Georgia Genealogy Trails

"Where your Journey Begins"

Early Settlers in Georgia
The Story of Georgia and The Georgia People 1736 - 1860
by George Gillman Smith, D.D.
Originally Published c. 1901



[These are excerpts from the book transcribed by K. Torp, ©2007]
[Added by transcriber: The following individuals (referred to as "malcontents" by the author)
signed a declaration c. 1740, complaining to the English government about the conditions in the colony:]
pg. 17-18

John Amory, Ben Adams, Thos. Andrews, Thos. Atwill, Thomas Antrobus, James Anderson, Hugh Anderson, John Brownfield, John Burton, Chas. Brittain, Jas. Burnside, F. Brooks, M. Bright, R. Bradley, M. Burkhalter, J. Blands, W. Barbo, P. Balliol, E. Bush, G. Bean, G. Bunch, P. Butler, T. Baillie, A. Bell, H. Buckley, L. Brown, W. Blecheman, A. Ban, T. Becher, W. Calvert, W. Carter, T. Cross, W. Cothred, J. Clark, J. Cundale, Wm. Cooksey, Jno. Jacob Curl, A. Camuse, T. Clyatt, John Carneck, J. Cuthbert, J. Coln, John Clark, J. Dormer, J. Desborough, R. Davis, T. Delegal, Andrew Duchie, Thomas Dawson, J. Dodds, D. Douglas, J. Duddery, D. Douglas, S. Davidson, W. Davy, J. Dean, P. Delegal, E. Davidson, C. Dasher, W. Elbert, Thomas Edgerton, John Evans, W. Ewen, T. Ellis, P. Emery, W. Evans, H. Frazer, J. Fitzwalter. H. Fletcher, W. Francis, John Fallowfield, W. Fox, E. Foster, T. Frazer, J. Foulds, R. Gilbert, P. Gordon, Pat. Grahame, John Grahame, D. Grendee, W. Greenfield, C. Greenfield, W. Grechson, J, Hetreman, Jas. Galloway, Jas. Gould, G. Herbougl, A. Glenn, Thos. Gaulet, Jas. Houston, M. German, Geo. Gorland, T. Hetherington, Jno. Gould, H. Green, J. Harboughs, C. Grunaldi, A. Grant, Jas. Jeansack, John Goldwire, R. Howes, Peter Jouberts, S. Holmes, J. Haselfoot, Ed. Jenkins, John Kelly, Wm. Kennedy, L. Lacy, R. Lobb, J. Cannon, P. Cantey, M. Lowley, H. Lloyd, L. Lyon, J. Loudry, Thomas Lee, S. Mercer, S. Marrauld, S. Montford, F. Mellichamp, J. McDonald, P. McKay, B. McIntosh, J. McIntosh, B. McKay, J. Muse, A. McBride, J. Miller, T. Neale, T. Ormston, C. Arlman, K. O. Brien, H. Parker, Wm. Parker, T. Morris, Sam'l Parker, J. Prestwood, Jno. Pye, R. Parker, J. Penrose, W. Pendicke, J. Papot, J. Pemberton, J. Perkins, G. Phillip, S. Rienwell, R. Rogers, Jno. Robe, Geo. Rush, J. Rae, A. Rose, J. Roberson, A. Rantowle, J. Watson, W. Rigdon, Hugh Ross, A. Reynolds, J. M. Rizer, L. Stamon, W. Starflichts, J. Stanley, D. Stewart, J. Smith, A. Simes, L. Sumners, J. Smith, J. Sellie, L. Salter, J. Scott, J. Smalley, D. Snook, G. Stephens, D. Snook, J. Spielberger, Jno. Spencer, G. Stephens, J. Smithers, John Scott, Jas. Springer, W. Stenhouse, J. Smalley, Jno. Scott, J. Mackfield, L. Sparnell, W. Speeling, R. Williams, Peter Ector, E. Townsend, Geo. Tyrrell, S. Tarrian, J. Truan, T. Tripp, T. Tibbetts, P. Tailfer, A. Taylor, T. Upton, J. Williams, J. Watts, S. Ward, Geo. Waterman, J. Wilson, W. Williamson, W. Wood, J. White, T. Wattle, A. Walker, W. Woodruff, T. Webb, W. Wardrop, J. Warwick, Isaac Young, John Young, Thos. Young

These composed a very large part of the freeholders of the colony and were from all the settled parts of it. This list of names is specially valuable, as it gives us a knowledge of some of the first settlers.

