THE CITY OF MARSHALL-THE PLAT AND SUBSEQUENT ADDITIONS—OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION AND PROGRESS—INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT-—BUSINESS GROWTH— NEWSPAPERS—SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES—SECRET AND BENEVOLENT ORDERS, ETC., ETC.
ON September 22, 1835, Colonel W. B. Archer issued a circular announcing the laying out of " The Town of Marshall," and the approaching sale of lots therein. In this he says: "This is a new town laid" off on the National Road, where the Vincennes and Chicago State Road crosses the former on Section 13, Township 11 north, Range 12 west, in Clark County, and is situated fifty-five miles north of Vincennes, sixteen miles from York and ten miles from Darwin; south of Paris fifteen miles, and fifty miles from Danville, sixteen miles west of Terre Haute.
" It is decidedly the handsomest site for a town between Terre Haute and Vandalia, surrounded by good second rate land, a sufficient amount of timber, and the best of stone for building, and it may be truly said, that no point in this section of country has proven more healthy. The confirmed opinion of those on the National Road is that this selection will he healthy.
"The north and south road has been opened by the proprietors from Big Creek to Walnut Prairie, and can be traveled with convenience and when a permanent road shall be made, it will not vary from the present line. Mills are convenient.
" The question of the removal of the seat of justice from Darwin has been agitated, and when finally acted upon, it is not improbable that the people of the county may find it convenient and to their interest to place the permanent seat of justice for the county at the Crossroads. The land is owned by Joseph Duncan and the subscriber, and a clear title. A sale of lots will take place on the 17th of October next, and terms of payment will be easy. The most liberal encouragement will be given to mechanics and others who will improve."
In this statement the strong points are probably marked by the italic which appear in the original document, and while nothing is said of the extraordinary development of the " Crawfish chimneys " to be found here, the salient points of the location are not unfairly presented. The plat of the town thus referred to was filed for record in October, 1835, and was bounded and divided by the following streets, beginning on the west side: West, Clinton, Hamilton, Franklin, Washington, Jefferson, Fulton, Henry and East. Beginning on the north side the streets follow in order: North Green, Mechanic, Cumberland, Market and South. Michigan street, now principally occupied by the Wabash Railroad, passes through the plat in a nearly due north direction, cutting the plat diagonally. The references attached to the record set forth:" 1st. The town of Marshall is situated and located on the south half of section number 13, and the north half of section number 24, in township number 11 north, of range 12 west, in Clark County, and State of Illinois. 2d. Cumberland street, through which the National Road passes, is one hundred feet wide, ten feet on each side of the National Road being added for sidewalks, and bears south fifty-eight degrees west, by the magnetic needle, to the west line of blocks, where it boars more west as will appear by the length of the lots. Michigan street is eighty feet wide and bears north, six degrees west. All other streets in the town, including the border streets, are sixty-six feet wide. Each and every alley is twenty- five feet wide. All the streets and alleys, Michigan street excepted, run parallel or at right angles with Cumberland street. 3d. Each lot where the squares are regular, is sixty-six feet front, and 123 feet in length, and when they are fractional or overrun, the size will be seen on the plat in feet marked in figures. 4th. Square number 5 is given and donated for educational purposes whereon to erect a college. Lots five and six of square number fifteen, is given and donated for religious purposes whereon to erect a meeting house. Lot number one, and fractional lot number two, of square number three, are given and donated for educational purposes whereon to erect a school-house for the benefit of the citizens north of the National Road. Lots number 7 and 8, of square number 38, are given and donated for educational purposes whereon to erect a school-house for the benefit of citizens south of the National Road. 5th. The north half, or lots 1, 3, 3 and 4, of square number 35, is given and donated for ground or space whereon to erect a Market House."
