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The Black Hawk War
As Reported in the News Around the Nation

[submitted by Nancy Piper]

Star and Republican Banner (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
May 15, 1832
Indian War
In consequence of information received from Gen. Atkinson, commanding at Fort Armstrong, and others, of Five Hundred Indian Warriors - (principally the British Band of Sacs) under command of Black Hawk, having crossed the Mississippi at Yellow Banks, and determined to make war upon the frontier settlements of Illinois, the Governor of that State has called out a strong detachment of Militia to aid in defending the inhabitants, and to chastise the invaders. The detachment was to have rendezvoused at Bairdstown on the 22d of last month. - Franklin Repos.

Indian Hostilities
Republican Complier (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
May 15, 1832
Governor Reynolds of Illinois, as commander-in-chief of the military force of that State, has issued an order in which he calls upon the militia of the north-western section of Illinois to take up arms in consequence of the hostile attitude assumed by the Indians in that quarter. The Governor says - "The British band of Sacs and other hostile Indians headed by the Black Hawk, are in possession of the Rock River county, to the great terror of the frontier inhabitants. I consider the settlers on the frontier in imminent danger."
The information in the possession of the Governor leaves no room to doubt the hostile character of the movement. A letter from Brig. Gen. Atkinson, of the U. S. Army, dated at Fort Armstrong on 13th ult. says -
"The band of Sacs under Black Hawk, joined by about one hundred Kickapoos, and a few Pottawatamies, amounting in all total about five hundred men, have assumed a hostile attitude. They crossed the Mississippi at the Yellow Banks, on the 5th inst. And are now moving on the East side of Rock River, towards the Prophet's Village.
The regular force under my command is too small to justify me in pursuing the hostile party. To make an unsuccessful attempt to coerce them, would only irritate them to acts of hostility on the frontier, sooner than they probably contemplate.
"Your own knowledge of the character of these Indians, with the information herewith submitted, will enable you to judge of the course proper to be pursued. I think the frontier is in great danger, and I will use all the means at my disposal to co-operate with you in its protection and defense."
Governor Reynolds had called out a strong detachment of the militia, to rendezvous at Bairdstown on the 22d ult. We have no doubt that the energetic measures in contemplation will speedily remove all cause of alarm on that frontier - Balt. Amer.

Western Indians
Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
May 29 1832
The Missouri Republican of the 10th April announces the departure of the 6th regiment U.S. infantry, with Gen. Atkinson, for the Upper Mississippi, to cause the Sacs and Foxes to deliver up certain murderers of twenty-eight Menominees, in the village of Prairie des Chiens, and says -
We understand that the sac and Fox Indians have re-occupied the territory on the east side of the Mississippi, of which they were dispossessed last year. They avow a determination to remain there until driven from it by force, and with this view they have been arming and preparing themselves. They are guided now, as last year, by the noted chief Black Hawk, who is, indeed the sole fomenter of all these disturbances. We do not know whether Gen. Atkinson will consider himself bound by his instructions to chastise these Indians into an observance of the treaty stipulation, by which they agreed to give up possession of the territory claimed by them forever; but unless some measure of this kind is resorted to the quiet of the country will be continually disturbed.
Black hawk has little respect for treaties; and in former negotiations so far over-reached our commissioners as to make peace upon his own terms. The possession of his person will furnish the only security for our citizens against the depredations of his band.
Later accounts mention the arrival of Gen. Atkinson, at Fort Armstrong, and, in consequence, of his representation the Gov. of Illinois has called out a detachment of militia, which was to have assembled at Bairdstown on the 22d ultimo - Niles.

