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History of Alturas and Blaine Counties Idaho
By
Geo A. McLeod

The Hailey Times, Publisher
Hailey, Idaho U.S.A.
1930

Transcribed and submitted to Idaho Genealogy Trails by Barb Ziegenmeyer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEDICATION
PREFACE
CHAPTER I
In The Beginning
CHAPTER II
Coming of the Railroads
CHAPTER III
Mines Attract Many
CHAPTER IV
The Smelting Industry
CHAPTER V
Big Boom of 1880
CHAPTER VI
Start of Ranch and Farm
CHAPTER VII
Bellevue The Gate City
CHAPTER VIII
The County Seat Fight
CHAPTER IX
Three Daily Papers
CHAPTER X
Big Hailey Fire
CHAPTER XI
Miner's Strike at Broadford
CHAPTER XII
The Territory Thrives
CHAPTER XIII
The Coming of Blaine
CHAPTER XIV
Sawtooth National Forest
CHAPTER XV
Hot and Cold Water
CHAPTER XVI
A Tragedy in the Snow
CHAPTER XVII
Money Prominent Men
CHAPTER XVIII
Brave Sons of Blaine
CHAPTER XIX
Roads and Bridges
CHAPTER XX
Reducing Indebtedness

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CHAPTER I
IN THE BEGINNING
His is a life, a name, the ages will revere. He seeks a country new, afar, the pioneer. On March 3, 1883, Idaho Territory was organized out of parts of Washington, Nebraska and Dakota Territories, with Lewiston the capital. The new Territory contained four counties which had been created in the following order, while forming a part of Washington Territory, namely, Shoshone, Nez Perce, Idaho and Boise, ten mining towns and 20,000 people.

The first session of the Territorial legislature met at Lewiston on December 7, 1863. During that session three counties were created in the following order, to-wit: Owyhee, Oneida and Alturas. This made seven counties in the new Territory.

Alturas county was created on February 4, 1864, with Esmeralda the county seat. The latter was situated near the present site of Featherville, on the South Boise River, about six miles in an air line from Rocky Bar, but its exact location is unknown. The county seat soon there-after was removed to Rocky Bar, and thereby hangs a tale. Of this more anon. Alturas county at this time included all lands north of Snake River from the mouth of Bruneau to Little Lost River and as far north as the Sawtooth Mountains.

Bancroft in his history of Washington, Idaho and Montana says Alturas is a Spanish word meaning "Mountainous Heights." It was said by the Indians who inhabited that part of the country to mean "Heavenly Heights."

In 1860 gold was discovered on Oro Fino Creek by a party of prospectors led by Captain E. D. Pierce of California. In 1861 the Salmon River mines were discovered, while a search for a rich central gold deposit was made by prospectors, revealing the Florence diggings. In 1862 the Salmon River Basin gold mines lying south of the Salmon River, were discovered, and called Warren's diggings, for their discoverer. In the same year the Boise Basin mines were discovered by a party led by George Grimes of Oregon City, Oregon, who was killed by Indians in August of that year. In 1863 prospectors started out from Boise Basin and in that year discovered the   important gold quartz mine, Vishnu, near Rocky Bar. Several other discoveries of rich gold quartz mines in that vicinity soon followed, the Ida Elmore being the principal one. The mining camp of Rocky Bar was established and was one of the earliest in the Territory. It soon developed into a town.

The records of the first Board of County Commissioners of Alturas county, now in the fireproof vault of the Blaine County Court House, and which are as legible today as the day they were written, namely, April 4, A. D. 1864, show that the Board consisted of Samuel Stover, chairman, Robert A. Sidebottom and John Roach. Their Clerk, who was also Auditor and Recorder, was Charles Woodbuxy Walker. The Sheriff was John G. Howell. All these officers were appointed by William B. Daniels, Acting Governor of the Territory of Idaho. The Board, after approving the bonds of said officers, took a recess until 2 o'clock P. M. The minutes disclose that "pursuant to adjournment the Court convened at 2 o'clock."

Whereupon the following order was made and entered:

"It appearing to the Court that, whereas the first session of the legislature located the county seat of said county at a place known as Esmeralda in said county, and whereas it seems impossible for this Court, as required by law, to provide proper offices, and procure stationery, lights and fuel for said offices at said Esmeralda, therefore, it is ordered that the county seat be, and the same is hereby transferred from the said Esmeralda to the town of Rocky Bar, on Bear Creek, in said county of Alturas, Idaho Territory."

Here is presented the unique spectacle of a quasi-judicial body overruling an Act of the legislature which had been duly approved. No appeal was taken and Rocky Bar remained the county seat until after the special election in September, 1881. The removal of county seats have often engendered a great deal of ill feeling, and, at times, the shedding of human blood. This was a notable exception.

Prospectors, the usual forerunners of civilization in mineralized regions, were still seeking new El Doradoes. A few of them set out from Rocky Bar in 1865 and discovered and filed for record two gold quartz mining claims on what was later to be known as the Gold Belt, and which are the earliest recorded mining claims in any part of what is now within the confines of  Blaine County.  These were called the Big Camas and the Black Cinder, the notices of which were filed for record on September 11, 1865, and are recorded in Book 4 of Quartz Mining Records of Alturas County, Idaho Territory, on pages 41 and 44, respectively. The locators of the Big Camas were Ross Smith, David Whitmer, John Tudor, H. S. Waikfield, J. B. Ingersoll, J. B. Harris, D. W. Lightenthaler and M. H. Williams. The locators of the Black Cinder were Ross Smith, M. H. Williams, J. N. Mason and W. H. Spencer. Two of these locators, M. H. Williams of Bellevue and David Whitmer of Broadford, were early pioneers of Wood River and lived here until called hence. This record effectually disposes of the contention that the earliest discovery of minerals in what is now Blaine County was on Warm Springs Creek in 1878.

But there were no permanent settlers in southern Alturas county until 1879. The greatest obstacle to the development of this region until that year was nomadic bands of blood-thirsty Indians, who regarded the mountain ranges and Camas Prairie as their peculiar property. After they were driven out in the campaign of 1878 white settlers followed almost upon their heels.

Unlike Pierce, Florence, Warren's diggings, Boise Basin and Rocky Bar, it was not gold, but large quantities of high grade silver and lead ores discovered in many of the hills and mountains in the Wood River country, which attracted people from far and near, notably from Boise Basin, Rocky Bar, Utah, Nevada, Montana, Colorado, the Black Hills of Dakota, and elsewhere. At the time in question and until the building of the Oregon Short Line Branch of the Union Pacific railroad in 1883, the nearest railroad station was Blackfoot, Idaho, on the Utah and Northern, a narrow-gauge railroad.


CHAPTER II
COMING OF THE RAILROADS
At this juncture, due to the importance of railroads, a digression will be made to tell of some early railroad building in Utah and Idaho, as it profoundly affected this region.

The Utah Central Railroad, which operated from Ogden to Salt Lake City was built under the direction of Brigham Young to provide transportation between the Utah capital and Ogden in connection with the newly completed Union-Central Pacific transcontinental line, which was completed and in operation into Salt Lake City early in 1871. During that period the extension of a line northward from Ogden was conceived.

The railroad northward from Ogden was incorporated as the Utah & Northern Railway, and its construction as a narrow gauge line was begun in 1870. It had only reached Franklin, Idaho, in the spring of 1878, at which time control passed to Jay Gould. Upon acquiring control the Gould interests began active preparations for completion of the line, its ultimate objective being the thriving mining camp of Butte, Montana.   The line from Pocatello to Blackfoot was commenced at Pocatello in July, 1878 and track laying to Blackfoot was completed on December 23, 1878. The line was completed to Butte, Montana, and turned over to the Operating Department on December 15, 1881. This road was changed to a broad gauge in 1887.

In 1889 the Utah & Northern and other lines in Idaho were consolidated with the original Oregon Short Line running from Granger, Wyoming, westward, the combination being known as the Oregon Short Line and Utah Northern Railroad Company, later to be known as the Oregon Short Line Railroad Company.

During 1901 the Oregon Short Line Railroad Company constructed the Salmon River Railroad, now known as the Mackay branch of the Oregon Short Line from Blackfoot to Mackay, a distance of 86 miles.

As heretofore stated, Blackfoot was the nearest railroad station to Wood River points from 1879 to 1883.

Thus situated, far from the ordinary lines of through travel, only the most daring and hardy adventurers sought these mountain solitudes. The only means of communication was by stage or team, or on horseback, over mountain trails in many instances, and in danger of being scalped by prowling Indians.   But the indomitable spirit of the prospector and the pioneer was not to be deterred by any obstacles, however great.

As there are several thousand mining locations of record, it would be not only impracticable, but tedious, to mention them all. I shall, therefore, content myself with a brief reference to some of the most important mines in various parts of what is now embraced within Blaine county.

The development of mining on Wood River began in 1879. At that time M. H. Williams, David Whitmer, Frank W. Jacobs, William McWade, Sam Friend, Jimmy Gray, and a few other men were living at Jacobs City, named for Frank W. Jacobs. The name of Jacobs City was changed to Broadford in 1880. Following are the names of a few of the early quartz mining claims recorded on Wood River and vicinity, to-wit: Galena, located by Warren P. Callahan, notice filed for record April 26, 1879; Queen of the Hills, located by Frank W. Jacobs, notice filed for record July 15, 1879; River View and Penobscot, located by A. H. Johnston, notices filed for record October 11, 1879; Minnie Moore, located by Daniel W. Scribner, notice filed for record September 22, 1880.   All these mining claims were situated near what is now Broadford, which is a short distance west of Bellevue.

The Minnie Moore mine has produced lead and silver ore of greater value than any other in the district. In 1881 a half interest was sold to Henry E. Miller for $10,000.00. On the date of sale to Dent, Palmer & Co. of London, England, on February 25, 1884, with the price of silver at $1.14 an ounce and of lead at $100 a ton, the gross value of the reserves was $673,329. In this condition the mine was sold for $450,000. There is no accurate record of the value of the output for 1884 and 1885.

The mine filled with water and lay idle from 1889 to November, 1900, when I. E. Rockwell, C. R. Carpenter, and others, having purchased the property for $30,000, began to pump out the workings. Ore was struck in a raise from the crosscut on the old 900-foot level in June, 1902, and from that time the lower part of the mine was vigorously explored. In July, 1904, 60 per cent of the stock in the Minnie Moore Mining Co., Ltd., was sold to Charles M. Schwab, who operated it on company account until August, 1905. The mine was worked from time to time by various companies until May, 1927, at which time it was abandoned.

It is not possible to present a comprehensive summary of the production of the Minnie Moore mine. The most complete record is that com-piled in 1902 by I. E. Rockwell, who, having access to the books of the Hailey sampler, which handled the ore during the early years, estimated the gross smelting returns at $7,316,600.12. During the period 1902 to 1906 mining operations below the old 900-foot level yielded about $1,100,000, net smelter returns. A small slope on the Singleterry vein above the 1000-foot level yielded $31,000, net smelter returns. Approximate total production $8,447,600.

With so many mines so near at hand working to capacity, Broadford soon became a town. It had stores, hotels, saloons, etc., but mostly dwelling houses for the miners.

A story is told of one of its merchants who had the habit, when asked by a customer for something which he did not have in stock, to always say in a most pleasing way,
"Wre are just out, but have a carload on the way."
One day a little girl asked for some chewing gum, and, believe it or not, the force of habit was so great, that he said,
"We are just out, but have a carload on the way." "I know not what the truth may be, I tell the tale as 'twas told to me."

But it should be true because an Angel (Texas) told it to me.

Near Hailey were the Star, Croesus, Hope group, Idaho Democrat and other mines. Up Greenhorn Gulch were the Imperial and other mines, now the property of the Hailey Bonanza Mining company.

On the East Fork of Wood River were the North Star, Triumph and others.