The qualifications set forth in the circular quoted were sufficient at that time to bring together a very respectable company of purchasers, and on the day appointed the sale proceeded with considerable animation, some seventy-five lots being disposed of, principally to residents of the county. No donation had been made at that time for the county public buildings, but it was generally known that block 36 would be the location fixed upon, should occasion for its use arise. In any event it would probably be a public square, and naturally form the business center of the town. The crossing of Cumberland and Michigan streets, the National and State roads, divided the choice of buyers for business sites, and about those two locations lots were considered the more valuable. Beside the lots donated as noted in the record of the plat, block 26 was reserved, together with lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, in block 20; lots 7 and 8 in block 21; lots 4 and 5 in block 22; and lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in block 28. The reservation of these lots indicates Archer's idea of where the business center of the town would be likely to form. There is no evidence of the competition which was manifested in securing the various lots save in the variation of prices paid for them, and this is an uncertain guide, as the situation and condition of the lot, considerations long since in operation, probably had a very large influence in determining their value at that date. In block 21, which forms the northwest corner of Washington and Cumberland streets, lot 1 was sold to Michael B. Thorn, for $12.50; lot 5, to James B. Anderson, for $71.50; and lot 6, to Stephen Archer, for $40. In block 22, just west of the preceding block, on the north side of Cumberland street, lots 1 and 2 were sold to Robert Kirkham, for $30 each; lots Sand 6, for -SS and 830 respectively, to .Joseph Shaw; in block 23, lots 1 and 2, for $10 and $8.50, to James Waters; lot 4, to Arthur Foster, for $10.50; and lots 7 and 8, for $33 and $20, to Woodford D. Dulaney. In block 24, lot 1, to the same person, for $12; lot 4, to Isaac Kilso, for $17; lot 5, to Jacob Johnston, for $25.50; lot 7, to Wm. McKean, for $26; and ??8, to Dulaney, for $30. In block 27, lot 5 was sold to Isaac Kelso, for $12; lot 6, for $7.50, to Nathaniel Washburn. The only lot sold in block 28 was lot 6, which fell to Dulaney, for $29. In block 29, lots 3 and 4 were sold respectively for $30 and S!7S, to .lames Waters; lot 5, to Kelso, for $21.50; lot 8, for $20, to William Leatherman. In block 30, lots 2 and 3 wore sold for $23.50 and $22.50, to James W. Waters; lots 4 and 5, for $23.50 and $16.50, to Geo. Armstrong. In block .31, lot 1 was sold to Jacob Johnston, for $21, and lot 4, in block 32, was sold to Waters for the same price. Lots 4, 5 and 6, in block 37, were sold for $20.50, $7, and $10, respectively, to Dulaney; and in block 3S, lot 3 was sold for $9, to Wm. Forsythe; and lots 4 and 5, for $10.25 and $7, to John Riggs. Other purchases were located on blocks 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18 and 20, and ranged from $5, paid for lot 1, in block 18, by Milton Lake, to $78, paid by Waters, and $71, paid by Anderson. The largest number of lots were bought by Dulaney who paid and aggregate of $203.50 for fifteen lots. The aggregate sales amounted to $1,154.25, and were made to about thirty individuals.
It will be observed that among the purchasers at this sale there were but few who came here before the removal of the county seat to this place was determined, and some who did not come even then. During the following year, and in 1837 and the early part of 1838, there was a good demand for the remaining lots and Col. Archer sold upward of one hundred, principally in single lot sales, to those; who were on the ground to make the village their home. In the meanwhile prices had very considerable advanced, scarcely any sales being made at prices below $35, and others mu h higher. All the lots in block 4 were sold to different persons for $50 each; those in block 6, from $53 to $05 each, la block 13, J. K. Dubois paid $75 for lot 3; for lot 7, in block 17, Jas. Whitlock paid $90; in the same block, lot 8 sold for $100, while lot 6, in block 19, lot 5, in block 33, and lot 8, in block 25, sold for $150 each. Lot 7, in block 27, and lot 8, in block 12, each sold for $300; lot 6, in block 23, sold to Benj. F. Allison for $275; lots 1 and 2, in block 27, sold to David Scott, of Springfield, Ohio, for $800, and lots 1, 3, 3, 4, and 5, in block 38, sold, with the improvements on them, for $1,500, to John Bartlett. A few of these prices were obtained after the final vote on the county seat question, but the first sale seemed to demonstrate the success of the town and the price of property took a permanent advance at once. In the fall of 1837, encouraged by the success of his plans Col. Archer laid out the first addition to the town and submitted it for record on November 3, 1837. This consisted of fifty-two squares or blocks located on the four sides of the original town. On the north were two ranges of these squares, with thirteen irregular out lots extending north of these to the limits of the section lines; on the east and west sides were two ranges, and on the south a single range. The new streets thus formed on the north, running parallel with Cumberland street, were Murray and Hudson, with Daviess on the south. On the west side, at right angles with the former, were Handy and Bond streets, and on the east side Ogden and Madison. The blocks were laid out with four lots each, 133 feet square, save blocks numbers 1, 16, 17, the squares between Mechanic and