Avocations of some of the first people:
Patrick Graham was apothecary to the trustees
J. Fitzwalter, gardener
J. Carwells, jailer
T. Upton, commands a garrison of five men
Giles Beca, a baker
Thomas Egerton, grandson of wheelright
A. Camuse, silk man
John Burton, town officer
James Pavey, in pay at August
R. Hankes, town officer
Thomas Bayley, smith
George Johnson, sawyer
S. Parker, son-in-law of Mercer
William Stephens, secretary of colony
H. Parker, magistrate
T. Jones, magistrate, overseer, storekeeper
Samuel Mercer, constable
James Campbell, jailer
James Rae, scout, boatman
Noble Jones, commands a garrison
Thomas Young, wheelright
Thomas Ellis, surveyor

The Scotch Settlement

pg. 21
The sturdy Scotch Highlanders had little sympathy with the House of Hanover, and finding life hard among the wild hills of their native land were easily persuaded by Captain Mackay to come to the new colony of Georgia, which was pictured to them in the glowing language of the times as a land where all that man wanted could be had for the asking. Mr. John More McIntosh, a Scotch laird, the head of his clan, consented to lead the colony, and one hundred and thirty of them, with fifty women, took shipping from Inverness for Georgia. They reached Savannah in due time and then went in flat-bottomed boats to find their new home sixteen miles from Frederica, on the Altamaha.

Calling their town New Inverness, they established their settlement, built their huts and were just getting settled when the war with Spain began.

Mr. McLeod was their minister, and he had established the first Presbyterian kirk in Georgia, and he tells of how the sad failure of their hopes led the poorer Highlanders all to enlist in General Oglethorpe's army. By a night attack at St. Augustine over half of these brave Scotchmen were massacred by the Spaniards. They had not had an easy life in the Highlands, but their life in Georgia had been far harder, and so after this massacre many of the poorer members of the colony went elsewhere. Mr. John More McIntosh and his immediate family remained, and as he was a man of substance and kept the storehouse of the colony and traded with the Indians, he was well-to-do.

The settlers were in the main very poor peasants, only seventeen, according to General Oglethorpe's Letters, being able to pay their way across the sea. Some of the immigrants were, however, men of property and lairds of the clans from which most of the immigrants were recruited by Captain Mackay, and while many of the poorer members of the colony became dissatisfied with New Inverness and joined the malcontents, these leading families sided with Mr. Oglethorpe's adherents and signed a document in which they indorsed him and his measures. This list is the only one of these first settlers I have been able to secure. These were John Mackintosh Moore, John Mackintosh, Roland McDonald, John McDonald, John MacLean, John McIntosh, John McIntosh Bain, James Mackay, Daniel Clark, Alex Clark, I. Burgess, D. Clark, Jr., A. McBain, Wm. Munroe, John Cuthbert. These are all the names of the first immigrants I have been able to recover. These were Scotch without an admixture and most of them traders. At a later period there are found some English names among them.

The remnant of the Highland company, who were discharged after the Spanish war ended, did not return to Darien but distributed themselves over the lower part of the colony. Some of them settled in St. John's parish and some of them in what are now Camden, Glynn and McIntosh counties.