The War
The Frederick Town Herald (Frederick, Maryland)
June 16 1832
Latest From the West
From the Missouri Republican
St. Louis, May 29
Disastrous accounts are brought by every arrival from above, of the massacre of families residing near the scene of Indian hostilities. We fear that these barbarities are to be continued for a long time: indeed, from the complexion of our accounts, nothing but the most energetic measures, and daring bravery, will be able to restore peace to that section of the county.
We learn from a letter dated on board the steam boat Caroline, Hennepin, Illinois river, May 21st, that a party had just come into that place from Indian Creek (running into Fox river), where they buried fifteen men, women and children: whom the Indians had killed on the day previous, and cut, mangled, and mutilated in their usual savage manner. Two young women, about 17 years old, were taken away by the Indians as prisoners: the father and mother had been previously murdered. The party, it is said, was bout thirty strong: and little doubt is entertained that they belonged to the Pottawatomie tribe. The massacre took place about 25 or 30 miles from Hennepin. It is also stated, that the Indians were spreading devastation in every direction, and for that purpose had separated into small parties.
Gen. Atkinson had joined Gen. Whitesides at Dixon's Ferry. On the 22d, Gen. Whiteside's' brigade amounting to 1400 men, was dispatched up Sycamore creek, to pursue the trail of the Indians and to complete them into submission, if practicable. Gen. Atkinson had determined to maintain his present position, to prevent the falling back of the Sauks . Should it be necessary, on further information, for him to cross Fox river, and operate against the Sauks, it was his design promptly to do so. Forty or fifty miles would bring him into their neighborhood.
The citizens of Pekin, it is said, are much alarmed, in consequence of a band of 200 Kickapoos being seen at the head of the Mackinaw, many of whom were strangers.
While these dangers are staring the frontier citizens in the face, another, equally alarming, has come upon them. The distress already felt for the want of provisions, is represented as being very great, and must hourly increase. A letter before us says: "I forgot to mention the distressing situation of the inhabitants in this region, owing to the scarcity - I might also say, total absence of provisions of any kind. The most intelligent of the citizens assert, that there is not in the country at large, sufficient provisions, owing to the failure of the crops and the destruction by the Indians, to subsist the population, sparse as it is, for ten days; and at many points there is not even one days' provisions when there is something like fifty or seventy people to feed. They cannot fish, for the want of arms and men to protect them; otherwise, they might do something to prevent themselves from actual starvation, which, if they remained in the country, must ensue, unless relief was afforded them." In this emergency, we understand that the acting commissaries of the regular and state troops have, with praiseworthy humanity, resolved to afford relief as far as in their power.
The steam boat Souvenir arrived yesterday from the Illinois river. She brings news that Gen. Whitesides was still in pursuit of the Indians, who were bending their course towards the "Big Woods." The whole frontier was in a complete state of alarm and confusion. The property of O. W. Kellog, at Buffalo Grove was completely destroyed. The hat of Mr. Winters, mail contractor at Galena, was found near Dickson's; he is supposed to have been murdered. The body of a man was found was found near the same place, so horribly mangled as not to be known.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
June 26, 1832
Extract of a letter to a gentleman in Baltimore from his friend in Illinois, dated
Springfield, May 23
"You are doubtless by this time aware that the northern part of our state has been invaded by the Indians. It was for a while thought that they might be driven from the state, as last year, without bloodshed, but on Monday the 14th inst., a war party found a favorable opportunity of attacking and defeating a detachment of our army of about 275 men; under the command of a Major Stillman. It appears that Stillman's battalion was decoyed by a white flag shown by the Indians, into an ambuscade, laid the them and totally routed. The loss on our side was eleven killed; that of the Indians supposed to be about 20 or 25. The battle occurred on Sycamore creek about 80 miles from our main army. When the main body of our troops arrived at the battle ground a scene of horror was witnessed, such as has not been seen in this country since the settlement of the state.
The slain were scalped, and mutilated to a degree of savage, barbarity seldom before heard of, - their heads and limbs were severed from their bodies, which were ripped up and strewed over the ground in wanton and savage triumph. The baggage wagon, ammunition and provisions fell into the hands of the enemy, besides a number of horses and all the camp equipage. The fight commenced about dark and was continued until between 8 & nine o'clock at night, over a space of about eight miles; our men retreating and occasionally rallying and the Indians pursuing and surrounding them. The force of the Indians engaged is supposed to have amounted to about 700 warriors. After the fight they retired across Rock river, carrying off their dead, with the exception of three which it is supposed were overlooked in the darkness of the night. One other, a chief, was found supported by a piece of bark against a tree with the scalps of three white men at his feet.
The Indians it is thought are endeavoring to make their way to the Canadas; but they will find great difficulty in attaining their object, as Gov. Reynolds is taking measures to intercept their route. I shall leave this place in a few days with a company for Hennepin, on the Illinois river, to join a new requisition of 2000 mounted men, to form a junction with the main army under Gen. Atkinson, or else to get between the Indians and their intended place of destination.
When last heard of they were in force at a Winnebago town, at the mouth of the Peckatotica, to the amount of about 2300. The hostile Indians consisted originally of the British band of Sacks under the celebrated Chief Atapi, or Black Hawk. It is said that they have been joined by the Winnebago's and Potawatomies. It is likely that we may have some hard fighting, as the tribes are very war-like, and are conducted by chiefs of great celebrity.
The Black Hawk was taught the art of war in the school of Tecumseh, and is said to be inferior in no way to that great chief in point of talents and progress. It is remarkable for his hostility to the whites and commanded in several expeditions against us during the last war. He has taken more than a hundred scalps with his own hands. I took a correct likeness of him last year at the treaty at Rock Island. I should like to have an opportunity of sending it to you."

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
June 26, 1832
The following important intelligence was received yesterday, and comes from an undoubted and responsible source.
Shawnetown, May 28th, 1832
"We are involved in an Indian War on our frontier, and reports are rife of Indian massacre; and today we have news, whether quite authentic or not I do not know, that 262 of our men have been killed by the Indians in a late battle. I fear it is true, and if so, there will be great call for men and arms.
We are invaded by numerous and hostile tribes, and have not sufficient arms to fight them. From every circumstance which has transpired, we shall have a long and serious campaign!" - Pittsburg Mercury

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
June 26, 1832 Page 5
From the Missouri Repub. June 5
Indian War
From the seat of war, we have but little intelligence, and that of an unsatisfactory kind. The militia, under the command of Gen. Whitesides, have returned to their homes, their terms of service having expired. About three hundred volunteered to remain in service until the new levies should arrive. Three thousand militia are ordered into service.
Gen. Atkinson was still encamped at Dixon's Ferry. Two companies of the Regular army have been ordered from Cantonment Leavenworth, to join Gen. A. One hundred men have been detailed from Fort Winnebago. Gen Brady is advancing from Michigan; and the militia of Indiana are taking the field to protect her frontiers. Gen. Atkinson has also called for a thousand of the Sioux, and Menominee warriors; and they will, no doubt, quickly enter into the conflect with their ancient enemies. The officers of that Department are busily engaged in furnishing supplies for the consumption of the army, and the relief of the inhabitants who have been driven from their homes by the savages.
It is certain, that Mr. St. Vram, and agent for the Sacks and Foxes, and two others, were killed while on their way to Gen. Atkinson's head quarters. The murder is supposed to have been committed by a party of the Winnebagoes. Several murders are said to have been committed on citizens of Vermillion county on the Wabash. The steam boat Dove, descending to this place from Galena, was fired into by the Indians from the shore, but without sustaining any injury.