Market streets, and those south of town between East and West streets, in which the lots are of irregular sizes. These lots were easily disposed of during the following year or two, and in July of 1839, Mr. Archer made an addition of seventeen out lots of various sizes, on the west of Handy and north of Daviess streets, lot number 7 of this addition, containing 4 and 9-100 acres, being donated by the proprietor to the town as a cemetery. The area thus made a part of the village satisfied its growth and ambition until February, 1850, when Woodford D. Dulaney made an addition on the south side of town embracing all that part of the west half of the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 21. A large part of this was at that time meadow land and was not opened to the public until the fall of 1851. This addition increased the size of the town by seventy four lots. May 4, 1852, Uri Manley made an addition consisting of the southwest fractional quarter of section 13 and the east half of the northwest quarter of section 13. This was on the north of town, Michigan, or its extension, Chicago street, forming its eastern boundary, with Newton and Archer, as intermediate cross streets. In February of the following year, Stephen Archer made an addition on the south of Dulaney's addition, consisting of the west half of the southeast quarter of section 24, and that part of the east half of the southwest quarter of the same section lying east of the Charleston and Darwin turnpike. This was divided into sixteen lots varying in area from three and a fraction to five and a fraction acres. The last addition was made by F. R. Payne in 1870, which includes the square about the depot of the St. Louis, Vandalia & Terre Haute railroad.
The area of the new town thus had a rapid and satisfactory growth; but in the meantime its political organization remained latent, its destiny being shaped by the justice of the peace, the constable and the supervisor. The principal part of the large timber which was originally sparsely scattered over the site of the town, had been removed by the proprietors, an improvement which served but little better purpose than to make the under-brush more apparent. The National Road, which passed through the village as Cumberland street, was neatly graded and in the dry season presented a handsome appearance. Unfortunately the sod, which is counted the best road-making material, was stripped off and cast aside by the contractors, and the sub-soil thus broken up and exposed became, in the wet season, a very quagmire, through which horsemen were obliged to lead their floundering animals. Through Michigan street passed the State road, which had been cut out and somewhat traveled, and though in better condition for a year or two than the newly made road that crossed it here, it shared the general fate of things and was often nearly impassable. Streets hail only a theoretical existence, but the irregular paths that led from one neighbor's house to anther's, and even the open lots, only served to swell the aggregate of mud. It is related of a family, in the early years of the town, that they undertook to go to a neighbor's, about three quarters of a mile away, and were forced to give up the attempt. They started out on foot, but soon found it necessary to remove their shoes, and before accomplishing one half the distance, they found themselves miring to their knees, the little ones unable to extricate themselves, and the older ones completely tired out with their efforts. This was not an exceptional case, and as late as 1845, Judge Harlan would have his black man harness his horses to a wagon and gather the women of the village for church service. The town was innocent of sidewalks, and the wagon drove from the door-step of the house to the threshold of the church building, and this was the only way in which an audience could be secured, even in times of revival interest. Another feature which gave the place an unprepossessing appearance, was the absence of woodland grasses. Where there was space to stand, the rank, wild grass of the prairies had taken root, and it was not until about 1840, when Woodford Dulaney secured a bushel of bluegrass seed from his native State, that the village made the first step toward civilization, and began to make a showing of tame grass. Lots were regularly laid out at the start; frame and brick buildings early made their appearance; stores, schools and church influences followed in regular sequence, and some attempts had been made in a private way to secure sidewalks and improve the highways; but just how the town of 1855 was evolved out of the muddy, backwoods condition of things at the beginning, can not be accurately set down; its story has gone into oblivion unhonored and unsung. A manifest dissatisfaction with the state of public affairs had been apparent for several years, when an effort was made by a few public-spirited men to secure a charter of incorporation. This was granted by the Legislature in an act approved February 15, 1855. Its acceptance was submitted to a vote of the people in the following April, when the question was decided affirmatively and the following officers elected: Howard Harlan, mayor, and Wm. C. Eaton, D. A. Critchard, James Wright and John Clark, aldermen. The act provided that the jurisdiction of the corporation should extend over " all that district of country within the following limits, to-wit: one mile from the public square, and including all the present additions and subdivisions to said town, in each direction, or two miles square, [shall constitute the city of Marshall],"'—a generous territory for that time, and which there has since been no occasion to enlarge.