The company operating the Triumph mine recently completed an aerial tramway between the mine and the railroad siding about one mile south of Ketchum. The tramway is approximately four miles in length.

In a northerly direction from the last mentioned mines were the Independence, Elkhorn, Parker group, Noonday and others.

About 12 miles in a westerly direction from Ketchum were the Boyle Mountain group and other mines.

At Boulder were the Ophir, Bazouk, Trapper, Tip Top, Sullivan and other mines.


CHAPTER III
MINES ATTRACT MANY
Galena was situated about 28 miles northwest of Ketchum and at the southern base of the Sawtooth mountains. Adjacent to this town were the Senate, Gladiator and other mines. This town at one time had a Post Office, hotel, large general store, several restaurants and saloons, liveiy stable, stage stable, etc. and a stage line to Hailey. Martin Barry had a shoe shop. His son, William Galena, was the first white child born in town. F. M. Willmarth, grandfather of Mrs. Lillian M. Reid of Ketchum, built the first hotel and the first livery stable. He died in 1890 and was buried there. The last resident left Galena in 1890. At present and for some years past a small store is kept there in the summer. When the town was at its zenith its population was estimated at about 800.

About nine miles westerly from the northern base of the Sawtooth mountains were the Vienna group and oher mines near the town of Vienna. The Vienna mine was located June 4, 1879. This town at one time had a Post Office, a general store, two hotels, several restaurants and four or five saloons, etc.   William A. Holland kept the last store there. He left in 1892. The estimated population of this town in its heyday was over 800. It was the largest of the three Sawtooth Mountain towns. Owing to the low price of metals mining operation at the Vienna group has recently been suspended.

Sawtooth City was situated in Beaver Gulch, north of the Sawtooth mountains. The Pilgrim mine which was located in 1879, was situated in this gulch. Other mines there were the Bidwell and Beaver Extension, and the Silver King. Alfred M. Van Scoten was watchman at the Silver King mine for over 25 years. Sawtooth City at one time had a Post Office, three general stores, a tailor shop, two meat markets, three restaurants, four or five saloons, a livery stable etc. and a stage line to Ketchum. The estimated copulation of this town in its palmiest days was about 600.

The mining records show a great number of mining locations near Galena, Vienna and Sawtooth City in 1879. Thus it will be observed that numerous mining claims were being located and worked all the way from Broadford up to and across the Sawtooth mountains in 1879. Galena and Sawtooth City, as well as Doniphan and Muldoon, have been at their nadir for years and are known as "ghost cities."

In 1880 the following quartz lode mining claims near Bullion, about seven miles west of Hailey, were discovered, namely, Jay Gould, Bullion, Mayflower, May Queen, Idahoan, and others. Bullion in its heyday had over 500 men at work in the mines and its population was estimated at 700. It had two general stores, a shoe shop, a Post Office, a school house, four boarding houses, a Miners' Union hall, a livery stable, a daily stage that made round trips to Hailey, a pipe line with hydrants and hose, a large number of dwelling houses, seven saloons, etc. The mines adjoining Bullon produced more ore than did any other mining camp in the county. The post office was discontinued October 15, 1890.

A short distance west of Bullion was the Red Elephant group.  Across the ridge on Deer Creek were the following groups,  Red Cloud, War Dance, Narrow-Gauge, Nay Aug, and other mines.

In the Little Wood River District, situated about 18 miles northeast of Bellevue, were the Muldoon group, Silver Spar group, Eagle Bird, John A. Logan, and others. There was a little town called Muldoon near these mines. In its palmy days there were about 200 men employed at those mines.


CHAPTER IV
THE SMELTING INDUSTRY
There were smelters near Bellevue, near the mouth of Indian Creek, a few miles north of Hailey, Ketchum, Galena and Muldoon. Both Vienna and Sawtooth had stamp mills and a large amount of silver bullion was shipped from each of these places. In addition to the above, there were several concentrating works and samplers.

The Philadelphia Mining and Smelting Company's works at Ketchum are worthy of special mention. The first unit or furnace was built in 1882.

In the summer of 1883 this company made extensive improvements to their smelting works, which already had two stacks. They constructed two additional buildings, the one 200 feet long by 50 feet wide, the other 60 by 60. The first mentioned was an ore'house and was divided into bins, in which the various lots of ore purchased were laid and prepared for the furnace. These bins were on each side of the building, and a roadway wide enough for two teams and their line of loaded trail-wagons to pass extended from end to end of the building.

The other  building  was a  furnace house. These buildings had solid masonry foundations. A huge brick stack also was constructed at this time. Two new furnaces were erected. These, in addition to the two stacks which were already in operation, gave the company a smelting capacity of 180 tons per day. This was not a net capacity, but a gross one. That is to say, the total tonnage just stated included iron, lime, charcoal, etc., mixed with ore, as well as the ore itself. Of the latter, the quantity reduced was from 80 to 130 tons per day, the daily capacity depending upon the character of the ores. The ores of this entire region which had been taken to this smelter up to the time in question, carried an average of 50 per cent lead and about 100 ounces of silver. Two tons of ore, therefore, on an average, made one ton of bullion. With the four furnaces in operation the daily output was from 40 to 60 tons of base bullion.

All these buildings, in addition to the 20 kilns which were constantly converting wood into charcoal, the boarding houses, assay and business offices, the wood and lumber flumes, etc., and the necessary yard room for 50 or more teams to move about at once, required a great deal of room. Rut as the company owned 400 acres there was ample room.

The location of the works was probably the very best that could be had in this region. The furnaces and ore bins were erected on the edge of a high bluff bordering on Wood river, a little west of Ketchum.

The works were run exclusively by water-power derived from Warm Springs creek, which never froze, and thus afforded all the required motive power, the year round.

The mines which furnished the most of the ores to this smelter were the Elkhorn, Parker, West Fork, Bullion and Mayflower.

In 1887 a certain mortgage was foreclosed and the property, including the Muldoon smelter, was sold at Sheriff's sale and bid in by James M. Rhodes, personally. Shortly thereafter the Philadelphia and Idaho Company was organized and commenced operations at Ketchum. This company owned the Ketchum and Muldoon smelters and the following mines, to-wit: North Star, Silver Star and West Fork groups, the Star of Hope and two mines on Boyle mountain. This smelter continued to operate until 1890. It was stained again in the fall of 1892 and closed down permanently early in 1893.


CHAPTER V
BIG BOOM OF 1880
1880 was the year of the Wood River boom. Thousands of miners came and found ready employment in mines that were reputed to be making their owners "rich beyond the dreams of avarice." So ubiquitous seemed prospectors that every mountain and hill was covered with them in their search for precious metals. While the country was virgin they struck many prospects which afterward developed into good paying mines. Of the prospector,it truthfully can be said, in the words of Pope, "Hope springs eternal in the human breast," and furthermore, that hope never dies while he lives. He hopes on, hopes ever, firmly believing that he is within a short distance of a rich streak of ore. In a log hut with a dirt roof and floor, pole bunks for bedsteads, and candle and soap boxes for seats., at times many miles distant from any other habitation, with tbe bare necessities of life, alone save for his faithful dog to bear him company, he spends a life of unremitting toil, too often, alas, unrequited. Yet who will say that his is not a happy life? When he lies down upon his humble couch, gentle sleep "weighs  his eyelids down and steeps his senses in forgetfulness." Here is a good illustration of the following words of Goldsmith, and, at least, a partial substantia-tion of them:

"Still to ourselves in every place consigned, Our own felicity we make or find."

Millions of dollars in ores were shipped out of this region, but how many millions it is impossible to say. Many believe that there may be as much ore shipped out of here in the future as there has been in the past.

Gold in good paying quantities was discovered on the Gold Belt in the early eighties. There was considerable mining activity there for many years. A little town by the name of Doniphan was built there. It was situated about 15 miles southwest of Hailey. It was named in honor of Judge Doniphan, who was the principal operator. It had a Post Office, a school house, a general store, a shoe shop, a boarding house, several dwelling houses for the miners, a saloon, etc. About 25 years ago all the tailings containing gold were worked over by the cyanide process.

With so many miners at work all the way from Broadford to Vienna, on East Fork, Deer Creek, Bullion, the Gold Belt, and Rocky Bar, and mining being a hazardous occupation, it was necessary to have a hospital where they could receive treatment. A miners' hospital was accordingly built in the early eighties. It was a frame building situated near the Hailey Hot Springs, about two miles west of Hailey. Each and every man who worked at the mines was assessed one dollar a month for board, room, medical and surgical treatment. One severely injured was generally taken to a hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah. In connection with the miners' hospital was a ward for the care of the sick and dependent poor of the county. This building was destroyed by fire in the nineties.

Ketchum was first called Leadville. Albert Griffith was there in 1879. He left that fall but returned in April, 1880, and resided there permanently until his death. In 1879 there was only one cabin there and it was owned by David Ketchum, who lived in it. When application was made to the proper authorities for a post office by the name of Leadville it was refused. Application was then made for a post office by the name of Ketchum and the same was granted. The name of the town was then changed to Ketchum in honor of David Ketchum. The Post Office was established in 1880 and William H. Greenhow was the first Postmaster. The present Postmaster is Jack Riley.

Ketchum is situated about 12 miles northwest of Hailey and is the northern terminus of the Wood River Branch of the Oregon Short Line Railroad. Even before the advent of the rail-road it was a prosperous town. At one time it had three banks, seven daily stages, two hotels, several restaurants, seven stores, seven black-smith shops, three doctors, three lawyers, six livery stables, two assay offices, a weekly newspaper, several saloons, etc., and its population was estimated at nearly 2,000.

Albert Griffith, Paul P. Baxter, Geo. W. McCoy, William H. Greenhow, Theo Hage and Geo P. Hodson were among its earliest residents. Isaac I. Lewis, T. E. Clohecy and J. 0. Swift were some of its earliest business men.

William Hyndman was an early resident of Ketchum. He was a Major in the Civil war, a practicing attomey-at-law and a prominent mining man.   He died in Ketchum October 1, 1896.

Horace C. Lewis, son of I. I. Lewis, of Ketchum, started in business while quite young. He organized the Ketchum & Challis Toll Road company and was one of its stockholders. This company built the first wagon road   over the Trail Creek summit. He owned the freighting outfit that freighted into Challis, Clayton, Bayhorse, Custer and Bonanza. He had the mail and express contracts for the above mentioned towns and did practically all the freighting in that region. He had a large forwarding house and express office at Ketchum. He had the largest freight wagons in the State. They were drawn by 20-mule teams. He continued in the freighting business for a few years after the building of the railroad from Blackfoot to Mackay in 1901. At the time of the Thunder Mountain boom in 1902-3 he opened the road from Ketchum to Thunder Mountain in the dead of winter.

On December 29, 1898, he conveyed to Samuel E. Rigg of Spokane, Washington, for a consideration of $80,000.00, the Croesus lode, Croesus Extension lode, Croesus millsite and Croesus Extension millsite, all patented, situated in Scorpion Gulch about three and one-half miles southwest of Hailey.  He died January 19, 1911.

Ketchum is now quite a summer resort. In the spring of 1929, Carl E. Brandt had the hot water from the Guyer Hot Springs, (about three miles west of town) piped into town, and a large natatorium built.   This water has a temperature of 170 degrees, Fahrenheit. There are 31 tourist cabins heated by this hot water and supplied with all modern conveniences. The town has two good general stores, one hotel, one restaurant, one garage, one service station, etc. It is one of the greatest sheep and lamb shipping stations in the state.