The following order has been issued by the War Department: --
Adjutant General's Office
Washington, June 16, 1832
(Order No. 51.)
1. The Commanding Officer of Fort Monroe will dispatch five companies from the Artillery School of Practice, prepared and equipped for active service as Infantry, with orders to proceed forthwith to Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) via New York and the Lakes. The battalion will be commanded by Lieut. Col. Crane, of the 4th reg't of Artillery.
2. Brevet Major Payne, with his company, will proceed forthwith to Fort Columbus; and on being there joined by companies F. and H. of the 4th Artillery, now stationed in the harbor of New York, will, without loss of time, resume the line of march for Chicago.
3. The garrisons of Fort Niagara and Gratiot to be conducted by their respective commandants, Lieut. Col. Cummings and Brevet Major Thompson of the 2d reg't of Infantry, will proceed forthwith to Chicago; and one company of the 5th regiment from each of the garrisons of Forts Brady and Mackinac, will be detached, and be ordered by their respective commandants to proceed forthwith to the same point of rendezvous.
4. The commanding officer of Baton Rouge will order all the companies of the garrison except one to proceed forthwith to the scene of Indian hostilities in Illinois, with orders to the commander of the battalion to the officer then in command of the troops. Should the commander of the troops from Baton Rouge, on arriving at St. Louis, learn that Indian hostilities had ceased he will, in such event, return to Baton Rouge with his command.
5. Lieut. Colonel Twiggs, of the 4th regiment of Infantry, will collect all the disputable recruits, organize and assume command of the detachment, arm and equip such portion thereof as he may judge to be expedient, and forthwith proceed to Chicago.
6. Surgeon Everettt is assigned to duty with the battalion of Artillery ordered from Fort Monroe, and Assistant Surgeon Macomb to the detachment for Fort McHenry and the harbor of New York; Surgeon Harney will accompany the troops ordered from Baton Rouge; Assistant Surgeons Stevenson and Sternecke will accompany the commands from forts Niagra and Gratiot; Assistant Surgeon Kerr will forthwith proceed to join the command of Brevet Brigadier General Atkinson, via Chicago; and Assistants Surgeons Finley and James, now on furlough, will forthwith repair to their respective stations and report in person for duty.
7. The Quarter Master General, Commissary General of Subsistence, Surgeon General and Colonel of Ordinance, will take measures to furnish the means and supplied requisite for the prompt and efficient execution of the provisions and object of this order.
8. All absent Captains and Subalterns attached to companies ordered to Chicago, or elsewhere on the Northwestern Frontier, will forthwith join their respective companies for active duty, unless exempted by special authority, communicated through the Adjutant General's Office.
9. Brevet Major Pierce, of the 4th Artillery, will forthwith proceed from New Castle to the harbor of New York with his entire command, and the companies A. and D. of that regiment will garrison Fort Columbus and Hamilton, in place of companies F. and H., which companies are not to await the arrival of the relief garrison from Delaware.
10. Brevet Major General Scott is charged with the execution of this order and the prompt movement of the several detachments herein ordered from the seaboard and upper lakes.
General Scott will repair to Chicago, assume command of the forces, and direct the operations against the hostile Indians. By order,
R. Jones
Adjutant General U.S. Army.

Star and Republican Banner (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
June 26, 1832 Page 2
The Border War
The following extract is made from a letter to an officer of Washington City, dated Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, 3d June, 1832
"It was rumored there at one time that the Winnebago Indians had joined the Sacs and Foxes, but they have since joined Gen. Dodge's part to fight against them. There are two expresses from here, on from Gen. Dodge, for 200 horses, the other from Gen. Atkinson (Col. Hamilton and Aid.) for the Sioux and Menomonees, who are daily expected here, ad will be speedily dispatched. All Prairie des Chiens are under arms; some families from the mining country have taken shelter in the fort.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 3, 1832 Page 1
From "The Galenian," (Illinois)
As the present Indian war has assumed a character and consequence not expected by our Government, and not apprehended by the most timid of our citizens, some inquiry inot the cause which could produce a result so completely contrary to all calculations, should be made. It is, and has been for a number of years, well known that the whole Sac and Fox nation have been ill disposed towards the Americans - the feelings of hostility which had remained on their minds by the events of the last war were slowly subsiding, by the death and age of the oldest and most inveterate of the chiefs, and the gradual decline of their influence with the British authorities in Canada, when, in 1823, all their ancient animosity was aroused by the occupation by the whites of the present lead Mine District. The Indians then first began to perceive the value of what they had given away: they "denied the tracy of cession, but were contradicted by the Chiefs who signed the treaty. Driven by facts from every subterfuge, they gave way in sullen discontent, and retired to their villages, mourning their folly, and, Indian like, meditating schemes of revenge.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 3, 1832 Page 1
From the Frontier
The following interesting but afflicting intelligence from the Border country my be relied upon as entirely authentic: Nat. Intel.
Extract of a letter dated Fort Dearborn, (Chicago,) Illinois, May 25, 1832
"From the accumulated miseries of the Indian War in this country, this Fort is filled with the flying, starving, and in some instances half naked inhabitants of the northern part of this State. The destruction of life has been considerable, and of property very great. It has been necessary to issue eight hundred rations daily; and from the number of people coming in, and the Militia and Indians constantly expected, I expect to be obliged to issue at least double the number. There are no provisions to be procured in this country."

