Illinois Genealogy Trails History Group

Clark County Illinois
Genealogy and History

Chapter 8


The History of Crawford and Clark County
W. H. Perrin, O. L. Baskin & Co., 1883

Transcribed by Kevin Ortman and Barbara Z.


"Tis nature's plan The child should grow unto the man, The man grow wrinkled, old, and gray." —Longfellow.

MARSHALL Township was known in the Congressional survey as town 11 north, range 12 west, and for nearly a score of years after the organization of the county, did not bear a more specific title. For some time it formed an insignificant part of the original and illy-defined townships of Washington and Dubois and only secured recognition and prominence when it was named Marshall, and chosen as the site of the county seat of justice in 1837. The site of this township was originally occupied by w.hat was termed in the vernacular of the frontier, a " barren,"—debatable ground where the wild fires and timber met on somewhat equal terms and either might claim the mastery. The land was high and pleasantly situated with gentle slope toward the South, giving rise in the western half to an important branch of Mill Creek which joins the main stream on the southern line of the township. Mill Creek enters the original boundary of the township on section nineteen and taking a southeasterly course passes out of the middle part of section thirty-three. The highest point in the township and in the county, is about a mile south of the site of the village of Marsh. all, though the village generally seems to  By J. H. Battle. share in the pre-eminence, the land sloping in all directions from it. Big Creek, an important stream in the early history of the county, forms the boundary on the northeast corner, but receives no affluent from this territory. In the vicinity of Mill and Big Creeks the timber early gained the ascendency and clothed the somewhat broken land adjoining these streams with a heavy forest growth, but elsewhere the township was generally covered with an almost impenetrable undergrowth of willow, hazel, and blackjack, while here and there, towering above the underbrush, an occasional >hag-bark hickory flaunted its lofty top. This formed a paradise for wild or " Congress hogs " as they were called, narrow paths of which ramified this dense copse. Cattle early learned to find their way here to pick the young prairie grass that was found here and there in the open glades. During the first half of the year the unfortunate frontiersman, who found himself here by accident or in quest of stock, was obliged to wade in about six inches of water which covered the ground with disagreeable uniformity. Later in the year the surplus moisture drained and dried off, and here and there the sunny exposures bore considerable quantities of delicious wild strawberries that attracted the early settlers from the older towns of York and Darwin, and game of all sorts recognizing here a natural retreat, made it an attractive resort for the hunter.