The removal of the restriction to the use of negroes led to the opening by the wealthier part of the settlers of rice plantations, and when the first assembly was called in 1750 John More McIntosh was a member from this section. In 1775 among those who sympathized with the revolutionists there were Lachlan McIntosh, Richard Cooper, George Threadcraft, Seth McCullough, Charles McDonald, Isaac Hall, John McIntosh, Thos. King, Raymond Demere, John Roland, Giles More, P. Shuttleworth, Joseph Slade, Samuel McClellan, Isaac Newsome, A. D. Cuthbert, John Witherspoon, John Hall, John Fulton, John McCullough, Samuel Fulton, Peter Sallen, Isaac Cuthbert, James Clark, M. McCullough, Wm. McCullough, B. Shuttleworth, John McClelland.

Some of these first comers engaged in Indian trade and had their warehouses and trading-post in Florida, and their summer homes on the islands. Some of the descendants of these immigrants fixed their homes in Savannah and engaged in mercantile pursuits.....
.......
As we shall see in a future chapter, there was another body of Scotch Highlanders who came to Georgia at a later time, who came through North Carolina.

The German Settlement

pg. 23-26
The Germans who came with Mr. Oglethorpe on his first coming to the colony chose in their location a section of land in what is now Effingham county, and established a village which was called Ebenezer. The glowing description of Mr. Van Reck, who was deputed to select the spot for their home, is so extravagant that one acquainted with the country finds it hard to understand how the good man could have seen so much and have been so deluded, and it was as disappointing to the honest Germans who settled it as it has been to the modern observer.
The Salzburghers were a body of Austrian Protestants who had been exiled from the native hills and found a temporary refuge in Germany , and from thence a body of seventy-eight came to Dover, in England, from which place, at the expense of the society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts, they were transported free of charge to Georgia. They had with them their two pastors, Bolzius and Gronau. Their commissary, Van Reck, went with Oglethorpe into the wilderness to find a home for them. It was in early March when the pine woods were in their fairest garb.

Finding a spot in the wilderness of what he thought was matchless loveliness, he decided that was the place in which the weary exiles could find rest. "It was," he said, "between two rivers which fell into the Savannah, a little rivulet with crystal water glided by the town, the woods are open, the air balmy, there are wide meadows, there is the cedar, the walnut, the pine, the cypress, the oak, the myrtle and the sassafras, the ground is fertile, and the woods full of game." This was the land the German dreamer found, but when the settlement was made it was found to be a barren waste, and after two years of effort to make it productive they found it would be necessary to remove to another spot. They found that nearer the river and settled the New Ebenezer. They were a very thrifty people and secured help not only from the trustees, but from their kinspeople and sympathizers across the seas, and in a few years they were in very comfortable circumstances. Their history was written some years ago by Mr. Strobel, the pastor of Ebenezer, and is a very full and satisfactory account of them. These German immigrants were connected with the great Lutheran body, and they brought into Georgia and planted in its forests a German village.

They soon had a school and a home for widows or orphans, and away from the temptations of city life they developed a model community. Mr. Strobel has given the following list of persons who belonged to the community in 1741:

Messrs. Bolzius, Gronau, Rieser, Laub, Grewandel, Mamer,
Kaigler, Zittreur, Runter, Rottenberger, Zubli, Ortman,
Kulcher, Ramer, Reidelsparger, Moller, Hertzog, Hessler,
Pletter, Sigismund, Hernberger, Bruckner, Ott, Zettler,
Tribner, Eischberger, Arnsdorf, Ruter, Brandner, Lumber
ger, Lackner, Steiner, Schwarzer, Schmidt, Crause, Gruber,
Schutner, Lietner, Corberger, Grimmuger, Bergshammer,
Landseller, Ernst (Ernest), Rieser, Pickler, Spurlbergen,
Niedlinger, Helfenstein, Rabenhorst, Lembke, Muhlenberg,
Wertch, Muller, Treutlen, Floerl, Wiesenbaker, Schubtrien,
Kramer, Goldwire, Kraus, Beddenbach, Waldhauer, Pauler,
Rahn, Helme, Remshart, Grau, Heil, Buchler, Hanleiter,
Bollinger, McCay, Zimmerbuer, Oechele (Exley), Kimberger,
Winkler, Witman, Dasher, Schrampa, Schwenger, Mohr,
Liemberger, Buntz, Micheal, Beckley, Hausler, Gugel,
Schremph, De Rosche, Moeler, Deppe, Metzger, Seckinger,
Mack, Schneider, Schuele, Helfenstein, Freyermouth, Keifer,
Tarringer, Pfluger, Meyer, Ditters, Rentz, Bergman.

