-camp, Capt. H. L. P. King, was killed on Marye's Hill, pierced with five balls, while carrying an order to Brig.-Gen. Cobb. He was a brave and accomplished officer and gentleman, and had already distinguished himself during the operation in front of Fredericksburg, as he had done in all the other engagements when on duty." (Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Vol. XXI, page 582).(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

King, Mallory Page, fourth son of Thomas B. King, graduated at the Georgia military institute and at Mahan's school of engineering, West Point, N. Y. In 1861 he entered the Confederate service as a lieutenant of cavalry in the "Glynn Guards.'' He was transferred to the staff of Brig.-Gen. W. D. Smith, and given the rank of captain and assistant adjutant-general. With this command he. was in the military operations around Charleston, S. C, and after the death of General Smith he was attached to the command of General Gist. He passed through the Mississippi campaign of 1863; fought at Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge; served with the army under Gen. J. E. Johnston from Dallas to Atlanta; was transferred to the staff of Maj.Gen. McLaws at Savannah, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and assistant inspector-general; was the last man to cross the pontoon bridge when Hardee evacuated the city, fought through the campaign of the Carolinas; was conspicuous for his gallantry in the battle of Bentonville; was transferred to the staff of General Walthall and given the rank of colonel, and General Walthall said he was the most efficient staff officer he had ever known. He was paroled with Johnston's army at Goldsboro, N. C, in April, 1865.(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

Love, Peter E., was born near Dublin in 1818.  After graduating at Franklin college, he studied medicine in Philadelphia, then read law, and was admitted to practice at Thomasville in 1839.  He was made solicitor-general of the southern circuit in 1843; state senator in 1849; elected judge in 1853, and in 1858 was elected representative in Congress as a Democrat, but retired with the other Georgia Congressmen in January, 1861, when the ordinance of secession was passed.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Joanne Morgan)

Markwalter, Theodore, was born at Koenigswinter on the Rhine in the kingdom of Prussia, Jan. 28, 1820. His boyhood years were spent in the beautiful region of the Seven Mountains. He received the usual common school education which Germany requires of all her children. He, following family tradition, learned the stone-cutters trade, working in his father’s quarry on the Wolkenburg; he also, as his forefathers had done, worked on the famous “Dom” of Cologne. In 1854 with his older brother, he came to New York, working for a while on the Erie Canal. The year of 1855 found him in Charleston, S.C. In 1856 he was sent to Augusta, Ga. To cut and set the brown stone front of the National bank. The excellence of this work demonstrates his skill. On Dec. 23, 1857, at Hoboken, N.J. he was married to Fredrica Erdman of Waake, Hanover, Germany. He served during the war between the states in the army of the Confederacy, being stationed at Savannah. After the war, upon returning to his home, he began the task of rehabilitating his shattered business. He was progressive, and the love of his art was more to him than the substantial results of his labor. He was far in advance of his times. As a sculptor, his earliest work was the beautiful figure of the Good Samaritan on the tomb of Doctor Mackey in the Augusta Cemetery. He modeled and executed the first marble statuary portraits in the South. The statue of Dr. Irvine was cut under his personal supervision, and it is to this fact that it owes its perfection. Among his notable works he erected the beautiful monument and exceptional statue of Alexander H. Stephens at Crawfordville, Ga., and also monuments to the Confederate soldiers on Broad and Greene streets, Augusta. His customers usually extended to him their thanks for his painstaking care, and the excellence of his work. Theodore Markwalter died Aug. 6, 1896 in the love and esteem of the citizens of his adopted country. He was a true Mason, having attained the degree of Knight Templar. His uprightness and integrity of character are the priceless heirlooms to his surviving daughters, Dora (Mrs. Wm. F. Bowe) Augusta, Anna (Mrs. W.S. Pottinger) Savannah, and Josephine (Mrs. J.H. von Sprecken) Augusta.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Martin, John, one of the early governors of Georgia, was born about 1730. The first mention of him in history was when Governor Wright appointed him naval officer at the port of Sunbury in 1761. He played an important part in Revolutionary affairs, being a member of the Provincial Congress and the Council of Safety in 1775; captain of artillery in 1781; subsequently lieutenant-colonel of the Georgia brigade and representative in the Georgia legislature. In 1782 he was chosen governor of the state and it was during his administration that the British evacuated Savannah. His term as governor expired Jan. 21, 1783, and ten days later he was elected treasurer of state. About the same time he was appointed one of the commissioners to treat with the Cherokee Indians. The place and date of his death are not recorded.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Martyn, Benjamin, secretary to the Georgia trustees during the life of the first charter, was an Englishman by birth and a man of high character and ability. He served the first year as secretary without remuneration. When some people were inclined to criticize the course of the trustees he wrote three works in their defense, viz:  “An Impartial Inquiry into the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia,” “Reasons for Establishing the Colony of Georgia,” and an account showing the progress of the colony.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Mead, Cowles, was born in Georgia, studied law and was admitted to the bar. He was elected to the Ninth Congress but was unseated in December, 1805, by the successful contest of Thomas Spalding. In 1806 he was appointed secretary of the Mississippi Territory.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Mercer, Jesse, Baptist minister and founder of Mercer university, was born on Dec. 16, 1769, in Halifax county, N.C. His father, Silas Mercer, was a Baptist minister of note and it is said that Jesse was immersed in his childhood in a barrel of water. At the age of nineteen years he married Sabrina Chives, and most of his education was obtained after his marriage. He was ordained to the ministry before he was twenty and began his labors as pastor of Sardis church, in Wilkes county. For nearly forty years he was pastor of the Phillips Mills church, now in Taliaferro county. He also served as pastor of Bethesda church, in Greene county; Powell’s creek church, in Hancock county; organized a church at Eatonton in 1818 and was its pastor for six years; organized a church at Washington, in 1827, of which he was pastor until his death. In 1833 he purchased the Christian Index, published by Dr. Brantley in Philadelphia, removed it to Washington, where he conducted it until 1840, when it was turned over to the Baptist state convention and removed to Penfield. From 1795 to 1816 he was clerk of the Georgia Baptist association, and for the next twenty-three years was moderator. He was always active in missionary work and never missed an opportunity to advance the cause of education. He played an important part in the establishment of Mount Zion college, in Richmond county, contributed to the support of a Baptist college in the District of Columbia, and displayed so much zeal in the upbuilding of Mercer university that the institution was named in his honor. He is called the greatest of Georgia Baptist preachers. His death occurred on Sept. 6, 1841, about two months before he reached his seventy-second birthday. More than half a century he labored unceasingly in behalf of religion and education, and his influence is still felt in the state where the greater part of his long and useful life was passed.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Mercer, Samuel, (sometimes written Marcer) was one of the bailiffs in the early days of the colony. He was an Englishman by birth. Like Thomas Causton he was guilty of misbehavior, the details of which are not stated, further than that he had “proved faithless to his trust.” The records give but little account of his career.