The location of the National Road through this township in 1827, gave to this locality a partially redeeming feature, but at that time failed to excite much interest in it as an eligible site for land entries. If the county records may be relied upon, Reason Wiley did enter 100 acres on the-west half of section two, and in the following year Mecom Maine made another entry on the east half of the northeast quarter of the same section, but these entries were evidently made more with reference to the quality of land, in that vicinity and the milling facilities likely to be afforded by Big Creek than any belief in the future of the township. In the meanwhile, the county seat which had been fixed at Aurora in Darwin Township was, a few years later, removed to Darwin village, and the foreshadow of coming events plainly indicated that it must be again removed nearer to the center of the county, the limits of which had been permanently defined. The importance of the National Road made it certain that some part of Marshall would probably be chosen as the site for the permanent seat of justice, and the moneyed men of the older settlements were looking-forward to discover the probable point with a view to speculation. This state of affairs culminated in 1835, and hundreds of acres were entered here in this year, principally by those who were residents in Darwin and York. The more significant of these were the entries of William B. Archer and Gov. J. Duncan on sections 13 and 24. Others followed rapidly in the succeeding years so that if each entry had represented an actual settler the township would have been thickly populated by 1840, as the following list of entries to that date will show. In 1837, entry was made on section 2, by Reason Wiley; on the same section in 1828, by Mecom Maine; in 1831, by Thos. Carey on section 31; in 1833, by Thos. Wilson on section 2; and in the same year on section 32, by John Craig. In 1835, the following entries appear: Jno. B. Stockwell and Orlando B. Ficklin on section 31, Wm. P. Twilley on section 28, John Riggs and Cornelius Lamb on section 25, Moton Lake, Steven Archer, and Dr. Wm. Tutt on section 24, J. Duncan and W. B. Archer, and David A. Pritchard on section 13. In 1838, entry was made by Wm. C. Blundell, Abram Washburn, Abel English and Jonathan Jones on section 1; by Woodford Dulaney and W. B. Archer on section 13; by Oliver Davis on section 19; by Albert B. Kitchell on section 21; by William Sullivan  on section 23; by Jacob and Justin Harlan on section 23; by Jno. Bartlett on section 25; by John Hollenbeck on section 27; by George B. Richardson, Jno. Houston and Wickliffe Kitchell on section 28; by Thos. Weathers and Jno. McManus on section 29; by A. Davis and Abraham Lewis on section 30; by P. and Geo. Thatcher on section 31; by Wm. Craig on section 32; by Levi Stark on section 33; by Wm. Bartlett and Wm. McKean on section 3G. In 1837, on section 1, entry was made by Henry Cole, Michael Ripple, Samuel Galbreath and Jno. Beiers; on section 2, by Zachariah Wood; on section 9, by Jas. B. Anderson; on section 13, by Washington Cole and Hugh Malone; on section 14, by S. D. Handy; on section 15, by Wm. Keichum; on section 17, by Robert Mitchel; on section 19, by Hayward Davis; on section 22, by Jno. Thompson; on section 24, by Richard Grace; on section 28, by E. L. Janney; on section 30, by J. C. Hillebert, and on section 34, by Vincent Handy. In 1838, entry was made on section 2, by Robert Ash more; on section 7, by Richard Airey; on section 9, by Stephen Lee; on section 12, by Jas. McKay and O. H. P. Miller; on section 13, by Michael Meeker; on section 17, by Cornelius Sullivan; on section 20, by Jno. Combs and Jno. B. Mitchel; on section 21, by Jas. L. Clark; on section 22, by Darius Phillips, Fred Quick and Joel Vansant; on section 23, by Caleb Philips; on section 25, by Wm. Harbert; on section 29, by Elza Neal; on section 30, by Win. Fanbush; on section 31, by Zach. Henry; and on section 33, by Wesley and Enoch Lee, and Matthew Cleaveland. In 1839, on section 9, entry was made by William King; on section 1-1, by Relly Madison; on section 18, by Richard Clapp; on section 19, by Peter Weaver; on section 20, by Leonard Unibarger and Philip Smith; on section 27, by Lewis Huff; on section 30, by Christian Orendorff, Jno. A. and Peter Fredenberg; on section 31, by Henry Jeffers; on section 32, by Andrew Fleming, Calvin Bennett and George White; on section 33, by Archibald Irwin; and on section 3-1, by Jno. W. Bailor and Isaac W. Martin.

This list represents some ninety-five families, but a large number of them were nonresidents of this county, and a still larger number either never lived in the township or did not come here until some time later than the date of these entries, and at the beginning of 1840 it is doubtful if there were more than thirty families living within the present limits of Marshall Township.

The first actual settlement was probably made in February, 1830, by Wm. George. But little is known of him. He was first found oil The eastern limit of the present village, near the line of the National Road. He never entered land, but simply "squatted" on the first available spot, with no definite intention, but simply to see what would turn up. He had a considerable family which he made comfortable as circumstances would allow ill a three-sided log structure, covered and banked about with the coarse prairie hay which he had cut for the purpose. On the open side of bis structure was built a large fire, which served to keep off the damp, chilly air, and facilitate such "culinary" attempts as the support of the family made necessary. He did not stay here long. Attracted by the brighter prospects on Big Creek, the family soon moved there, and a little later went to Texas. In May, of 18 0, Abram Washburn came to near the western limit of the site of the present village. He was a native of Ohio, and came by way of the river to Shawneetown; from this point he went into the country near the town and took up some land, where he lived for some nine years. About 1830, hoping to get employment on the National Road, and at the same time secure a more healthful place to live, he came to this locality. He came in the usual covered wagon, and came to a halt near the site of McKeairs residence west of the village. Pitching out such things as would bear exposure to the weather, he prepared a bed for the older children on the ground under the wagon, while the parents and the younger ones occupied the shelter of the vehicle. A log cabin was soon put up, where the parents and six children found a comfortable home. Washburn obtained work upon the National Road, and subsequently found it convenient to change his residence to the east side of the site of the present village. While engaged on the public works he had neither time nor inclination to make any permanent improvements. A garden was cultivated for the family's supply of vegetables, but the land proved so poor that but little could be produced, and resort was had to the 'rotted turf which had been thrown off the line of the public road, as fertilizer. Washburn subsequently entered land on section 1, on which he moved and lived until his death.

