Georgia Genealogy Trails

"Where your Journey Begins"

Pickens County, Georgia History

The official history of Pickens County, Georgia, began on December 5, 1853. That was the day on which Governor Herschel V. Johnson, of Georgia, signed an act passed by the legislature then in session, creating, out of the southern part of Gilmer County and the northern part of Cherokee, a new county "called and known by the name of Pickens, in honor of General Andrew Pickens."

It has now been eighty years since the meeting of that memorable session of the legislature—which created six other counties besides Pickens, one of them being Fulton. Eighty years is not a long time as the histories of Georgia counties go—some of them are twice that old. And yet Georgians will recognize a certain antiquity in the beginnings of their now most populous and prosperous county, and of their metropolitan Capital—which in the year 1853 was just getting used to its new name of Atlanta and was probably without an inkling of its future greatness. One realizes, also, that if 1853 was only fifteen years after the Indian Removal, and little more than a generation after our last war with England, then Pickens is hardly to be regarded as an "upstart" among counties, and her history not only can be said to be honorable but can claim as well a certain degree of length.

To confine the scope of this book to the eighty years of the county's official life, however, would be as inadequate if hardly so dry—as it would be to list in it only official events from courthouse records. The true history of a country, or of a county, is the history of its people; and—to quote another aphorism—the value of history lies in its explana-tion of the present. So, to formulate a true and anywise valuable history of Pickens County, we must begin at the beginning and discover the backgrounds, racial, social and moral, of the county's earliest citizens; and we must also examine the natural environment which has formed the setting of her citizens both past and present, for its effect on their activities and characters.

First in the true history of Pickens County, therefore, comes the land—the setting; here when the first actors enter on the stage; continuing almost unchanged as successive acts, with ever new characters, unfold and draw to a close; playing a part throughout in the molding of lives, characters, and destinies. First, then, the natural characteristics—the "geography"—of Pickens County.

Natural Characteristics

The "Land of the Cherokees" was a charming one. We do not have to be told how the Indians clung to it and refused to give it up, to know this, because the evidence is still here, ll is still a charming land; though it must have been even more beautiful when its only inhabitants were the "untutored savages" who loved it for itself, and not for the timber they could cut from its hills, the gold they could dig from its valleys, or the waterpower they could harness from its sparkling streams.

Yet all these things were put here for the use of man; and the Indians were not the first unprofitable servants to be deprived of their talents. In one respect, indeed, they have continued to be served by them. For if it were not for these hills and valleys and streams, and the "pleasing prospects" they offer, the place in history of the Cherokee tribe of Indians would have fallen considerably short of martyrdom, the historical status they are apparently destined to occupy. Though there are other reasons for the romantic attitude of their biographers, the fact that the Cherokees lived in one of the most beautiful sections of the South is one of the most potent; and while such an attitude is scarcely to be wondered at, it has meant that the recriminations against Georgia for her part in the Removal have been much more bitter than those which less favored states have had to put up with.

At any rate, the territory that now forms Pickens County was a part of the "Land of Cherokee," and, none will deny, one of its most scenic. Wooded hills in the east, some of them rising to the stature of mountains in the northeast, over-look green valleys and the fertile table-lands to the west; while over all spreads a network of picturesque streams. The geology of the county shows a very hard lime rock in the west end, where it leaves Gordon County's limestone and slate area. Coming east, one notes the transition to a very broken country of shale, but soon arrives at a table-land of fine agricultural country with a variety of fertile soils. This table-land, or plateau, is broken by many small streams: Talking Rock Creek and its tributaries on the north, and on the south, Sharp Mountain Creek and the small streams flowing into it, as well as tributaries of Salacoa Creek in Cherokee County. Jasper, the county seat, is located on the east brink of this plateau country.

In the northern part of the county, other creeks and branches descend to the Cartecay Valley of Gilmer County; in the southern part flow the tributaries of Long Swamp Creek. In the beautiful valley of the Long Swamp are famous marble deposits and the thriving villages of Marble Hill, Tate, and Nelson.

The chain of mountains which rises in the northeastern part of Pickens County is a part of the Georgia Blue Kidge, which itself forms the southernmost range of the Appalachian system. Several magnificent peaks, visible many miles away, rise within the boundaries of Pickens. These include the two high points of the southern end of the Appalachians: Mount Oglethorpe (formerly called Grassy Knob) and Burrell Top of Burnt Mountain, each approximately 3,300 feet above sea-level. In the same vicinity is Sharp Top Mountain—aptly named in view of its steeple-like shape—with an elevation of 2,650 feet; and in the southwestern part of the county is a fourth peak. Sharp Mountain, which is 2,450 feet high. Geologists tell us that all these mountains consist principally of graywacke, the oldest known sandstone; while the marble deposits at their base are said to have been formed many thousand years later.

The mountain district of northeast Pickens is the setting for a summer colony known as Tate Mountain Estates. Two interesting features of this development are Lake Sequoyah —named after the inventor of the Cherokee alphabet—a large artificial lake 2,800 feet above sea-level, and an 18-hole golf course, at an average elevation of 2,900 feet, which has received high praise from many professional players. On Burrell Top is situated Connahaynee Lodge, the handsome center of the summer colony, constructed chiefly of logs gathered from the nearby woodland.

Atop Mount Oglethorpe stands one of the most interesting historical monuments in the state, dedicated to the memory of James Edward Oglethorpe, the founder of the Georgia colony. When the monument was proposed several years ago, the legislature by request changed the name of this mountain from "Grassy Knob" to its present name. The monument, a beautiful shaft of white Georgia marble thirty-eight feet high, was erected by Col. Sam Tate and dedicated before a distinguished gathering in 1930. It bears the following inscription: "In grateful recognition of the achievements of James Edward Oglethorpe, who by courage, idustry, and endurance founded the commonwealth of Georgia in 1732. Dedicated July 25, 1930."

Marble, of course, is the mineral for which Pickens County is most noted, the Long Swamp Valley area containing a great ridge of the pure stone five miles in length, of which more will be said in a later chapter. There are a number of other minerals of commercial value to be found in the county, including gold, mica, flagstone, iron, copper, graphite, kaolin, pyrites, silica, sericite, and others. For various reasons, however, whether inaccessibility, impurity, or insufficient quantity, no systematic attempts are now being made toward their extraction or manufacture, although such operations have been carried on to some small extent in the past. Gold-mining has been limited chiefly to the panning of gravel from small streams, the county being a little north of the main gold belt of Georgia and containing no large deposits of the precious metal. Mica is found extensively in the county and received some little attention in earlier days. A flagstone deposit said to be one of the finest in the United States is located near Jasper.