The new government met for the first time at the " Wright House," July 7, 1855, and proceeded to complete their organization by appointing J. P. Cooper, clerk, J. A. Gossett, supervisor of streets, Stephen: Archer, assessor, Lyman Booth, treasurer, and Wm. D. Wilson, marshal. The town was divided into two wards, all that part north of Cumberland street to constitute the first ward, and that part south of the same street to constitute the second ward, and then followed a code of corporation laws consisting of thirty-four sections. By these ordinances, in addition to regulating the routine of municipal business and the ordinary police restrictions, it was provided that the salaries of the city officers should be as follows: mayor, $50 per annum and the usual fees pertaining to the judicial functions of his office; aldermen, each $1.00 per day for each day's attendance upon the duties of his office; marshal, $100 per annum, and such legal fees as were allowed constables for similar duties; clerk, $200 for each day's service in discharge of his public duties; assessor, $2.00 for each day actually employed; supervisor $1.50 per day; collector and treasurer, the usual percentage. It was further provided, that the city taxes should be collected in "gold and silver coin, and city drafts or orders on the treasurer;" that peddlers, shows and exhibitions should pay a license fee of from three dollars to one hundred, in the discretion of the mayor; and "that if any person or persons shall barter, exchange, sell, or give away, within the limits of the incorporation of the city of Marshall, any spirituous or mixed liquor, wine, beer or ale, by less quantity than one gallon to any person or persons, at one time, upon conviction thereof, before the mayor, upon information being given to him in writing, under oath, by any person, shall be fined not less than ten dollars for the first violation of this ordinance, and for the second offense, twenty dollars, and for the third offense, fifty dollars; and for further violation of this ordinance the house, place, inclosure, possession and premises, where the same may be so sold or given away shall be and the same is hereby declared a nuisance, and shall be removed and abated By the mayor under the power and authority given to him under the provisions of the charter of the city of Marshall."
The municipal board upon which greatness had thus been thrust, possessed radical, progressive tendencies, but its influence seems to have been greatly impaired by legislation which bore evident marks of its being illy considered and much too far in advance of the sentiment of the community. It was repeatedly called upon to correct such manifest errors as in the original ordinance which required all male persons above the age of twenty-one to labor on the streets; to strike out the nuisance clause of the ordinance regulating the saloon business; restricting the operations of the whole ordinance to persons keeping a place of business for the purpose of dealing in liquors, etc. There seems to be little doubt that there was a public demand for the placing of some restraint upon the sale of liquors in the town, but the radical measure instituted at the beginning caused a reaction and the board was forced to yield its ground. This subject became a shuttlecock which, tossed from one board to another, gained little respect for the sagacity or honesty of the various public officers, and no tangible advantage to the good morals of the city. The board of 1857 inaugurated the license system and provided for the sale of liquors in quantities of less than one gallon under a license, the fee for which should be one hundred dollars, while the board of 1858, with an entire change of members, aiming at the golden mean, repealed the provision for a liquor license and made the sale of ale and beer free. The salary of officials also proved here, as is the case in all small municipalities, a fruitful source of legislation, and a cheap way to manufacture a claim for economical administration. The board of 1856 signalized its accession to power by an attack on the salary of the marshal and reduced it to $150, subject to be increased at the discretion of the council to any sum not exceeding $100. In 1858, the whole list was revised as follows: mayor, $25 per annum; aldermen, each fifty cents per day; marshal, $10 per annum, subject to an increase not to exceed $70; clerk, $1.50 per day; and supervisor, $1.00 per day. , Under the date of April 4, 1859, the following ominous entry, suggestive of Pickwick's "tomato sauce and the warming pan," occurs: " that T. W. Cole be allowed for cash advanced by him for copy of the act repealing the city charter, and for candles, $1.85." It is hardly probable that the latter articles were to be used at the obsequies of the city charter, however suggestive the connection, but it indicates the beginning of the end. The organization