CHAPTER VI
START OF RANCH AND FARM
In 1879 Charles Black built a house on Spring creek and moved his family there the next spring. In the same year Joseph Loving and family built a house on the ranch still known to old-timers as the "Yank Robinson" ranch. In the same year Isaac W. Garrett located on Spring creek and filed on land that afterward belonged to John Hailey. Mr. Garrett moved his family there on July 4, 1880. He was elected to the legislature in 1880 and it was due to his efforts that a bill was enacted into law giving the citizens of Alturas county the right to vote at a special election held on September 12, 1881, to locate the permanent county seat of said county. In January, 1883, he accepted the office of deputy auditor and recorder at Hailey. Other settlers near the Charles M. Black ranch were S. E. Stanton and his son, Clark T. Stanton. Stanton Crossing was named for the former. Both of these men afterward moved to Hailey and lived there for many years. Other early settlers on Spring Creek were the Brown brothers, John W. and Michael, who settled there in 1881. Their brothers, Joseph and Peter, came later.

In the spring of 1881, Mrs, Lafe Griffin established a stage station near the base of Timmerman Hill and conducted it until her death in the fall of that year.John Redding kept a store close to this station in 1881 and until he moved to Bellevue in 1882, where he kept store while he lived.

This station was on the stage line running from Hailey to Goose creek in Cassia county, where it intersected the Overland stage line running from Kelton, Utah, to Boise, Idaho. The stage line running from Hailey to Boise intersected the branch of the Overland stage line at the station at the base of Timmerman hill.

John L. Timmerman came to Wood river in July, 1880, and lived near the Black ranch the first year. In the fall of 1881 he established his residence on the northern slope of the hill which bears his name, took up land there and continued to live there until the day of his death on November 23, 1906.

The old Emigrant road that crossed Snake river at Eagle Rock (Idaho Falls) and came by way of Lost river and over Bradley hill, north of Carey, crossed Wood river about six miles south of Bellevue. In 1881 a stage line was established between Blackfoot and Hailey which came over Bradley hill.

Clark T. Stanton, the present probate judge of Jerome county, Idaho, was a scout with Colonel Green during the Bannack Indian war in 1878, when the Bannacks of Fort Hall, led by Chief Buffalo Horn, and the Pahutes of Malheur, led by Chief Egan, went on the warpath because the national government opened to settlement Camas Prairie, which had been reserved to the Indians. Colonel Green crossed Wood river where the old Emigrant crossing was, went east to Lost river near where the town of Mackay is now, and on to Challis, thence northeast to the old Lemhi Indian agency.

General Miles took up the trail there and Mr. Stanton returned by way of the Salmon river. Cape Horn, Redfish Lakes, and down by Atlanta.

While writing of pioneers it may not be amiss to state that in 1824, the Snake River expedition of 140 persons, led by Alexander Ross, trapped the Lemhi and Salmon Rivers southward, thence to Lost and Wood Rivers. But a trapper is not a pioneer. His aim is to leave the country as he found it, except for the establishing of fur trading posts. He makes no other improvements. He is opposed to any improvements as that is inimical to his chosen calling.

Webster defines the word pioneer as, "One who goes before, as into the wilderness, preparing the way for others to follow; as, pioneers of civilization." The word trapper he defines as, "One who traps; esp., one who makes a business of trapping animals for their furs."

In the summer of 1879 Archie Billingsley drove cattle into Carey valley, and moved his family there the following year. He was the first settler there. James Carey was the first postmaster and the town derives its name from him. The Post Office and the first school house in the valley were situated on his ranch. Other settlers soon followed. The soil of the valley is very productive, a part of which is watered by Little Wood River.

The town of Carey has a grade school and an accredited high school, a fine L. D. S. church, stores, garages, etc. It is situated about eight miles in an easterly direction from Picabo.

In May, 1880, Patrick McMonigle and Joseph A. Meadows settled on Deer Creek and took up land. They were the first settlers there.

On October 4, 1880, L. C. Dorsey and wife settled on Reck Creek on the ranch now owned by Rodney R. Brown. But the snow was so deep that winter that they did not wait for it to leave but moved into Hailey and bought a lot. The townsite of Hailey was being laid out at that time in 1881. Mr. Dorsey lived here until his death in 1916. Mrs. Dorsey still lives here and conducts a store.

Commodore Perry Croy was one of the earliest settlers near Hailey. He filed on the land on which the Hailey Hot Springs are situated. He and Geo. W. Edgington located the Jay Gould mine at Bullion and filed the notice for record June 4, 1880. Croy's Addition to Hailey, Croy Street and Croy Gulch are named for him. Yet notwithstanding all his activities he was dissatisfied with the country and left for the east in two or three years.

William Quigley, after whom Quigley Gulch is named, was one of the early settlers in this vicinity. He filed on the land east of town long known as the Drake ranch, now owned by Mrs. Joseph Hunter. A part of the Hailey Cemetery is situated on this land.

George H. Knight, present county commissioner of the Third district, arrived in Bellevue in 1880 and moved to Hailey in 1881. In those bygone days he was a freighter. In the early eighties he filed on 160 acres of land on Indian creek and was granted a patent for the same. Since disposing of this land he has lived on a ranch he owns on East Fork.

Herman Vorberg came to Wood River in 1880 and brought his family here in April, 1881. He filed on the land about a mile west of Hailey which is known as the Vorberg ranch, and received a patent to it. The house which he built in 1881 is in a good state of preservation and is occupied by two of his children, Herman J. and Agnes T., who cultivate the land. Mr. Vorberg built a brewery on this land and conducted it for some years. He lived on this land until his death on February 16, 1907.

To these hardy pioneers of mountains and valleys the present citizenry of Blaine County owes a debt of gratitude. They came, they saw, they conquered. It requires but little imagination to see them with our mind's eye pitching their tents on the sagebrush plains, building houses, fences, bridges, clearing off the sagebrush, digging ditches to convey water on the arid soil, and thus transforming the fields which had lately been sagebrush, under the magic influence of water, into fruitful fields. They, as well as the early merchants, had manj- hardships to undergo. Many luxuries were denied them. Yet there was a certain glamour associated with pioneer life. It has been said that "God made the country and man made the town." Without either subscribing to that statement or taking exception to it, it is a well-known fact that without developed mines or country there would be no towns here, nor need of towns. But with a productive agricultural, stockraising country, coupled with mining, towns are indispensable.

In the early days all goods, wares, merchandise, machinery, etc. for Bellevue, Hailey and Ketchum were hauled in freight wagons drawn by either horses or mules from either Blackfoot, Idaho, which was about 1S5 miles from Hailey by coming over the Bradley Hill, or from Kelton, Utah, which was about 150 miles. All ores were hauled to Kelton. The mail came by stage from Blackfoot.

CHAPTER VII
BELLEVUE THE GATE CITY
Bellevue is situated about five miles south-east of Hailey.

In 1880 the first building was erected there. It was a log building owned by Owen Riley, who was the first Postmaster. L. Young succeeded him in that office. The present Postmaster is Mrs. Florence V. Clark. In the building in which the first Post Office was located was a drug store owned by W. T. Riley and conducted by J. J. Tracy. The latter moved to Hailey in 1881 and has been conducting his own drug store here since that date. In 1883 a charter for the City of Bellevue was granted by the legislature, and with some amendments, is the charter under which the city still operates. Bellevue had a weekly newspaper, a bank, a school house, good business buildings and residences, and did a thriving business while the mines near Broadford flourished. It was also the county seat of Logan County for five years. Today it has several general stores, a hardware store, a drug store, two garages with service stations combined, three churches, a grade school and an accredited high school, etc. It is one of the large lamb and sheep shipping stations.

On December 6, 1880, Hon. John Hailey filed on a desert land entry of 440 acres, for which he was granted a patent on April 5, 1884. This is the land on which the principal part of the city of Hailey is situated. The town was named for him, a pioneer of pioneers, and who served as a delegate to Congress for two terms. His first term began March 4, 1873 and ended March 4, 1875, and his second term began March 4, 1885, and ended March 4, 1887.

The townsite was located by John Hailey, A. H. Boomer, W. T. Riley and E. S. Chase. It is situated about five miles northwest of Bellevue and about 12 miles southeast of Ketchum. It has an elevation at the Court House of 5332 feet.

The promoters of this townsite at first thought of locating it at the mouth of Indian Creek, about three miles north of town, and naming it Marshall, in honor of Doctor R. W. Marshall, who was the first doctor on Wood River. But that idea was abandoned and the townsite never was established there.

Ernest Cramer, S. J. Friedman, J. C. Fox, W. T. Riley, J. J. Tracy, Leon Fuld and H. Z. Burkhart were some of the early merchants, all of whom came in the spring of 1881. Ernest Cramer erected the first building in the spring of 1881. It was a log structure situated on Lot 10, Block 42, and was used as a business building. The town developed very rapidly as the mines at Bullion and vicinity which were tributary to Hailey were being worked at capacity. Most of the merchants conducted their business in tents until they were able to have suitable buildings erected. Geo. M. Parsons was the first Postmaster and Leon Fuld the second. Austin A. Lambert is the present Postmaster. H. Z. Burkhart had the first express office. He burned 350,000 brick for the Court House, Alturas hotel and other buildings. J. C. Fox retired in 1927 with the record of the oldest dry goods merchant in the State.


CHAPTER VIII
THE COUNTY SEAT FIGHT
A special election was held on the 12th day of September, 1881, for the purpose of determining the permanent location of the county seat of Alturas county, Idaho Territory.

The minutes of the Board of County Commissioners under date of September 25, 1881, are as follows:

"The returns from the various precincts (ex-cepting Canon Creek and Indian Creek) having been recevied, the said meeting was held publicly, the returns or poll books were received by the Clerk of this Board, were presented to the Board, were found duly sealed and were then publicly opened, and the Board proceeded to canvas and count the votes and it was found that the town of Hailey received 1070 votes for the county seat, and that the town of Bellevue received 1071 votes, the town of Ketchum 356, and the town of Rocky Bar 236 votes.

On motion the Board adjourned sine die."

There is nothing more in the minutes in regard to the result of this special election, neither is there anything to show whether the election returns from Canon Creek and Indian Creek precincts ever were received. From what follows it is reasonable to presume that they were received and counted later, and that the town of Hailey got a majority of those votes. The next thing in the minutes in regard to this matter is as follows: "Ordered by the Board that G. L. Bixby be and he is hereby authorized and empowered to employ counsel to take all and any steps necessary in defense of any suit now pending in the District Court of the Second Judicial District of Idaho Territory in and for Alturas County, against the Board of County Commissioners of said county in regard to the removal of the county seat from Rocky Bar.

"Ordered that the clerk of this board notify James H. Hawley, district attorney, to appear for and defend any suit or suits now pending in Alturas County, I. T. in which the Board of County Commissioners or Alturas County is a party."

In the minutes of the District Court under date of October 26, 1881, is the following entry: "Joseph A. Rupert vs The Board of County Com-missioners of Alturas County. On motion of F. E. Ensign, Esq., Ordered that this cause be placed on the calendar." On the following day the case was set for trial on November 2, 1881.

On that date the motion to dismiss the appeal was argued, submitted and taken under advisement. On November 3, 1881 ,the Court denied the motion to dismiss the appeal. The case was thereupon tried before the Court and the Court rendered its decision on the same day, as follows:

"The Court Ordered, Adjudged and Decreed, that the town of Hailey having received the highest number of votes for county seat, at the Special Election held in said County of Alturas on the second Monday of September A. D. 1881, said town of Hailey is hereby established and confirmed as the permanent county seat of said Alturas County, and that each party pay his own costs.

H. E. Prickett, Presiding Judge.'

In the County Commissioners' minutes of July 6, 1882, a county warrant for 700.00 was ordered drawn to defray the expenses of removing the county records from Rocky Bar to Hailey. The Board then adjourned to meet at Hailey. . On August 2, 1882 the Board met at Hailey, I. T., pursuant to adjournment. There being no Court House at Hailey the Board rented various rooms for the county officers.