(Source: Georgia
Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Price, William P., was born in 1835.  He learned the printer's trade and later attended the Furman university, at Greenville, S. C., but did not graduate, leaving college to become editor of a news­ paper.  He then studied law, was admitted to practice at Greenville in 1850, and for a time was a member of the South Carolina legislature from that district.  Directly after the war he removed to Georgia and was sent to Congress from that state as a Democrat in 1868 and again in 1870.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Poe, Washington, was elected to Congress on the Whig ticket in 1844, but resigned without taking his seat.  But little is recorded of him aside from this fact.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Mr. Preston was united in marriage to Mrs. Katie (Shorter) Brown, daughter of Col. Reuben Shorter, of Columbus.  No children have been born of this union.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Raleigh, Sir Walter, is believed by some to have been the first white man to visit what is now the State of Georgia, though others have questioned the truth of the statement. It is said that when Oglethorpe first came to America he brought with him the written journal of Sir Walter. From the latitudes mentioned in this journal and the traditions of the Indians it appears that Raleigh ascended the Savannah river as far as the bluff where the city now stands and there held a council with the natives. The Indians pointed out to Oglethorpe a mound, which they explained was the grave of the Indian king with whom the conference was held, his desire having been to be buried where the meeting took place with the white stranger.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

HON. THOMAS P. CARNES descended directly from pure English ancestry.  His foreparents came to Maryland at the beginning of the eighteenth century.  Here Thomas P. Carnes was born in 1762.  After receiving a liberal education, at the age of nineteen, he chose the profession of law.  As soon as he was licensed to practice he removed to Georgia, and settled at Augusta.  The Carnes Road was named for him.  He removed to the town of Milledgeville as soon as it was located and continued to reside there until he died in 1822.
     His talents were of such marked character that he was soon appointed Solicitor-General of the Northern Circuit of Georgia.  At the expiration of the term of this office he was promoted to the judgeship of the same circuit.  Here he became a personal friend to one of Georgia's greatest men, Hon. William H. Crawford.
In the early days of Georgia there was no Supreme Court or last court of appeals.  In conclusion, the ruling decisions of the judges presiding in the different circuits often conflicted.  To obviate this the judges met in convention once or twice a year.  Their functions were purely advisory and revisory, but their opinions were generally accepted by the balance of the judges.  Judge Crawford was for a number of years Chairman of this Convention and Judge Carnes a warm supporter.  To the personal efforts of these two leading spirits, and others who succeeded them, as, for instance, Governor Gilmer, is due the existence and great efficiency of the present Supreme Court of Georgia.
     With Abraham Baldwin and George Matthews, each of whom afterwards became Governor of Georgia, Judge Garnes represented Georgia in the United States Congress from 1793 to 1795.  As an evidence of his popularity the people settling Franklin County named their county site Carnesville in his honor.
In May, 1798, Georgia had only twenty-one counties. From these fifty-six of her best men were selected as delegates to a convention held for the purpose of revising the Constitution of the State so as to adapt it to the changed condition of affairs. Among the notable men of the State who were members of the convention may be mentioned James Jackson, Jared Irwin, Thomas Glascock, and Jesse Mercer. Judge Cames was also a member of the convention.
     After a short session the Constitution was drawn up, engrossed on parchment and signed by the different members.  As the last man signed the document a salute of sixteen guns was fired by the military company, stationed and in waiting, as soon as the signal was given.  It was then and there deposited in the office of the Secretary of State, where it remains to this date.  Of this convention the late Chief Justice Joseph Henry Lumpkin wrote in 1860: "The expiration of sixty or more years has demonstrated the wisdom of this Constitution of '98.  It has undergone but few changes, and these were rendered necessary by the changes in the condition of the country."
At the November session of the Legislature of 1806, the President and members of the Senate being seated in the Representative Chamber, both branches proceeded by joint ballot to elect Thomas P. Carnes, Thomas Flourney and William Barnett Commissioners to ascertain the location of the 35th degree of north latitude, and to run and mark the dividing line between the State of Georgia and the States of North Carolina and Tennessee.
In executing this commission, a slight error was made which caused a divergence of about four miles at the western terminus of the line where the State line falls that distance south of the 35th parallel. In this strip of land between the State line, as surveyed, and the 35th parallel was Ross' Landing, known today as the city of Chattanooga.  Thus, by this small divergence, Georgia was made to lose one of the most flourishing cities of the South.  This mistake was detected about twenty years ago.
Judge Carnes died at Milledgeville in May, 1822, at the age of sixty. R. J. Massey.
Transcribed by Jan S.

McDonald, Charles James, nineteenth governor of Georgia, was born at Charleston, S. C., July 9, 193, graduated from the South Carolina college at Columbia in 1816 and after studying law settled in Georgia.  He was elected solicitor-general of the Flint circuit in 1822; represented his district in both branches of the legislature; became governor in 1839; was reelected in 1841; was a delegate to the Nashville States Rights convention in 1850, and was one of the judges of the supreme court of Georgia in 1857.  He died Dec. 15, 1860.
[Source: Georgia Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons,  Vol 2, Publ 1906. Transcribed by Renae Donaldson]

Meriwether, James A., member of Congress, was a native of Georgia. In 1840 he took an active part in the campaign as a Whig and the same year was elected to the lower branch of Congress from the Eatonton district, where he lived. He served but one term.
[Source: Georgia Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons,  Vol 2, Publ 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister]

Miller, Dr. H. V. M., United States senator, was a noted southern leader in the campaign of 1856; was a delegate to the Southern commercial convention in 1856 and to the Georgia secession convention. On the organization of the Eighth Georgia regiment he was made surgeon and served through the war. He was a member of the reconstruction convention in 1867; was elected United States senator in 1868, but was not allowed to take his seat until the term for which he was elected had almost expired.