under the city charter had continued four years. The change from a simple unorganized village to a city had been too sudden and novel an innovation to be easily accepted by many, and the new and thankless duties imposed upon officials who could bring no special experience to their performance was a combination of circumstances not at all calculated to lead to the highest achievement. The result was a growing dissatisfaction with the experiment, and in this year the people decided to give up the charter at the end of that municipal year. The principal complaint seems to have been that the experiment " did not pay." What this may mean it is difficult, after the lapse of thirty years, to determine. The first council found the town without systematic improvements. The streets were graded in the usual way of country roads, and some sidewalks of various kinds had been built by private means. These efforts the city council aided, but adopted no system that should gradually embrace the whole corporation. The first action in this matter was taken in 1858, when it was ordered that all sidewalks in the city to be thereafter constructed, should be ten feet wide, and that where sidewalks were repaired they should be narrowed or widened as the supervisor should deem wise. The sidewalks at that time very generally consisted of a slight embankment covered with sand or travel, while here and there were board sidewalks varying from one plank, ten inches wide, to four planks wide. These were protected by a fine from injury by the leading or driving of animals thereon, and the construction of new ones of the various kinds encouraged by the city bearing one half of the expense. The improvement of the streets was principally confined to the repair of bad spots in the various streets, and the sparing application of gravel at various points. In 1857, the question of protection from fire was taken up and discussed, and the following ordinance promulgated: " Be it ordained, etc., that the hooks, ladders, ropes and all other fire apparatus now or hereafter to be provided for the use of the city, shall be placed under the immediate care and supervision of the City Marshal, who shall keep the same in some safe and secure place, easily accessible incase of fire, and until some building shall be erected for the purpose.
Sec. 2. Whenever an alarm of fire is raised every house-holder is required to bring with him to the fire a bucket, and if such bucket should be lost or destroyed at such fire, the owner may get the value thereof from the city treasury on proof or affidavit of such loss.
Sec. 3. The City Council shall appoint good men in each ward to act as guards over the different streets, and parts of their respective wards during the prevalence of any fire in the city; and whenever an alarm of fire is raised it shall be the duty of said guards diligently to watch over the different places assigned them.
Sec. 4. The City Marshal is hereby invested with full authority to act as chief at any fire in the city; to direct persons and detail as many as he may think proper to bring on to the ground where the fire is, the hooks, ladders and other fire apparatus of the city, whenever no person or persons shall voluntarily bring them.
Sec. 5. It is hereby made the special duty of the Mayor, the Aldermen and other city officers to assist and be active in forming the necessary lines for the supply of water to those engaged in extinguishing the fire.
Sec. 6. Any able-bodied person who shall refuse when called upon by the Marshal or any of the city officers above named, or any regularly appointed fire warden, to enter into line, shall be liable to a fine of not less than one dollar, nor more than ten," etc., ad finem.
Early in the previous year a destructive fire swept away several business blocks on Cumberland street, and the question arose of doing something to assist in such an emergency hereafter and it was proposed in council to purchase four ladders, four hooks, four poles, 200 feet of inch and a quarter rope, and a light wagon to carry them. The matter was debated and deferred until some time in 1858, when the ladders and hooks were procured, but the fate of the charter changed their destiny, and in May, 1859, the marshal was directed to collect and expose to public sale " all the property belonging to the city, including hooks, ladders, plows, scrapers, etc." This officer made return of the sale on the 16th of the month to the effect that ten dollars had been realized from this sale, of which sum one dollar was allowed the marshal for his services. Thus ended the regime of the city, and if but little was accomplished, the cost was similarly small. The entire expenditure of the first municipal year was $302.37, and while the "journal of the council" does not give the expenditures, it may be safe to put the average expenditure at $500 per annum, for the five years under the original charter.