On July 12, 1882, the following order was made and entered:

"Resolved that the Chairman and Auditor be and they are hereby authorized and empowered in behalf of the county to enter into a written lease with L. H. Woodin & Texas Angel, owners of Bullion Block, for the use of the county for County Jail and County offices from the 15th day of April, 1883, to such time as the Board of County Commissioners may decide, at a monthly rental of $425.00 payable quarterly in warrants." This was a two-storied building with a stone basement and was situated on Lot 1, Block 32. The basement was used for a jail. The building now occupied by Jacobs Variety store is situated on the same site.


CHAPTER IX
THREE DAILY PAPERS
For several years Hailey had three daily papers which also were published weekly, and it continued to have two daily papers until 1919. It now has one weekly paper, The Hailey Times. Until this year many of us believed that Hailey had the first daily paper in the Territory of Idaho. But L. A. York of Boise, who published the Avalanche at Silver City from 1890 till 1903, under date of June 2, 1930, writes, in part, as follows :

'The Owyhee Avalanche, of Silver City, was published as a daily in 1875-6, by W. J. Hill. He had the first steam press (cylinder) in the Territory, and received telegraphic reports over a line built from Winnemucca. He paid $300.00 per month for the telegraph service. This is authentic."

The most reliable information obtainable is that T. E. Picotte of Hailey published the second earliest daily paper in the Territory of Idaho. It was called Wood River Daily Times and was first published May 20, 1882.   Mr. Picotte began the publication of the Wood River Weekly Times June 15, 1881.

The earliest electric light plant in the Territory was at the Ketchum smelter. But Hailey was the first town to have an electric light plant. Hailey had the first telephone system in the territory.

The attention of the Union Pacific Railway company, while constructing their through line to the Pacific Coast, was drawn to the large freighting business done by the Wood River country. As a consequence, the Wood River Branch was built to Hailey. On May 7, 1883, at 10:30 o'clock A. M. the first train arrived in Hailey. There was great rejoicing. The following year it was extended to Ketchum. Ketchum celebrated the extension of the railway to that town on August 19, 1884. Trains began running regularly the following day. With the advent of the railroad the stage coach and the big freighting outfits had to seek new fields.

An Act of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Idaho, at its 12th session, approved February 8, 1883, entitled, "An Act providing for the erection of a County Court House and jail at Hailey, the county seat of Alturas County," provided that for the purpose of erecting and completing said Court House and jail, Alturas County might issue Forty Thousand Dollars of negotiable coupon bonds.

On July 14, 1883, the bid of Horace J. Knapp that he would erect, complete and furnish the Court House and Jail, as per the plans and specifications adopted by the Board for the sum of $37,800.00 and accept the bonds known as the Court House Bonds in payment therefor, was accepted. There were incidentals which made the cost $40,000.00. On August 11, 1883, the corner stone of the court house was laid under the supervision of J. K. Morrill, chairman of the Board of County Commissioners. Deposited and hermetically sealed are:

The names and official titles of the County officers, a copy of the Wood River Times, a copy of the Act of the legislature providing for the erection of a court house and jail at Hailey, Idaho, and a blank court house bond.

On August 1, 1884, the building was accepted. The basement is of rock and is the jail. In the jail are steel cages which are said to have cost about $10,000 00. The other two stories are of brick. In this building are offices for all the county officials, a large up-to-date Court room, jury room, Judge's chambers, etc. When built it was probably the best Court house in the Territory. In 1S07 a fireproof vault of two stories and a jury room on the the third story was erected.

The Alturas Hotel (now Hiawatha) is a three story brick building with rock basement. On March 22, 1S83, ground was broken for this hotel. On May 25, 1886, it was opened to the public with a grand ball. A Hailey paper of that date says, "it is admitted to be the finest hotel between Denver and the Pacific Ocean." It was said to have cost $35,000; furniture $8,000, not including the $5,000 bar and fixtures connected with the billiard hall. In 1914-15 quite an addition was built to it and renovated throughout. It contains 82 rooms and each room is furnished with hot and cold water. The natural hot water from the Hailey Hot Springs (about two and a half miles west of town) is piped in and the hotel is heated throughout with this water which has a temperature of 136 degrees, Fahrenheit. The hotel has all modern conveniences. There is a large natatorium in connection therewith.

Even in the early days, Hailey, like the other towns, had good business houses in which were carried all goods, wares and merchandise necessary for the community. All these towns had good residences and good educational facilities, churches, etc. There wei'e about 20 lawyers. There were able men who represented several religions, who ministered to the spiritual welfare of the inhabitants. There were saloons a-plenty. Faro, poker, roulette and other games of chance were also plentiful. Even the smallest mining camp had its saloon and some game of chance. It is no exaggeration to say that in the larger towns there was nothing lacking that was to be found in a real mining town.

On September 17, 1884, Sheriff C. H. Furey issued licenses to 18 saloon-keepers in Hailey, seven at Bullion, and five at Shoshone. The number of licenses at Bellevue and Ketchum was not definitely known but it was thought the number would reach 15 for Ketchum. There were 12 gaming licenses issued for Hailey and eight for Ketchum. The revenue from saloons alone amounted to $9,800 a year.

Hailey in the early days had the Hailey Iron Works, which was a branch of the Colorado Iron Works of Denver, and were manufacturers of and dealers in mining machinery, sawmills. jigs, screens, elevators, furnaces, crushers, Cornish pumps, steam pumps, etc.

The United States Land Office at Hailey was opened for business on July 14, 1883, with Homer L. Pound as the first Register and J. S. Waters as the first Receiver. An immense area was included in this Land District. After most of the land had been filed on and patented, the Land Office, for economic reasons, was abolished at the close of April 30, 1925. All books, records and files were transferred to Blackfoot, Idaho.


CHAPTER X
BIG HAILEY FIRE
John L. Baxter of Fairfield, Idaho, whose reminiscences of early days have lately been published in the Camas County Courier, has this to say of the early citizens of Hailey: "I want to say that the citizens of Hailey went very strong for anything that they wanted. They could raise money for anything that would help Hailey, and I believe there are a good many residents in Hailey who are just as loyal now as were those of that time. Just to show what kind of citizens there were in Hailey I want to state one incident that occurred at that time. The people of Camas Prairie wanted a. road into the Big Smoky country. I went into Hailey to try to raise money to put in bridges across Big Smoky and South Boise river so there could be a road put in the next spring so that people would be able to cross these streams in high water. I went to a business man and told him what we would like. He asked me to go with him for a little while and I did. In less than two hours he handed me $800.00 to help put in these bridges. That is the way the Hailey people always were.  They were always ready to help build up the country'. That was the starter of the road to Big Smoky."

On September 24, 1883, fire in Hailey destroyed the business portion of the east side of Main street between Bullion and Croy streets. Estimated loss $75,000. In place of the frame build-ings destroyed substantial brick buildings were soon erected.

On July 2, 1889, about 1:30 o'clock in the morning the Nevada hotel in Hailey was discovered to be on fire. This hotel was situated about the same place as the Hailey Commercial Club building is at present, which is about half way between Bullion and Carbonate streets on the east side of Main street. There was a strong wind blowing at the time and the fire got beyond control and burned all the business section except the brick store building of S. J. Friedman, which is still intact; the rear of the building now owned and occupied by the Friedman company as a genera] store, and the rear of the building now owned and occupied by Dr. Robert H. Wright as his office. The S. J. Friedman store had a dirt roof under the ordinary roof which accounts for its not being destroyed. The loss caused by this fire was estimated at the time to be about $500,000.00. Before winter the greater part of the burnt district had been rebuilt.

The Fourth of July celebration that year was held out near the Hailey Hot Springs hotel, about one and half miles west of town. This was a fine hotel which was built in 1888-9. It was heated by the natural hot water. It had a gentlemen's plunge adjoining, bath rooms, and a ladies' plunge a short distance from the hotel. Robert E. Strahorn was the first manager. It was destroyed by fire in August, 1899.

Hailey was incorporated as a village in April, 1903, and in April, 1909, became a city of the second class.

At present Hailey is well supplied with busi-ness houses, two banks, three churches, hotels, rooming houses, restaurants, three garages, five sexwice stations, two drug stores, one assay office, one grade school and one accredited high school, an up-to-date hospital, a talking picture theatre and a large auditorium.

The following fraternal organizations are well represented, namely, Masons, Eastern Star, Odd Fellows, Rebekahs, Modern Woodmen of America, Royal Neighbors, Eagles and W. B. A. They all meet in the Odd Fellows' hall.

Each succeeding year finds this town becoming more of a summer resort. The nights here are always cool. Since the settlement of the Gooding and Twin Falls tracts the increase in the number of summer tourists is quite noticeable.

A great number of sheep and lambs are shipped from this station every year.

The Wood River Daily Times of August 4, 1884, devotes two columns to W. W. Cole's circus which arrived that morning by special train. The estimated number of persons in town was 6,000. The greater part of the article, however, is taken up with a description of the havoc wrought by Samson, the five-ton, 100-year-old elephant. It states he went on the rampage and killed two horses, overturned four wagons and demolished three railway cars. It also states that 40 or 50 shots were fired at him with rifles and although several hit him they were without effect. It describes the consternation created by Samson. Finally Samson attempted to climb on to a pile of ties. Being unable to get a firm footing this halted him, and the circus-hands threw ropes over and downed him. After resting a few moments they led him back to his tent gentle as a lamb.

The Wood River Times in 1884 had the following :

WOOD RIVER'S RECORD

In 1878 .............................................. Wild Indians In 1880 ........Settled by the whites. In 1881........Yield of the mines........$1,250,000 In 1882 ........Yield of the mines........$2,500,000 In 1883 ........Yield of the mines........$3,500,000 In 1884 ........Yield of the mines........$5,000,000 (Estimated)

The foregoing figures are given for what they are worth.

The year 1879 is omitted from the list, per-haps for the purpose of making a good showing. But as the development of mining on Wood river began in 1879 it should have been included with 1880 as "settled by the whites."

CHAPTER XI
MINERS STRIKE AT BROADFORD
On July 20, 1884, the miners at the Minnie Moore mine struck and the mine was, in consequence, closed. Several causes were stated for this move. One was that the miners did not receive their pay on pay-day; another, that the owners of the Minnie Moore had determined upon reducing the miners' wages from $4 to $3.50 a day; and another that it was attempted to reduce all top men, blacksmiths and carpenters $1 and laborers 50 cents a day.

Ten days later the miners resumed work at the Minnie Moore, their demands having been complied with by Superintendent Palmer.

On January 20, 1885, Captain Lusk, superintendent of the Queen of the Hills mine, informed the miners that owing to the low prices for lead and silver, and the high rates for freight, etc., his company could not afford to paj' $4 per day but would pay $3.50. If the men would submit to a reduction temporarily, when the price for lead and silver advanced, wages would be advanced. But the men peremptorily refused to accede to a reduction. The Queen of the Hills mine shut down forthwith.

Superintendent Palmer of the Minnie Moore mine, having decided on a similar reduction of wages as that announced by Captain Lusk, the miners at the Minnie Moore went on strike on February 4, 1885.

On February 12, 1885, a complaint was filed in the probate court of Alturas county charging 12 men at Broadford with conspiracy. A warrant of arrest was thereupon issued for the arrest of these men. The complaint charged that these men belonged to the Broadford Miners' Union, whose object was to fix and maintain the rate of wages; that the Queen of the Hills and the Minnie Moore mines are the two most important mines in the vicinity of the said town of Broadford, and have heretofore' employed nearly all the miners at work in said vicinity; that on or about the fourth of February, 1885, fearing and believing that the owners and managers of said mines would no longer continue to pay the wages of $4 per day, and for the purpose of compelling the said owners and managers of the Queen of the Hills and Minnie Moore mines to guarantee to Broadford Miners' Union that the rate of wages per day for miners working in the mines should continue to be $4, the defendants and numerous other members of the said Broadford Miners' Union, did, unlawfully and fraudulently conspire, with force and arms, feloniously and injuriously to trade, to prevent any and all persons whomsoever from performing labor or mining, either for wages or by contract, or under lease, to either mine.