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 3, 1832 Page 1
The Indian War
St. Louis papers of the 2d inst. State, that the Illinois militia, under Gen. Whiteside, were disbanded and had returned home, their term of service having expired. "About 300 volunteered to remain in the fortifications at Otaway (Ottawa) until the new levies should arrive." It is said Gov. Reynolds had called out 8000 additional troops. The Governor and his Aid had arrived at St. Louis, in the Caroline - and it was said he was proceeding home to expedite the marching of troops to the seat of war. Gen. Atkinson was still at Dixon's Ferry, on Rock River. The regular troops at Cantonment Leavenworth and Fort Winnebago had been ordered to join Gen. Atkinson, and it was supposed they would reach Dixon's Ferry on the 16th inst.
It is stated that the Sioux and Menominees, with a thousand warriors, were anxious to join the whites, and to revenge the wrongs they has suffered from the hostile Indians. Their aid was, at first, declined, but will now be accepted. It was believed that the Indians would gather strength in consequence of their success in the consequence of their success in the commencement of the struggle, and the subsequent inactivity of the whites.
Intelligence was daily received at St. Louis of murders and massacres on the defenceless frontier - and these outrages will be continued "until the frontier is cleared of the enemy."

The Washington Globe states that orders have been issued from the War Department, for the concentration at Chicago, of about 1000 men of the regular army, from the garrisons upon the sea-board and the lakes, and that General Scott has been directed to take the command of the operations against the hostile Indians. We learn that measures have already been taken for raising the mounted rangers, authorized by the recent act of Congress, and that these will march, without delay, to the scene of warfare. General Scott has been empowered to call for such militia force from the adjoining States, as circumstances may render necessary.
The plan of operation will be by a combined movement of the troops under Gen. Scott and those under Gen. Atkinson, from Chicago and the Mississippi, to attack the Indians on both sides, and scour the country, till they are entirely subdued. We are informed that General Scott has orders to reduce them to unconditional submission, and not to suspend his operations, while any of the hostile Indians remain east of the Mississippi. They will be required to cross that river, and to repair to such district as may be assigned to them. -- And such arrangements are contemplated concerning boundary lines, as effectually to prevent the recurrence of similar aggressions. The surrender of the Black hawk, and some of his principal Chiefs, as hostages for these people, and to secure the frontier against their future cruelties, is made indispensable - Baltimore American

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 3, 1832 Page 1
The Indians
We understand that a number of six and twelve pounder cannon and carriages, five or six thousand muskets and rifles, one hundred and fifty thousand pounds of powcer, with a large complement of accoutrements and equipments, for infantry, Artillery and Cavalry, are not being forwarded from the Alleghany Arsenal near this City, to meet the exigencies of the public service, arising from the hostilities of the Indians on our Western
Frontiers - Pittsburg Mercury

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
July 24, 1832 Page 4
Indian War
Information has reached the War Department from the head quarters of Gen. Atkinson, foot of Illinois Rapids, the 23d June, stating that Gen. Atkinson was to march on that day with the Illinois militia, and about 400 regular troops, to attach the Indians who were stationed on Rock River, in the neighborhood of the Four Lakes, where they detach small parties of 12, 20 and 40 men to annoy the frontiers and commit depredations - that on the 16th, Capt. Snyder's company of volunteers had a rencontre on the head of Plain river, with a party of 40 or 50 Indians, and killed five, with the loss of three on the part of the whites - that on the same day General Dodge, at the head of 21 men; fell in with a party of 11 Sac Indians, strongly posted under the bank of a lake on the Peketalica, and succeeded in killing the whole number, having three of his own party wounded - that about the same time one white man was killed on the Da Payne River, another on the Bureau, and five near the Blue Mound Diggings - that General Atkinson expected to be upon the ground at that time occupied by the Indians on the 30th June. - Globe.
It is with no pleasure we prepare our readers for news of bloodshed from the West. But we are confident in the expectation that if the Indians do not decamp before our troops and militia reach the ground where thy are said to be stationed, few will be suffered to escape alive. A general massacre will be the inevitable consequence. General Atkinson could not prevent it if he would; and we doubt whether it be not a part of his orders that it should take place. Ordered or not, the blood of the whites is up, and nothing but blood will appease them. - Nat. Intel.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
August 7 1832 Page 2

