To The
Carroll County Military

" A Personal Experience "
Contributed by Bill Colehour

"I commenced this squally life on January 25, 1842 in Williston Township, Chester County, PA, fifteen miles west of Philadelphia or six miles west of West Chester, PA. Lived here until 1854 when the family moved to Carroll County, IL. Here I attended school in the winter and tilled the soil in the summer until the year 1860 when I returned to Philadelphia where I was to work in brother Isaac's store for $10 per month and board, with hours from 5 AM until 11 PM. In April, 1862 I returned to Illinois and on the 8th of July brother David and I enlisted in Company I 92nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry for three years or duration of the War. David was 20, I was 19. We were not mustered into the U.S. service until September 4, 1862 at Rockford, IL, our rendizvou. Here we tarried, drilling and manouvering until October 10th when we were ordered to Covington, KY at which place we arrived at on Sunday October 12. Sleep on the ground without tents and heard the roar of the artillery to the south of us. On Monday the 13th we drew tents and wagons also mules and rations.

On October 18th we received orders to march, and our first march commenced at 4 PM not on the cars but on foot, with knapsack, gun, blankets, haversack, canteen, and 40 rounds of cartridges. The start was splendid, we were young and by midnight we reached the fairgrounds of Kenton County and were dead tired and played out, artillery still booming in the distance. Of course, it rained so we were a very sorry crowd. Falmouth was the next town reached, then Cynthiana October 24th and camped in a snow storm 5 to 6 inches deep.

Talk about my old Kentucky home. Well I guess we wanted to be home with Mother. The old pig pen would have been a warm place that night. Next day we trudged on to Paris and then to Lexington. Suffering for water for it was a dry time in Kentucky. From Lexington we went to Winchester then to Mt. Sterling and we remained about a month then back to Lexington again. November 19th reached Nicholsville and on the 26th went to Danville in a snow storm. Here brother David was taken sick and I came down with typhoid fever, joined my regiment again on the 25th of January and on the 26th commenced our march to Louisville. We passed thru Harrodsburg-Larrueburg and other towns and on the 30th of January camped near Louisville. It snowed and rained daily on this march. We slept in mud and snow and I scarcely convalescent. Whiskey was issued on this march the first and only time. On the 31st we marched thru Louisville and took steamer for Nashville, TN.

On this trip we suffered worse than marching as it was cold and stormy and we had to sleep and stay between decks, all open, heads under the boilers and feet under the mules and horses, freezing at one end and roasting at the other. No pleasure on a winter trip on the Ohio River. Reached Fort Donaldson on February 3 and saw our first battlefield where the 83rd Ill Regiment had cleaned out General Forrest's command and killed and captured 600 men. We had seen our first dead and thought of the `Bull Dog' General Grant who the year before had captured Fort Donaldson. Five cannon shot went thru one tombstone and one door panel had 17 bullets in it, never saw one Regiment do so much execution. Forrest had 6000 men against one Regiment. On the 7th of February, 1863 we reached Nashville and camped 3 miles out on the pike (Franklin). In a few days the sound of cannon summoned us to Franklin without tents or baggage. Here Col. Coburn's brigade of Wisconsin troops were caught in a trap and captured, we being too late to render him any aid. Then commenced a chase after their captors to Columbia, TN. We were three days going out, skirmishing all the way.

This was our only march with gallant Phil Sheridan under General Gordon Gramer, a West Point Dahm Phool. I was on picket for three nights--rain all the time--no tents, no rations but nigger beans, crackers sold for $1 apiece--none to be had. The third night without sleep I lay down for a snooze by a fire and went to sleep. When I awoke my high boots fell from my feet--burned to a crisp. The march back with no enemy in front was made in a day, I think. I made it barefoot on a turnpike road in February and for four weeks knew nothing as I had a relapse of typhoid fever and was put in a field hospital. My regiment left me and brother David died in Nashville of pneumonia twelve miles away and I was too sick to know it. Brother Hiram came for his body and they say he saw me and I was too sick to remember. Hiram took Dave's body home and then he died two weeks later. At home they supposed that I was no more as Hiram had reported my condition as hopeless. No doubt so much suffering and worrying killed him. Well, after a time, I do not know how long, I found myself in hospital number 113 at Nashville. I was convalesent from typhoid when I came down with a severe case of ? of head and eyes. I was blind and crazy with pain for some days but finally got around again.