A very early settler, and of whom but little is known, was Mecom Maine. He entered land on section 2, in Marshall Township, as early as 1828. He came from New York, and was probably in the county about the time he made his entry of land, but being; a quiet man, and occupied with the cares of a Frontier farm, he left but little impress upon the community which gathered there He stayed here but a short time, and left for Texas before others of his family came to this locality, although he was entrusted to select lands for them.

Thomas Wilson was another early settler in this vicinity. He was an Irishman, and made a characteristic settlement in the northern part of the township, which was popularly known as Whiskeyville. He put up one of the earliest saw-mills on the fork of Big Creek, where, in a little log structure, he did business when the state of the water permitted. He remained about here but a few years when he went to Florida. In 1832 John Craig settled on section 32, and soon after put up a saw-mill on Mill Creek, which furnished some material to the contractors on the National Road. In this year, also, Wm. C. Blundell came here. He was a preacher in the Methodist church, and made several improvements about the country, but sold one after the other, moving about from place to place. He entered land on section 1 in 1836. but did not move onto the place. He spent most of his residence in the county within the limits of Wabash Township, preaching on the circuit which was assigned him. In 1836, Abel English, a native of New Jersey, came to Marshall, and entered land on section 1. In the following year, in company with a man by the name of Hickman, who came with or soon after him, from New Jersey, be put up a combined saw and grist mill.

The first settlement on the present site of the village of Marshall was made in 1833. In January of this year the Legislature passed an act to remove the county seat from Darwin to some point on the National Road. The growing demand was that it should be located near the center of the population which would eventually fill the county, and this act of the Legislature had been anticipated by the people for several years. But which should be the favored site was a question which aroused the liveliest competition among the friends of the various eligible points. In October, 1831, R. A. Ferguson had platted the village of Livingstone in the western part of what is now Wabash Township, on the National Road, and lots in this village, a little later, sold at fabulous prices. In September, 1833, Thomas Carey laid off the little village of Careyford on the east half of the northeast quarter of section 31, and on the west half of the northwest quarter of section 33, in town 11 north, range 12 west. This plat exhibits simply a row of lots on either side of the Cumberland Road with Mill Creek dividing it in nearly equal parts. Its founder was a native of New York and came early to Danville in this State, with an ox team. He was really a resident of Edgar County but attracted by the opportunity for speculation he came to this locality, and entered land in 1831. He had a contract on the road, part of the time in partnership with James Whitlock, and built on the site of his village a large hotel for the accommodation of his hands and such traveling guests as found it convenient to use it. In November, 1836, Orlando B. Ficklin, Deinas Ward and Jonathan N. Rathbone laid off the village of Auburn, about a mile west of Careyford. This was a more ambitious venture than the latter village, and was an open competitor for the prize to be awarded by the Legislative Commission. With the exception of Rathbone, the proprietors were non-residents of the county and entered into the matter as a speculation. Ficklin was a man of ability and influence, and entered into the contest with some assurance of success. A square in the center of the plat was reserved for the erection of county buildings, though it was wisely provided that in the event of the county seat being placed elsewhere, this square should be devoted to the use of the public as a park or coramon. In October, 1835, Marshall was platted on parts of sections 13 and 2 1/2 in town 11 north, range 12 west, by J. Duncan and W. B. Archer. The ground selected was high and covered by a forest growth which offered the least obstacles to making it habitable, but it had the disadvantage, owing to the character of the soil, of being wet and as forbidding in appearance as its most determined opponents could wish. It was situated considerably east of the geographical center of the county as well, but the contest was likely to be decided more by the strength of the battalions than the justness of the cause and these matters proved of minor consideration. A bill was passed by the Legislature iu .January, 1836, to change the county seat from Darwin to some point on the National Road nearer the center of the county, and appointed Gen. Wm. F. Thornton, Wm. Prentiss, and John Hendrix of Shelby County, and Charles Emerson and Wm. Reddick of Macon County, as commissioners to fix upon the site. But four of the commissioners appeared upon the ground, and these were divided evenly in their choice between Marshall and Auburn. The matter was again referred to the Legislature, and an act submitting the whole question to the people was passed. By this act it was provided that the people of the county should vote on the question of moving the county seat and if this was carried in the affirmative, they should again vote upon the question of the place. The two factions uniting upon the first question had no difficulty in out-voting the Darwin adherents, but upon the second Question the contest was not so uneven. The adherents of Auburn hail in the meanwhile been reinforced by J. C. Hillebert, a man of considerable weath living in York, who secured an important share in the plat and lands lying near it. He was, however, of a cautious disposition and not so generous in the expenditure of money as the case seemed to demand. Col. Archer, on the other hand, was a man of considerable wealth, a memlier of the Legislature, and possessed of large influence in the community in which he lived. He was of Irish extraction, born in Scott County, Kentucky, from whence he had gone with his father to Ohio, and with him, in 1817, came to Darwin. He early interested Joseph Duncan, who was Governor of the State in 1836, in his scheme, and bent all his influence and energies in promoting the success of this venture. After platting the town he secured a valuable beginning of the new community, in the settlement of John Bartlett and James Whitlock. The latter was especially serviceable in the spirited "electioneering" which preceded the final vote in 1837. Social entertainments were a part of the means empiojed to captivate the voters, and Whitlock " kept open house " in the new brick building into which he had just then moved. Here on Saturday night was held a weekly soiree to which the invitations were very generally extended. A piano was a part of Mr. Whitlock's furniture, a very rare sight in this country at that time, and the ladies of the family devoted themselves to the entertainment of their guests. It is said that the ladies' influence was no mean factor in the contest, and the Auburn adherents were wont to say that some of their opponents thought Whitlock's parlor was a type of heaven. At Careyford there was a dance continuing through three days, it is said, but it availed nothing. The election was held in July or August of 1837, and decided in favor of Marshall by a majority of eighty-one votes. This decision assured the eventual success of Archer's venture though it still required a good deal of attention to make it profitable as there was no small expense involved in the struggle beside the payment of five thousand dollars, which was one of the conditions of the removal.