Two mineral springs of considerable local fame occur in Pickens County, one about a mile and a half northwest of Jasper, known as the Simmons Mineral Spring, the other about five miles southeast of Jasper, called the Tate Mineral Spring. The water from both these places is said to have been valued for its healthful properties by the Indians, as well as by later residents of the section. The Simmons spring gives out about two gallons of water a minute, of an irony taste. The other is a very bold chalybeate spring furnishing six gallons a minute, and this water also tastes distinctly of iron.

Included in a discussion of the geology and topography of Pickens County should be some mention of the three very interesting caves to be found here. One is on the west branch of Long Swamp Creek east of Jasper, and one on Sharp Mountain southwest of that town. The third of these caves is at Marble Hill near one of the Georgia Marble Company quarries. It abounds in stalagmite and stalactite, covered with crystal. This cave was closed on account of its nearness to a quarry and the danger incident thereto, and has not been fully explored.

The location of Pickens County in Georgia is the central northern part, Jasper, the county seat, being sixty-five miles directly north of Atlanta. The county lies between 34°23' and 34°34' north in latitude; and is bounded on the east by Dawson County, south by Cherokee, west by Gordon, and north by Gilmer. In its present shape, which it has retained substantially since its formation, Pickens County is twenty-three miles at its greatest distance from east to west, and thirteen and a half miles at its greatest distance from north to south. It contains two hundred and forty-one square miles, being somewhat smaller than the average county in Georgia. In spite of the comparatively small size of the county, its latitude, climate, and diversity of elevations—ranging from 1,000 to 3,300 feet—allow of a very extensive flora, so that a remarkable number and variety of plants thrive or may be grown within its borders. This is illustrated in a very striking manner by the long list of trees that are found in the county, which I will give here: alder    hickory, several kinds beech    holly, evergreen and deciduous birch    honey-tree box elder    laurel or ivy buckeye    leatherwood catalpa    linn cedar    locust chestnut    maple chinquapin    oak, several kinds cherry, wild    paw-paw dogwood    pine, several kinds elm    poplar or tulip gum    rhododendron hackberry or ironwood    sassafras haw    sycamore hemlock    witch-hazel Even this list can not be called complete, but it gives an idea of the natural beauty and luxuriance of the section. One of the rare trees which grow here is the chinquapin oak, commonly accepted as belonging to the pin oak family. A fine specimen of this tree stands near the Tate homestead and has a spread of more than one hundred feet. One of the most beautiful of the flowering shrubs in this section is the wild azalea, which grows in great abundance and variety of color, from the early-blooming light pink to the rich red and bronze of the dwarf type, which blooms assouth. It contains two hundred and forty-one square miles, being somewhat smaller than the average county in Georgia.

In spite of the comparatively small size of the county, its latitude, climate, and diversity of elevations—ranging from 1,000 to 3,300 feet—allow of a very extensive flora, so that a remarkable number and variety of plants thrive or may be grown within its borders. This is illustrated in a very striking manner by the long list of trees that are found in the county, which I will give here:

Alder Hickory, several kinds Locust Birch
Beech Holly, evergreen and deciduous  Honey tree
Box Elder
Laurel or Ivy  Leatherwood  Linn
Chestnut Chinquapin Oak, sevweral kinds
Cherry, wild
Paw Paw
Pine, several kinds
Elm Poplar or Tulip  Rhododendron
Hackberry or ironwood
Sassafras  Sycamore  Witch Hazel

Even this list can not be called complete, but it gives an idea of the natural beauty and luxuriance of the section. One of the rare trees which grow here is the chinquapin oak, commonly accepted as belonging to the pin oak family. A fine specimen of this tree stands near the Tate homestead and has a spread of more than one hundred feet.

One of the most beautiful of the flowering shrubs in this section is the wild azalea, which grows in great abundance and variety of color, from the early-blooming light pink to the rich red and bronze of the dwarf type, which blooms as late as July. Other flowers and shrubs which flourish here include the trailing arbutus, galaxia, wild hydrangea, daisy, violet, phlox, lady-slipper, wild iris, passion flower, goldenrod, wild aster, and many varieties of honeysuckle; while there may also be found ginseng and other medicinal plants.

On account of diversity of soils, elevations, etc., Georgia is said to have eleven distinct crop belts, of the thirteen which exist in the United States; and she can grow the products of the other two belts—citrus and semi-tropical fruits in the extreme southern part of the state, and buckwheat and similar crops in the northern part. Within the boundaries of Pickens may be grown every type of crop found in the United States, except semi-tropical fruits. Therefore the county may be said to have twelve of the thirteen belts. Farm production here consists chiefly, however, of cotton, corn, wheat, rye, oats, hay, potatoes and cabbage. Some apples and peaches are grown.

A very interesting fauna was also presented by the county in the early days, when the forests abounded in game of many kinds. Black bears, deer, beavers, red and gray foxes, squirrels, opossums, raccoons, muskrats, groundhogs, wild turkeys, pheasants, and quail were here in abundance, and it is told that when the wild pigeons were migrating one year they came in such great numbers that many limbs were broken from the forest trees by their weight.

With the coming of civilization, of course, the greater part of the wild life disappeared from this section, although many parts of the county still offer good hunting and fishing. Many different kinds of birds may be found today in Pickens County, however, and I am giving a partial list of them here:

cardinal mourning dove bluebird bob-white flicker starling Carolina wren red-winged blackbird wood-thrush indigo hunting mocking-bird brown thrasher joree goldfinch blue-jay English sparrow red-headed woodpecker downy woodpecker robin night-hawk tufted titmouse humming-bird black-and-white warblei prairie warbler cat-bird peewer olive-backed thrush meadow-lark field-sparrow white-throated sparrow whippoorwill chickadee

The Old Federal Road

When the newly-created county of Pickens was laid out in 1853, almost the entire distance of the Old Federal Road which had been in Gilmer and Cherokee Counties—a stretch of over thirty miles—was now found to be in Pickens. After traversing a small corner of Gilmer County, the road proceeded through Pickens from the northwest to the southeast corner, touching Cherokee only briefly on its way east.

The great importance of this early thoroughfare in the building up of the territory through which it passed gives it a prominent place in our history. At the time it was built —somewhere between 1812 and 1820, according to differing accounts—this road was the only direct route between the Cherokee country and the nearest trading point, Augusta. It connected Tennessee, to the north, with the thriving centers of East and South Georgia—and made Pickens County the gateway. You realize, of course, that there were few or no settlers here when the Old Federal Road was built—much less any Pickens County. So it is easy to see that the effect this road had on the settlement and early development of the county can scarcely be overestimated.