Those who examine this list will find names which have since been Anglicized and slightly changed, but they will find many unchanged which are still borne by Georgians. No people have been more noted for industry, probity and intelligence. The little hamlet they founded, and which for so many years was the center of so much of interest to the Salzburghers, has long since ceased to be anything like even a village, but the church still stands and many of the descendants of these German refugees are still living. While the Pilgrim Fathers, who were a smaller number than these Salzburghers, have a high place in American history, this noble band of Austrian refugees has been almost lost to sight by the historian. They came to Georgia from their native Tyrol because of their devotion to Christian principle, and wherever their descendants are found the spirit which belonged to their fathers is manifested in them.

This people resided in what was afterward the upper part of St. Matthew's parish. They had been accustomed to farmers' work in their native land and to live in a simple, frugal way, and receiving help both from the trustees and from their German coreligionists across the seas, they had prospered from the first, and in 1754 their part of the colony received an accession by the coming of a body of German Lutherans, not Salzburghers, who were brought into the colony by Captain De Brahm and settled at a place five miles north of Ebenezer. This colony increased very rapidly, and according to Jones, the 150 were multiplied tenfold in a little over a twelvemonth. This must, however, be a mistake, as it is not all probably that fifteen hundred Germans came at that time. They settled a village called Bethany in what is now Screven county, and De Brahm says there were 320 Germans who came....

Augusta

p. 28-29
Before Mr. Oglethorpe came to Georgia there was trading-post near what is now Hamburg, S.C., on the South Carolina side of the river called Fort Moore, and Mr. Oglethorpe dedicated to build a fort on the Georgia side and garrison it. This he did, and in honor of the Princess Augusta it was called by her name. In the pamphlet to which we have referred, by Wm. Stephens, there is the following list of Indian traders who had headquarters at Augusta. The names given are:

Wood, Brown, Clark, Knott, Spencer, Barnett, Ladson, Mackey, Elsey, Facy, McQueen, Wright, Gardner, Andrews, Duvall, Cammell Randel, Chauncey, Newberry.

There were beside these traders, living near the fort, Kennedy O'Brien, Frazer, Miller, Brown, a saddler, a tailor, William Clark, H. Overstreet, L. Bean, William Grey, William Calahan, McGilveray, Casson, Gilmore, Goodale, Ross, Galphin.

On the east side of the Savannah, in South Carolina, where negroes were allowed, there were numbers of plantations opened, and the corn consumed by the large number of horses needed in the trade with the Indians was produced there.

These indian traders sent out their men to the towns of the Chickasaws, Uchees, Creeks and Cherokees, and in the spring season great crowds of Indians came with their ponies loaded with peltry to trade at the post for powder and lead, and especially for rum. There was a mean rum known as tafia which was the main article of traffic. It was brought by Indian traders from the coast and traded for all kinds of products and for Indian slaves. These slaves, taken by their enemies in war, were brought to Augusta and sold and carried to Charleston and shipped to the West Indies. The traders were oftentimes wretchedly dissolute. They lived shameless lives with the squaws, and when they grew weary of them went from them with out hesitation....