Early in 1836, Col. Archer had induced his brother-in-law, John Bartlett to come to Marshall, and put up and conduct a hotel. Bartlett was a native of New York and had come to Walnut prairie in 1817, but tired of country life had determined to go to Chicago and cast in his fortunes with that growing village. He had gone so far in his preparations as to rent a house there, when Archer took him in hand and demonstrated the superior advantages of Marshall. At all events, Bartlett came here in April of 1836, and erected a double log-house on the east end of the lot on which the residence of Mrs. Greenough now stands. The building: was formed of hickory logs, which being cut at the right time peeled off their bark giving the structure a unique and attractive appearance. It fronted on Market street, and had three rooms, each opening by a door upon a porch which ran the whole length of the building. At this time the national road was in process of construction through the county. Through the village it had been graded and finished, but ill the near vicinity large forces of workmen were employed, and these men, with the through travel which began to be a prominent factor in the western communities, brought considerable revenue to this wayside inn.

The corps of Government engineers engaged on the road made this point their head-quarters, and were the guests of the hotel for upward of three years, while the increase of transient business made it soon necessary to erect a long building on the west side of the lot for their accommodation. The second building erected in the new village was a large frame stable, 43 by 113 feet, which was placed on the corner of Market and Franklin streets, where Archer Bartlett's lumber-yard now is; and the capacity of this spacious building was frequently taxed to its utmost to afford accommodations for the horses of the hotel guests. Here Mr. Barlett did a thriving business for years, the morning bills amounting from fifteen to fifty, and not unfrequently reaching one hundred dollars in amount. A little later in this year a second and important addition was made to the community started here, in the family of Jas. Whitlock. He was a native of Richmond, Va., and came to Jonesboro, in this State, about 1825. After remaining a year or two at this place he removed to Vandalia, then the site of the State capital. Here his ability obtained recognition and he was soon elected to the Legislature where, after serving two or three terms, he was appointed as registrar of the first land-office opened in Chicago. He performed the duties of this office but a short time, however, when his eyes failed him, and attracted in some way by the growing prospects of Marshall, he bought a stock of dry-goods and came at once to the new village. The site was certainly not the most attractive for business enterprises of this sort. The most of the large trees had been cut off the plat, but the streets and lots, which were marked by the surveyor's stakes, were only to be discovered by a careful search among the luxuriant under-brush. The only buildings were the deserted cabin of Washburn, west of the village site, the cabin on the east of the town, which Washburn then occupied, and the hotel buildings. But instituted hospitality was the virtue of the age, and Bartlett did not hesitate to take in even a drygoods store. One of the rooms of the hotel was at once fitted up for the purposes of a store, and here Whitlock opened up his stock. In the following year he put up a one-story brick building, which is still standing on the corner of Franklin and Cumberland streets, and to this he transferred his family and business.