[Source: Georgia Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons,  Vol 2, Publ 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister]

Simms, James P., was a lawyer at Covington before the war. At the beginning of hostilities he became major of the Thirty-­third Georgia regiment and was in the principal battles in Virginia and Maryland. On Dec. 8, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier-general for gallant service. After the war he located in Newton county, where he resumed his practice and was elected to the legislature. He died in 1888.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Speer, Rev. Eustace Willoughby, D. D., was the youngest child of Alexander Speer and his wife, Elizabeth Middleton, both of South Carolina. His father was the son of William Speer, a patriot of the Revolution who for his services was granted by the State of South Carolina 1,400 acres of land at Cherokee Ford on the Savannah river in Abbeville district. There, after the Revolution he made his home and reared his family. Alexander Speer, the father of Eustace, was born in 1790, and was a man of broad culture, great eloquence and extensive influence. He was secretary of state or comptroller-general of South Carolina in 1826, and on December 1 of that year Eustace was born in Columbia. With Pettigra and a few others, Alexander Speer resisted the nullification theories of the Calhoun party. He was put forward as the protagonist of the Union party and the opponent in public discussions of such men as McDuffie. The late Benjamin C. Yancey, of Athens, often declared to the writer that Alexander Speer was in public discussion more than a match for that great nullifier. About the year 1833 he removed to Georgia and settled at Culloden, a village noted for the multitude of distinguished men it has sent forth. In the meantime while desperately ill, he had declared that if his life was spared he would devote it to the Christian ministry. He kept his vow and in this work he became even more famous than he had been as a lawyer and politician. He was one of the founders of Wesleyan female college at Macon, and it is believed preached the first commencement sermon at Emory college. The last commencement address made there by the late Associate Justice L.Q.C. Lamar was largely composed of pas­ sages quoted from memory from that sermon, from another by Bishop Soule and a commencement oration by George F., afterwards Bishop Pierce. Alexander Speer, after filling many of the principal appointments in the Methodist churches in Georgia and South Carolina, died at Lagrange, Ga., in 1856, and a young lawyer who watched by the bedside of the noble old patriot and gently closed his eyes in death, was afterwards to become Lieut.-Gen. John B. Gordon. Unlike his elder brothers, Dr. Algernon Sidney, and the late associate justice of Georgia; Alexander Middleton, Eustace Speer did not have the advantages of a collegiate education. He was, however, an ardent student of English literature and the classics, and acquired a spoken and written style which for charm and clearness the late Robert Toombs declared was equaled by no man whom he ever heard, save Judah P. Benjamin. He was married when nineteen years of age to Annie E. King, daughter of the Rev. Geraldus King and grand niece of William Rufus King, of Alabama, at one time vice president of the United States. Eustace Speer was converted at the old Monroe camp ground, and, although he had been admitted to the bar by act of the general assembly, at once devoted his great talents to the service of the Master. In 1851 he was sent by the annual conference, to the First church in Athens to control the unruly student body in that day mainly composed of sons of wealthy planters. After his appearance and first sermon there was not as before any disturbance of the congregation lawfully assembled for divine service, and the students became his life long and devoted friends. Through his efforts the brick church still standing at Athens was erected. His subsequent appointments embrace all of the principal cities of the state. He was several times presiding elder, but declined the more conspicuous stations of the church. He was for eight years professor of English literature and Belles-lettres in the University of Georgia. Shortly after his resignation of his professorial duties he was appointed by the associate justice, and the circuit judge of the Fifth circuit as standing master in chancery. He had by nature the mind of the jurist and great powers of ratiocination. He reports as master were models of juridical statement and reasoning and exquisite English. His unobtrusive piety, his gentle courtesy, even to the lowliest and least fortunate, his compact, lucid and fervid sermons enriched by his copious learning, glowing with the vivid charm of his strong and cultured imagination, endeared him to thousands of his contemporaries, and are yet cherished in tender memory by those who knew and loved him. Of another, no man ever heard him speak an ungentle or unkindly word. He abhorred debt and owed no man. While ever maintaining a home of refined and elegant comfort, always liberal to the cause of religion and charitable to the poor, his savings from his slender salaries provided amply for those dependent upon him. He was like his father and grandfather an ardent patriot and a de­ voted advocate of the American system.     On Oct. 29, 1899, he passed from this transitory life declaring with undiminished clear­ ness of mind and statement not merely his belief but his absolute knowledge of a blissful and immortal life beyond the grave. He is survived by his widow, now nearly eighty years of age, and by his daughter, Miss Laura Speer, who live in Athens in the beautiful home he provided for them, and by his only son Judge Emory Speer.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Sorrel G. Moxley, soldier and merchant, was born in Georgia, and was one of the first to answer the call to arms at the beginning of the Civil war. He entered the army as a captain on the staff of General Longstreet, and fought at the first battle of Manassas. Shortly after that he was made a major and was appointed to the position of adjutant-general of Longstreet's division. He continued to serve with that command, distinguished himself at the battle of Sharpsburg, and a short time before the battle of Gettysburg was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. On the last day of October, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier-general and commanded a brigade of Georgians in Mahone's division until the close of the war. He then located in Savannah, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Spalding, Thomas, a resident of St. Simon's bland in the early part of the nineteenth century, was prominent in public affairs in his day. He served in the state legislature and in 1802 was elected to Congress. Owing to a contest with Cowles Mead he did not take his seat until December, 1903. Spalding county is named in his honor.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Steed, Clem Powers, one of the leading members of the Macon bar and professor of common and statute law in the law department of Mercer university, was born in the city of Macon, Nov. 21, 1861, a son of Rev. E. A. and India (Powers) Steed, both of whom were born and reared in Georgia, where they passed their entire lives. The father was at one time editor of a newspaper and afterward became a clergyman in the Baptist church. He was a man of high intellectual attainments and noble attributes of character, his influence being a power for good for all who came within its sphere. At the time of his death he was professor of Latin and literature in Mercer university. Clem Powers Steed was afforded the advantages of Mercer university, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1882, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and later secured the degree of Master of Arts, from his alma mater. He studied law under Judge James Nisbet, of Macon, making rapid advancement under the direction of this able preceptor and was admitted to the bar in 1885. He forthwith engaged in practice in Macon, associating himself with Olin J. Wimberly, under the firm name of Steed & Wimberly. This alliance was later dissolved and he formed a partnership with T. E. Ryals, under the title of Steed & Ryals, which firm to-day controls a large and important practice, extending into the state and Federal courts. Mr. Steed has held the chair of common and statute law in the law department of Mercer university since 1893, is a valued member of the faculty of the institution and popular with the student body.  