About July permission was granted me to join my regiment if able at Wartrace, TN. I made the effort and after several collapses reached my command. I seemed to be partly paralyzed in my limbs and would double up without warning, finally reached the regiment. The boys brought me corn, blackberries and peaches and good cheer. I partook freely. Was so that I had to be helped to dress, the boys having to button my clothes.

We were finally given horses, courage and health returned and with them came a gun and horse and smell of battle was soon to be ours. August 16, 1863 we took up our march for the Chattanooga campaign. While at Wartrace we were given horses taken from General Granger's command and put in the famous `Wilder Brigade' on mounted infantry and were soon to see busy times--always in front or scouting. From Wartrace we went to University Place on top of the Cumberland Mountains our first days march on horseback--citizens saddles--half of the men never on a horse before and the roads were paved with frying pans, coffee pots, knives, forks, spoons, bacon, hardtack and poor riders. It rained torrents and I have never heard such terrific thunder but it was the jolliest and most ludicrous ride I ever witnessed. We next struck Tracy City, a coal mining town, then Jasper and then Poes Tavern in the Valley of the Tennessee. Here we had skirmishes and picket duty on the river and were finally sent via Bridgeport to Chattanooga. This was before Hooker had his battle on the mountain, fought our way to the top of Lookout Mountain and were the first regiment in Chattanooga. From there we went to Rossville, then to Chicamaga and did heavy skirmishing before the battle. September 18th we drew rations at Pond Springs and heard heavy artillery firing nearby. On the morning of the 19th we were in saddles early and were ordered to left of line. We would gallop for an hour then rest an hour then ride again for life, wait for orders, then at it again. The dust was terrible. Tom Green's horse fell and half the company went over him, but he jumped up, regained his horse and rode on not hurt a particle. It was a miracle. Here I met Dan Fowler, and old school mate in 18th Illinois Infantry. Where are you going, he asked. To get a furlough, I said. It was prophetic. We rode by burning fences the entire forenoon, no dinner and about one o'clock we stopped at widow Glen's house where we were to dismount and form in line in corn field, take down fences and prepare for battle. I was scared for my legs would let me down without any warning whatever and I thought if I had to run where would I be. While waiting, the field telegraph was put up and General Rosencrans came to us and established his headquarters at the widow Glen's and sent us filing farther to the left to reinforce Reynolds division which was hard pressed. We arrived at the junction of the two roads, tied out horses to trees and sailed in, taking the place of a brigade which had been routed and don't you think for a minute that the bullets, shot, shell, bark and dirt did not fly. I had fired three or four shots when I thought someone struck my shoulder with a club. My arm felt numb at this minute and just then General Reynolds rode up and says `For God's sake men fall back you are being surrounded'. He had to strike two or three men to make them fall back as they did not know we were nipped. Was I afraid, no, not as long as I could shoot. It seemed as though a bullet grazed my cheek every second that I was in that fight and I guess I am right in thinking so as I could feel them burn. Only Sargent Price, Corporals Bigger and Colehour was hurt in our company, Jim Bigger being killed. I went back and lay down by a tree, felt homesick and with no friends near but dead and dying all around, when joy came in the person of Sargent Price, blood all over but he could walk and I knew he was not badly wounded but received a glancing shot in the forhead and was bleeding like a stuck pig. But we were chums, finally the regiment came along and brought out horses and we were able to ride to Crawfish Springs where we found 800 of our boys wounded, the first days work. Dr. Clinton Helm, our surgeon, came at midnight to dress our wounds and we told him to do what he could for the others who were injured more severely. We lay under trees (no tents) and it was cold. Some guy took our blankets off and left us to shiver but we were up at the peep of day and did what we could to help. Big kettles of soupwere put on for the wounded and about eleven o'clock the calvery formed behind and we were ordered back to Chattanooga.