The 12 men surrendered voluntarily when in-formed by the sheriff that he had warrants for their arrest.

The preliminary examination of the 12 members of the Broadford Miners' Union began in the probate court on February 13,1885, and continued until February 23d, at which time the Court took the matter under advisement. The following day Judge H. C. Street announced his decision, which was to hold seven to answer for conspiracy, in the sum of 500 each. Bonds wex*e supplied instanter and defendants returned home.

On February 24, 1885, some men on their way to the Queen of the Hills and Minnie Moore mines were stopped by an angry crowd at Broadford, who loudly declared that no work would be done until the mine-owners should guarantee $4 per day.

The second batch of 14 members of the Broadford Miners' Union was arrested on the following day. Their bonds were fixed at 500, which they gave and were released from custody.

The managers of the Minnie Moore and the Queen of the Hills refused to pay 4 but offered $3.50 per day. They claimed that, during the preceding three months, the depreciation in price of lead and silver had entailed a loss of $15 per ton of ore.

The Daily Times of February 28, 1885, said: "For some time past it has been evident that no men would be permitted to work in the mines at Broadford on any other terms than the payment of $4 per day wages, and that violence would be resorted to, if necessary, to prevent men from going to work, either on contract or for less than the wages required by the Miners' Union. This state of affairs caused considerable alarm in the community, and it became evident that something should be done to assert the supremacy of the law. The miners of Broadford, except on two or three occasions, had behaved remarkably well for men on a strike, and it was hardly deemed probable that they would openly defy the law; but as there was a bare possibility that they might do so, the sheriff, moved to act by a requisition in due form, concluded to summon a posse to set to work what men were willing to work.

"The preparations—such as procuring badges, guns, ammunition, and appointing deputies— —were completed last evening; this morning, the superintendents of the Queen of the Hills and Minnie Moore companies, having announced their working force ready, the sheriff and his deputies marched to Broadford, escorting seven miners, which were all who were ready to go to work.

"The sheriffs force consisted of about 12 deputies from Hailey, and about 20 from Bellevue. All being ready the force left the Minnie Moore office, in Bellevue, about half-past 11 o'clock, and marched to Broadford. On arriving there a crowd of men numbering about 120 were seen standing on the sidewalk or in the street, by the side of the road. Of the men standing there the majority were armed and kept their hands quite near their side and hip pockets; but they did not make any move to use arms. It was evident, however, that they were determined, in case of an outbreak, to make a bitter fight.

"For a moment the sheriff's force halted, and divided, one-half going to the Queen works, the other half to the Minnie Moore, where the men who wished to do so went to work.  The sheriff led the detail to the Minnie, and after seeing the men to work returned to the Queen, where he collected his force and marched it back to Bellevue, not one insulting word having been heard, not a blow offered. The sheriff's posse had been in Broadford just one hour.

"The effect of the demonstration by the sheriff's posse, this morning, will be good. Those of the miners who might have been led into deeds of violence have seen that the law would not countenance such acts; that, furthermore, the people propose to have peace; and that the men who desire to go to work, no matter at what wages, or whether on contract or day's work, will be protected, and all will be more careful to keep within the law.

"Whether the mining companies will secure men for less than the Union rate remains to be seen."

On March 2, 1885,—"Ex-United States Marshal E. S. Chase, who is in charge of the deputies at Broadford, came up this afternoon for a change of clothes. He reports the Queen and Minnie working full-handed, with good miners, and the superintendents refusing work to many who apply, because unable to work them to advantage.   A contract was let today by Superintendent Palmer to run 1000 feet east of the shaft, in entirely new ground. Work upon this will begin tomorrow morning."

March 17, 1885.—For weeks the members of the Miners' Union of Broadford and Bullion felt the necessity of an authoritative statement on their part that would quiet all apprehensions, on the part of mine-owners and the public generally, in regard to their intentions anent the pending strike and the occurrences possible in consequence thereof.

General anxiety, if not alarm, prevails in time of a strike. To subdue this alarm the union leaders determined to make a demonstration. To that end, a general invitation was extended to their members throughout the region to gather at Broadford to attend an open air meeting, to be addressed by fellow-members; after which a committee, three from Broadford, three from Bullion, and three from Ketchum, would be appointed to confer with Superintendents Cecil B. Palmer and J. A. Lusk, of the Minnie Moore and the Queen of the Hills, respectively, and their counsel, J. H. Harris.

The miners began coming at once. All day and evening teams brought them down from Bullion, Deer Creek, Ketchum and the surrounding gulches. At 10 o'clock in the morning the main body of visiting members arrived from Bullion, and numbered over 100. They were joined by about 50 from Ketchum, and all left for Bellevue, where they formed in procession and proceeded to Broadford.

On the outskirts of Bellevue they were met by the Broadford Miners' Union, and escorted to the mines.

The miners and mine-owners being anxious that the difficulty be settled, Colonel Wall and Martin Curran consented to act as mediators, and proceeded to the Queen of the Hills works, where Messrs. Lusk, Palmer and Harris awaited them. Fulton Haight and Judge Turner also accompanied them. The superintendents of the Queen and Minnie stated they were willing to listen to any proposition the miners wished to make. They had none to advance. All they wish'ed was the right to work their mines as they saw fit.

Colonel Wall and Martin Curran went back to the miners, who were in front of their hall. Barney McDevitt, Charles O'Brien, James Gunn, Eugene O'Callaghan, W. H. Atkinson, David Lawrence, James McPherson and Alex. McPhail were appointed a committee to confer with the superintendents. It proving satisfactory, Colonel Wall so reported, and the committee proceeded to the Queen works.

The mine approaches were fortified, bulkheads of solid timber having been erected at all points easy of access. Behind these bulkheads deputies were stationed, who were armed with rifles and revolvers.

There were probably 250 union miners in Broadford.

Shortly after 4 o'clock the committee returned and reported that they had failed to come to an understanding; that Superintendents Palmer and Lusk would not recede from their position.

Barney McDevitt, president of the Broadford Miners' Union, thereupon made a violent speech, saying, substantially, that they would get $4 per day, or blood would run in the streets of Broadford and Bellevue. He concluded by calling on the men to capture the mines.

The flag of the union was then unfurled, arms were brought from the hall of the union, and some 50 armed men ranged themselves in line behind the flag.

President Atkinson, of the Bullion Union, jumped on a box and called out: "Halt! there! As president of the Bullion Union, I command every man to keep quiet. You will retire to your hall, and deliberate upon a future course of action."

Ex-President Gunn of Bullion, and Eugene O'Callaghan of Ketchum, also addressed the crowd, advising them to refrain from violence. They were ably seconded by many others.

District Attorney Hawley addressed the miners, urging them to refrain from carrying their threats into execution.

Sheriff Furey and Deputy Sheriff Pat Furey were talking to the foremost men all this time, holding the crowd back, and succeeded in obtaining a parley.

It was then agreed that the sheriff should proceed to the Queen works and inform the men at work that the union wished to speak to them. This was done. The men came, and were requested to refrain from working until the trouble was over.   Most of them consented.

Sheriff Furey then drove up to the Minnie in a buggy, with President McDevitt, and the men there also quit work.

It being about time for the night shift to go on, a crowd collected in front of McFall's hotel to escort them out of town, the understanding being that not a hand should be laid on, nor a threat uttered, to one of them. Unfortunately, Jack Haines, an old Bullion miner who had persistently refused to join the union, came out. He was at once collared by two or three men, and kicked and beaten. As soon as he could he ran into the hotel, a dozen infuriated men following.

But the shift had scattered through the back streets and taken to the main road. Some union men had already driven back a part of the shift coming from Bellevue to go to work. There being no one who seemed disposed to go to work, the union men dispersed, and quiet prevailed all night.

The following morning the visiting members of the union returned to Bullion, Ketchum or Deer creek, where they are employed.

Acting Governor Curtis and General Brisbin, of the United States Army, arrived in Bellevue March 18, 1885 and began examining the situation. General Brisbin spoke substantially as follows:

"Governor Curtis and myself have come over to settle this thing, and we will not leave until it is definitely settled. With the causes that have led to the conflict we have nothing to do. If the sheriff or the local authorities declare themselves unable to preserve order and protect men who wish to work at any wages that they see fit, or if the process of the local courts is resisted, it will be our duty to enforce the laws. I can get United States troops here from Boise in a few hours, but I do not believe that any will be required. In a day or two we shall be better informed and will know just what we should do in the premises. But this much you may depend on, and that is, that employers have the right to say what they can afford or are willing to pay, and they shall be protected in the exercise of this right. And while any man, or men, acting individually or collectively, have a right to refuse to work for the wages offered, they have no right to prevent from working others who may wish to work."

On March 20, 1885,. the situation at Broadford was practically unchanged. Men were working in the Minnie Moore and the Queen of the Hills mines, but only about half the force employed previous to the 17th instant. Some of the men sent over to work were stopped, and some were again stopped in the morning. A meeting of citizens was held in Bellevue, to consider the situation, and a committee was appointed to interview Governor Curtis and General Brisbin, and demand that troops be brought in. Governor Curtis replied that the power of the county to preserve the peace had not been put to the test. That if it was, and the distur-bances were not squelched, he would make the requisition for troops, but that, until that was done, he was powerless.

General Brisbin reassured the citizens, saying that it was the governor's intention and his to enforce the laws. But he wished to satisfy himself that force was needed, before using it. March 23, 1885, the trouble at Broadford was as far from settlement as ever. The men going to work at the Queen, were stopped by Union men, on the Broadford road, and turned back. A number of deputies were thereupon ordered to escort the men to the Queen—which was done, not a union man interfering.

Brevet Brigadier General Brisbin returned this morning on the train. He was dressed in full uniform. Last week he came in civilian's clothes. He was accompanied by his adjutant and two non-commissioned officers. He expressed himself as ready to act. He went on to Bellevue. He had orders from the secretary of war to bring all or a part of his command (which includes infantry, cavalry and two gatling guns) to Wood river for the summer.

Twenty union men were arrested.

Three days were consumed in the taking of testimony in the probate court concerning the riot of the 17th at Broadford.

Judge H. C. Street, after summarizing the case, went on to state that the evidence showed that the crowd were called together to prevent work on certain mines at certain prices; that after failing peaceably to accomplish their objects, they prepared to forcibly carry out their demands; that incendiary speeches were made and commended by the crowd; that they prepared by force and arms to carry the works and take the mines; that the sheriff of the county was defied, resisted and assaulted; that outrages by the mob were perpetrated on various individuals; that arms were in the hands of many of the crowd and an unlawful object openly avowed; that confusion reigned supreme in Broadford for hours; that persons outside the crowd were terrorized thereby.

He certainly must conclude, he said, that there was a riot on that occasion.

Having carefully examined the evidence he declared it to be his duty to hold the defendants to appear before the gi'and jury, in bonds fixed at $1000, $750, $500, respectively. Five defendants were held to give $1000 bonds each, five to give $750 bonds each, and five to give $500 bonds each.

The grand jury which met in June, 1885, in their final report found 17 true bills and ignored 13 charges.

Two of the union miners were charged with felony. Nolle prosequi was entered in both cases. One defendant was then charged with assault and battery, to which he entered a plea of guilty, and was fined $50, the other defendant was charged with assault, to which he entered a plea of guilty and was fined $20.

In the latter part of March, 1885, Superintendents Lusk and Palmer stated that the Queen of the Hills and the Minnie Moore mines were full-handed with miners working at the rate of $3.50 a day.


CHAPTER XII
THE TERRITORY THRIVES
Leduc Post Office was established in 1883 with Peter Leduc as Postmaster, who served until his death in November, 1899. It was situated about two miles north of the present site of Picabo.