Health of Detriot - Indian War
Extract to the Editor, dated
Detroit, July 16, 1832
Dear Sir,
This place continues to improve in health. But one or two deaths from cholera have occurred within the last 48 hours. The weather is again becoming warm; but we hope that the prevailing disease is so far subdued, that this change of weather will not revive it.
A dispatch from General Atkinson to General Scott, dated the 9th instant, near the main body of the Indian enemy, represents him to have 450 regulars and 2100 mounted men, and to be within five or six miles of Black Hawk and his party, consisting of about 800 Indians. The country, however, is so favourable for the Indians, that, as General Atkinson approached them, they could with facility change their position, and it has become very doubtful whether he will be able to overtake and subdue them. He had some hopes of coming up with them in two days; but I fear that Black Hawk has eluded him.
I have, however painful intelligence to communicate to you from the army of General Scott. The steamboat Sheldon Thompson arrived at Chicago on Lake Michigan with the General, his staff and the advance companies of his army, on the 10th instant. Upon leaving Mackinac, the cholera broke out in these companies; and when the express, by whom this intelligence was bro't, left Chicago, on the 12th instant, twenty-five of the soldiers were dead, and sixty more on the sick list! Four of the officers, among whom were Captain Galt and Lieutenant M'Duffie, had been attached, but were doing well, and supposed to be out of danger. The people at Chicago had become panic-struck, and fled in all directions. Even the Indian agent at that place had deserted his post, and was on the way to St. Louis with his family! This intelligence is official and authentic.
In this vicinity, at the encampment of Colonel Cummings at Springwells, among the detachment of Major Thompson, nine miles about this place, and at Fort Gratiot, 70 miles above us, the troops are doing well. No new cases have occurred. The sick are recovering, and the prospect is brightening. Poor Dr. Everett, however, as was anticipated, has gone to his long account. Col. Twiggs is well. Your's truly,
John Norvell
Robert Morris, Esq., Ed. Inquirer

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
August 7 1832 Page 2
From Bicknell's Reporter
The Indian War
We have been favored with a copy of the Galenian of July 11th. It contains the latest intelligence upon the subject of the Indian War. Skirmishes continued to take place between the United States troops and the Indians, but no decisive battle had been fought. We annex the latest dates from the "Seat of War."
July 9 - We have just received information that signs of about 30 or 40 Indians were discovered yesterday in the immediate vicinity of Platteville, (Major Rountree's furnace.) All the people in the neighborhood had gone to Roundtree's fort. Last night the sentinels heard the Indians running the horses in the lot near the fort, but none were taken.
There are about thirty-five men at the fort, well armed. The situation of the fort, being entirely surrounded with timber, affords easy access to the enemy. Close searches and examinations of our men have not enablesd them to determine the course the savages came or went. It is probable they are still lurking in the neighborhood. From the signs at the encampments of the Indians, they held a war dance; straw was found fastened to a stake in the midst, and hair to another, which is believed to have been taken from the head of a white woman.
July 10 - Today we learn, that the trail of the Indians shows that they must have come from the west of the Mississippi, in a direction from Dubuque's Mines. About 25 men from the neighborhood pursued them on foot yesterday - the country being too rough and full of thickets to admit of horse service. This morning, about 11 o'clock the companies under Capts. Craig of Galena, and Jenkins and Craig of Illinois volunteers, started from this place in company with Major Rountree, to scour the country between Platteville and Dubuque's. We hope we shall have a good account of them.
July 11 - We have just learned that Col. March, with 16 men, saw, just beyond Rock river and retreated from, about 200 Indians, back to Fort Hamilton, on Sunday last.
The Galenian says: - "The most intense anxiety exists with us, as to the progress of the expedition against the hostile Indians. We have heard nothing from the army since they left Fort Hamilton. A few days, at farthest, must bring us important intelligence."

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
August 7 1832 Page 2
From the Detroit Journal, of Aug. 1
Intelligence from the frontier
By an express which arrived here last Sunday, we have dates from Chicago as late as the 24th ult. The William Penn had reached that place with 4 companies of troops, and we are happy to learn no case of sickness occurred while on the voyage. Two or three cases of cholera occurred, however, soon after the troops had landed, and about the same number had occurred among those under the command of Major Whistler. A few of the citizens had been attacked with the common disease, but it was not apprehended that it would spread much. The general health of the troops was improved. The schooners Huron, Commerce, and Marengo, freighted with public stores, had arrived; and the Napoleon was near at hand.
Intelligence from General Atkinson had been received at Chicago by express, up to July 22. The swamp occupied by the main body of Indians has been penetrated, and Black hawk and his warriors, with women and children, had fled towards the Mississippi, with intent to corss. They were pursued by Generals Dodge and Henry, with 900.
When the express left Chicago, Gen. Scott was about to join the pursuing army in person, leaving the troops to follow when fit for field service. Gov. Miller of Missouri had called out 1200 militia.
In consequence of the above intelligence the requisition of militia from this Territory, has been countermanded.
Defeat of Black Hawk.
By the Schooner President, which arrived here, yesterday, letters have been received from Fort Howard, which announce the gratifying intelligence of the defeat of Black hawk and his warriors. The details of the engagement are contained in the following letter, which has been politely furnished us.
"Fort Howard, July 25th, 1832.
Dear Sir,
Last evening we received the intelligence of a battle having been fought between Gen. Dodge and his division, and the Sacs and Foxes, in which the former were victorious. The particulars, as stated in Capt. Plympton's letter to Capt. Clark, are these. Parquet, with a few Winnebagoes, left the Portage a few days since, to proceed to Gen. Dodge's army and guide them to the Sac camp. On Saturday morning last, 21st inst. General Dodge sent his adjutant to report to Gen. Atkinson of his movements. He had not proceeded far, before he came upon the Sacs' and Foxes' trail, directing their course to the Wisconsin river. He immediately returned and reported the circumstance to Gen. Dodge, who pursued and overtook them about sundown of the same day (Saturday) on the left bank of the Wisconsin, and about 40 miles from Fort Winnebago, when the fight ensued - the Indians at the same time retreating. The night being very dark, they found it impossible to pursue them. They had found, when Parquet left them, which was early next morning, 16 Indians killed, and but one white man killed and 4 wounded. Parquett thinks that not less than 40 Indians fell in the engagement.
Gen. Dodge was to start early that morning (Sunday) in pursuit, and had no doubt of overtaking them in the course of the day. Their object is to cross the Wisconsin, at what is called the Ford, and go down on the right bank, to the Mississippi. The force of "Gen. Black Hawk" was reported to amount to about three hundred; and Parquett is of the opinion that it was nearly all of Black Hawk's army. The force under Gen. Dodge being about 900 men, with but six days' provisions, he has sent to Gen. Atkinson to request that all the mounted men under his command might join him, which will probably put an end to the war in a short time.
The Sacs and Foxes are in a starving condition, many of them being found dead on their trail, and at their camp perfectly emanciated.
Gen. Atkinson is reported to be somewhere on Rock River, and engaged in building a fort. Capt. P. says it is probable company A. will be ordered home in a short time."