I still had my horse but had nothing to eat since the breakfast the day before (Saturday) and I and the Doctor Darkey with this Doctor's watch the best case of instruments we went to Chattanooga. Arriving at sundown of Sunday, September 20th, having gone twenty miles, tired, wounded and weary I lay down by the river close to a pontoon bridge. Doc got me some crackers and I lay here from Sunday night until Wednesday morning while a steady stream of wounded were crossing all this time, just those who were able to walk. On Wednesday we were stowed sixteen in one wagon and started for Stephenson, eighty miles away, over the mountains, rocks, gullies, hills and valleys. We sixteen in one with a six mule team on ahead were pounded to jelly, no grub and we smelled worse than a garbage wagon. I can give no estimate of the number of wounded on this train. On this trip the boys with good legs caught a calf and the boys with good arms tried to kill it with clubs and have a stew but alas it got away and we spent another hungry night. We found a few chestnuts and arrived at Stevenson, AL on the 24th, I think, as dark and as luck has always followed me (or the Lord, I think) my second lieutenant was the first man I saw--he had money, I had none-- I called out for pie and got it, could get nothing else. Fifty men crawled into a boxcar, nearly starved, the door went shut and snapped fast, all our yelling did not bring a brakeman for hours. The stench was terrible but at last we heard yells, the train stopped, our door was pried open and what did we see-- comrads with great washboilers of steaming hot soup and darned good soup too, and a cup full for every wounded man so we had our fill and blessed them. I wish I could think of the name of this station--Stevenson, Alabama.

We went slowly to Nashville and reached here Friday, were put into the Colledge Hospital and had a glorious room , given a refreshing bath, a real night shirt and sheets, too. Dr. pulled blue sleave cloth out of my wound, dressed it, gave some quinine and whiskey, after I was given a nice supper and then I slept the sleep of the just, but welcome as my much needed sleep was I dreamed of the pile of legs and arms I had seen at the surgeons tables of Chattanooga. I spent one month in this hospital and then went home to Illinois on a furlough. I need not rehearse my suffering on the home trip. January was bitter and cold and the railroads were blocked for ten days, thus I was detained until the 15th when I started for the front and to find my regiment, reported at Louisville for transportation and when morning came, all of those in the transfer barracks were sent but me and I just rebelled at this treatment and the officer in command told me to run for the train and get in with the other troops which I did and crowded myself in with a Chicago battery troop and their officer saw me thru. But such a trip in box cars with no fire in the middle of January too and we reached our destination about midnight, stiff with the cold and hungry, too. We tore linings from the cars and made a fire on the floor and when this became too hot we called on some comrad who was under pressure to quench the fire. Lodged in the Lallicofer House at Nashville. The next day we took a train for Stevenson, AL, where we arrived and slept on the side of a mountain all alone under the frosty dome and awoke early, pinched with cold. Went down to the spring to wash and found an officer there ahead of me and when he arose to dry his face I was dazed for who should it be but my surgeon whom I had left of the Chicamauga battle field, he had been captured and sent to Libby prison for three months, being taken a prisoner while caring for the wounded. We journeyed toward Huntsville, partly by train and partly on foot and reached there at midnightof the 20th of January, found the boys under marching orders for early morn and was invited to join them by the Captain, so borrowed a horse, saddle and a gun. The Colonel's cook said I was a fool and would come back in an ambulance, well we marched toward Florence, AL and on January 22nd our company in advance met the enemy, this was at Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River, had quite a brush, then drove them and captured eight prisoners. We were again put in advance and started for Florence, but hardly gone a mile when we met them in strong force and tying our horses to trees and sailed in , our company only, to a whole brigade of Jonnies, two comrads and myself were on the left going it alone and we had good shooting at fifteen yards, when the charged us, but not until they put a minnie bullet thru my left, or well shoulder, and gun in hand I started to find my horse. Hurt but not whipped, I loped off down the road when a whole regiment of rebels shot at me but I was not to be killed by the rebels. I supposed my arm was shot off and was growing sick and dizzy when a comrad who was timid of the fight brought my horse to me and led me back a half mile to my dear old surgeon, Dr. Helm, who was like a father to me. I rolled into a fence corner and called for water which was soon given to me, that is three canteens full of mud, but it was good. The doctor pulled a handkerchief thru my wound, cleansed it and bound it up and I was `Hors du Combat' for awhile. I scolded the doctor for cutting my coat sleeve off and throwing it away, blood in my boots, blood all over and I saw the boys shudder as they looked at my ghastly face and battered arm but I felt solace in the dear old doctor's eyes and they gave me confidence and I knew I had a chance of saving my arm. I forgot to say that just as we were driven back our brigade came up and drove the rebs away in a handsome manner. I was given the belt and revolver of a captain who was killed but they have since become lost. We had completed our mission and turned for home, eighty miles away, when the doctor put me in an ambulance with a big Jonnie who had been shot in the rear and a comrad of our regiment who was dangerously wounded. He said this man will probably die before morning but you wont mind. This man was Andy Rafferty of Company B who had four bullets in him and was paralyzed but got well almost as soon as I did. My arm got no care and no bandage but only cold water in plenty all the way back for three days. Did you ever have your bones scrapped with a file? Well, those were my feelings for several nights, as I lay by a camp fire the first night after being wounded. Colonel Adkins came along and says: Corporal, I am going to send you home as soon as you are able and if you don't stay all day I will have you court martialed. I was put in a private hospital in Huntsville and when well enough was sent home again to stay until well. I omitted to say the cook who had made the prophecy that I would be shot again was the first to see me on my return to camp. He said `you dam phool'. I told you to stay at home for I knew you would get it and the next time it would be a center shot.