The credit for building this road, authorities agree, goes to General Andrew Jackson—"Old Hickory"—who passed through this section with his army early in 1818 on his way to punish the Seminoles of Florida for their recent uprisings. There is some difference of opinion as to whether Jackson cut the road on his way to Florida or on the return trip in 1819—or, as some accounts have it, as early as the time of his southern operations in the War of 1812. According to this latter version, the road was cut in the course of a forced march which Jackson made to Savannah for the purpose of defending a threatened attack by the British on that place. The consensus of historical opinion, however, seems to be that the road was not built until the time of the Seminole expedition; and this opinion is further supported by an old Indian treaty, dated March 22, 1816, by which the Cherokees ceded to the United States the right to build roads through any part of the Cherokee nation. In this same treaty, incidentally, the Indians agreed "to establish and keep up, on the roads to be opened under the sanction of this article, such ferries and public houses as may be necessary for the accommodation of the citizens of the United States"; which is an interesting commentary on the character of these Indians.

As to whether the Old Federal Road was cut out in 1818 or 1819, one of the accounts handed down concerning the origin of this road says that it was built by "the Pioneer Road Company," which preceded Jackson's soldiers on the trip southward. While it would of course have saved trouble thus to cut the road on the first trip, it is possible on the other hand that Jackson's haste to get to the Seminole country would have prevented the construction of anything like an actual road on this leg of the expedition. At any rate, we have nothing to indicate that the words on a granite marker at Tennga, Ga., erected by the Dalton chapter of D. A. R. in 1929 and stating that "Near this spot General Andrew Jackson first entered Georgia by the Old Federal Road—1818," are incorrect.

The point of the exact date when the road was built is interesting, but not of any especial importance for our purposes. What is important is the fact that along this early highway were built the very first houses and settlements in what is now Pickens County, as well as in practically all of northwestern Georgia. The taverns established by the Indians in compliance with the treaty referred to, were probably the first buildings along this road. As white settlers began to drift into the territory they also erected their homes near the road or, in some cases, bought out the Indian tavern-keepers and continued the business themselves. As the country opened up and industry and agriculture became active, towns and settlements grew up along the road and it became in reality an artery of commerce.

As I have stated, the Old Federal Road ran from Tennessee —Cleveland was one of the towns on it in that state—to Augusta, Ga., and southward. Spring Place, Ga., was an important point on this road in the early days, and to this place over the Old Federal Road travelled the Indians and the United States agents to attend the last council of the Cherokees in 1837. In Pickens County, the early settlements on the road were Carmel Station, Love's, Harnage's (later Tate's), and Daniel's. These places are shown on an old map published in 1839. The first two were not far distant from the present Jasper, Harnage's was at the present site of Tate, and Daniel's was a little further east.

I have been able to get together a list of a number of early Pickens County families who settled on this road, some earlier and some later. Entering Pickens from the north-west, the road passed the Silver's home. Preacher Chadwick's, the Atherton place (and later Atherton Mills), Jim Bryant's, the Coleman place, Jim Stephens', the Morrisons', Jack Glenn's, John E. Price's, the Mullinax home, the Morrison home, John Taylor's, and James Simmons', all in the order named; then came Tate's, Faulkner's, Herndon's, Howell's, Grogan's, and Arthur's, and so to the southeast corner of the county.

To bring the picture up to the present time, along the course of the Old Federal Road are three of Pickens County's towns—Talking Rock, Jasper, and Tate—as well as a number of smaller places and landmarks, including Blaine (Old Talking Rock), Covington Hang, Four-Mile Church, and the Faulkner and Grogan settlements.

Not only in the upbuilding of Pickens County but in the everyday life of its early settlers did the Old Federal Road naturally play an important part. It was by this route that the farmers of Northwest Georgia, and many from Tennessee, drove their livestock and hauled their produce to the southern markets. It was no unusual sight in the early days to see hogs in droves of hundreds, great droves of cattle, horses, sheep, and turkeys being driven to market along this road, the drovers selling or trading stragglers to the people along the way; and a great business grew up in the sale of feed for the animals and food and entertainment for the drovers. When the settler wished to do some "trading"—first at Augusta and later on at Athens—or even when he had business at the state capital (then Milledgeville), the Old Federal Road was his route.

On account of its accessibility by this road, as well as for its central location, the house of the early settler Ambrose Hamage—located at the present site of Tate in Pickens County— was selected as the place for holding in 1832 the first election and the first court in the newly organized Cherokee County, which then included all of the Cherokee territory. More will be said about this later in the book.

The property at this place was purchased in 1834 by Samuel Tate, who settled there and opened up an inn for travelers. Some interesting sidelights on the early days in this section were written by G. W. Featherstonhaugh, a well-known English geologist, writer and traveler of the last century, who stopped at this inn in 1837 on his way to Gainesville and back to the Indian council at Spring Place. The following is quoted from his book, A Canoe Voyage Up the Minnay Sotor:

At 4 p. m. we reached a poor settlement near a place called Carmel, where I got a drink of water, and our animals having rested awhile, we pursued our dreary and fatiguing journey, occasionally enlivened by bands of Cherokees on horseback and on foot going with their women and children to Red Clay. After a very hot and exhausting [day's] journey of forty-five miles, thirty of which I had to walk, we arrived at 8 p. m. in a valley where there was a tolerable tavern kept by one Tate; and having refreshed myself with some good food and got a bath for my feet, I was most glad to lie down____Having slept comfortably, we resumed our journey at 4 a. m. I was informed that gold-dust was found near this place, and gold-veins worked a few miles off, so that, as I suspected from the prevalence of the talcose slate, I was now in the Gold Region. We passed a tolerable good-looking house belonging to a half-breed named Robert Daniel, whose drunken son, the driver told me, it was whom I saw at Spring Place with his eye almost stamped out by his horse. I got a miserable breakfast at one Field's, a Georgian. The people about were tall, thin, cadaverous-looking animals, looking as melancholy and lazy as boiled cod-fish. This, no doubt, is to be attributed to their wretched diet and manner of life, for the better class of Georgians, who lead more generous lives, contains many fine-looking individuals. . . . Their miserable attempts at farming, when compared with the energy, foresight, and neatness of the people of the Northern States, are as absurd as they are ridiculous.

I am quoting the latter part of this excerpt by the good Mr. Featherstonhaugh mostly for its entertainment value, as his derogatory remarks about the people he saw are not to be taken too seriously. There are people everywhere like the ones he describes, and moreover, I am afraid he was something of a snob. Being a good observer, however, he does bring out the very true point that the lives of the settlers in this part of the country were rather less than "generous," just as pioneer life has always been. There are many hard-ships in conquering even a land as friendly as North Georgia.

The business of our early commentator having been finished at Gainesville, he returned by stage-coach—as he had gone—and again stopped on the way at the "tolerable tavern of Tate."

We reached Tate's [he wrote] in lime for me to visit a deposit of white marble I had been informed of. It was of a very fine quality, and the quantity immense, there being a ridge of at least six miles long, entirely consisting of this mineral, of which I brought several specimens away.