1754-1775

pg. 44-45
In Plymouth, England, in the heat of the persecution of the Puritans by Archbishop Laud about 1630, a colony of Church of England people, weary of biships and of liturgies, resolved to emigrate to then just settled New England. This they did and fixed their home at Dorchester, Mass. They accepted the Congregational form of government they found there, and became a Congregational church, with a Calvinistic confession. Fifty years after this they found themselves cramped for land, and as South Carolina had been settled largely by those who sympathized with their religious and political views, they secured a large grant of of land on the Ashley river and planted a colony there, which they called Dorchester also. Here they planted rice and became large slaveholders.

They received an addition to their number from Virginia. The rice country about them was not sufficient for their needs, and as soon as Georgia allowed the planters to bring slaves into the colony they sent over some of their congregation to survey the land. There were some extensive swamps between Savannah and Darien, in what is now known as the swamp land of Liberty county. They were admirably adapted to the growth of rice, but, save to a rice planter accustomed to malarial swamps, certainly uninviting. The Dorchester people succeeded in getting grants from the colonial government which covered over thirty thousand acres of this fertile country. They did not at once remove, but, remaining a part of the year in South Carolina, they came to Georgia after their crop was made and opened land and built shelters until they were ready to change their habitations.

These immigrants fixed their homes on the edge of the swamps, building their humble cabins in the very center of the malarious district. The heavy timber was cleared away, the swamps were ditched and the dams made, and they moved their families and the cultivation of rice began. The only tool used in culture after the land was cleared, says Colonel Jones, was the hoe, and the rice was brought from the field on the head of the negroes and cleaned from the husks with pestle and mortar. Corn was ground in hand-mills. The market was Savannah, to which the rough rice was shipped by coasting schooners. The colony prospered and was soon quite populous. We give here a list of persons who received grants of five hundred acres:

John Davis, John Maxwell, James Maxwell, William Maxwell, John Stevens, Benjamin Baker, John Lupton, Rev. Mr. Osgood; Samuel Stephens, Sarah Norman, Daniel Slade, Edward Sumner, Andrew Way, Richard Spencer, William Brumley, Sarah Osgood, Rich Giraudeau, Joseph Bacon, Jonathan Bacon, John Norman, Sarah Mitchell, John Edwards, John Ellrod, John Way, William Graves, James Norman, John Stewart, Samuel James, Robert Glass, Robert Eccles, John Quarterman, David Ross, William Lupton, Richard Baker, John Stevens, Joseph Oswald, Jacob Weston, Joshua Clarke, A. Gleve, William Mackay, David Fox, Willoughby West, Palmer Gaulding, William Russell, Parmenus Way, Jacob Riden, Benjamin Andrew, and James Andrew.

It was decided by them to establish a market town nearer to the colony than Savannah, and in 1758 the town of Sunbury, on the western bank of Medway river, was laid out. Colonel Jones, who gives a history of the dead towns of Georgia, gives not only a plot of the young city but a list of the lot-holders, which is interesting as showing who resided in this county at that time. They were:

Mark Carr, Grey Elliott, Francis Arthur, William Graves, John Cubbege, James Maxwell, Mary Spivey, Samuel Bennerworth, Stephen Dickerson, James Fisher, Schmidt & Molich, Swin ton & Co., Darling & Munro, Thomas Peacock, A. Darling, Thomas Young, Roger Kelsal, John James, John Bacon, John Stewart, John Lupton, Dunbar, Young & Co., James Dunham, Lyman Hall, Samuel Miller, Kenneth Bailey, Samuel Benniworth, William Stevenson, Tabitha Bacon, John Winn, David Jerray, Francis Arthur, John Steward, John Lawson, Thomas Ralph, John Quarterman, Thomas Goldsmith, James Houston, Ivan Stevens, William Baker, Elijah Simmons, Robert Bolton, John Humphrey, Francis Guilland, Henry Saltus, Donald McKay, Stephen Dickenson, James Hurley, Francis Lee, John Quarterman, James Dowell, John Irvine, Jemima Irvine, Math Smallwood, William Peacock, John Osgood, Rebecca Way, Hugh Clark, Paris Way, Nath Yates, William Dunham, Charles West, Samuel West, Thomas Carter, Audley Maxwell, John Graves, John Baker, James Fisher, Jno. Elliot, Jno. Lyman, John Sutherland, Sam Jeanes, Joseph Tichenor, William Mullen, William Davis, James Sergeant, John Jones, Strong Ashmore, F. Arthur, George Morris, Joshua Snowden, James Andrew, Samuel Morcock, George Bodington, Mary Bateman, Patrick McKay, Benjamin Andrew, Marmaduke Gerry, John Winn, Richard Mills, James Hatcher, John Perkins, William Low, Barnard Romans, Ed Mahone, R. Spencer, John Mitchell, Morgan Tabb, Joseph Watcher, Jno. Gasper Stirkey, John Jones, Joseph Richardson, Robert Smallwood, John Futes, Arthur Carney, Isaac Linder, Fredcrick Holsendorf.