Huntsville was a beautiful, dreamy place and a rich resort for old planters who had retired, here was the largest spring I have ever seen. I remained here for about a month when my furlough came from the Colonel, with orders to remain at home until well. So with my arm in a sling I worked my way north and found the girls just as handsome as ever and they rejoiced to see me. Although `Hors du Combat' I could visit and eat and May 6th found me again in the saddle at Ringold, GA. This third leave taking was the darkest one of all for you know the old saying about 'three times and out'. I had already had my two and fully expected my third as you will see later it might have been. On May 6, 1864 Sherman's Atlanta campaign started. We left Ringold that day for Resaca via Snake Creek Gap and skirmished all the way and captured the rebs mail and read all the Jonnies letters saying that the war would soon end as they had Uncle Billie Sherman put where they wanted him. The rain poured down all that night in the gap and we just floated around in our beds. The next day we felt of Resaca on our left and a good many of our boys got hurt. The second day we went straight at them and drove them into their works and had our heroic General Killpatrick shot in the thigh. We held them till General John A. Logan put his troops in our place and then we started for Lays Ferry which was about six miles away. To flank them, here Resaca saw the grandest Martial display of about fifty regiments going into battle. With colors flying, well dressed lines and plenty of noise from both artillery and musketry we went to the ferry and fought our way across in boats (the Ostanala River). We were now in General Judson Killpatrick's division. Here at Lay's Ferry we lost several men, but gained our point by getting across with infantry and commenced a flank movement that drove Johnson's command out of Renaca but at fearful cost. A woman (a rebel) had a leg shot off while standing at the crossing watching the fight. On May 18th we went to Calhoun, then to Adairsville and then to Kingston where we did scouting duty along the Etowa River. On June 13th we were sent back to Renaca to patrol the railroad which the rebels were molesting. While in on near Kingston I had ingrown toenails that prevented my wearing shoes and the doctor split the toenails and pulled part of them off with forceps. While in this fix with play a big German I accidentally jumped on his spurs and struck it nearly through one of my feet and between my nailless toes and wounded foot it was sorry work riding and fighting in crowded columns. We lay in Resaca for two weeks but had no rest though for Kilpatrick was our leader and while here I went over the battlefield and thought `how could man live in this storm of shot and shell'. The hazel brush was literally mowed down close to the ground and here I saw one two inch tree which had eight bullet holes in it and near an old tree about half a mile west of Resaca I collected a quantity of relics such as pieces of shells and bullets,don't go to war barefoot, if on horseback every frying pan in the regiment will scrape your shins raw. I had to or go thru a hospital of which I had enough. On July 25th Killpatrick returned to us, having recovered from his wound and we started for Allatoona Pass which was famous from `Hold the Fort'. From Allatoona Pass we took the right of Sherman's army to Atlanta fighting all the way and then stopped at Santown on the Banks of the Chatahooche River. Here we did lively work and came to lay pontoon bridges across the river but first had to drive the enemy out. We went out to Fairburn Station on the Montgomery and west point railroad where we burned up the depot, tore up the tracks and raised hell in general, then went back to camp again. On Thursday August 16th, General Sherman sent 5000 of our column out for a run around Atlanta and we took plenty of amunition, no blankets or tents, but plenty of grub and started out at six in the evening and by nine o'clock that evening we were in it hot and fire and bullets flew thick and fast. We won and on the run chased them until morning when we struck the railroad. Then destruction commenced and we turned the track over and after the rails had been heated we twisted them. During this affair a part of the men were fighting to keep the rebels back while we were carrying on our work of destruction.