It is interesting to note here that Harnageville (later Tate) was the first postoffice in Pickens County and for many miles around. Mail was brought by stage-coach, and the early citizens paid for the letters they received on a sliding scale, the postage amounting sometimes to as much as twenty-five cents for a single letter. The postoffice of Harnageville was established, according to the records of the Post Office Department, on February 28, 1832.

Settlement of the Territory

Between the time when the first white persons began to settle along the Old Federal Road in the region of what is now Pickens County, and the formation of the county in 1853, there elapsed a period of—we may say—about twenty-five years. It seems to be the opinion of everyone who has any information on the subject, and to be borne out by such records as are available, that there were very few, if any, actual settlers here before the latter half of the 1820's. Even that would be a decade before the removal of the Indians, and from what evidence can be obtained it is safe to say that the settlers did not begin to come in appreciable numbers until the early 'thirties.

These twenty-five or so years covered what might be called the formative period of this section—the time when it was being settled and built up and its resources beginning to be developed. During this era occurred a number of events which were of great influence on the future history of the section, such as the Gold Rush of 1829-31, the ensuing immigration of settlers, the Land Lottery of 1832, the formation of the original Cherokee County in 1831 and the division of this territory into ten counties in 1832, the first courts and county elections of Northwest Georgia, the final removal of the Cherokee Indians in 1838, the Land Lottery of that year, and the subsequent development of the region up to the year 1853.

Truly this was an active period, and one of the most interesting with which we have to deal in this history. For the reason that it preceded the actual creation of Pickens County —and also because the events mentioned already have a prominent place in every history of our state, as well as having been brought together with some detail in Rev. L. G. Marlin's recent History of Cherokee County—I am making this part of my book brief; but I will try to give a general idea of this period, starting here with the early settlement of the territory and the reasons therefor.

In dwelling as I have done on the subject of the Old Federal Road, it has been my purpose to emphasize that this road was not only the earliest but one of the most potent factors in the settlement of Pickens County. We may reasonably assume that the land along the borders of this road, by reason of greater accessibility, was the first to attract settlers as being desirable for their new homes; and, consequently, that the period of earliest settlement in Pickens County was a trifle earlier, possibly by a few years, than that in some of the counties of Northwest Georgia through which the road did not pass.

Regardless of this point, however, we know that the attractions of a territory such as this part of the state then was —a virgin expanse of forest, plain, and mountain, unpenetrated for the most part by white men, and peopled by a half-savage tribe of Indians—were not sufficient to induce many people to settle here before the third decade of the last century. For more compelling causes of population, therefore, we will have to look to some of the events shortly before referred to. The first of these was the Georgia Gold Rush.

It is a disputed point as to whether the Indians actually mined gold in North Georgia before the days of the first settlers. That they were aware of its existence in their country is beyond doubt, but not knowing its value they probably did not make any systematic attempts to reclaim it from the earth. If they did, they hid their knowledge and their operations remarkably well, for it was not until the year 1829— according to most accounts, and certainly not before 1828 —that the white man learned of the existence of gold in the Cherokee country.

Two discoveries of the yellow metal were made in 1829, almost simultaneously. One was on Duke's Creek, in Habersham County, and the other on the banks of a stream near Dahlonega, in Lumpkin. The effect of this news, when it got out, was to start the first actual gold rush in the history of our country. Into the Land of the Cherokees poured adventurous men from every part of the nation—by the hundreds and even thousands.

Already, in 1827, the legislature of Georgia had recognized the need for law and order in the state's frontier territory by extending the jurisdiction of Carroll and DeKalb Counties over the Cherokee nation. This legislation, incidentally, was designed also as a reply to the very embarrassing action of the Cherokees, a few months before, in proclaiming themselves a distinct, self-governing nation within the boundaries of Georgia!—a proclamation which they backed up with a written constitution of their own denying that the laws of Georgia had any authority over them. In the following year, 1828, the state legislature took the further step of dividing up the Cherokee territory and adding it to the counties of Carroll, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Hall, and Habersham, again "extending the laws of this state over the same."

Such was the status of the territory when the "Twenty-Niners" began pouring in on their eager quest for gold. The situation immediately became very difficult for the state to handle. The land belonged to the Indians, despite repeated efforts by governors of Georgia to have the federal government remove them in accordance with a long-standing agreement. Many scenes of violence followed the entry of the lawless element among the gold-seekers, all of whom were violating three distinct sets of laws—those of the United States, Georgia, and the Cherokee nation—in being there at all without proper permits. It finally became necessary for the state to pass a law prohibiting any gold-mining at all, by either Indians or whites, without special permission, until the land could be surveyed and distributed by lottery to white settlers. This put an end to the Gold Rush—though not of course to the pursuit of gold in North Georgia, a busi-ness that has continued, with varying degrees of enthusiasm and success, ever since.

The number of actual settlers gained by this section during the period of the Gold Rush was comparatively small. The "Twenty-Niners" came looking for sudden wealth, not for new homes. And by this time there were legal difficulties in the way of acquiring the latter, though laws favoring settlement were shortly to come into effect.

That the state had some years before this time decided on a policy of encouraging the settlement of the Indian territory within its boundaries, as a step toward displacing the Indians, is evident from the legislation of 1827 and 1828 extending Georgia's authority over the territory. This policy had been interrupted by the Gold Rush, but the latter event also had something to do with speeding up the plan since it enhanced the desirability of the Cherokees' land. Accordingly, in 1830, legislation was passed ordering a survey to be made of the Cherokee territory and authorizing the governor to distribute this land by means of a lottery—the system of land distribution then in favor in Georgia.

The survey was completed in 1832, and drawing of lots began in the latter part of that year at Milledgeville, the state capital. The "gold region," which included thirty-three land districts out of the seventy-nine contained in the survey, was divided up into 40-acre lots, and the rest of the territory, including all of what is now Pickens County, into lots of 160 acres each. It is said that some 218,000 persons had applied for chances in the lottery, while we find that only about 58,000 lots were to be distributed; so three out of every four applicants necessarily drew blanks.

As to the method of procedure, one account states that slips of paper bearing the numbers of the lots were placed in a huge hopper, turned by a crank, and the numbers with-drawn by the officials; while another version relates that the slips were placed on two large wheels, one for the gold lots and the other for the larger lots. At any rate, the applicants who were fortunate enough to draw numbers instead of blanks were entitled to receive, upon payment of a small fee, a deed of original grant bearing the Great Seal of Georgia waxed to a blue ribbon. (These original deeds are of course very scarce now, but I understand that a number of families in this section still retain specimens.)