During the two succeeding years the village went back to its original political condition, and when in the fall of 1852, the people voted to organize the town as an "Incorporated Village" under the general law, there was but little to show for the expense and trouble of the five years of city life. The Board of Trustees which was elected had their first meeting on November, 27, 1863, at the court house. They began de noro, and prepared the usual list of ordinances by a series of parliamentary rules. Beside this innovation in the ordinary practice of such bodies, the new administration was not marked by any special vigor, wisdom or originality. They followed in the old beaten tracks of the city organization, dickering over the salary of the constable, aiding the building of sidewalks, patching up broken roads, and placing the liquor traffic under a license of fifty dollars, obliging dealers, however, to give in addition, an indemnifying bond of five hundred dollars. In 1866, a new board of trustees, consisting of R. L. Dulaney, J. P. Greenough, E. S. Janney, Mumford Laws and D. Legore. The members of this board were evidently animated by an intelligent comprehension of the duties imposed upon them by the position, and their prompt and vigorous action indicated no hesitation in declaring- the policy of their administration. The ordinances were at once concisely revised so as to increase the sources of revenue, to restrain illy-considered expenditure, and to secure a regularly employed corporation attorney; and the whole career of the board was so marked by vigorous, business-like executive ability that it gave the city government a much higher standing with the people than it had hitherto attained. This was largely characteristic of the succeeding board, until 1870, when the present city organization was adopted. The deciding vote was cast on July 9, 1870, the decision for city organization under the general law being effected by a majority of 80 to
2. On August 20th following, the town having been divided into four wards, substantially as at present, the following officers were elected: James McCabe, mayor; William Shaw, alderman for first ward; O. G. Stephenson, for second ward; N. S. McKeen, for third ward, and Patrick Conohy, for fourth ward. In 1874, the offices of clerk, city attorney and treasurer, which hitherto had been appointments in the discretion of the council, were made elective, and are tilled every two years, alternating with the other elective officers of the city.
The town had now grown to such proportions as to demand a departure from old municipal traditions, and the new lorni of city administration seemed in a measure, to respond to this demand, but there have not been wanting instances, during the past twelve years, when a broad, progressive spirit has been signally wanting in the city council chamber. But while a conservative policy has generally marked the city government, it has not proven an unmixed evil. Public plans have been formed entirely within the actual resources of the treasury, and while this policy has frequently resulted in vexatious delays of needed repairs, in greatly retarding public improvements, and effectually hindering any systematic plan of public expenditure, the city has never had a debt to carry. A strict code of police regulations was among the earliest legislation of the new administration, which, though it has suffered some strange amendments since then, is still suflicient, if actively enforced, to satisfy the most exacting citizen. Up to the time of this enactment the unruly citizen had been the chief object of police restrictions, but in this ordinance the liberty of animals to wander about the streets was placed under limitations. By this law all "dangerous, unruly or niiscliievous animals'' were forbidden the liberty of the city, and " horses, mules and asses," were not allowed to run at large between the months of December and May, both inclusive. In 1873, hogs of all ages were placed in the list of tabooed animals, between February 1st and the 15th of May in each year, unless they were incapacitated to root by "taming or ringing their noses." In the following year, however, the hog was again the favored object of animal restrictions, and, provided they were incapacitated as aforesaid, were alone of all brute creation allowed to wander " fancy-free " throughout the city. At the very next meeting of the council but one, the friends of the cow rallied, and expressed through the law-making power the opinion, that " it is deemed inadvisable, under our present status as a city to jirohibit or regulate the running at large of cows, in view of the fact that it will tend to oppress a majority of our citizens who are in possession of such animals." In 1879, the pendulum of change swung to the opposite extreme, which is now the law, only " tamed or ringed pigs" being allowed the freedom of the streets. These legal fulminations, however, do not prevent the unmolested promenade of these animals, lunching out of farmer's wagons, and annoying teams and pedestrians as their inclination serves. The ordinances in relation to offenses against the public peace and quiet, against public; morals and decency, against public safety, convenience and health, etc., etc., have always been notably stringent, and have been creditably enforced. Drunkenness in public is made a misdemeanor, and does not frequently fail of punishment. The police force of the city, under the present organization, has generally consisted of two day officers, with one night watchman, who is sustained partly by the city and partly by private subscription.