We next reached Jonesboro, our objective point, where all public buildings were burned, railroads demolished and barrels of whiskey turned into the gutter and thousand of dollars worth of rebs rations destroyed. Trains were tooting to the north of us and trains to the south of us all bringing in rebel troops. We fought like demons all night, destroyed all that we could and just at the peep of day we pulled out for Lovjoy Station, where many were captured as they were worn out and had gone to sleep but the noise of battle did not awaken them. When near Lovjoy Station we were surrounded by heavy columns of infantry and while fighting for our lives, three flags of truce came with a demand we surrender. Killpatrick told them he would ask his wife and in no time had massed his men, gallant five thousand, and rode the Jonnies down like sheep. We captured two cannon, a great many prisoners and arms. The roads were paved with arms which the rebs had thrown away and hands were up on every side which were signs ofsurrender. We reached our old camp at Sandtown Monday, August 25th, played out completely as we had not unsaddled our horses nor had a night's rest. Half of our men had lost their hats while riding, lost a third of our horses. Rained every day so we were constantly wet and fighting every hour. We went completely around Atlanta. Sherman said `Well done boys and the next day you will take the same route and the infantry will follow and Atlanta will be ours'. And in less than ten days she was. Our suffering cannot be described. I have slept and seen the boys sleep when the cannon were thundering around us. One boy, Shilling by name, we threw water in his face from canteen and he would wake up long enough to swear just half an oath and be asleep again. Constantly so near dead were our men for rest that death had no terrors for them. On the trip we made a typographical map that Sherman wanted in his flank movements. General Hood was in command now in Atlanta. Johnston superceded and we had three days of hard fighting again before we reached Jonesboro the second time and many brave boys fell at Jonesboro but Atlanta was ours. I had a detail of men in for a month and we slept in a smokehouse and a good place too on Peach Tree Street. Then we were ordered to Marietta. This was while our boys were chasing General Hood back to Franklin for Pap Thomas to bag. No period of our service was so trying as this raid around Atlanta and our repitition of it. It was a two weeks fight for our cavalry men were constantly on the move.

Then Sherman marched down to the sea. At Marietta on November 13, 1864, we burned our bunks as we were expecting marching orders but we were ordered back to camp. On the 14th we started for the sea but we knew not our destination at that time. West of Atlanta we took up our march thru Jonesboro again and at Lovjoy Station we again had a bad sharp brush with the enemy. We then made straight for Macon to deceive the rebels and after a hard fight captured their works, but could not hold them. In fact, we did not want to, for Sherman wanted the rebels to think we were after that town. We left Macon and that night had a fierce fight. Then swung on to the east of Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, here the legislature was in session, but hurriedly adjourned and we organized a new legislature, elected members and again voted Georgia into the Union. Once again we then started for Milan to rescue our prisoners. November 25th and the enemy routed us out early and in spite of its being Sunday, we fought all dayuntil nine at night and at close quarters most of the time.. WE were ordered not to stop but to hurry and rescue our boys at Milan. We had heard during the day that they had been removed to Salisburg, NC. Did not have a man hurt this whole day. The next day Killpatrick (our regiment) gave Wheeler and Hampton a handsome thrashing, killing and wounding about 400 men. We next went to Louisville, GA where we rested until all of Sherman's infantry had passed. We had demonstrated smoothly again at Augusta, GA and now we turned for Savannah. A week from our last fight, on the same ground and on Sunday too, we jumped on Wheeler and Hampton at Waynesboro and gave them the best thrashing they ever had. We lost several of our boys this day and I had several shots at General Wheeler. We had no supper that night before and were on picket duty all night, then were shelled by the enemy and had no breakfast but had to run nearly two miles. So when we got into the fight we could not shoot very straight.