The early settlement of Marshall village was of a peculiar character, and is not easily traced after the lapse of upward of fifty years. Its only attraction was the fact that it had been fixed upon as the county seat, and community, whose business made it a advisable to remove here, did so with grim forebodings of finding it a hard place in which to live. At the first sale of lots, in 1835, a considerable number were disposed of at prices ranging from ten to one hundred dollars; but many of these were bought to await tho issue of the venture, and did not represent any immediate growth of the village. When the final choice was made, a new element entered into the question and brought a number of families of considerable property, which greatly aided in advancing the interests of the village. During the year or more which procceded this decision, however. Col. Archer, who retained his home in Darwin, spent much of his time about the new village, and turned every favorable circumstance to its advantage. At that time the national road was tho principal line of travel to the West, and scarcely a day passed that did not find some family journeying in the characteristic wagon, in search of a home in tiie new country. A large part of this class of travelers were moving in an aimless way, with no definite destination in mind. Where the locality suited their fancy they were prepared to halt and build a home, and there was nothing in the character or custom of the country which rendered this an unsuccessful method. Col. Archer was on the alert for such emigrants, and some of the earliest and valuable citizens of Marshall were of this class. Among the first of these itinerants to come under Col. Archer's persuasive influence was Thomas Henderson. He was on his way with his family to the West, and being a carpenter by trade, he was lured by the prospect of employment in the now town to slop here. James Pounds was another mechanic that came here early. He was a brick-layer and came as early as 1837, finding plenty of work on the new buildings which were rapidly constructed during the first years of the new town.

Thomas B. Wilson, who is not to be confounded with another early settler of a similar name, came here as early as 1836. He too was on his way west with his family, in company with bis son-in-law, Paul Dennis. They were induced to settle here, Dennis putting up a cabin just north of the site of the new jail building, and his father-in-law erecting a shed building on the present site of the jail. The latter building was constructed of poles covered with clapboards and with a flat roof, with just inclination enough in one direction to carry off the rainfall, the inside being innocent of lath and plaster. Wilson was a stone mason and plasterer, a native of New York, and a man of good intelligence. He built a stone wall around the square on which the St. James hotel is situated, for Col. Archer, the remains of which still stand to attest his workmanship. Other early mechanics who came in through Col. Archer's influence, were James Matthews, Willard Center, carpenters, and Linda Patterson, a blacksmith. The latter was probably the first of his trade here, and a son born to him here is said to be the first birth in the township. Eiza Neal was the first wagon maker, and came here from Bruceville, Ind., in 1837. His residence was on the site of his widow's present residence on Hamilton street, his shop occupying the site of the stable just east of his house and near the line of the railroad. A Mr. Woodward was also an early settler who had his residence on Franklin street just north of Whitlock's brick building. He was a man of the most pronounced Yankee type and early turned his attention to general teaming. His team is described as a pair of under-fed and under-sized horses of the most dejected appearance, but with these disadvantages able to do good service, and Woodward and his team were long counted one of the regular institutions of the new town. The proprietor of the town early caused several small cabins to be erected in different parts of the village, which served to afford a home to such useful members of society as were not able to buy a lot or put up a cabin, and many of these early mechanics moved into them, eventually finding them or building elsewhere. With the removal of the court and county offices to Marshall, a number of well-to-do citizens from other parts of the county came to town. Among these were Steven Archer, a brother of the proprietary who settled just south of the village on what is now known as the Park farm; Woodford Dulaney who built the house now occupied by T. F. Day near the public school building; Uri Manley, who was then circuit clerk and probate justice of the peace; Darius Phillip, county clerk, and Justin Harlan, circuit judge, though he did not come until December of 1839.