In public improvements the city government seems to have been particularly hampered by its conservative policy. The sidewalks had generally outgrown the turnpike and gravel period, and were being gradually replaced hy board walks, under the regime of the village trustees. Public funds were employed in assisting their construction, the village treasury bearing one half of the expense of such improvements. The city council, however, took the matter into its own hands, and on petition constructed board walks or pavements only, and then assessed the expense upon the property benefited, in certain cases bearing a small proportion of the cost out of the public moneys. In December of 1875, a brick pavement was ordered to be constructed on the north side of Cumberland street in patches, in front of places of business. These walks were to bo twelve feet wide, made of good paving brick, with five inches of sand foundation, and finished with a white oak curbing, one half of the cost to be paid out of the public funds of the city. This has been supplemented by walks of the same character in other parts of the business part of the city, and the construction of wooden walks within the " fire limits" has been forbidden. Stone gutters were placed on the north side of Cumberland street, opposite the public square, and in 1880 the same improvement was extended to the east side of the Court House block, on Hamilton street. Progress in street improvements has not been so marked nor so rapid. While their original condition has been greatly improved, there remains much to be done to put them in a satisfactory condition. The county is poorly provided with material for road making, and much of the gravel used has been secured along the line of small streams, and has be^n of little value. The superintendent of the Vandalia Road on one occasion furnished the city with gravel at simply the cost of loading, which proved more serviceable. During the summer of 1883, fifty-five yards of macadamized road was made on Hamilton street, at a cost of $49.50. Street lighting is one of the more recent improvements. In the summer of 1875 a committee of the council was appointed to look up the subject, and subsequently a few lamps were secured and placed on trial. The whole matter dragged along, however, until March 7, 1881, when fifteen lamps were purchased and placed in position; since then, some half dozen more have been purchase 1 by individuals, which the council supply and care for.
All attempts at creating an efficient defense against fire have thus far proved futile. The earlier attempt has been noted. In 1874 the project of getting a hook and ladder truck and " Babcock extinguisher " was submitted to a vote of the people, which resulted in 58 for to 53 against the purchase of the truck, and 2 for and 111 against the purchase of the " extinguishers." A nondescript machine was subsequently bought on trial, and an old house set on fire to give an opportunity to test its efficiency as a fire extinguisher. The result was a sorry farce and the machine was laughed out of town. The only protection beside an "extinguisher" or two owned by individuals is the restrictions of the "fire limit" ordinance. This was first passed in May, 1875, and prohibited the erection of wooden buildings upon "any lot in the original plat of Marshall, fronting or contiguous to the public square in said city, or on any lot on either side of Cumberland street, fronting said street, as far east as Michigan street." Its provisions were afterward enlarged, so as to prohibit the use of wooden roofs in repairing any old, or in the construction of any new buildings.
In the matter of revenue, the policy of the city has been to maintain a high protective tariff. The earlier schedule of license fees was almost prohibitory in effect, and even now the peddlers, auctioneers and proprietors of exhibitions, circuses, etc., contribute very considerably to the city revenue when they have the temerity to " bill the town." The whole range of business, even to butcher shops, are protected. The liquor license is generally restrictive in principle, but incidentally adds very largely to the income of the city treasury. This is a constant source of agitation in the council, anil enters very largely into every municipal election. Under the present organization of the city, the action of the city authorities has varied from absolute prohibition, to license for fees ranging from $150 to $300 per annum. For the current year licenses are granted to saloons at $300, and to drug-stores for $100 par annum, subject to a heavy indemnifying bond. The cause of this vacillation is largely political. There is in the city an influential minority constant in its opposition to granting saloon licenses. Besides this factor, there is a floating vote, which vote for or against license, as serves their purpose, and this element maintains the balance of power between the two " constant quantities." Through the saloon influence the political fortunes of the hour are carried in favor of one political organization, when its opponent will turn about and bring the attack upon the enemy's stronghold by cutting off the license provision. This is done by cajoling the floating vote, not upon temperance grounds, but upon political necessity. It is not in-frequently the case that the council act in direct opposition to the expression of the people when the subject is submitted to a popular vole. The revenue derived is doubtless a very cogent argument, and under the ordinances there seems to be every facility for making the liquor business a very unprofitable one, if carried on to the detriment of individuals or the public, provided the means supplied by law are used. In 1880, under the liquor-license regime, the revenue from business permits was $105 from saloons $1,200, and from fines $361; in 1881 no saloon licenses being issued, business permits amounted to $211.65, and fines $200. In 1882 the licenses for liquor sales will probably reach $1,600. The following gentlemen have been elected to the mayoralty of the city: 1870, James McCabe; 1872, Thos. H. Sutton; 1879, Edwin Harlan; 1881, D. S. McMullen.