Now we headed for the sea. We encountered swamps most of the way and the rebels had planted shells in the road to get us, felled trees in our way and burned bridges to keep us back, but we landed on the 10th day of December with our ambulances full of the wounded comrades, as we could not leave them for the enemy. We starved around Savannah until the 23rd of December and had only rice to eat and this we had to thrash. On the above date the city was captured and rations soon came after that. We still went farther south into Florida a short distance, forage for men and beast very plentiful and very little fighting going on. From Marietta to Savannah and back and forth we had traveled over 500 miles, had numerous fights, always been successful, capturing 1150 mules, 840 bales of cotton, burned 29 cotton gin houses and 11 flouring mills. This is the record of one brigade in the (loyal?) state of Georgia. What will the harvest be in the state of Carolina, you shall soon see.

General Sherman presented the city of Savannah to President Lincoln on Christmas day 1864 which happened to fall on Sunday. We were reviewed on the 12th day of January in 1865 by the Secretary of War (Stanton) in the city of Savannah. Then came a rest and congratulations from our wiley commander, General William T. Sherman. The Carolinas on my 23rd birthday, January 28, 1865. The trumpets blew boots and saddles and we were off for Sisters Ferry about 28 miles up the Savannah River. Her we found our infantry and a pontoon bridge laid across the river. On February 3rd, our bridge crossed, the advance of all troops and we expected the sacred soil of South Carolina would sink with us. Here instead we found torpedoes in the roads and some were slain but we tarried not and soon reached Robertsville and camped at Lawtonville, an early start and a 20 mile march brought us to Allendale. Now we began to see lone chimneys, smoking ruins and blood red skies at night. The mud hill of the north was abroad with the sword of justice. Not now could one Southern Chevalier whip six Yankees for the Lord of Hosts was our guide. When within two miles of Barnwell we found the enemy, fortified on the east side of the Salkhatchie River and the bridge burned. Our regiment dismounted and plunged into the swamp. Some swam, some waded the river and took the Fort without a halt. Killpatrick ordered fires built for it was cold and we were wet and the balance of the command went on to Barnwell and by morning fire had finished the ruin. While the town was burning, Killpatrick gave a dance by invitation. It was a bitter satire for the loyal Confederate ladies whose homes were burning, but who instigated the rebellion? The next day we were off for Blackville, driving Wheeler's troops and destroyed the railroads. We next camped at Williston Station, then towards Augusta and camped at Winsor. Our company was sent to burn the cotton mills near Augusta, but we failed as too many Jonnies were guarding them. Next camped at Pole Cat Pond and daylight of the 11th of February found us in the saddle on our way to Aiken. We in advance were to see a strenuous time of it. Our regiment drove the enemy into Aiken and were caught in a trap set by Wheeler and Hampton and Chetham's division of infantry. We rode right in and were left by Killpatrick to get ourselves out of it, and he supposed we were all captured, but General Adkins, our Brigadier said no. He disobeyed orders and with the balance of the brigade charged the rebels on one side and we on the other and we came out with colors up after losing thirty of our men. Colonel Van Buskirk (none more handsome or brave) was pulled from his horse and with empty revolver was pounding the rebels on the right and left when some of the boys came to the rescue and rescued him. My Captain Becker could not get his sword from the scabbord and being a powerful man used scabbord and sword to smash heads right and left. None were dismayed and we came out victorious and had running fight back to camp at Pole Cat Pond again.

Here we found gallant Killpatrick with the balance of our division and ready for battle, but old General Wheeler was shy of rail breastwork after his awful drubbing at Buck Head Creek in Georgia. We camped here the second night and were not molested at all and the next day did scouting. This demonstration was to deceive the enemy and protect the left wing of Sherman's army which was swung off to the east and at noon we followed and camped at Davis MIlls on south Edisto River. The morning found us at it by daylight with the rebels in front and on parallel road to left, camped twenty miles from Columbia and the next night we camped at Lexington where we attacked in the night but we burned the town and next day crossed the Saluda on pontoons. Started at eight o'clock in the morning for Alsten and attempted to save the bridge, which was a large covered one across broad river but the enemy had it burned so we crossed on pontoons. On February 19th we marched four miles as the roads were filled with our infantry and wagon trains. After waiting all night in a drenching rain we crossed the broad river and I was too cold to strike a match but some other Yank did it and we warmed up a good dry rail fence fire. Coffee and hardtack warmed us and we were off for Monticello (which was in flames) and camped at White Oak Station on the railroad. Nine of our boys who were out foraging were captured and their throats cut by Wade Hampton's men. They lay beside the road and on their coats were pinned papers marked `no quarters for foragers'. This was only another sample of South Carolina Valor, to butcher prisoners in cold blood and after they had peacefully surrendered too.