Ohio Star, The (Ravenna, Ohio)
October 4, 1832
The Indian War Over
Black Hawk and The Prophet Taken
Copy of a letter to the Editor, dated U.S. Indian A. at Prairie Du Chien, 3d September, 1832
P.P. Blair, Esq:
Dear Sir. The Indian War is over. The celebrated leaders of the hostile Indians, Black Hawk and the Prophet, were delivered to me at this place on the 27th ult. by the Winnebago's of my Agency. The day after Generals Scott and Atkinson left this place, I sent out two parties of Winnebago's to bring Black Hawk, the Prophet, and Niapope to me. They returned on the 27th ult., about ten or eleven o'clock and delivered the two first. The same day I turned them over to Col. Taylor, commanding Fort Crawford, and expect to accompany them with a military escort to the Head Quarters of Gen. Scott, at Rock Island, in a day or two.
I am now waiting the return of an express sent up the Mississippi, by which I expect to receive about 50 or 60 more prisoners, taken by the Indians. There are now 48 in the Fort, delivered to me by the Winnebago's of my Agency, and I have previously delivered to General Atkinson 43 prisoners, taken by the Winnebago's and Menomonee. The moment the hostile Indians entered the limits of my Agency, by crossing the Wisconsin, with the aid of the Commanding Officer at this fort, I assembled the Indians of my Agency, and encamped them before my door, where they remained until the battle of the Mississippi, and the rout of the hostile Indians.
I herewith cover to you an account of the delivery of Black Hawk and the Prophet to me.
Your most obedient servant,
Jos. M. Street,