Early in 1900 the post office of Leduc was abolished and the post office of Picabo established with Mrs. Margaret Donahue, postmaster. William J. Dunn is the present postmaster. Picabo is situated about 15 miles south of Bellevue. The townsite plat was filed with the county recorder July 16, 1917. It has one hotel, two.stores, three service stations, one grain elevator, etc.. An average of 5,000 tons of ice have been put up and shipped from that point every year since 1902.

The plat of the townsite of Gannett was filed in the office of the county recorder on June 3, 1916. The land was owned by Lewis E. Gannett and the town is named for him. It is situated about eight miles south of Bellevue. It has one general store, one drug store, one garage and service station combined, one service station, one grade school and one accredited high school, one L. D. S. church, etc. Its first postmaster was Elmer J. Trowbridge and its present one is Louise Bowlden.

In 1884, James L. Onderdonk, in "RESOURCES OF IDAHO," says: "Alturas county has an area of over 19,000 square miles, or larger than Vermont and New Hampshire combined. It is 200 miles in length, with a width varying from 70 to 130 miles. It is the banner county of the territory, not only in size, but also in wealth and population. In it lies the great Wood River region, the phenomenal richness of whose deposits, as well as those of the Sawtooth, have made the name of Alturas known all over the world. Situated in central Idaho, watered by the river from which the section takes its name and by a score of tributaries, at an elevation of from 5200 to 9000 feet, are the great mineral deposits of Idaho. With a mineral belt extending for 110 miles, with easy communication by means of the Wood River branch of the Oregon Short Line, with a record already brilliant though hardly four years old, this may truly be regarded as an attractive country."

It will be recalled that this was written subsequent to the creation of Custer county in 1881, which took off an immense slice from  Alturas county, yet note its enormous size. This is the county which spellbinders up to 1889 used to describe in florid prose as the "Empire of Alturas/' and as "extending from near the capital city of Boise on the west, to the Little Lost river on the east, and from the lofty snowcapped peaks of the Sawtooth range on the north, down to the glittering sands of the Snake river on the south." In 1886 it was entitled to six members in the legislature, which was onesixth of the total membership.

It had 252 miles of railroad and an equal extent of telegraph lines. Its greatness and its large representation at political conventions and in the halls of legislation excited the envy of her sister counties, and the day of reckoning was near at hand. After the legislature of 1889 had adjourned, but before the records were written up and signed, a "rump" legislature convened and created the counties of Elmore and Logan on February 7, 1889. The county seat of Elmore county was temporarily located at Rocky Bar. At the election held October 1, 1890, the permanent seat was established at Mountain Home. The temporary county seat of Logan county was located at Shoshone. At the election held October 1, 1890, the permanent county seat was established at Bellevue.   Then there were two county seats within five miles of each other. The boundary line ran between Hailey and Bellevue. The Croesus mine and all of Camas Prairie were in Logan county. A suit to have the act creating these two counties declared unconstitutional was unsuccessful although carried to the United States supreme court. This and subsequent litigation cost many thousands of dollars. The mighty Alturas of yesterday was now but a wreck of its former self. All that was left of it was Hailey, Ketchum, the Sawtooth mountains, and the Lost River country, and the assessable value of the latter at that time was almost negligible. County warrents were soon selling at 50 cents on the dollar and the county was heading for bankruptcy.

Naturally relief was sought for this intolerable situation. On the third day of March, 1891, the legislature passed "An Act to create and organize the counties of Alta and Lincoln, to locate the county seats of said counties, and to apportion the debt of Logan county." This act was approved by the governor. Alta county comprised approximately what is now Blaine, Camas, the greater part of Butte and part of Power counties.   But its existence   was very brief. On the third day of June, 1891, the supreme court of Idaho held the above entitled act unconstitutional on the ground that "An act to divide a county and attach the part cut off to another county, without submitting the proposition to a vote of the people in the segregated part, is in violation of Section 3 of Article 18 of the constitution."


CHAPTER XIII
THE COMING OF BLAINE
On March 5, 1895, the county of Blaine was created. The first section of the act creating Blaine county reads as follows: "The counties of Alturas and Logan are hereby abolished and the county of Blaine is hereby created, embracing all of the territory heretofore included with-in the boundary lines of said Alturas and Logan counties." The county seat was located at Hailey.

On March 18, 1895, the county of Lincoln was created out of the county of Blaine and the county seat located at Shoshone.

The "act to abolish the counties of Alturas and Logan and to create and organize the county of Blaine," provided that "Sidney Kelley, Fred W. Gooding and Israel T. Osborn, shall be the county commissioners of said county, H. H. Clay, treasurer, J. J. McFadden, probate judge and ex-officio superintendent of public instruction, Andrew J. Dunn, coroner, and Frank C. Mandell, surveyor. Of the two persons elected in said Alturas and Logan counties at the last election to each of the offices of sheriff, of assessor and ex-officio tax   collector,   and of clerk of the district court and ex-officio auditor and recorder, during the first year one shall be the officer and the other shall be his assistant or deputy, and during the second year they shall exchange positions, and the clerk of the district court and ex-officio auditor and recorder for the third and fourth years shall alternate as herein provided, and that unless they can agree among themselves upon the order in which they shall so occupy such office, the board of county commissioners of Blaine county shall determine the same." All the above named officers qualified. The following also qualified: Geo. W. Richards, clerk of district court and ex-officio auditor and recorder, Thomas Fenton,. sheriff, and James M. McPherson, assessor and tax collector.

The creation of Lincoln county March 18, 1895, legislated County Commissioner Fred W. Gooding out of office in Blaine county for the reason that he was no longer a resident of Blaine county. John E. Schad was appointed county commissioner by the governor. He presented his commission and qualified.

The board of county commissioners as then constituted consisted of Israel T. Osbom, chairman, Sidney Kelley of Carey, and John E. Schad.

The indebtedness of Lincoln county to Blaine county had to be determined, bonds refunded, and counsel employed to defend the rights of Blaine county. Their lot was as difficult, perhaps, as ever fell to a board of county commissioners in this state.

On February 6, 1917, the county of Camas was created from Blaine county.

Alturas county at the date of its creation embraced all the area of the present counties of Blaine,Camas, Elmore, Gooding, Lincoln, Jerome, Minidoka, the greater part of Butte, and parts of Custer, Bingham and Power. The appellation of "mother of counties," so often applied to Alturas county, is not a misnomer, as can readily be seen, but is an apt name.

The present area of Blaine county is 2,797 square miles. It was named in honor of that eminent statesman, James Gillespie Blaine. Its present population (1930 census) is 3771. It is bounded on the north by Custer county, on the east by Butte and Bingham counties, on the south by Power, Cassia, Minidoka and Lincoln Counties, and on the west by Camas county. On January 14, 1899, the suit attacking the constitutionality of the act creating Blaine county was presented to the state supreme court. That tribunal said in part: "The state, having, through each of its co-ordinate branches of government, repeatedly recognized Blaine county as a county and legal subdivision of the state, is estopped, after the lapse of nearly four years, from questioning the regularity of the passage of the act creating the county. * * * The conclusion in this case is based upon a rule of estoppel, demanded in this case by public policy."

On January 30, 1913, the county of Power was created from parts of Oneida, Bingham, Blaine and Cassia counties.

On February 6, 1917, the county of Butte was created from parts of Blaine, Jefferson and Bingham counties, but principally from Blaine county.

On February 6, 1917, the county of Camas was created from Blaine county.

Alturas county at the date of its creation embraced all the area of the present counties of Blaine, Camas, Elmore, Gooding, Lincoln, Jerome, Minidoka, the greater part of Butte, and parts of Custer, Bingham and Power. The appellation of "mother of counties," so often applied to Alturas county, is not a misnomer, as can readily be seen, but is an apt name.

The present area of Blaine county is 2,797 square miles. It was named in honor of that eminent statesman, James Gillespie Blaine. Its present population (1930 census) is 3,771. It is bounded on the north by Custer county, on the east by Butte and Bingham counties, on the south by Power, Cassia, Minidoka and Lincoln counties, and on the west by Camas county.


CHAPTER XIV
SAWTOOTH NATIONAL FOREST
A large part of Blaine county lies in the Sawtooth national forest. This reserve was created by President Roosevelt on May 29, 1905, its original area being 1,947,520 acres. An addition of 1,392,640 acres was made on November 6, 1906. The name "Forest Reserves" was changed to "National Forests" in 1907.

Major Frank E. Fenn was the first supervisor, with headquarters at Boise. He was later transferred to northern Idaho and was succeeded by Emil Grandjean.

On July 1, 1908, the Sawtooth forest was divided, and the local unit, retaining the name "Sawtooth," was placed under the administration of Clarence N. Woods as supervisor, with headquarters at Hailey. In the fall of 1914, Mr. Woods was transferred to Ogden, Utah, and his place was taken by M. S. Benedict. Shortly after war was declared against Germany on April 6, 1917, Mr. Benedict left for a training camp, and was succeeded by Herbert G. McPheters, who held the position until Benedict returned as a captain in the spring of 1919.

Three other members of the Sawtooth forest force saw service in the World war, namely, Guy C. Hendrickson, who was promoted to a first lieutenancy, John Gilman and Albert R. Griffith, all of whom saw service overseas.

The Sawtooth forest is considered very beneficial to Blaine and Lincoln counties. Its lofty mountains, its many lakes and streams, its great forage resources, are contributing, in one way or another, to the welfare of the residents of these counties. It is protecting from damage the headwaters of Wood river, without which the valley would be a desert as the white man found it; it furnishes lumber and fuel for local needs; its extensive ranges are the means of feeding many thousands of sheep and lambs during the summer season and of finishing for market thousands of Idaho's prime lambs. The government is building a comprehensive road and trail system and making other improvements to open up, conserve, and protect the forest.

In the forests of pine and fir are bear, deer and small game. Deer are protected by law. But during the open season, hunters from far and near, duly licensed, with high-powered rifles kill scores of these beautiful, inoffensive, fleet-footed creatures.

In those beautiful lakes are several varieties of fish, chief of which are salmon and mountain trout. This forma an ideal resort in summer for recreation and amusement. James McDonald, the Hailey millionaire, has a country residence on the beautiful shore of Pettit lake. The snow-capped peaks of the Sawtooth mountains range all the way from 10,000 to 12,000 feet in altitude. The bracing mountain air and the sublimity of the scene make it seem like an earthly paradise to those who are fortunate enough to take advantage of its attractions. This region is often referred to as "The Switzerland of America." Hyndman peak is 12,078 feet above sea level. It forms a part of the boundary line between Blaine and Custer counties and is about 18 miles in a northeasterly direction in an air line from Hailey, or about 24 miles by the road and trail. The view from its summit is indescribably grand as the writer knows at first hand. While contemplating the grandeur of this scene the following words of Byron irresistibly came to mind:

"Though sluggards deem it but a foolish chase, And marvel men should quit their easy chair, The toilsome way, and long, long league to trace, Oh! there is sweetness in the mountain air, And life, that bloated ease can never hope to share."

Wood river, from which the valley takes its name, rises in the Sawtooth Mountains and drains a region of about 100 miles in length from north to south, and about 60 miles in width from east to west. Its principal tributaries are the Malad, Little Wood river, Silver creek, Rock creek, Deer creek, East Fork, Warm Springs creek, Prairie creek and Cherry creek. Without these streams the valleys would be nothing but barren wastes.

Fish are to be found in all these streams, but Wood river and Silver creek are especially famed for their trout, and tourists from afar visit this region principally as disciples of Izaak Walton.

Grouse and sagehens are plentiful throughout the county.


CHAPTER XV
HOT AND COLD WATER
The natural hot springs in Blaine county are the Condie, near Carey, Hailey, Clarendon, Guyer, Warfield, Easley and Russian John. These springs are favorite resorts for bathing. Several well-to-do people have built summer homes near Warfield and Easley hot springs. The Baptists have a camping ground for their meetings and summer vacation near the latter spring.