Business was not more backward in coming to the new center of activity. One of the earliest places of business was opened in 1836, on the northeast corner of Cumberland and Franklin streets, by Jack Hadden. This man had been working on the road, and concluding that the founding of the village was a propitious opening for a business venture, put in a little stock of whisky and tobacco. This enterprise preceded the coming of Whitlock's store, but did not last long. Early in the same year James Waters, a merchant in. Darwin, sent his clerk, Western Chinneworth with a stock of goods and occupied the building which Hadden had used. A little later in the year James Anderson, a brother-in-law of Waters, purchased the stock and moved to Marshall, building a little frame residence in the northeast part of the town. Anderson was a native of Ireland, and when four years of age was brought to New York. In 1820 he came to Darwin and married a daughter of McClure, an early settler of that place. He carried on the store in Marshall for several years when he sold out to McKay and Eldridge, and went to Anderson township to engage in milling. About 1838, Col. Archer started a store in a story and a half frame building on the southwest corner of these streets. His brother Steven attended to the business for a time, but it was soon disposed of to a man by the name of Scott, who in turn sold to Rowley and Davidson. Jonathan Greenough early became identified with the business of the new community. He was a lieutenant in the army and was assigned to duty on the National Road as assistant paymaster. He acted in this capacity for a year or more, when he was ordered to take charge of the post of St. Peters in the northwest. He had served at this post and had found the severity of the weather a serious tax upon his health, and after remonstrances proved unavailing he sent in his resignation. He married a daughter of Mr. Whitlock, and engaged in business with his father-in-law. He subsequently became sole proprietor and afterward formed a co-partnership with Beebe Booth, of Terre Haute. The Coles family were early residents of Marshall. Harry Cole lived on the Cumberland road about a mile east of the village as early as 1836, and he, with his brothers, David, Edwin and Jerome, who first settled at Livingstone came to Marshall soon after its beginning. They were among the early carpenters, David, however, starting up the first saloon in a little frame building, scarcely larger than eight by ten feet in size, located on the southeast corner of Cumberland and Hamilton streets. John B. King was a tailor and settled in Marshall in 1836 or 1837. He built a house on the north side of Cumberland street,west of the public square. He liad a little money and considerable enterprise, and built several houses in that vicinity, which he disposed of one after another to the new settlers as they came in. He finally moved his shop into a little frame built by Manly on the site of B shop's grocery on the south side of the square. Here he established a flourishing business, for though the citizens were satisfied to wear home-made clothes during the week, the most of them soon aspired to fine suits for Sunday and gala occasions.

Among the professional men who came here early was Uri Manly. His duties about the court made it necessary for him to live at the county seat, and he came to Marshall in 1837. He purchased lots on the south side of the square, and, beside the building used by King, he erected another frame, just west of that, in which the second term of court was held, and a brick residence on the southeast ' corner of Clinton and Market streets. He was afterward appointed postmaster, opening the first office in the village in his residence, but afterward transferring it to the frame building used by the court, where he added a small stock of goods, in partnership with Thos. Henderson. The first physician here was, proiiably. Dr. Allison, who put up a small frame where Foster's shoe store now stands, on the north side of the square. Another early doctor was William Tutt. He came from Virginia to York, where he married and practiced until about 1838, when he came to Marshall. Dr. Poole came a few years later, and bought the frame of a building which stood on the northeast corner of Clinton and Cumberland streets. The origin of this building, which was standing in a shattered condition in 1838, has been forgotten, but it was eventually repaired and completed into a residence by Dr. Poole, and subsequently occupied by him.