Ohio Star, The (Ravenna, Ohio)
October 4, 1832
Prairie Du Chien
27th August 1832
At 11 o'clock today, Black hawk and the Prophet were delivered to Gen. Joseph M. Street, by the One-eyed Deconi and Chaetar, Winebagos, belonging to his Agency. Many of the officers from the Fort were present. It was a moment of much interest. The prisoners appeared in a full dress of white-tanned deer-skins. Soon after they were seated, the One-eyed Deconi rose up, and said:
My Father - I now stand before you: When we parted I told you I would return soon; but I could not come any sooner. We have had to go a great distance, (to the Dale on the Wisconsin -above the Portage.) You see we have done what you sent us to do; these are the two that you told us to get - (pointing to Black hawk and the Prophet.)
My Father - We have done what you told us to do. We always do what you tell us, because we know it is for our good.
My Father - You told us to get these men, and it would be the cause of much good to the Winnebago's. We have brought them; but it has been very hard for us to do so. That our Mucatanish-ka-kaek.q* was a great way off. You told us to bring them to you alive; we have done so. If you had told us to bring their heads alone, we would have done so, and it would have been less difficult than what we have done.
My Father - We deliver these men into your hand. We would not deliver them even to our brother, the Chief of the Warriors, but to you; because we know you and believe you are our friend. We want you to keep them safe. It they are to be hurt, we do not wish to see it. Wait until we are gone, before it is done.
My Father - Many little birds have been flying about our ears of late, and we thought they whispered to us that there was evil intended for us; but now we hope these evil birds will let our ears along.
My Father - We know that you are our friend, because you take our part; and that is the reason we do what you tell us to do.
My Father - you say you love your red children; we think we love you as much, if not more than you love us. We have confidence in you, and you may rely on us.
My Father - We have been promised a great deal if we would take these men - that it would do much good to our people. We now hope to see what will be done for us.
My Father - We have come in haste; we are tired and hungry. We now put these men into your hands; we have done all that you told us to do.
General Street said:
My Children - You have done well. I told you to bring these men to me, and you have done so. I am pleased at what you have done. It is for your good, and for this reason I am pleased. I assured the Great Chief of the Warriors, that if these men were in your country, you would find them, and bring them to me - that I believed you would do whatever I directed you; and now that you have brought them I can say much for your good. I will go down to Rock Island with the prisoners, and I wish you who have brought these men, especially, to go with me, with such other Chiefs and Warriors as you may select.
My Children - The Great Chief of the Warriors, when he left this place, directed me to deliver these, and all other prisoners, to the Chief of the Warriors at this place, Col. Taylor, who is here by me.
My Children - Some of the Winnebago's, South of the Wisconsin river, have befriended the Saukies, and some of the Indians of my agency have also given them aid. This displeaseth the Great Chief of the Warriors, and your Great Father the President, and was calculated to do much harm.
My Children - Your Great Father, the President, at Washington, has sent a great War Chief from the far East, Gen. Scott, with a fresh army of soldiers. He is now at Rock Island. Your Great Father, the President, has sent him and the Governor and Chief of Illinois to hold a council with the Indians. He has sent a speech to you and wishes the Chiefs and Warriors of the Winnebago's to go to Rock Island to the council on the 10th of next month. I wish you to be ready in three days, when I will go with you.
My Children: I am well pleased that you have taken the Black Hawk, the Prophet, and other prisoners. This will enable me to say much for you to the Great Chief of the Warriors and to the President your Great Father. My Children, I shall now deliver the two men, Black hawk and the Prophet to the Chief of the Warriors here: he will take care of them till we start to Rock Island.
Col. Taylor said: The Great Chief of the Warriors told me to take the prisoners when you should bring them, and send them to Rock Island to him. I will take them and keep them safe, but I will use them well, and send them with you and Gen. Street, when you go down to the council, which will be in a few days. Your friend, Gen. Street, advises you to get ready and go down soon, and so do I.
I tell you again I will take the prisoners; I will keep them safe, but I will do them no harm. I will deliver them to the Great Chief of the Warriors, and he will do with them and use them in such manner as shall be ordered by your Great Father, the President.
Chaeton, a Winnebago warrior, then said to General Street:
My Father - I am young and do not know how to make speeches. This is the second time I ever spoke to you before the people.
My Father - I am no Chief; I am no orator; but I have been allowed to speak to you.
My Father - If I should not speak as well as others, still you must listen to me.
My Father - When you made the speech to the Chiefs Wough-kon-Deconi Carramana, the One-Eyed Deconi and others tother day I was there. I heard you. I thought what you said to them, you also said to me. You said, if these two (pointing to Black Hawk and the Prophet) were taken by us and brought to you, there would never more a black cloud hang over your Winnebago's.
My Father - Your words entered into my ear, into my brains, and into my heart.
My Father - I left here that same night, and you know you have not seen me since until now.
My Father - I have been a great way. I have had much trouble; but when I remembered what you said, I know what you said was right. This made me continue and do what you told me to do.
My Father - Near the Dale, on the Wisconsin, I took Black Hawk. No one did it but me, - I say this in the ears of all present, and, and they know it - and I now appeal to the Great Spirit, our Grand Father, and the Earth our Grand mother, for the truth of what I say!
My Father - I am no Chief, but what I have done is for the benefit of my nation, and I hope to see the good that has been promised to us.
My Father - That one, Wa-ho-kie=shick,+ is my relation - if he is to be hurt I do not wish to see it.
My Father - Soldiers sometimes stick the ends of their guns, (bayonets) into the backs of Indian prisoners when they are going about in the hands of the guard. I hope this will not be done to these men.

Ohio Star, The (Ravenna, Ohio)
October 4, 1832
Description of the two distinguished prisoners (Black Hawk and the Prophet) at the time, they were delivered to Gen. Jos. M. Street, by a gentleman who was present.
Black Hawk, a Potawatomi by birth, but raised by the Saukies, appears to be about 60 years old; has a small bunch of grey hair on the crown of his head; the rest is bare; has a high forehead, Roman nose, a full mouth, which generally inclines to be a little open; has a sharp chin, no eye-browns; but a very fine eye; his head is frequently thrown back on his shoulders; he is about 5 feet 4 or 5 inches high; at present he is thin, and appears much dejected; but now and then he assumes the aspect of command. He held in his left hand a white flag, in the other the tail, with the back skin, head and beak of the Calumet Eagle; with this he frequently fans himself. His Indian name is Muscata-mish-ka-kack.
The Prophet, a half Saukie and half Winnebago, is about 40 years old, nearly six feet high; is stout and athletic; has a large broad face, short blunt nose, large full eyes, broad mouth, thick lips, with a full suit of hair. He wore a white cloth head dress which rose several inches above the top of his head - the whole man exhibiting a deliberate savageness - not that he would seem to delight in honorable war, or fight; but making him as the priest of assassination or secret murder. He had in one hand a white flag, while the other hung carelessly by his side. They were both clothed in very white dressed deerskins, fringed at the seams with short cuttings of the same. His Indian name is Wa-bo-kie-shick - (White Cloud.)
*Black Hawk.
+The Prophet

Ohio Star, The (Ravenna, Ohio)
October 4, 1832
From the Boston Traveller.
Indian War
The last accounts from the West informed us of the defeat of the celebrated Indian Chief Black Hawk, and the termination of the war.
Thus the last war blast of the bugle has been sounded by the whites over another portion of the unfortunate red men. The crushed and disheartened remnants of these tribes, my now hide their heads, as they can, in the copses of the west; again to be routed, pursued and crushed, by the oppressive march of what we are pleased to term civilization. The requiem of the slain, the triumph of the stripes, may be pealed in the insulting exultation over the prairies of the Mississippi; but the truth cannot be obliterated that all this work is the result of the original oppression of the whites.