On February 20th we started at six in the morning and crossed the broad river then thru Monticello which was burning. February 22nd we went to Black Station and on the 23rd we went to Gladdens Grove, thence to Catoba River, where we had to sit on our horses all night during a cold rain waiting to cross the river. While we were waiting here, two Union men came up almost naked to us for protection. They had been in a rebel prison (Hellhole) for nearly two years. Were they glad, yes, nearly wild. Next day found us marching towards Lancaster so wet and cold we could scarcely build our fires. Killed all our extra horses and stayed here two days. Sent $11 (Confederate money) to Union prisoners by Dr. Wiley, exchanged prisoners with General Wheeler and our boys came in almost naked and shoeless but Killpatrick made the citizens clothe the boys. March 3rd we drove the rebs to Wadesboro and camped eight miles from there. Here we received news of the capture of Cheraw. The enemy attacked us here very furiously butwe held our own. Built barricades all around the division and at ten o'clock in the evening the Jonnies opened fire on Killpatrick's quarters but our battery soon quieted them. They (Wheeler's and Hampton's forces) were all around us and had twice the men we had. We sent up rockets which were answered by some of our scouts and the rebels thought they were between two armies so they dug out before morning. On the fourth of March we attacked at daybreak towards the Great Pedee River with plenty of grub for men and horses. On the fifth we went to the Pedee River and stood in line all night and until ten in the morning then fed and waited until dark before we could cross on the pontoons. Did not have pontoons enough so were compelled to use 42 wagon boxes a part of the way. These boxes had been covered in canvas to make them water proof. On March 7th we drove the rebel out of the town of Rockinham and tackled the swamps once more. We helped pull the artillery thru the swamps with ropes, we wading in water up to our waists, skirmishing day and night. I went on picket duty for one of the boys and am afraid I went asleep as I was beastly tired. The roads were something awful. March 9th our brigade was ordered to camp at a crossroad and when we reached them we saw long lines of fires and after a little reconnoitering we found plenty of Jonnies who were getting supper. The regiment was turned back and I with five men were left to watch the rebels. Very shortly about fifty of them came out as a picket, and we halted them and gave them a volley and then commenced a race, we firing as often as we could and finally reached the regiment in line who gave them plenty of excitement for awhile. We marched all night parallel to them and firing continuously but I slept on my horse now and then. We pushed on toward Fayetteville in North Carolina and while on the march one of Wheeler's staff rode into our lines and began cursing us for not hurrying along at a faster gait. We took him in, though he did think he was among his own bunch. Three division of rebels were in the road ahead of us and four divisions behind us, and you can bet we soon left that road. We pressed in, a frightened lady as our guide, and took a blind road and built a long bridge and held it in place until every man and wagon was across, then pushed it over and hurried ahead to find Killpatrick with the other two brigades who were in trouble as we could hear artillery and musketry firing on our left.