There are two dams in Blaine county that are worthy of special mention, the Fish Creek and the Magic. The former is situated about 14 miles in a northeasterly direction from the town of Carey. It was commenced in 1916 and completed in 1920. It is built entirely of concrete, of the multiple arch type, is 190 feet high and about 1600 feet long, and is said to be the longest dam in the world of this type.   It   cost about $1,000,000 and impounds 13,000 acre feet of water when full.

The Magic dam is situated about 23 miles in a southwesterly direction from Hailey, at the confluence of the Malad and Wood rivers, which supply it with water. Construction was started in 1907 and practically   completed in 1910, when water was first stored for irrigation purposes. It is an earthen dam, maximum height above the floor of the tunnel, intake end, 114 feet; top width is 10 feet and the main dam is approximately 1800 feet long; upstream slope is three to one, and the downstream slope is two to one, making the bottom width of the dam 580 feet; the upstream face is heavily rip-rapped. At the time of its construction it was considered the highest dam in the world. The top of the dam is at an elevation of 4940, and the top of the concrete spillway is 4930, but the high water elevation, when the reservoir is full, is at an elevation of 4935. The maximum impoundage or storage, at the 4935 elevation is 191,500 acre feet.

The reservoir and system were built to irrigate about 125,000 acres of land, but under decree of the court this has been cut to 75,000 acres net. When full, the water backs up approximately seven miles, and at this stage the area submerged is practically 3,800 acres. The total cost of the dam, reservoir and machinery was approximately $2,000,000.00.

Trout weighing from four to 12 pounds are caught in the back waters of the dam.


CHAPTER XVI
A TRAGEDY IN THE SNOW
An appalling calamity occurred at the North Star mine on the East Fork of Wood river about 3:30 o'clock on the morning of February 25, 1917. Three slides formed an avalanche, one from the east, one from the north and one from the northwest, which killed 15 men and injured 17.

Following is a list of the dead: Emmett P. Russell, Philip Welch, John Fleming, Samuel La Barge, John Vaughn, John Kistle, John McKelvy, all of Hailey; Israel Peterlin of Broadford, John Hearn of Fairfield, William C. Schmidt of Rock Creek, E. P. Manjino, time-keeper, of Mexico, Joseph H. Purnell of Boise, E. G. Cooley, W. R. Motley and Roy Judd.

Following is a list of the injured: Andy Smith of Lost River, H. B. Richardson of Boise Basin, George Lee of Boise, John Lillquist of Rossland, Canada, M. S. Legault, 0. E. Beeson, O. D. St. Amand, Bert Judd, M. S. Lesault, John Peterson, Pete Colombtta, K. D. Lindsay, H. F. Manard, A. E. Wood, E. C. Jones, Thomas Jay and J. R. Carter.

Over 20 men escaped uninjured.   Of the 85 men employed only 65 were at the mine; and they are all accounted for.

The avalanche destroyed the office, storeroom, changing room, two-story bunkhouse and compressor room of the Federal Mining & Smelting company, smashing them into kindling wood. The Bell telephone line being out of commission the Hailey Electric Light works was called over the Federal Company's private line and Superintendent Rising was urged to send all the physicians and able-bodied men available to the scene of the tragedy.

Mr. Rising thereupon aroused Doctor Wright by telephone and he called doctors Kleinman and Plumer of Hailey and doctors Byrd and Dutton of Bellevue, all of whom responded immediately. After consultation doctor Plumer was left in Hailey to look after the relatives of the victims of the tragedy, many of whom resided in Hailey, and the other physicians left for the North Star mine which they reached about 8 o'clock. They immediately turned the mill office into a temporary hospital.

A veterinary surgeon had begun to give first aid in the company's office at the mill and had bandaged some of the rescued when the Hailey and Bellevue physicians arrived.   In the meantime the mill hands and the mill employees who were unhurt had been rescuing those whom they could reach. By 9 o'clock about 100 men were engaged in rescue work. Some of the men were buried under 20 to 30 feet of snow. Several of the dead showed no marks of injuries and are supposed to have suffocated. Others showed cuts and bruises.

The company did all it could to locate the relatives of the dead or injured. The train was held at the siding near Gimlet for the purpose of taking the injured, accompanied by doctors, volunteer assistants and miners, to Hailey and Bellevue.

Of the injured two died a short time later, making 17 deaths all told.

This awful calamity has a parallel in Idaho, the number of deaths being the same as in the Coeur d'Alenes a few years prior when . an avalanche crashed through a part of the city of Wallace. It brought sorrow to many homes in Hailey where so many people were closely related by blood or marriage.

Never have so many snowslides happened here as during the big snow storm of February 23, 24 and 25 of the year 1917. It seemed as if all the snow in the mountains had tumbled into the gulches.

David P. Clarke, the pioneer and former post-master of Pierson, was caught in a snowslide on his way home from Stanley postoffice and killed. No other casualties were reported.

There was a gigantic snowslide at the Independence mine which carried away the orehouse, destroyed a part of the gravity tram to the mill, disabled the electric power and light and tele-phone line and lifted the mill six inches from the foundation, besides carrying down a lot of timber, lumber and cordwood. The slide came down 1500 feet with a width of 300 or 400 feet and caused $6000 damages.

The boarding house of the Eureka mine, which is situated in Eureka gulch, a fork of Bullion canyon, was struck by a snowslide and seriously damaged. The building was occupied by the foreman, C. W. Pinney and family, and others, all of whom were uninjured.

Snow at the Mascot mine, where ever it had a chance to slide, piled up to a depth of 10 to 20 feet.


CHAPTER XVII
MANY PROMINENT MEN
Several men and women who have resided in what is now Blaine county, have filled positions of trust and honor. I fully realize the difficulty of drawing the line of demarcation between the great and the near-great, and I hesitate to mention names. In presenting such a list I shall only include the names of those who have occupied state or federal offices, or were distinguished in some calling or profession. I shall not even include all state officers as members of the legislature are classed as state officers, but I shall include only the names of a few in this class and they were distinguished in other lines. There may have been many, and doubtless there were, who have done their duty in humble walks of life who are as worthy of the laurel wreath of fame as some of these whose names I am about to indite. But their names are unknown and their deeds unsung.

Gray, in his Elegy, Says:

"Some mute, inglorious Milton here may rest,

Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood."

Blaine County can boast of one native son of international fame, Ezra Pound, the poet, son of Homer L. Pound, the first Register of the United States Land Office at Hailey. He was born in Hailey October 30, 1886. His poems have received favorable mention from some of the foremost critics of Europe. He lives abroad all the time.

Frank R. Gooding served two terms as Governor of Idaho and one term as United States Senator and was serving his second term when summoned by death.

Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the United States Treasury.

Harold Lancaster Butler is a noted singer and teacher of music, and at present is a doctor of music teaching in the Syracuse, New York, conservatory of music.

James H. Hawley was District Attorney when he lived in Hailey. He was a distinguished lawyer and Governor of the State of Idaho.

Isaac Newton Sullivan served 26 consecutive years on the Supreme Bench of Idaho.

James H. Beatty served two years as District Judge and 17 years as United States District Judge.

Charles 0. Stockslager served four years as Receiver of the United States Land Office in Hailey, 14 years as Judge of this District and six years on the Supreme Bench of Idaho.

Lyttleton Price served four years as Judge of this District.

Henry F. Ensign had served nearly 12 years as Judge of this District and was serving his fourth term when his untimely death closed his earthly career.

Selden B. Kingsbury was a United States District Judge at Honolulu, Hawaii.

Geo. H. Roberts was first Attorney General of the State of Idaho.

Geo. M. Parsons was second Attorney General of the State of Idaho.

Norman M. Ruick was United States Attorney.

Presley M. Bruner was District Attorney of this District, and later was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge I. 0. 0. F. of Idaho.

Francis E. Ensign was a prominent pioneer lawyer of California and Idaho, and was Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Idaho.

Robert E. Strahorn was Vice President and manager of the Idaho and Oregon Land Improvement Company and is now a reputed millionaire.

Hugh C. Wallace was Secretary of the Idaho and Oregon Land Improvement Co., was appointed Ambassador to France by President Woodrow Wilson, and is now a reputed millionaire.

A. J. Pinkham was first Secretary of State of Idaho.

Isaac W. Garrett was a Secretary of State of Idaho.

Geo. J. Lewis was a Secretary of State of Idaho.

E. S. Chase was a United States Marshal. Joseph Pinkham was a United States Marshal.

W. T. Riley was Register of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

W. H. Brodhead was Register of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

W. F. Horne was Receiver of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

W. A. Hodgman was Receiver of the United States Land Office at Hailey for two terms.

Fred C. Bradley was Receiver of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

Ben R. Gray was State Fish and Game Warden and also Register of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

H. K. Lewis was Receiver of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

Miss May G. Angel was Register of the United States Land Office at Hailey.

Stewart Campbell is serving his tenth consecutive year as Inspector of mines.

Nathan Kingsbury was a Vice-President of the Telephone & Telegraph Company.

W. A. Brodhead was Chairman of the State Highway Commission from 1915 to 1919.

Mrs. Mary George Gray was a State Representative and in 1926 was nominated for Representative in Congress, also a Past President of the Rebekah State Assembly of Idaho.

Miss Perineal J. French was State Superintendent of Public Instruction and at present is dean of women at the University of Idaho, at Moscow.

Miss Bernice McCoy was State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Dr. D. W. Figgins was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge I. O. 0. F. of Idaho.

E. B. Lemmon was Grand Master of Grand Lodge I. 0. 0. F. of Idaho.

W. E. Heard was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge I. 0. 0. F. of Idaho.

Emil A. Friedman was Grand Patriarch of the Grand Encampment I. O. O. F. of Idaho.

I.eon Fuld was Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge I. 0. 0. F. of Idaho.

Presley F. Home is present Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge I. 0. O. F. of Idaho. He has served as such continuously since October, 1913.

Mrs. Ella W. Home is a Past President of the Rebekah State Assembly of Idaho.

Mrs. Blanche E. Kleinman is a Past Grand Matron of the Grand Chapter of the Eastern Star of Idaho.

John W. Cramer was Assistant Attorney General of Idaho.


CHAPTER XVIII
BRAVE SONS OF BLAINE
The brave good soldier ne'er despise Nor treat him as a stranger. Remember he's his country's stay In day and hour of danger.—Burns.

On May 20, 1890, Company F, Idaho National Guard, was mustered in at Hailey by Col. W. T. Riley. It is a matter of regret that no roster of this company can be found. At the time in question there were two daily papers published in Hailey, which also were published weekly. One of the editors was a member of the company and the other was a veteran of the Civil war, yet neither published a list of the privates although both published a list of the officers. No roster of said company is on file in the office of the adjutant general at Boise.

At the time President Benjamin Harrison visited in Boise in May, 1891, a special train, free of charge, was provided for said company to go to Boise. In 1892 this company was ordered to the Coeur d'Alenes to assist in quelling the riots there.

When war was declared against Spain in 1898 the following residents of Blaine county enlisted and served in the Philippine Islands until discharged in 1899, namely, Morris E. Bruner, Charles Bechtol, John C. Cliff, Sidney C. Fuld, Frank W. Higginson, Jesse H. Jackson, Jerod H. Jacobs, Barnum M. Mallory, jr., Basil McCoy, Tremain Merton Osborn, John W. Sharp and Walter T. Wright.

Sidney C. Fuld was promoted to the rank of corporal and served several months as clerk of the provost court of Manila. Tremain Merton Osborn was promoted to the rank of sergeant-major.

Herbert Gorham McPheters of Ketchum also served in the Philippines. He enlisted in Virginia City, Montana.

Dr. D. W. Figgins of Hailey, who a few years previously had been captain of Company F., I. N. G. (at Hailey) went to the Philippines as a major, and upon his return to San Francisco, California, with the troops in 1899, was brevetted lieutenant-colonel.