In trying to give a clear description of how the Cherokee lands were lotteried off—and of how the first settlers in this region obtained their lands—one is tempted to wish that some historian would go to the original state records and spend enough time to get complete details on this very interesting subject. My own excursion into "secondary" history has been rather unsatisfactory on this point for the reason that no available account of the land lotteries seems to cover all the facts that are shown by even a moderate research in original records. From the latter it is certain that there were three distinct lotteries of the territory in question; no account I have seen mentions more than two, and some of them only one.

Without exhaustive research, the following facts, however, come to light from old records. In 1830 the act of the legislature ordering the original survey (and division thereof into 160-acre lots) provided also that upon its completion the governor should order a lottery of the entire Cherokee territory. In 1831 an amendmentt to this act required that all districts in the gold region be divided instead into 40-acre lots, or "gold lots," and specified the "gold districts." Thus the terms used in the legislation: Gold Lottery and Land Lottery. Both these lotteries were held in 1832-33 (the drawing requiring seven months). But in 1838, just prior to the removal of the Indians, another drawing, entirely of 160 acre lots and called the Cherokee Land Lottery, was held.

An old book published in 1838t and giving the names of the fortunate drawers in the lottery of that year, shows that only 287 out of the 969 land lots in what is now Pickens County were drawn prior to the 1838 lottery. The fact that less than one-third of the lots in this county (and the proportion holds true for the entire 160-acre-lot region) were actually owned by individuals prior to 1838 has led some per-sons to believe that there was no general lottery of the 160-acre parcels until that year. "Individual state grants" answers the question nicely—allowing as it does for the circumstance that most of these 287 lots were well located, as for instance near the Federal Road, and so would have been logical "homestead" lots—but does not take into consideration the fact that such a method of disposal would have been contrary to the legislation already mentioned. From the act of December 21, 1830, we know that all the 969 lots in our county were ordered to be lotteried off in 1832; and we can only assume that the 287 persons whose ownership of lots was already of record by January 1, 1838, were the only ones drawing lots in this county who had perfected their title claims by paying the necessary fee to the state and keeping up the taxes. On this theory, the balance of the lots drawn in 1832 had been forfeited, and were drawn all over again in 1838; which was probably the case.

Of course, title to many of the 40-acre or gold lots also must have gone unperfected, particularly since there were three times as many of them; and yet there appears to have been no second lottery of the gold lots. While this does not directly concern Pickens County, it shows that the whole subject needs a general clarification.

Like every other part of Cherokee Georgia, the Pickens County region derived unprecedented increases in population from the lotteries of 1832 and 1838. It is of course impossible to estimate the figures with any degree of accuracy, because it is not known how many of the fortunate drawers became actual settlers. But even if one had not drawn a free tract in one of the lotteries, lands were easily and cheaply available from many who had. Moreover, titles, being derived from state grants, were now legally perfect, as they could not have been with any other origin. There was no drawback as far as obtaining lands was concerned. And the very fact that new settlers were coming into the section and building their homes here meant that the recognized advantages and resources of the region were no longer outweighed by its lack of white population, and were therefore more attractive to developers. Settlement of the territory that was to become Pickens County was now beginning in earnest.

In the meantime, though, there had occurred another event that was also significant in the development of this section, through its influence on law and order. While the surveying of Cherokee Georgia had been going on prior to the drawing at Milledgeville, the state legislature, in further preparation of the territory for settlement, had taken the land of the Cherokees out from under the jurisdiction of the five counties it had been added to in 1828, and made from it one huge new county—called Cherokee. The Indian territory thus became, for the first time, a single unit of government under the direct jurisdiction of the state of Georgia.

What is particularly interesting, here, about the creation of the original Cherokee County is that its "county site" was located in what is now Pickens. The house of Ambrose Harnage, before referred to, was named in the creating act as the place at which the first election and first court of Cherokee County should be held. This house was located at the present site of Tate, Ga., on approximately the same spot of ground now occupied by the Tate homestead.

The date of the act creating the original Cherokee County was December 26, 1831. On February 6 of the following year an election of county officers was held at the Harnage place, and on March 26 began the first court session of the new county, then a part of the Western Judicial District.

The first words in the earliest court-minutes book of Cherokee County are: "On the 26th day, it being the fourth Monday in March, in the year 1832, at a court begun and holden at the house of Ambrose Harnage, now Harnageville, in and for the county of Cherokee, in the state of Georgia, etc." The "now Harnageville" doubtless refers to the fact that on the 28th of the preceding month the house of Ambrose Harnage had been made a postoffice, and was now officially "Harnageville."

A few of the members of the grand jury at this term of court are recognizable as having been residents of the vicinity, and the names of the entire panel may be of interest here: They were: James Hemphill, John Dawson, James Cantril, Franklin Daniel, Green B. Durham, Robert Fowler, John Jack, Reuben Sams, John P. Brooke, Charles Haynes, George Baber, Noble Timmons, John S. Holcomb, Leroy Hammond, Samuel Means, William H. Ray, Hubbard Baskin, William Smith, and William Lay.

The first officers elected in the original Cherokee County were: Oliver Strickland, clerk of the superior court; William T. Williamson, clerk of the inferior court; John Jolly, sheriff; Jesse Watkins, surveyor; Asa Keith, coroner; John McCon-nell, John Witcher, Robert Obarr, Genubath Winn, and Henry Holcombe, justices of the inferior court.

But the original Cherokee County lasted only one year. In December of 1832, the territory which it had comprised was divided up by act of legislature into ten different counties: Cass (now Bartow), Cherokee, Cobb, Floyd, Forsyth, Gilmer, Lumpkin, Murray, Paulding, and Union. It was from two of these, Cherokee and Gilmer, that Pickens County was formed in 1853; and in a similar manner other new counties have been formed from time to time, so that in all there are now more than twenty counties in "Cherokee Georgia."

Thus was the entire Indian territory then remaining in Georgia brought under the state's control and jurisdiction, divided into counties and duly organized, and partially populated with white settlers. There remained one other object to be accomplished before the proper development of the section could be brought about—an object which Georgia had long sought but without any appreciable results. This was the removal of the Cherokees.

Early Settlers

In subsequent portions of this book are given the names of many of the citizens of Pickens County during the period of its creation and organization, as taken from the early county records; and a complete census of the residents of the county in 1860 is also furnished (see Chapter III). It is impossible, from lack of records on the point, to give anything like a complete list of the early settlers who came to this section before the formation of the county in 1853; but from the information of older citizens I am able to fur-nish a good many of these names and the following list is thought to be fairly accurate, if hardly complete. Federal Road settlers have already been mentioned, and a list of settlers on other roads and in other parts of the county is now given.