He is uncompromising in his advocacy of the principles for which the Democratic party has long stood sponsor; is a deacon in the First Baptist church of Macon; a trustee of Mercer university and is identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In 1901 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Steed to Miss Eugenia Small, daughter of Augustus B. Small, president of the A. B. Small Company, wholesale merchants of Macon, and an ex-soldier of the Confederacy in the Civil war.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, a native and favorite son of Georgia, was born near Crawfordville, Feb. 11, 1812. His grandfather, Alexander, settled in Pennsylvania in 1746; fought in the French and Indian war under Washington, and was a captain in the American army during the Revolution, afterward settling in Georgia. The subject of this sketch was left an orphan at a very early age, and was placed in the school of the Rev. Alexander Webster, at Washington. In 1828 he entered Franklin college, his expenses there being paid by the educational society of the Presbyterian church, with the understanding that he was to devote his life to the Christian ministry. He graduated in 1832 with the first honors of his class. Having decided to adopt the law as his profession he taught school and earned the money to repay the church the sum advanced for his education: After only two months of special preparation he was admitted to the bar, where he soon won a high standing. He was elected state representative on the anti-nullification ticket in 1836, and reelected every year until 1841, when he declined further honors. In 1839 he was sent as a delegate to the Southern commercial convention; was elected state senator in 1842; member of Congress the same year; reelected each succeeding term until 1856, when he determined to retire from public life, and with this end in view, delivered a most eloquent farewell address at Augusta. In 1860, Mr. Stephens' name was most favorably mentioned for the national presidency and he was chosen elector-at-large on the Douglas ticket. As a delegate to the secession convention in 1861, he voted against immediate secession, but signed the ordinance with the other delegates and entered upon the struggle without reserve.  He was a member of the Confederate convention at Montgomery and when the government of the Confederate States was established he was chosen vice-president. In 1865 he was sent as a commissioner to the Hampton Roads conference, to negotiate peace with Lincoln and Seward. After the war Mr. Stephens was confined at Fort Warren, in Boston harbor, until October 1865, when he was paroled. In 1866 he was elected United States senator, but was not allowed to take his seat. He was a delegate to the National Union convention at Philadelphia in August of the same year; was appointed counsel for the Columbus prisoners, and was defeated by Joshua Hill for United States senator in 1868; became editor and proprietor of the Atlanta Daily Sun in 1871; was defeated by John B. Gordon for United States senator; was elected representative in Congress in 1872, and continued to represent his district in that body until 1882, when he was elected governor of his state. He died at Atlanta, March 4, 1883, before the expiration of his term. He won high rank as a writer. His “War Between the States," "School History of the United States," and the "History of the United States" are regarded as models of accuracy and impartiality. A statue has been erected to his memory at his old home, "Liberty Hall," in Crawfordville, and a county was given his name in 1905.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Starnes, Ebenezer, jurist, was a lawyer of the old school. After serving for a time as judge of the superior court he was elected justice of the supreme court in 1853, to succeed Hiram Warner, but retired from the bench in 1856 to resume his large practice. His decisions are still quoted as good authority by the bench and bar of Georgia. He died about 1870.
Starr, Willington W., manager of the Savannah Brewing Company, was born on James island, opposite the city of Charleston S.C., Feb. 22, 1847, the place of his birth having been the fine old cotton plantation of his maternal grandfather. He is a son of Willington W. Starr, who was named in honor of Aaron S. Willington, one of the founders and original owners of the Charleston Courier, which was succeeded by the present News and Courier. The father was born in the city of Savannah, was a successful and prominent rice planter and a citizen of sterling worth. He died in Augusta, Ga., in 1893, at the age of seventy-three years. His wife, whose maiden name was Caroline Rivers, was born on her father's cotton plantation, on James island, a daughter of Rawlins Rivers, a representative of one of the prominent old families of South Carolina. She died in 1876, in Augusta, aged fifty-four years. Willington W. Starr, subject of this review, was afforded good educational advantages in his youth and was associated with his father in the management of the home plantation until the time of the Civil war, during the last eighteen months of which he was in the service of the Confederate States as a member of Company I, Garlington's South Carolina regiment of infantry, and at the close of the war was in the railway service of the Confederate government in North Carolina. From 1865 to 1869 he was a telegraph operator at Rockhill, S. C., and thereafter, until 1880, he was incumbent of the office of cashier and agent for the Central of Georgia railroad in Augusta. In 1880 he became trainmaster for the same road, on the Savannah-Atlanta division, with headquarters in Savannah. In 1886 he was made superintendent of the South Carolina division of the road, with headquarters in Augusta, and in 1888 he became superintendent of the Southwestern division, with headquarters in Macon. In 1890 he gained another noteworthy promotion, being then made general superintendent of transportation for the entire system of the Central of Georgia, with headquarters in Savannah. In 1892, when the Richmond & Danville Railroad Company leased the Central of Georgia, Mr. Starr retired from the service and accepted his present office, that of general manager of the Savannah Brewing Company. Under his regime the plant has been made one of the most modern in the south, and the product is of the highest type, commanding a large sale. In politics Mr. Starr is a stanch Democrat and takes a lively interest in the party cause. He was elected alderman of Savannah on one occasion, but immediately resigned, not desiring the office. He is affiliated with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. He was deputy grand exalted ruler of the grand lodge of Elks in Georgia for two years. He is also identified with the Fraternal Order of Eagles and with the Beavers, being past president of the Georgia state organization of the former and the present presiding state officer of the latter. He is also affiliated with the Royal Arcanum, in which he is a life member of the grand council, and is a charter member of Shepard Lodge, Knights of Honor, in Augusta. He is a member of the Savannah board of trade and chamber of commerce and is an ex-commodore of the Savannah Yacht club. In 1870 Mr. Starr was united in marriage to Miss Tallulah C. Snead, youngest daughter of the late Judge Claiborne Snead, of Augusta, and a sister of Col. Claiborne Snead, who was commander of the original Third Georgia regiment of infantry, in the Confederate service, and who fell severely wounded at the head of his regiment in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg, He recovered, however, and now resides in Columbia county, Ga. Mr. and Mrs. Starr have eight children, namely: Julia B., Arthur L., Willington W., Jr., Neva T., William R, Cecelia C., Annie M., and John Garnett.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stephens, Linton, lawyer and statesman, was born in Georgia in1823 and was a brother of Alexander H. Stephens. After completing his education he practiced law in Hancock and adjoining counties; was repeatedly elected to the legislature; delegate to the Southern convention at Montgomery in 1858; judge of the supreme court in 1859, but resigned the next year; was a member of the secession convention of 1861 and during the war was a member of the Georgia legislature. He died in 1872.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stephens, William, was born Jan. 28, 1671, on the Isle of Wight, England, where his father was lieutenant-governor. After graduating at King's college, Cambridge, he studied law at the Middle Temple, London, but was never called to the bar. In 1697 he was a member of Parliament from Newport. In 1735 he came to South Carolina where he met General Oglethorpe, upon whose recommendation he was appointed secretary of the trustees in Georgia. He was made keeper of the public stores in 1738; president of Savannah county in 1741; and when General Oglethorpe went to England in 1743 he became president of the colony. He was then seventy years old and in 1750 he resigned, owing to advanced age. He died in 1753.