The first thing these good people did after fixing their homes was to build them a log church in the midst of their plantations. This church was succeeded by a better one, which was burned during the Revolution, and that by a still better one. For many years the Midway church with its chapels, first at Sunbury, then at Walthourville, commanded the best talent of the Presbyterian Church, and the congregation was large, wealthy, and intelligent, but after the last war reluctantly the church was given up by the whites and is now occupied by the negroes.

The Rev. Mr. Osgood, for whom Bishop James Osgood Andrew was named, was the pastor they brought with them from South Carolina. Like his parishioners, he was a planter and a man evidently of some estate. He was virtually a Presbyterian, and after Mr. McLeod, who only remained a little while in Georgia, was the first Presbyterian minister who had a charge in Georgia; for while Midway was a Congregational church during almost its entire history, the pastoral office was filled by Presbyterian ministers, with whom the Congregationalists of an early day in America were always in accord....

Money

Sola Bills. – Very little actual money was brought to Georgia by the first settlers. What little trade they had was carried on chiefly by the primitive method of barter. But the increase of population, the widening of the settled area, made a larger volume of circulating medium a necessity. The trustees sent over all the English coin they could, and to further supply the deficit they issued their warrants or due bills upon the treasure, which passed current as money. These were called sola bills, and at one time constituted practically all the currency of the colony.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Sunbury

Sunbury, one of the early settlements of Georgia, was located on a bluff on the south side of the Medway river, not far from the present village of Octagon. The site was first observed by Oglethorpe, while on one of his exploring expeditions in January, 1734, but the place was not settled until 1758. On Oct. 4, 1757, Mark Carr was granted 500 acres of land, including the bluff, and in the following June he transferred 300 acres to James Maxwell, Kenneth Baillie, John Elliott and John Stevens, as trustees, to lay out the town. Its growth was rapid and in 1760 it was made a port of entry. A fort was built for the protection of the people (See Fort Morris) and its prominence continued until after the Revolution, when its trade was gradually diverted to Savannah and it sank into insignificance. A few families now live where this historic town once stood.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Slavery