The Jasper community, which as explained in the next chapter did not become a town until the site was chosen as the county seat, contained the early residences of the McHans, A. Tribble, the Fanns, Mrs. Duck, Jerry Sosebee, Dr. Ben Hanie, and Grafton Adair—all on the Federal Road. On the street leading to Talking Rock, were the Wm. T. Day resi-dence, the John Brock residence, the James Simmons residence, the McHan store, the Gordon store and residence, Nix's hotel, Adin Keeter's store and residence, and a Masonic hall. On the road leading west from Jasper toward Fairmount in Gordon County were Dr. John Lyon's residence, a Methodist church, and the residence of George Harmon. On the road leading south to Canton in Cherokee County were the Castleberry home, Bales Bruce's store and residence, the Knight Blackwell residence, the Glasco shop and residence, the homes of Mike Stoner and W. H. Simmons, and just off this road or street were located the residences of Griffin Heath, W. Hill, and Grafton Adair. The places mentioned were all in the Jasper vicinity, many of them before the county was created.

Between Jasper and Talking Rock were the homes of James Simmons, John Taylor, the Widows Morrison, the Mullinaxes, John E. Price, Jack Glenn, the Morrison sisters, Jim Stephens, the Colemans, Jim Bryant, and the Taylors, the latter living just south of Old Talking Rock.

Out of Talking Rock and up Ball Creek were the houses of Preacher Shadwick and the Silvers. Up Talona Creek from Talking Rock lived John Gartrell, Henry Gartrell, Joe Simmons, Hiram Reed, and Andrew Morrison. Also near Talking Rock were the residences of Zeke Akins, Moses Jones, and Josiah Reese.

From Jasper out the Fairmount Road were the homes of Jimmy Lovelace, Clark McClain, John Burgess, Ira Dunegan, John Lambert (who was a preacher), Andrew Jones, Zeke Forester, Bill Thompson, Lewis Thompson, Elisha Bennett, Joe Neal, Lewis Larmon, and Hiram Mills.

South of Ludville lived the Mosses, the Chastains, and the Evanses. Around Philadelphia were Crawford Cowart, John Lambert, Riley B. Strickland, and William Reeves.

Along the Old Federal Road from Jasper to the Dawson line were the Tates, John Nelson, the Faulkners, the Herndons, Jim Grogan, Bethel Disharoon, Elias Allred, and Jimmie Howell. Along the east fork of Long Swamp Creek, out from Tate's, lived the Stegalls, Erve Disharoon, Tom Monroe, and Jack Lovelady; and slightly west of this section were the homes of Rev. Isaac Padgett and Jasper Pettett. Close to Corinth Church was Mark Disharoon's.

Between Tate and Marble Hill was the residence of John Darnell and Sion Darnell, and near this place were the homes of Tom and Harrison Pendley.

Near Long Swamp Church lived John Hendrix and Jasper White. Back toward Jasper from this section was the house of Jim Swafford and the Cale Griffith Settlement. North of the latter were the Lewis Quinton place and that of the Hurlick family. Up Bull Gap Road were the homes of Tom Norton and David and Jonathan McArthur.

Near what is now Tate Mountain Estates were the Landsdown place, Bill Fitzsimmons, and Isaac Burlison. At the foot of Mount Oglethorpe were the homes of Otis Dover and the Hammontrees.

Down the Ball Ground Road from Jasper lived Miles Berry, "Dad" Lyons, a preacher, "Aunt" Polly Tarbutton, Dred Patterson, Ben Davis, Gray Whitfield, Garland Green, Ned Townsend, Abe Crow, John Worley (who lived at what is now called Worley's Cross-roads), Alfred Spence, Samuel McCutcheon, Frank Manley, Hicks Patterson, and Buck Dowda. Down the creek from Abe Crow's place were the homes of the Cagles—Bill, John, Levi, and Frank—the Jordan place, Mike Stoner, Dick Cook, Mark Turner, and George Little.

On Bethany Road were the homes of Middleton Turner and his two sons, John and Hayden, Tom Cantrell, John C. Cornelison, John M. Allred, Pink Arwood, the Cook family, John Payne, and Wilkey McHan.

On the road leading southwest from Jasper were the residences of Absalom Lovelace, Thomas Johnson, the Alanson home and mill, Leonard Bearden, and William Davis.

Life Among the Pioneers

The word "pioneer" will always have a noble meaning for Americans. With it we associate strength of character as well as strength of body; high ideals, as well as resourcefulness. The pioneers built our nation, and they built well; and we honor their names.

The pioneers of North Georgia were such people. Hardy of stock, adventurous of spirit, they took up their abode far from the centers of civilization to wrest a living from the wilderness and carve out a place for future generations in a new section of America. Cherokee Georgia was one of the last frontiers of the eastern states; most states near the sea-coast had been entirely settled long before the Cherokee Indian became accustomed to the sight of the white man. Thus do the adventurous pioneers of North Georgia command our greater admiration; they chose the life of the frontier over that of the comfortable places, not through necessity, but because they were that kind of people.

Pickens County exists and prospers because they were.

There is little need to dwell here on the oft-pictured details of pioneer life—to tell how the early settlers arrived in horse-or ox-drawn wagons bringing their families and what they owned of worldly goods; how they set to work erecting cabins from trees they felled in the forest; how they laboriously broke the new soil and sowed their precious seed; how both the women and the men toiled endlessly at the innumerable tasks of setting up and maintaining homes in the wilderness. This picture of frontier life has been much the same the country over, and its details are familiar.

Somewhat less familiar, I think, and yet highly illuminating as to the character of the early settlers of this section, are descriptions of their sports and diversions—the things to which they turned for social recreation in the infrequent spaces they allowed themselves for such indulgences. Not entirely indulgences, either, and certainly not free from honest work, as you will see, were some of these diversions; but recreation they most certainly were, and their value as such was great.

Some of the sports and games I have gathered descriptions of to present here were not local by any means, being common to pioneers of nearly all sections; others seem to have been more or less peculiar to this region. There was one diversion in particular, which if not local, at least was not recognized by any other county besides Pickens to the extent of getting an act of the legislature passed against it. Incidentally, this sport does not belong to the period, exactly, that I am trying to describe; the law was passed in 1860; but mention of the matter will doubtless be interesting at this point.

The diversion which was translated by the law of the state into such a grievous crime—in Pickens County only—was the game of "Crack-a-loo." Now I am not an authority on Crack-a-loo, which was evidently a very corrupting game, but one gathers that it was played with cards and that sums of money often changed hands during the process. Here is the law passed against it by the 1860 legislature:

No. 165. An Act to Add Another Section to the Penal Code, so far as Relates to the County of Pickens.