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stewart, Charles Dawson, was born in Brunswick county, Va., and was but thirteen years of age at the time of the death of his father, who had come to America from the west of England and who had met with reverses so that he left but little property. Charles gave his small patrimony to his mother and sister, left the home farm and state, and began the battle of life with a mere pittance. He came to Georgia and secured a clerkship in a store, while from time to time, as his earnings permitted, he gave up work and attended school, following this plan until he had gained a common school education. By rigid economy he was soon able to make a business venture on his own account and in course of time he became a successful merchant. Thus his advancement to manhood was made up of alternate periods of faith­ful application to work and careful study. The result could be no other than the development of a strong and self-reliant character, in which were exemplified unswerving integrity, Spartanlike fortitude, a strong sense of justice, and a remarkable degree of acquisitiveness with intellectual men. Resulting from the life led by such pioneers in Colonial development, superadded to the innate will of the boy, there developed in his make up a will power, with a determination to accomplish whatever task that came to him. This unswerving will power is well illustrated by an incident in his life, showing as well his self control and promptness of action. By some accident his finger was fractured to which splints were applied. On removal of the dressings he found his finger had grown crooked by improper union of the bones. Rather than go through life with an unsightly digit, he placed the finger in a door jamb, closing the door on the finger and refracturing and subsequently resetting it in the proper manner. Though the course of refracturing and resetting is now adopted by all surgeons as the only proper one to be followed for the correcting of such acquired deformities, it was then a plan untried, his sound reasoning and logical mind alone suggesting its employment. Many men become narrow and contracted, close and niggardly under the lash of misfortune, and when tested in the school of adversity with great financial needs, often the character all believed to be true to the right, as the needle to the pole, is found wavering on every side, to at last plunge from its true pivot down into the dark abyss of dishonor, dishonesty and crime. with him. Twice through a long and eventful life he was pressed hard by the relentless hand of adversity, once by the unauthorized use of his name by a man with whom he had business relations. In this instance he paid the entire loss sustained by both, amounting to several hundred thousand, though legally bound for only part. This statement in one of his letters to a firm of importers who were among his creditors, and with whom he had dealt for years, shows the plan of his life. They wrote a letter of sympathy with him in his losses, suggesting a compromise of accounts at 50 cents on the dollar, backing the proposal by so offering their account. This kind letter brought forth a terse but truly characteristic reply, as follows: "Gentlemen: Your kind and highly generous offer to hand. I cannot, as you doubtless expect, add appreciation, for such is not the case. Your proposal of compromise is more than distasteful, cover it as you will with soft words and women's sympathetic eulogies. The proffered act of kind generosity is a stench in my nostrils. Your house has shown in the making of this proposal two points of distrust in me: the first in valuing my paper at its highest point of estimated worth to not exceed 50%; second, fearing this will not materialize, without your proffered assistance, you request my authorization of the issuance by you of a circular letter to creditors couched in sympathetic platitudes and false sympathies requesting a like scaling down of accounts by them, by these procedures virtually securing the guarantee of the 50% now representing a distrusted value to you. All of which is respectfully declined. My name, as that of my father before me, has never been worth less than par. I decline to purchase my account with you for a less figure, as I do all other accounts and obligations. Respectfully yours, Charles D. Stewart." His second disaster came during the war, to which cause he was a more than bountiful giver: the universal shrinkage in realty and personally, representing as they did his entire estate, produced financial loss verging close to his all at the close of the war. At that time, being then a man of eighty years, still undaunted he again entered the business world and during the following ten years as a result of his remarkable business acumen amassed an estate worth at his death quite a snug sum. His name was a synonym for honesty, justice, and untiring energy, tempered with kindness. Early in life he wedded Miss Henrietta Hargraves of Charles county, Md., and after her death he married Miss Rebecca Appling of Georgia, no children being born of the second union.  His children were Rev. George Stewart; Dr. Theophilus Stewart; Charles Hargraves Stew­ art, and Henrietta Hargraves Stewart, the last mentioned becoming the wife of Henry Vincent Meigs, a son of Dr. Charles Meigs of Philadelphia.  The early married life of Mr. Stewart was passed in Warrenton, Ga., whence he removed to Greensboro, where he resided until 1829, when he became one of the settlers of Columbus, Muscogee county, one year after its incorporation. In January, 1832, he was elected one of the six com­ missioners to govern the town, was reelected in July of the following year and resigned in March, 1834. In July of that year he was elected superintendent of the town, but resigned the office the following December. Although he spent the last few years of his life with his son, Rev. George Stewart, who resided at Summerville Heights, Ala., about four miles north of Columbus, he always considered himself a citizen of Columbus. As planter, merchant and manufacturer, he was ever a prominent figure. He was one of the incorporators of the Eagle and Phoenix mills. With the advance of age his bright mind ever grew in its powers. Its clear, just, yet tolerant insight into human nature was never brighter than it was at the day of his death, having reached the age of ninety-two. He died at the home of his son, Rev. George Stewart at Summerville Heights.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stillwell, William B., a lumberman of note, a prince of good fellows, and above all a man among men-neither spoiled by the smiles, nor dismayed by the frowns of the fickle Goddess of Fortune, the subject of this sketch stands today a forceful factor in the lumber trade, the delight of a host of friends and a worthy exponent of American manhood. Nicholas Stillwell, the first of the name to land in America, brought to the aid of the infant colonies an iron will and mighty arm, and his descendants settling north, south, east and west have won enviable distinction in the pursuits of peace as well as in the art of war-many to-day occupying prominent positions in the army, in the national guard and in the great enterprises and industries of the country. In direct line of descent from Nicholas, his grandson, Maj. Thomas Stillwell, and great grandson, John Stillwell, who won distinction during the Revolution, came Charles H. Stillwell, who in addition to the spirit of his forefathers, was fortunate enough to inherit from his mother, a Huguenot of the South Carolina colony, the spirit which animated the French martyrs. To him, though always beset by difficulties and adversity and twice made a cripple-the last time for life-the State of Georgia is indebted for nine sons and one daughter, who have worthily illustrated in their various vocations, the indomitable energy, peerless courage and Christian faith which characterized their sire. William, one of the sons thus endowed, though starting without a dollar amid confusion which follows in the wake of civil strife, has won both means and position even in a business which requires as much capital and individual effort for its successful prosecution as the lumber trade. He was born in Rome, Ga., March 11, 1851, and his name is not quite half way down the official register of family births which must have overflowed the record pages in the old family Bible, for