The Indians drew not a drop of blood until their own had been spilled by the whites. Before a white man had been killed, the Governor of Illinois ordered out 2000 militia to the forest against the Indians. The tomahawk was taken up - the war whoop was raised. The Indians are blamed; but let us reverse the case. Let us ask ourselves if we should be silent if 2000 armed Indians were sent amongst us to defend encroachments which they had previously made? Accounts of murders and massacres followed. The whole country was thrown into affected consternation; because an injured Indian Chief, with 500 of his injured warriors sought to defend their land, their home, their huts, their wives and children, from injustice and wrong. And what is the mighty triumph of the whites over the dead bodies of 400 slain Indians, the victims of oppression at an expense of two millions of dollars? When will Americans learn that injustice is not glory? Does anyone believe that a band of 500 men would be so infatuated to take up arms against 15 millions if they were not injured? Let Indians have historians, and how dark will some of the pages of our country's records appear! - Boston Trav.

We are inclined to believe that the Indian war would long since have come to a close but for the treachery of the Winnebago's. While it continued, it gave them ample opportunity for stealing horses and murdering our citizens - for all which outrages they are crafty enough to make the Sacs responsible. Many of these Indians drew rations from the public stores, which were afterwards found in deserted camps of the enemy. One instance of their duplicity is deserving of particular notice. On the day of the battle of Wisconsin, the Winebagos agreed to pilot the army to the camp of the Sacs. When the troops were about to march, an express was dispatched to General Atkinson with the intelligence. That express after passing a considerable distance, came upon the trail of the enemy, and within a short distance of the main body. He immediately returned to the troops, and gave the information. They were then pursuing a directly opposite course to the route of the hostile Indians - and had they preceded on at night, would have been fifty miles from the enemy. The Indians would of consequence have made a clear escape. The route of the troops was changed and a hot pursuit followed. The detachment commanded by Gen. Henry was reduced to abut 6 or 700 and was about equal in strength to the Indians. We know the result. Several of the Winebagos were killed in the different engagements. Two sons of a Winnebago chief were wounded and taken prisoners at the battle near the Mississippi. Their father having been asked for an explanation of their conduct, said "they were brave." - The chief was then secured as a prisoner. It is now said that the Winebagos are disposed to be friendly - because they calculate the consequences of a different policy. - Sangamon Ill. Journal.

Huron Reflector (Norwalk, Ohio)
October 9 1832
We have been favoured with the following extract of a letter from Lieut. J. Pickell, of the U. States Army, to his brother in this village. It will be highly interesting to our readers as it contains authentic information of the capture of Black Hawk, and the termination of the War. - Dansville Chronicle, N. York.
"Camp West Bank of the Mississippi, nearly opposite Rock Island, Sept. 2, 1832."
"We arrived at our present encampment last evening, from Rock River, crossing the river in boats about two miles blow Fort Armstrong. Our whole force at present is about 500 men. On our arrival we were gratified with the sight of the mounted rangers, under the command of Gen. Dodge, about two hundred, passing up the country. The men looked as war-worn as ourselves, but their horses generally were in fine order. Although the expedition has been attended with much fatigue, it has still had its interest, and I feel highly gratified that I had the opportunity of experiencing active service. The country though which we have marched has been highly interesting; hundreds of miles over plains, and undulating prairies from Chicago, or rather the river Des Plain, to Turtle River, the finest I ever saw; and although in a state of nature, has every appearance of being richly cultivated. This is particularly so, when looking at the surrounding country from a eminence. Sometimes the prairies are to the eye interminable, and look like immence meadows; at other times the view is diversified into hill and dale, level and undulating with here and there a group of trees in the deepest verdure; and affording a more beautiful and fertile country and a greater promise of success to agricultural industry and enterprise, than was recently the scene of hostilities is rarely to be found.
The war may be said to have terminated. Black Hawk, the chief of the hostile Sacks, is taken, and will be down from Prairie Du Chien tomorrow or next day; the particulars of his capture are not known. Some of the Winnebagoes having recently disposition, it is probable that either them, or a party of Menomonees or Potawatomies, sent in pursuit after the battle of the Bad-Axe, on the 2d of last month, have succeeded in capturing him. The Prophet has been a prisoner for some weeks. Many prisoners have been taken, and the Chiefs and Braves are almost all in our possession. The power of this (Sacks) hostile and warlike nation of Indian is completely prostrated and I think this N. Western border will no longer be the scene of Indian aggressions under the whites; and settlements may in future be made without fear of molestation from them.
"A Grand Council with the Indian nations was to be held on the 10th inst. On R. Island, but in consequence of the cholera having broken out there, on the 27th ult., it is deferred; and will probably be held at or near our present incampment.
"The council will no doubt be exceedingly interesting; the Chiefs and Braves and principal warriors of a number of tribes are required to attend it. Black Hawk will appear conspicuous in the assemblage, and if his conduct on that occasion will accord with the character he has heretofore sustained, it will be an imposing spectacle. We are all anxious to see him. He is an important personage, and were he a civilized man, might, and in fact ought, to be considered a patriot. He has certainly manifested a degree of shrewdness and tact that belongs to a great man.

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