Section I. Be It Enacted, [etc.] That from and after the passage of this act, that if any person in the county of Pickens shall throw and bet money on any game of "Crack-a-loo," or game of like character, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on indictment and conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine of not more than twenty-five dollars ($25), or imprisoned in the common jail of the County for not more than ten days.*

And here you have the "news behind the news" on the Crack-a-loo Act, as given in a presentment of the Pickens grand jury at the September 1860 term of court: We recommend our members to the legislature to have an act passed making it a penal offense with a heavy penalty to play Crack-a-loo or any other game of chance, whether of cards or in any other way by which men bet or gambol. If they cannot get a general law, then a special act for this county. If the people of other counties are anxious that their sons should have some games lawful by which they can make vagabonds and gamblers of them, well and good; it is a matter of taste.

We applaud the independent spirit of these good men and are glad to see that it bore fruit. An era which likes to "pass the buck" of law enforcement might profit by their example.

But as I said, Crack-a-loo was not a pioneer diversion, or at least we hope not. Getting back to the subject, and to pursuits uncommemorated by special legislative attention, I am furnishing herewith descriptions of some of the most prominent sports and games in the early history of our county.

The Turkey-Shoot: Each contestant deposited a sum sufficient in total to pay for the turkey, and at a distance of 125 yards began to shoot. The person killing the turkey claimed it as his reward for marksmanship. At one meet many turkeys might be used, and often when the available turkeys were exhausted the participants would shoot at a spot or target and put up money, which went to the best marksman.

Horse-Racing: A good stretch of road was selected and the race was on for whoever cared to enter. It was a sort of sweepstakes affair, each contestant contributing to the purse and the winner carrying off the laurels and the purse as well.

Gander-Pulling: This unusual sport seems to have been indigenous to the region, and was observed here in 1837 by G. W. Featherstonaugh, from whom I have already quoted. The following is his account:

"Gander-pulling" is a sort of tournament on horseback, and is, I believe, of European origin.   A path is laid out on the exterior of a circle of about 150 feet diameter, and two saplings are sunk into the ground about twelve feet apart, on each side of the path. These being connected towards the top with a slack cord, a live gander with his legs tied, and his neck and head made as slippery as possible with goose grease, is suspended by the feet to that part of the cord immediately over the path. The knights of the gander having each deposited a small sum with the manager of the game to form a sweepstakes and to defray the expenses, follow each other, mounted on horseback, at intervals round the ring, two or three times before the signal is made to pull.    When that is done, the cavaliers advance, each fixing his eye steadily upon the gander's shining neck, which he must seize and drag from the body of the wretched bird before the purse is won. This is not easily done, for as the rider advances he has to pass two men, five or six yards before he reaches the potence, one of them on each side of the path, and both armed with stout whips, who flog his horse unmercifully the instant he comes up with them to prevent any unfair delay at the cord. Many are thus unable to seize the neck at all. having enough to do to keep the saddle, and others who succeed in seizing it often find it impracticable to retain hold of such a slippery substance upon a horse at full speed. Meantime the gander is sure to get some severe "scrags," and for a while screams most lustily, which forms a prominent part of the entertainment. The tournament is generally continued long after the poor bird's neck is broken before it is dragged from its body; but some of the young fellows who have horses well trained to the sport, and grasp the neck with such strength and adroitness, that they bear off the head, windpipe, and all, screaming convulsively after they are separated from the body. This is considered the greatest feat that can be performed at a gander-pulling.

The Rough-and-T umble Fight was sometimes a meeting for settlement of personal differences, but generally was a test of prowess and strength. Each contestant, usually, had his second and the affair would be carried on very much after the manner of a modern prize-fight. There was no purse, however, and the successful contestant had merely added another laurel to his crown.

The Log-Rolling: To a people somewhat shut off from the outside world, work itself could constitute a phase of social life, and great occasions indeed were the log-rollings, corn-shuckings, and house-raisings. Word was sent out and all the countryside came to help out a neighbor and have a big time. It might mean that some citizen was going to clear a piece of land. Then all the men would lend a hand to the cutting of trees, rolling of logs, and burning of debris. When the job was finished, there would follow a great feast, prepared by the women from food that would be furnished by him whose land was cleared.

The House-Raising: At a call the neighbors would gather to shape and put in place the logs that had been cut for a house, and in a very short time the newly arrived pioneer would have a roof over his head and walls around him, to house him and his.

The Corn-Shucking carried far into the night and was a time of great merriment for old and young. Like the log-rolling, it was an occasion of much feasting and conviviality, there being a supply of the refined variety of corn for those who wished it. Of course there was great rivalry among the huskers, each trying to outdo the other, but among the youngsters the glory went not to the one who accomplished the most work, but to him or her who found the most red ears. Some perhaps were more interested in red lips—and I dare say that many a romance dates back to a corn-shucking, and that many golden-wedding days have been brightened by the memory of the glow of an autumn moon around a pile of newly-husked corn. The fiddler might be there, too, and before the shades of night are driven away by the glimmer of dawn the happy couples have danced to the tunes of the Highland.

The Barn-Dance: One of the great occasions of settler life was the barn-dance, which was generally given at the completion of a barn of sufficient proportions to accommodate the gentry. Here the tuneful scrapings of the country fiddlers resounded merrily into the small hours of the morning while young folks and old expressed their exuberance in such steps as the Highland fling and the old-fashioned square-dance.

The Box-Supper: Other forms of recreation and amusement included candy-pullings, candy-knockings, and box-suppers. The gustatory appeal found in all three probably reached its height in the justly-famous box-supper. In the event money was needed for some worthy cause, the young ladies of the settlement prepared and brought to the party boxes of food carefully calculated to delight the palates of their sweethearts, and these boxes were auctioned off to the highest bidder. Sometimes a box would be purchased by one who was a stranger to the young lady who had prepared it, but more often her special admirer had been told what color of ribbon the box was tied with and he would spend his last dime to secure it, if necessary. In the case of rivals, the bids would mount to such sums as to raise considerable money for the worthy cause. After the sales were made, the feast was on. Each purchaser found his partner, and together they proceeded to enjoy the food and the companionship.

An account of pioneer life in our county would hardly be complete without mention of the hardy and adventurous spirit illustrated by the numbers of early citizens who went to the Mexican War in 1846 and to California in the Gold Rush of 1849. As Pickens County had not been formed in 1846 we have no way of obtaining an accurate list of the Mexican War soldiers who went from here, but the Cherokee County roster of nearly one hundred includes the names of many men recognizable as residents of what later became a part of Pickens.

An interesting incident is related to me by a descendant of one of the men concerned, ahout several Pickens Countians who went to the Mexican War. These soldiers were William T. Fitzsimmons, a son of Henry Fitzsimmons who was an early marble-dealer of the county; a Mr. Pool, and Lieut. Allen Keith. According to the story, these three men and several of their companions once surprised General Santa Anna, of the Mexican forces, while the latter was asleep. The surprise was so near a capture that Santa Anna barely escaped on his horse, leaving behind his cork leg, military cap, and wardrobe. Lieutenant Keith brought home as a souvenir a silver star taken from Santa Anna's cap; Pool, one of the general's razors; and Fitzsimmons, a piece of the cork leg.