there were sixteen children. At the close of the Civil war ten of these were still living-nine boys and one girl-four boys older than William having seen service under the Confederate flag. The family, which during the war had "refugeed" pretty much all over the state, moved back to Rome at the close of the war, and William got his first experience in sawmill operations in an upright saw water mill operated by his father, whom he assisted as yardman and general utility man. In February, 1866, he went into the employ of Millen & Wadley, at Savannah, Ga., which firm afterward became Millen, Wadley & Co., by the admission of D. C. Bacon as junior partner. In 1876 Messrs. Bacon & Stillwell formed the firm of D. C. Bacon & Co., H. P. Smart being afterward admitted to the firm. The firm formed and operated a number of other companies including the Vale Royal Manufacturing Company, the Atlanta Lumber Company, Central Georgia Lumber Company, Screven County Lumber Company, and Amoskeag Lumber Company, Mr. Stillwell being for several years president of the last named, as well as an officer in all of the others. While with this firm, Mr. Stillwell served also as director of the Savannah board of trade for several years, and for two years was its vice-president. He was for several years a director and vice-president of the Citizens bank, a member of the cotton exchange and a director in the Savannah Construction Company, which built the road from Columbia to Savannah, afterwards operated by the Florida Central & Peninsular railroad, now part of the Seaboard Air Line. In 1887 the firm of D. C. Bacon & Co. was dissolved, and the firm of Stillwell, Millen & Co. was established, with headquarters at Savannah, and L. R. Millen & Co., of New York city, consisting of W. B. Stillwell, Loring R. Millen and L. Johnson, R. H. and W. R. Bewick being ad­ mitted several years later. The firm owned and operated the Screven County Lumber Company, Central Georgia Lumber Company, and Augusta Lumber Company, and also built and operated the Waycross Air Line railroad and the Millen and Southern railroad. In all these companies Mr. Stillwell held official positions and was president of the Waycross Lumber Company. In 1895 the lumber business of Stillwell, Millen & Co., L. R. Millen & Co., McDonough & Co., the James K. Clarke Lumber Company, Henry P. Talmadge, and-C. C. Southard was consolidated into the Southern Pine Company of Georgia, and Mr. Stillwell became secretary and treasurer of the company, which position he still holds, being also director of the purchasing and shipping department. So much for the busy career, but this sketch would be incomplete without some reference to the movements of wider scope in which Mr. Stillwell has been pre-eminent, and to the social side of his well rounded nature. In 1875 Mr. Stillwell was united in marriage with Mary Reily Royall, of the well known Carolina family of that name, and this union has been blessed with three daughters, Edith (now Mrs. W. F. Train), Mamie R. and Laleah P., and three sons, William H., Herbert L., and Walter B., who with their mother and father constitute an unbroken family circle. Early in life the subject of this sketch joined the Baptist church, of which he has ever since been a regular attendant, and he holds membership in many social and fraternal orders, among which are the Masons, Knights Templars, Mystic Shriners and Elks. In military circles he is also well known, having served as an active member for twenty years in the Chatham artillery, and being now an honorary member of that historic corps.  He is also a life member of the Savannah volunteer guards and a pay member of the Savannah cadets. As early as the seventies Mr. Stillwell seems to have been a moving spirit in organizing lumbermen on lines tending towards the preservation of their business interests and the promotion of good fellowship and social intercourse. In 1879 he was active in the formation of the Southern lumber and timber association, and was its secretary when it gave to the lumber world its classification and inspection rules of 1883, which have ever since been the basis of the operation of the yellow pine and cypress trade. Later he was a useful member and bas been now for two years vice-president of the Georgia interstate saw mill association, and is now also a director in the Southern lumber manufacturers' association. The material mens association of Georgia owed its existence largely to his efforts and during his incumbency as its first president an important amendment to the lien laws of Georgia was made and is still in force. From its inception the National lumber manufacturers' association, which is destined to accomplish much for the lumber trade, has been the object of his zeal and untiring efforts. He has been the chairman of its transportation committee and now rep­ resents the Georgia interstate saw mill association as its member on the board of governors. It is, however, as a Hoo-Hoo that Mr., Stillwell became most widely known to the lumber men of recent years his zeal and untiring work for the order, together with his personal popularity having won for him four years ago the highest position within its gift. How well he filled the office of Snark of the Universe contemporary criticism fully testified. The Savannah board of trade has had no more devoted member and has testified its appreciation by electing him its president this year. Through these various channels and the medium of an extensive and thriving business, Mr. Stillwell is well and favorably known to the lumbermen and business communities of the entire United States. But after all, it is when, man to man, the hearts fires are focused that the true metal or the dross is most clearly revealed and the highest tribute that can be paid to the subject of this sketch it to say that his life around the sacred hearth of home as well as to the outermost circle of individual friendship has shown but pure gold-never too absorbed in business or taken up by the attraction of the larger social life to be unmindful of the claims of a loved one or friend, the crown and summit of his earthly achievement is and ever will be the high place he holds in the hearts of those whose life long love and regard he has won by his bright and unselfish nature.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stokes, Anthony, a native of England, came to Georgia in 1760. Three years later he succeeded William Grover as chief justice of the colony and continued in that position until control of the courts was assumed by the Provincial Congress in 1775. He was able and honest and during his administration the law was firmly and impartially administered. In March, 1776, he was arrested as an act of reprisal for the imprisonment of some American officers, but was soon released on parole. His house, library and legal records were destroyed by fire during the siege of Savannah, in the fall of 1779, and in 1782 he returned to England, where he published a scholarly and impartial treatise on the American colonies.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Stokes, Charles A., superintendent of Station B of the Atlanta postoffice, was born in this city, July 10, 1876, a son of William F. and Fannie (Cooper) Stokes, the former born in Athlone, Ireland, April 12, 1815, and the latter in LaGrange, Ga., Sept. 26, 1848. The father is of Scotch-Irish genealogy and was reared and educated in the Emerald Isle, where he remained until 1866, when he came to the United States, becoming a successful merchant in Atlanta. He disposed of his business in 1879 and removed with his family to England, where they remained until 1884, when they returned to America, again taking up their residence in Atlanta, where the parents still maintain their home. Charles A. Stokes secured his rudimentary education in England, and after the return of the family to Atlanta he entered the public schools of this city, continuing his studies until he had completed a course in the Boys' high school, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1894. Soon afterward he entered the local postoffice service, beginning at the foot of the ladder and rising through various grades of promotion to his present responsible office, of which he has been incumbent since January, 1904, his station being located at the corner of Pryor and Mitchell streets. Mr. Stokes is one of the zealous and valued members of the Central Presbyterian church in which he is a deacon. Dr. George Stokes, a brother of Mr. Stokes' father was a professor in Trinity college, Dublin, Ireland, and also a Fellow of the Royal Society of antiquarians.