Of the industries to which the necessities of the situation in a new country give rise, milling played a prominent part in Marshall Township. Big Creek had several mills on its banks, but the elbow which touches the northeast corner of this township was especially adapted to this purpose. A combined saw and grist mill was erected on the stream near the line of Douglas Township, by Burwell, Sharpe and Blaize, about 1830. The buhrs were made of " nigger-head" stones that were found in the creek. Before the mill was completed, however, a difficult)' arose between Blaize and Sharpe, which resulted in the latter being shot and killed. Blaize at once fled the country, followed soon after by the friends of Sharpe, intent upon inflicting- dire vengeance upon him. Though very often close upon his trail, the pursuers, after a vain effort of some six months, gave up the chase somewhere in the wilds of Arkansas. Blaize never returned to this region but once afterward, and then soon found it expedient to leave. Alter this sad affair Burwell ran the mill for some time, when he sold it to Nance, after whose death it was rented. Subsequently, David Coles, marrying Nance's daughter, finally came into possession of the mill, but more modern and better located mills came in, and this one, with all the early mills passed away. Another mill of this character was put up near where the railroad crosses Big Creek, by English and Hickman. This was a frame structure, and had buhrs made of raccoon stone, quarried near Dayton, Ohio, from whence they were transported by an ox team. This was built in 1837, and was an improvement on others, but it soon gave way to those of modern construction. Soon after this, about 1839, Philip B. Smith put up a corn-cracker on the southeast corner of Bond and Market streets. It was a very rude affair, and was propelled by tread power. A broad, solid wieel was so placed upon a perpendicular axle, as to incline slightly, and upon this surface, furnished with cleats, horses or oxen tramped and gave motion to the machinery, which was geared to the axle. But the miller only supplied the mill, and many who had no team were forced to send their wheat and corn twenty-five miles away to get flour and meal; and this was, for those who could afford the time and trouble, much the better way, as the product was of a far superior cpiality. In 1839, Frederick Craiglow started a tannery in the west part of town, on the Cumberland road. It was never a large business nor a complete success, though the proprietor struggled on with it for some four years. At the end of that time he closed out the business and went to St. Louis.

With all this growth and activity, which assumes larger proportions in the recital than in the actual exi)erience, the community which gathered in this township was essentially on the frontier at the time of which the foregoing pages are written. While not so completely isolated as the early settlements of Darwin and York, or the earlier settlements in this State, the people experienced many of the hardships and discomforts incident to frontier settlements. For the first year or two the nearest post-office was at Livingstone, and supplies were secured at Terre Haute or the stores at the older towns on the east side of the county. Mills were early built near by, but from lack of power or adequate machinery most of the flour and meal was obtained only by going long distances and enduring tedious delays. Outside the town, in the farming district, the settlement was of slow growth, the village seeming to absorb the greater part of the floating population. Here and there the smoke curled upward in the air from the scattered log cabins, and the busy pioneer protracted the day long into the night in clearing up his farm.

Deer were shot in large numbers, while wolves, panthers, " Congress hogs," an occasional bear, and the whole class of small game that is found in this section, afforded wholesome meals or rare hunting sport. The distance from any market was long felt among the farming community, and did much to retard its growth and early prosperity.

The original settlers were principally natives of the Southern States and brought with them many social characteristics peculiar to that section. Saturday afternoons was a general holiday in the country, on which the farmers repaired to the village. There was then a series of amusements which included impromptu horse races, wrestling and jumping matches, quoit-pitching, and fighting. But comparatively few in the community had scruples against the use of whisky, and strong potations tended to mike the fun fast and furious. A number of saloons sprang up in the new town and throve under the generous patronage which, reacting upon the community, gave the village an unenviable reputation. " Free and easys " were a peculiar type of amusement which obtained a certain popularity here. The plan was for a party of men or boys to get up a supper consisting of chicken, whisky, bread, etc. These supplies were secured by the " free and easy " appropriation of the materials for the supper in the absence of the owner, and cooked and eaten in the woods or at some private residence. The ladies of the community indulged in the usual quilting and spinning bees, with the " gentlemen in attendance after tea." The polite society of Marshall encouraged and supported a dancing school over which Captain Tift presided and for which Whaley furnished the music. Tift was a popular teacher of the Terpsichorean art and had successful schools in various parts of the country around, and finally died " with his harness on," in a ball-room.


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