On April 6, 1917, war was declared against Germany.

An Act "to authorize the president to increase temporarily the military establishment of the United States/' was approved May   18, 1917.

This was known as the selective service law.

In June, 1917, local and district boards were appointed by order of the president. The local board for Blaine county was composed of Aaron Clements, then sheriff, chairman, Geo A. McLeod, then auditor and recorder, clerk, and Dr. Robert H. Wright.

All male persons between the ages of 21 and 30, both inclusive, were required to register in accordance with regulations prescribed by the president, except officers and enlisted men of the regular army, the navy, and the national guard and the naval militia while in the service of the United States. Following registration, local and district boards had to consider the various questions of exemption and discharge arising under the law, the examination, in the order determined, of a sufficient number of registered men in each subdivision to fill the quota to go to the colors, and notify all those selected for military service of the date upon which they must report to be assembled and sent to mobilization camps and their transportation to mobilization camps.

In 1918 all local and district boards received instructions to register, classify and examine all male persons between the ages of 18   and 45 years, with the same exceptions as those prescribed in 1917. There were but few of this class called to the colors as the armistice of November 11, 1918, removed all need of further military preparations.

The roster of Blaine county Post No. 24, American Legion, contains the names of 317 ex-service men, and recites that the following were slightly wounded, namely, John W. Cramer, who was awarded D. S. C, French Croix de Guerre, and Belgian S. W. Guerre, James F. Head, Lionel Hutton, Glenn Rice and John M. Talbott; and that the following were severely wounded; Albert Bellinger, Milton E. Blair, Carl A. Gubler, Guy M. Jones, John L. Rothio and Angus Young.

Following is the list of World war dead from Blaine county as reported by the American Legion and as it appears in the hall of memories at the university of Idaho, at Moscow: D. T. Davis, Hailey; Arlie Fuller, Hailey; James Hyde, Ketchum; Jesse Lee, Hailey; Alma Lewis, Hailey; Lee E. Moore. Hailey; Ned Stuart, Hailey; John A. Timmerman, Gannett; Sherman Trowbridge. Gannett, and Samuel T. Werry, Bellevue.

Several Blaine county men served in the navy. Dr. E. W. Kleinman served as a captain in the World war and was brevetted a major. James McDonald and Stewart Campbell, both of Hailey, served as first lieutenants. James McDonald served in France and was brevetted a captain. Mention elsewhere has been made of Captain Miller S. Benedict and First Lieutenant Guy C. Hendrickson,

Peter Lorillard Kent in the fall of 1914 served with the American field force which was attached to the French army. In 1917 he was transferred to the engineer corps, A. E. F. He served as second lieutenant and was brevetted first lieutenant at the close of the war. Walter J. Leopold of Hailey enlisted in Boise, Idaho; was a motorcycle dispatch rider in France, was gassed and severely wounded.

The valor of all Blaine county men wheresoever engaged on the field of battle, whether in the far-off Philippine Islands, at Chateau Thiery, St. Mihiel, the Meuse-Argonne offensive, or elsewhere, sustained the best traditions of the American army and their fame is imperishable.


CHAPTER XIX
ROADS AND BRIDGES
The roads and bridges of Blaine county are in good condition. The roads are being improved from year to year and new up-to-date steel and concrete bridges are replacing wooden structures.

We learn from history that the first thing which the Romans did after conquering a country was to construct good substantial roads and bridges. This was an absolute necessity with her far-flung empire in order that she might move her armies to any given point with the least possible delay. We are now following in her footsteps in this respect. Good as are the roads now being constructed, it is not contended that they will have the durability of the Roman roads. Those roads for which federal aid is given are being built for military strategic purposes as well as to facilitate travel and commerce Prior to 1914 all road-building in Idaho had been of the order known as patch-work— bad holes were filled and the job was done. The legislature of 1913 enacted a law which provides for systematic, scientific road-building. On May 12, 1914, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 179, Session Laws of Idaho, 1913, page 558, the board of county commissioners of Blaine county entered into an agreement with the State Highway commission of the State of Idaho for the construction and improvement   of   the public highways in said Blaine county, Idaho, and appropriated $20,000 for the cost and expense of construction and improvement of said highways, and the State appropriated $10,000.   This was the beginning of systematic road-building in Blaine county.   The first contract for the construction of the Sawtooth Park Highway was let to O. C. Burton of Richfield, Idaho, September 4, 1914.   This covered the grading of a 30 mile section from the Lincoln county line to Hailey at an estimated cost of $7,515. Work was commenced about October 1, 1914 and completed in the following year.   A new   roadway from Bellevue to Hailey, running on the   west side of the railroad right-of-way was secured and the new road built hereon.   This   road   has been maintained by the State since its completion. Previous to this, the road between Bellevue and Hailey ran through the ranches, beginning on Main street in Bellevue and ending   on Main street in Hailey.

The highway from Boise via. Mountain Home and Fairfield, which comes within Blaine county a few miles west of Camp Creek canyon, and comes east as far as Hailey, is a main traveled road, and is traveled not only by people coming and going to Boise, but by many tourists enroute to the Yellowstone National park and other places, who often st&y over night at the Hailey tourist park. This road is maintained by the county and kept in good condition.

The highway which comes into Blaine county about four and a half miles in a northwesterly direction from the Craters of the Moon, and which comes via. Carey and Picabo to Hailey, is a main highway to Arco and other points east. This highway has been taken over by the State and is maintained by it. The state also has taken over the highway from the Lincoln-Blaine county line up to its junction with the road above mentioned, a little south of Picabo. All the secondary roads needed throughout the county have been built and are maintained by the county and kept in good condition.

Trail Creek highway is one of the scenic roads of the county. It is a short cut from Ketchum to Mackay, the distance being only about 60 miles.

In the early days this was a toll road.   It is now maintained by the county and kept in good condition.

There is a good road from Ketchum to about one mile beyond Warfield's Hot Springs. The forest service is building this road and eventually will have it constructed to Carrietown, in Smoky mining district.

The contract recently has been let for the con-struction of 8.91 miles of highway beginning about one mile north of the Lincoln-Blaine county line, on what is locally known as the Timmerman Hill Highway, and by the state as the Sawooth Park highway, and by the federal government as U. S. 93, and extending a short distance north of the Stanton school house. The contractor will receive $63,080 for this contract. Blaine county has appropriated $10,000 for this work which is expected to be completed this year. This new road will shorten the distance in Blaine county approximately two miles and in Lincoln county approximately three miles. The distance from Hailey to Shoshone will then be 43 miles. The grade over Timmerman hill will be materially reduced. It is expected that a contract for the completion of the remainder of this road in Blaine county will be let this year and the road completed next year. This highway will join the main highway running north and south at the southern end of Main street in Bellevue.

Lincoln county also has let a contract to have part of this road constructed this year, and it is expected to have the remainder of the road up to the Lincoln-Blaine county line completed next year.

There is a gap of about 11 miles of this road which begins at the northern base of the Sawtooth mountains which is nearing completion.

When the U. S. 93 Highway, which extends from Las Vegas, Nevada, up through Idaho and Montana to the international boundary line, will have been constructed, it will be one of the best and one of the most scenic highways in the country. The first view one gets of Blaine county from the summit of Timmerman hill looking north, is one never to be forgotten.

The beautiful Wood River valley, with its cultivated farms, and the lovely Silver Creek, meandering in its course, are near by, and the majestic Sawtooth Mountains, about 60 miles to the north, is such a scene as would inspire even a Peter Bell to rhapsodize, and Wordsworth tells us that:

"A primrose by a river's brim, A yellow primrose was to him, And it was nothing more."

The scenery all the way through Blaine county is magnificent. Between Gimlet and Ketchum, upon looking to the right, one beholds, a few miles distant, the stately form of Hyndman peak cleaving the sky at an elevation of 12,078 feet above sea level—the highest mountain in the county and the second highest in the State. This mountain was named in honor of Major - William Hyndman, of whom mention heretofore has been made. A short distance north of Ketchum one sees Glassford peak straight ahead towering to an elevation of 10,500 feet. This mountain was named in honor of Thomas H. Glassford, a popular railroad conductor on the Wood River branch of the Oregon Short Line railroad in the early nineties. Boulder peak and many other lofty crags add to the sublimity of the scene. At the southern base of the Sawtooth mountains was the old town of Galena. In the summer there is one little store there, in the winter it is deserted, but the door is unlocked so that a wayfarer may find shelter.

The elevation there is 7294 feet. Upon reaching the summit of the Galena grade in crossing the Sawtooth Mountains one finds the elevation to be 8752 feet. This highway was constructed by the Federal government in co-operation with the state and county and that is ample warrant for saying that it is a good highway. Each year this road is being improved by widening it in places and eliminating sharp turns. In crossing the mountains on this road you behold some of the most magnificent scenery there is to be found anywhere.

There are many beautiful streams along this highway which have been bridged with not only substantial but beautiful bridges. The latest one constructed on this highway is. situated about two miles south of Ketchum, and crosses Wood River near Mrs. Bonning's ranch. It is an imposing structure. It has one steel span of 161 feet, two concrete approaches of 20 feet each, making the total length of bridge and approaches 201 feet. The total cost of bridge and approaches was $26,702.98. The rights-of-way leading to and from this bridge cost $675.00. The roadway, which is 2.701 miles long cost $19,891.30. The total cost of bridge, approaches, rights-of-way and new roadway was $47,269.28.

Of this amount Blaine county paid $14,440.90. On May 14th of this year this bridge was dedicated with impressive ceremonies, H. C. Baldridge, governor, and many lesser dignitaries were present and made suitable addresses. The honor of dedicating the bridge was accorded to two pioneer women—Mrs. George W. McCoy of Ketchum and Mrs. J. C. Fox of Hailey.


CHAPTER XX
REDUCING INDEBTEDNESS
While it was from the interior of her mountains that the chief source of wealth of Alturas county was derived in the early days, it is those same mountains that furnish the nutritious grasses that sustain hundreds of thousands of sheep and lambs during the summer. For many years the lambs from Blaine county have commanded the highest price on the Chicago and other leading markets. They have also taken many first prizes at various stock shows.

The greatest importers in this county of pure bred sheep are Laidlaw & Brockie of Muldoon. They have several breeds on their thousands of acres of good grazing land. They paid $2,000 for one Suffolk ram.

It is the valleys that furnish the soil of her productive farms and ranches of today. The valleys produce good crops of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, turnips and corn, and are especially adapted to the raising of alfalfa. Great and lucrative as mining has proved and is proving, farming and stockraising are destined to be permanent and lucrative. Many hundreds of cattle are shipped to market from this county every year. Frank Grice of Boise began buying cattle on Wood River and Camas Prairie in 1909. He is as actively engaged in that business at present as he ever was. He has shipped more cattle from this region than any other man. He says the best grass-fed cattle he ever shipped were six carloads which he bought from Phil S. Dittoe of Bellevue in 1929.

It is a matter of great satisfaction to know that Blaine county, although making great improvements in the matter of roads and bridges, is at the same time gradually reducing her indebtedness. It would seem that the building of bridges and cost of maintaining roads would gradually decrease in the near future, and as a consequence, that there will be lower taxes. We look hopefully to the future.

A brief resume of the indebtedness of Blaine county on January 11, 1930, is herewith given.

The bonded debt of Blaine county on January 11, 1930, was $235,400.00, of which Butte and Camas counties' share was $14,155.28, leaving the net bonded debt of Blaine county $221,244.72.

During the year 1930 there will fall due bonds amounting to the sum of $29,800.00, the greater part of which has already been paid, and the remainder will be paid as it falls due.

There is no county warrant indebtedness.

THE END

Source: McLeod, George A.,. History of Alturas and Blaine Counties, Idaho. Hailey, Idaho: Hailey Times, 1930.
Transcribed and submitted to Idaho Genealogy Trails by Barb Ziegenmeyer




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