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Turner, Henry G., lawyer and member of Congress, was born in Franklin county, N.C., March 20, 1839. After the usual preparatory training he entered the University of Virginia, but the death of his father in 1857 made it necessary for him to leave the institution before completing his course. The following year he came to Georgia, where he taught school until the commencement of the war, when he enlisted in the Confederate service. He served through the entire war, being mustered out as captain, and in 1865 was admitted to the bar. In 1872 he was one of the presidential electors on the Democratic ticket. Later he served three terms in the legislature; was elected to represent his district in the lower branch of Congress in 1880, and reelected at each succeeding election until 1894. Upon retiring from Congress he resumed the practice of law at Quitman; was appointed one of the justices of the supreme court, but after a short service he resigned, and died at Quitman in 1905.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Williamson, Andrew, a native of South Carolina, sometimes called the "Benedict Arnold of the South," was, in the early days of the Revolution, a brigadier-general in the American army. While in command of some 300 men at Augusta he pretended to be in favor of uniting his forces with those under Gen. Elijah Clarke for the suppression of the Tories in Georgia and the Upper Carolinas. At the same time he held the king's protection in his pocket. He was an illiterate man, could not read or write, and left the details of his correspondence, etc., to his aide-de-camp, Malcolm Brown, who was also a Tory at heart. When the British forces, under Campbell and Brown, approached Augusta, Williamson disbanded his men, advising them to seek the royal protection. For this he was re­ warded by a colonel's commission in the British army.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Ruger, Thomas Howard, appointed military governor of Georgia in 1868, was born at Lima, Livingston county, NY, April 2, 1833. He was educated at West Point military academy and entered the engineer corps. In 185 he resigned and settled in Janesville, Wis., where he began the practice of law. In 1861 he enlisted as a lieutenant-colonel of the Third Wisconsin regiment; was commissioned brigadier-general in 1862; brevetted major-general in November, 1864, and being mustered out entered the regular army as
colonel. He was detailed by General Meade as governor of Georgia and performed the duties of that office from January to July, 1868.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Rucker, Joseph. – Many of the most familiar names in middle Georgia may be traced back to Virginia and to that tide which began to flow southward from the Old Dominion about 17869. Reacting from the illiberal land laws which had characterized her as a colony, Georgia, after the Revolution, threw open her public domain to settlers and invited those from other states to make their homes within her borders. As early as 1784 the general assembly passed the act by which 200,000 acres in Wilkes county were set apart to be settled by Virginians. Among the first to take advantage of these land laws was John Rucker (III), of Orange county, Va. He was a son of John Rucker (I), of St. Mark’s parish, Va., who died in 1742. John Rucker (III) settled near Broad river, in what was then Wilkes county, about 1787. His son Joseph was there born in 1789, and there died, at Ruckersville, Elbert county, in 1864. From the standpoint of the present, there was little in the locality at that time to commend it as a center of influence or as the seat of a great estate. The land was young, roads were bad, markets there were none, and it was a four days’ journey to Augusta, the nearest approach to a city. And yet in that scheduled locality, remote from marts and markets, Joseph Rucker not only created a fortune great for his day and generation, but also displayed such wisdom and executive ability and manifested such traits of character as to mark him an extraordinary man. In this day of the subdivision of labor it is difficult to appreciate the kind and variety of talent then required in the development and successful management of great landed estates at points distant from centers of trade and, according to present standards, practically inaccessible, for want of highways, railroads and means of transportation. The successful agriculturist in every stage of the country’s history was needed the highest order of judgment and forethought and has necessarily been a man of affairs. But the successful planter at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century required a combination of talents which would now thoroughly equip the master minds that control the colossal enterprises of the twentieth century. For such a planter had not only to be an agriculturist, but also a manufacturer, a financier and, above all, he had to know how to manage, care for and develop men. In all these departments Joseph Rucker was conspicuous. The cotton industry was in its infancy, and in that he made a marvelous success. But that was only a part of what was needed to be done, and on his extensive plantations there were conducted those hives of industry of such varied and diverse sorts as were to be found in the South before the Civil war. Stock of all kinds – horses, mules, cattle, and sheep – were raised. The cotton was to be ginned, and the ginnery and the press were supplemented by the spinning of the yarn and the wool and the weaving of cloth for many bodies that had to be clothed. There were blacksmiths and wheelwrights, and also carpenters, to build saw mills in which to manufacture lumber for the “quarters.” The planter had his own tan-yards and tanners, his harnessmakers and shoemakers. Immense crops of wheat and corn were raised. Corn cribs and granaries abounded. There was the mills to do the grinding and millers to make food for the hungry. The management of these separate and varied industries was not the most difficult task involved. There were the slaves themselves, a large and heterogeneous body, a wholly irresponsible people whose ancestors had but recently come from Africa. There had to be trained and taught, and how humanely and well this was done by the planter of the old regime is shown by the conduct of these same slaves, when, during the war, disciple was necessarily relaxed and control partially suspended. Joseph Rucker lived the typical life of the southern planter. Self-centered and independent, he lived at home. He had little to buy and always something to sell, and the great crops of cotton were shipped in Petersburg boats down the Savannah river to Augusta. This community was unusually prosperous. The Harper, White, Maddox, Clark, Adams and a host of other families made a neighborhood that was idea for home and society. A large family came to Joseph Rucker and his wife, Margaret Speer, and his house was the scene of a wide, gracious and generous hospitality – a social center which not only made its impress upon its inmates, but also left a memory which abides to the third and fourth generation. Joseph Rucker was pre-eminently a good neighbor, counselor and friend. He was grave, reticent, extremely dignified in his demeanor and intensely pious. In politics a Whig, he was one of the chosen friends and advisors of the leaders of the party in that district so noted in state and national politics. However, he never sought political preferment, though always taking an active interest in the questions which then agitated the south. He lived at a time when the county was experimenting with the banking laws, and he organized, and, as president, managed with phenomenal success the Bank of Ruckersville, under circumstances that would now provoke a smile. We can not think of a bank, a moneyed institution, with hardly a human habitation in sight and surrounded by original forests. This institution was conducted in a small, unpretentious frame building. Its doors and shutters were studded with nails at close and regular intervals, to guard against the burglar’s ax. It had a safe without time-lock, opened with a key. The furniture was of the plainest, but the bank issued bills which passed current at par throughout the state. It thrived and prospered and, with the assistance of the wealthy planters in the neighborhood, became a strong financial institution, contributing to the development and prosperity of that part of the country. In his old age Joseph Rucker was a man of striking appearance – ruddy cheeks, snow-white hair, clear blue eyes. Dressed in the prevailing style, black broadcloth coat, cut away to the waist line at the front, beaver hat, turndown collar and stock and with gold watch fob, he might be taken as a type of the ante-bellum planter – one of those who made the “Old South.”