Slavery.-On Jan. 9, 1734, the trustees of the colony passed "An Act for rendering the colony of Georgia more Defencible by Prohibiting the Importation and use of Black Slaves or Negroes into the same." By the provisions of this act if, after June 24, 1735, any person or persons should be found guilty of importing, or causing to be imported, any negro, such person or persons should forfeit £50 for every such negro or black so imported or brought into the colony. It was also provided that all blacks or negroes found within the colony after the prescribed date, should be seized and taken as the property of the trustees, to be sold or exported as the common council might direct.
The reasons for this action were explained to be:  First, the Spanish colony of Florida on the south might persuade the slaves to leave their masters or join in an insurrection against the authority of the whites; Second, the time consumed by the master in keeping his slaves at work could be more profitably employed in doing the work himself; Third, in case of war the slaves, having no interests at stake, could not be relied on for the defence of the colony. The act had no sooner taken effect than a petition for its repeal was forwarded to the trustees. It was not granted, however, and when, in 1738, poor crops, Causton's defalcation and other causes brought hard times to the people of Georgia, a second petition was presented. This effort was opposed by the Highlanders, who had settled at New Inverness, on the grounds that the introduction of slavery would increase the friction with the Spaniards and expose their settlement to greater danger. On Dec. 6, 1748, Whitefield wrote: "Georgia never can or will be a flourishing province without negroes are allowed.” Such eminent authority as this encouraged the advocates of slavery and on Jan. 10, 1749, a third petition, more insistent than either of the others, was sent to the trustees. This time the trustees asked the opinions of the representative men of the colony and, the majority expressing themselves in favor of the repeal, the question was presented to the king in council, with the result that late in the year the restrictions were removed. The introduction of negroes soon followed and the policy of slavery was continued until it was abolished after the Confederate war.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Thirteenth Amendment.-The first step toward the abolition of slavery was the president's emancipation proclamation, which became effective on Jan. 1, 1863, but no legislative sanction was offered to that proclamation until during the first session of the 38th Congress. On March 28, 1864, there was introduced in the senate of the United States a joint resolution, relative to a constitutional amendment forever prohibiting slavery. After considerable discussion it was adopted and sent to the house, where it was rejected in June following. In January, 1865, it was again brought up in the house and finally passed by a vote of 119 to 56. The proposed amendment was formally submitted to the legislatures of the states on February 1st. It was ratified by the Georgia assembly on Dec. 9, 1865, and on the 18th it was proclaimed part of the Federal constitution by the secretary of state.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz


Salzburgers

Salzburgers – Among the early settlers of Georgia were some people belonging to a religious sect called Salzburgers. They were descended from the Waldeneses, (or Vallenses) who opposed some of the tenets and practices of the Roman Catholic church long before the time of Luther. The early part of the eighteenth century found a number of them gathered at Salzburg, in the eastern district of Bavaria, when they derived the name. Here they were persecuted by direction of Leopold, archbishop of Salzburg, and from 1729 to 1732 about 300,000 of them were exiled. Some of these wanderers found their way to Great Britain and in December, 1732, the trustees of Georgia colony offered to give homes in America to such as would go there. About fifty families accepted this overture, but it was not until Dec. 28, 1733, that they sailed from Dover. After a stop in Charleston, where they were met by General Oglethorpe, they proceeded to Savannah, arriving there on March 11, 1734. With them came their minister, John Martin Bolzius, and their catechist, Israel Christian Gronau. They wanted to settle somewhere on high ground, some distance from the sea, and finally selected the site of Ebenezer. (q. v.) Others came later and, notwithstanding sickness and the hardships incident to a new county, through all of which they exhibited great patience and fortitude, the settlement became in time one of the most prosperous in Georgia, owing to the thrift and industry of the inhabitants. Descendants of these early Salzburgers are still to be found in the South.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz

Sherrill's Fort.


Sherrill's Fort.-In 1751 a number of Quaker families made a settlement about seven miles west of Augusta, at a place afterward known as Quaker Springs. The hostility of the Indians soon compelled them to abandon their farms. Subsequently they returned and in January, 1774, under the leadership of one Sherrill, were engaged in erecting a fort for their protection, when a party of Creek Indians, led on by the chief Big Elk, made a descent upon the settlement. At the time there were five white men, three negro men and twelve women and children in the fort. Sherrill and two others fell at the first fire. The remainder retreated to the houses, where they were encouraged by one of the negroes to put up a defense. The Indians fired the fort and the houses but the flames were extinguished without doing much damage. A small party coming to the relief of the fort were discovered and pursued by the savages and this gave the inmates of the houses an opportunity to seek safer quarters, but not until seven had been killed and five wounded. Captain Barnard collected about forty men and went in pursuit of Big Elk. Attacking the Indians from the rear he drove them into a swamp, where the pursuit was abandoned.
Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons, Arranged in Cyclopedic Form Transcribed by Kristen Bisanz



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