After we joined the other brigades we found Killpatrick's troops had been driven out of their camp and nearly captured. On March 10th near sundown we were again on the road to Fayetteville. All this time a constant firing was going on and we then went into camp and on the 11th we marched within a mile of Fayetteville and again camped. The rebels burned the bridge across Cape Fear River and we put down pontoons again. No grub, but we got our mail and sent some home by tugboat to Savannah. On the 14th we drew some rations in the shape of hardtack. Then on the 15th we crossed and moved toward Raleigh along the Cape Fear River. On reaching Aversboro we struck the enemy in force. I was on the skirmish line with a shell stuck in my gun and the rebels coming lively and had a notion to run but at that time our battery opened and we held them until the infantry came and relieved us. Camped for the night and next day had a hot time all day long and Jonnies skedaddled towards Raleigh. Here we fought infantry in their works and received loud praise for our work. We pulled out in the night and crossed Black River, then headed for Smithfield. March 19th we were in the rear of infantry which indicated trouble or plenty of rebels and the 14th Corps was assalted by Johnston's whole command who were fortified. We lay here all day in barricades on extreme left wing. All night we went on the skirmish line in front of the 20th Corps and at daybreak we were ordered to take the rebel works. We got there but the works were empty and we had to bury the rebel dead. We were off towards Bentonville but camped at Clinton where we did some foraging and scouting for two days. On March 25th special field orders were read promising rest and supplies. We were also complimented on our 500 mile march thru the Carolinas: `With The Laurels Of Georgia Entwine Those Of Carolinas; Proudly Wear Them As Sherman Is Proud Of You.' From Clinton to Fasons then to Mount Olive where we drew clothing which was needed, too, you bet and we were to rest andwe did until April 10th.

When we were in the saddle again, Grant told Sherman to Press Johnston hard and this would end the war at once. We headed for Smithfield to cut off Johnston from Raleigh and on April 12th we were at it early, we in advance, always were when we had hot work on hand. (Neglected to state that on the 11th we skirmished all day and camped eight miles southwest of Smithfield.) Received news of Lee's surrender and didn't we yell and did we cry for joy. We crossed Swift Creek after building a bridge and the rebels were on us like mad and we drove them over and out of their earth works. We were on horseback and you could not see them for dust. But, oh the price we paid as several of our boys were killed and wounded and Captain Hawk lost a leg and I came very nearing to seeing my finish as my horse tore away towards the enemy and a bullet thru my saddle shows how near was my call. They skipped towards Raleigh and Will Price and I went for forage. Camped seven miles east of Raleigh after giving Wade Hampton his fill and capturing a train with two ex-governors who came out to surrender the city and be protected. Heavy fighting all day and on the 13th we took the rear. No fighting as we were not needed but the other fellows took our band and marched first into Raleigh but we did most of the fighting just the same and the infantry followed us. Through Raleigh on towards Morrisville about seven miles and we ran into Joe Wheeler's troops and sent him ahead in a lively manner. Here we camped and the next day Adkin's brigade marched towards Chapel Hill and encountered Wheeler again and we drove him as usual. Orders to halt and here we halted all day and all night heavy rains and April 15th were ordered to go ahead. Came to New Hope River and found bridge gone. Our boys waded across and fought our last fight.

Next day, Sunday the 16th, General Adkins was informed of a truce between Sherman and Johnston. We were sent to Chapel Hill where was located the University of North Carolina. Here I saw Washington's account book and wanted it very much, but we were on honor guarding sacred relics and private houses and nothing was disturbed. We stayed here nearly three weeks. Our General Adkins found his wife here and came back and married her. On April 24th orders were received to resume hostilities as Sherman's terms did not suit Secretary of War Stanton. April 26th we were ordered to march at day light and go for Wheeler again but the order was countermanded for Johnston had surrendered. May 3rd marched to Hillsboro and marched with the rebels who were going home. How strange it seemed not to fight our old foes. From Hillsboro to Greensboro, in camp here was all of Johnston's artillery, some two hundred pieces of all kinds and patterns. We next moved to Lexington and Salsbury. On May 12th made our last march on horseback as a regiment to Concord, NC. Here we lay until the last of June and did nothing but grumble to be mustered out. Beautiful camp in the pines but we wanted to go home very bad.

I was sent from here with Lieutenant Sutton and thirty men on a scout to Yorkville and Spartanburg to catch Governor McGraw of South Carolina. We did not find him but saw the Cowpen's battle ground of colonial times and had a grand ride of 300 miles to kill time. Passed ourselves as rebels (they had seen no Yanks) and we had the best in the kitchen. This trip finished my soldiering. We left for the north on June 22nd and passed through Danville, VA, also Burksville and landed at City Point on June 26, 1865. We took our boat for Baltimore, then took box cars for Chicago by way of Harrisburg and Pittsburgh and July 1st we landed at Camp Douglas in Chicago and all went swimming in Lake Michigan. July 8th had our pay and discharge. We had enlisted for three years or during the war. This is an outline of my service."