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

SEAY, ALEXANDER GILLESPIE, teacher and lawyer, was born March 21, 1869, on Big Creek, Coffee County; son of William James and Jane Adeline (Knowles) Seay, the former who was a native of Georgia, lived in Brundidge the greater part of his life, but spent three or four years on Big Creek, Coffee County, and served throughout the War of Secession, as private; grandson of Robert and Rebecca Knowles, who lived at Hilliard's Cross Roads, Pike County. He received his early education in the schools at Brundidge, and later attended the University of Alabama, where he was graduated with the degree of A. B., in 1895, and as captain of Co. B, of the university cadets. He was principal of a school at Clinton, 1895-96; professor of mathematics and English, at the Hargrove college, Ardmore, Indian Territory, 1896-97; principal of a school at Trinity, Tex., 1897-98; first assistant of the Fourth District agricultural school, Sylacauga, 1898 to February, 1899; president of the same school February, 1899-1902; and was principal of a school at Blakely, Ga., 1902-03. He was cashier of the First National Bank, Brundidge, 1904-08, and in August, 1908, began the practice of law. He was mayor of Brundidge, 1908-09; was elected city attorney in 1909; was chairman of the board of education of Brundidge, from October, 1908 to March, 1909; and was elected solicitor for Pike County, January 1, 1911. He is a Democrat, and was appointed chairman of the Pike County Democratic executive committee, in 1912, and was a delegate to the State convention in 1910, and 1912. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, South, of which he has been steward, and a Knight of Pythias. Married: December 24, 1900, to Mary Alice Riddle, who lived at Choccolocco. Residence: Troy.
[History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography, Volume 4 by Thomas McAdory Owen and Marie Bankead Owen, 1921 - Transcribed by AFOFG]

BERRIEN FAMILY.  All testimony unites in ascribing to this family a French origin.  The seat of their ancestors was at Berrien, now a considerable town in the department of Finisterre.  Concurrent traditions existing in diverse branches of the family declare that their ancestor was a Huguenot, who during the civil wars of France was forced to flee and take refuge in Holland.
Cornelius Jansen Berrien was the first of the name that emigrated to this county and was the progenitor of the family here.  He settled in Flatbush, Long Island, New York, in 1669, and married Jeannetie, daughter of Jau Stryker, and being a person of character and education he enjoyed offices in the town government and was a deacon in the Dutch Church.  In 1685 he moved to Newtown, where he died three years later.  He was succeeded by his son John, who filled several positions of trust and honor.  Cornelius, son of John,2  married Sarah Hallet and lived on Berrien Island.  Richard, his son, was the father of Rev. William Berrien, D. D., rector of Trinity Church, New York, who married, October 27, 1812, Jane, daughter of Elias B. Dayton, of Elizabethtown, N. J.
Cornelius, son of Cornelius,3 left his paternal farm in Hellgate Neck to his son Cornelius.
Peter Berrien, son of Cornelius,1 was a surveyor by profession and became a large landholder and served several years as a supervisor.  He gave the ground on which the first Dutch Church in Newtown was erected.
Cornelius Berrien, son of Peter,6 remained at Newtown, served as a civil magistrate and was an elder in the Presbyterian Church.  His son John was chose on the committee of safety for the city of New York in 1775.
Cornelius Berrien, son of Cornelius,7 served as first lieutenant of Privateer Tartar, and after the successful cruises against the French re-engaged in commerce, owning and commanding several vessels, three of which he sent at one time to the West Indies for a shipment of mules, where they were attacked by the natives and all the crew killed but two, who escaped to reveal the tragedy.
John Berrien, son of Peter,6 became a merchant of Rocky Hill, Somerset County, N. J., and married Margaret Eaton.  He was the father of John, who was the first to take the name to Georgia in 1775, who at the age of eighteen was commissioned a brigade major, and was the father of John Macpherson Berrien, of whom a biographical sketch we give.
John Macpherson Berrien married Eliza, daughter of Nicholas Auciaux, who came to this country with the French army during the Revolution under command of Count Dûpônte, held a captain’s commission signed by Louis XVI of France.  He was born at Frankfort-on-Maine, in Germany.  His father was Chevalier—De Wiltteieno.  The children by this marriage that survived him are: Valecia, married Joseph Hallett Burroughs, a prosperous and prominent cotton merchant of Savannah, Ga.; Eliza A. married Chancellor James P. Carroll, one of South Carolina’s most cultivated and distinguished sons; Wiltielmina, married Henry Williams, of Savannah, Ga., one of the most gifted and eloquent lawyers in Georgia; Louisa G., married Francis S. Barton, attorney at law, member of Confederate Congress.  Was promoted for gallantry at first battle at Manassas and made a general in the Confederate Army.  Judge Berrien married a second time Miss Sarah Hunter, of Savannah.  The children of this marriage are: Harriet, who married Theodore Cone, an attorney at law at Georgia, whose eloquence is as well known in England as it is in this country; Sarah, married Dr. A. J. Semmes, of New Orleans, Louisana; Catherine, married George W. Anderson, cotton merchant, Savannah, Ga.  L. Cecile, his youngest son, is living in Savannah, Ga., and is his only son to bear his name.  (See sketch of Dr. W. B. Burroughs.)  
[Biographical Souvenir of Georgia and Florida by FA Battey & Co., 1889-Transcribed by LA Bauer]


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