As to the "Forty-Niners," I believe that from North Georgia a greater percentage of young men went to California during the Gold Rush than from any other part of the country. This was a natural result of the adventurous pioneer blood in their veins as well as of the gold-mining atmosphere that was a part of their environment.

From Pickens went Sam Bozeman, William and Stephen Tate, Clark McClain, Bethel Q. Disharoon, Ed Lenning, John and Hensley Stegall, and others. The trip was made by Cuba and across the isthmus by the Nicaragua route, boats being poled up the river by natives; then, on the west side, the "argonauts" took vessel to San Francisco. With the exception of Ed Lenning, all the men named soon returned, some of them in a very prosperous condition. Before leaving home Ed Lenning had made the statement that he was going out there and make ten thousand dollars in gold, then come back to the "red hills of North Georgia," marry, and not work any more. He kept his word all the way through, reared a family in Jasper, and made a most worthy citizen, dying at a ripe old age.

Organization of the County

On January 2, 1854, the organization of Pickens County began with the election of its first officers. There were already a number of polling-places here—the justices' courts previously in Gilmer and Cherokee—and at these places, on the date named, the voters resident in the new county met in accordance with the law to select a set of officers.

The following men were elected as the first officers of Pickens County: William Tate, clerk of the superior court; John P. Wofford, clerk of the inferior court; William Sose-bee, sheriff; Charles Marshall McClure, ordinary; Derrick S. McClardy, tax receiver; Elias W. Allred, tax collector; John A. Lyons, coroner; Benjamin M. Stephens, surveyor; and John H. Ammons, Jesse Padgett, Stephen Griffith, Willis West, and James Tally, justices of the inferior court.* The officers being duly chosen, the next thing necessary was the selection of a place for the county seat. It was over this point that one of the hardest-fought political contests ever to lake place in Pickens occurred, one faction wanting the county seat for the western end of the county, where there was a considerable population in the Hinton and Lud-ville sections, while a second group contended that the seat should be located in the eastern part of the county, the Long Swamp Valley section also being well populated by that time. The justices of the inferior court, in whose hands the matter lay, decided to hold an election on it, and by a close margin the second faction won. A group of men composed of Sylvanus Hamrick, Stephen C. Tate, James Simmons, William Tate, and possibly one or two others were chosen to settle up the location of the county seat, in accordance with the provisions of the legislature, and thus the site of Jasper, Ga., was determined. The town was named after Sergeant William Jasper, the Revolutionary War hero.**

With the laying out of the county into militia districts and the election of justices of the peace for these smaller divisions and determination of voting-places therein, all as provided for by the act of legislature, the machinery of the new county soon became duly established and its organization complete.

Source: History of Pickens County. Atlanta, Ga.: Tate, Luke E..  Press of W.W. Brown Pub. Co., c1935.

*These were the first officers of Pickens County. I have seen a list which omitted the last three inferior court justices named here, giving in their stead the names of John Lambert, John Holcomb, and Elsberry Tarbutton. Reference to the list of inferior court judges on page 87, which is a compilation recently made by the state historian, shows that Lambert, Holcomb, and Tarbutton replaced Griffith, West, and Tally later on in the year.

**Jasper, William, American soldier: born in South Carolina about 1750; died at Savannah, Ga., October 9, 1779. At the commencement of the Revolutionary War, he enlisted in the 2d S. C. Regiment, in which he became a sergeant. Subsequently, in the attack upon Fort Moultrie by a British fleet, he distinguished himself by leaping through an embrasure to the ground, under a shower of cannon balls, and recovering the flag of S. C. which had been shot off. Gov. Rutledge presented him with his own sword, and offered him a lieutenant's commission; Jasper declined this, saying: 'I am not fit to keep officers company; I am but a sergeant.' His commander gave him a roving commission to scour the country with a few men and surprise and capture the enemy's outposts. His achievement in this capacity seems to belong to romance rather than history, and in boldness equal to any recorded in the Revolutionary annals of the Southern states. ... At the assault upon Savan-nah he received his death wound while fastening to the parapet the standard which had been presented to his regiment. His hold, however, never relaxed, and he bore the colors to a place of safety before he died."—The Encyclopedia Americana.

Towns, Hamlets and Villages

Faulkner, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is nine miles southeast of Jasper and near the Cherokee county line.  Tate, on the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern, is the nearest railroad station.
[Source: Georgia: Sketches, Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions & People, Vol. 2, Publ. 1906 Transcribed By:  Maggie Coleman]

Jockey, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is four miles due west of Nelson, which is the nearest railroad station.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

Keasley, a post-village of Pickens county, is on the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern railroad, a short distance north of Talking Rock.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

Ludville, a post-village of Pickens county, with a population of 79 in 1900, is about ten miles southwest of Talking Rock, which is the nearest railroad station.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Joanne Morgan)

Marble Hill, a town in Pickens county, takes its name from the deposits of marble in the vicinity. It is about four miles east of Tate, which is the nearest railroad station, and in 1900 reported a population of 150. It  has a money order postoffice and is the principal trading point for that part of the county.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

Melville, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is about seven miles southwest of Jasper, which is the nearest railroad station.
(Source: Georgia Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, VOL II, by Candler & Evans, Publ. 1906. Transcribed by Kim Mohler)

McDaniel, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is near the Gordon county line and is ten miles from Talking Rock, which is the nearest railroad station.
[Source: Georgia Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons,  Vol 2, Publ 1906. Transcribed by Renae Donaldson]

Mineral Springs, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is located about seven miles west of Tate, which is the nearest railroad station.
[Source: Georgia Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons,  Vol 2, Publ 1906. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister]

Rober, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is three miles west of Talking Rock, which is the nearest railroad station, and is a trading point of the neighborhood in which it is located.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Sherman, a post-hamlet in the southern part of Pickens county, is almost on the Cherokee county line. The nearest railway station is Tate, some five miles northeast, on the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern road.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Sweden, a post-hamlet in the extreme northwest comer of Pickens county, is eight miles west of Talking Rock, which is the nearest railroad station.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Talmage, a post-hamlet of Pickens county, is near the Cherokee county line, twelve miles west of Tate, which is the nearest railroad station.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Tate, a town in Pickens county, is on the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern railroad, five miles south of Ellijay, and in 1900 reported a population of 100. It has a money order postoffice, express and telegraph offices, important mercantile and shipping interests and good educational and religious advantages. Some of the finest marble quarries in the United States are near Tate.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Talking Rock, an incorporated town in the northern part of Pickens county, is a station on the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern railroad, and in 1900 reported a population of 102. It has a money order postoffice, telegraph and express offices, some shipping interests, and is the principal trading point in that section of the county.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

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