The early business growth of Marshall was not marked by more progressive tendencies than were exhibited in the administration of public affairs. For over thirty years the village was handicapped by competition with more successful and older towns, with a surrounding country not rapidly developed, nor largely productive, and by a lack of public-spirited men. It scarcely needs to be said that the provisions of the founders of Marshall for its development, reveal something more than the mere business sagacity of a shrewd man of affairs. The plan of founding the village was doubtless conceived in a spirit of speculation, but in carrying out the details, his personal interest became Strongly excited, and Col. Archer accepted no criterion save its future success. Though subsequently burdened with public duties and embarrassed by serious reverses, he devoted his best energies and the last remnant of his fortune to the promotion of the town's highest interests; and while many of his projects proved abortive, the impress of his molding hand is still felt by the citizen and observed by the stranger. His relations with Governor Duncan in the history oft the town while not clearly ascertained, were probably simply the purchase of his name and prestige for a consideration, a prestige that availed little beyond the inception of the enterprise.
The first building in the village was Bartlett's hotel, which was erected in 18?6, and this was soon followed by business and dwelling houses, so that by the close of 1838 there was a good showing for a town, and the present business portion pretty well marked out. On the corners of Franklin and Market streets were the hotel buildings; on the north corners of Franklin and Cumberland were the stores of Whitlock and Anderson; on the southeast corner of Hamilton and Cumberland was Cole's saloon; and on the northwest corner, a story-and-a-half frame building, just inclosed, which Woodford Dulaney was erecting for a place of business. On the site of Foster's block was a frame building which served Dr. Allison as office and residence; and just west of this, on the corner of the block, stood an unfinished frame which was afterward bought and finished by Dr. Poole. Near the southwest corner of Clinton and Cumberland streets, fronting on the latter, stood a structure, the frame- work of which was composed of jack-oak poles. This was one of the very earliest buildings in the village, and was erected by Joseph Martin, a laborer on the National Road. This passed into other hands, and as a hotel was the first competitor for public patronage that Bartlett had. The older part of the building was torn away to give place for Claypoole's block in. 1881. This was the only structure on the west side of the public square in 1838; but on the south side, beginning on the southeast corner of Clinton and Market streets, was the brick residence of Uri Manley; a frame building just east of it, which was first used by the court, and later as a post-office and business room; and still farther cast stood the little frame tailor-sbop of J. B. King. These buildings, with the fifteen to thirty dwellings generally scattered over the entire area of the plat, constituted the village of 1838. The only public means of communication with the outside world was by the stage line that ran north and south on the State road from Vincennes to Danville, and east and west from Indianapolis through Terre Haute to St. Louis. The mail in this region was brought from Vincennes to Paris once a week, first on horseback, and as early as 1833 in a vehicle. In 1838 the stage line superseded this mode, and four-horse coaches ran three times a week, stopping at the log hotel to change. About 1842 the Indianapolis and Terre Haute line was extended to St. Louis, and then daily coaches passed through the town, furnishing a direct route of travel as good as any town could boast. The merchants were forced, of course, to rely upon their own resources for the transportation of goods, teaming them in favorable weather from Terre Haute, or in the spring from Darwin, where merchandise was delivered by boats. For the next thirty years the town had a steady but very slow development. Archer and Bartlett put up the brick hotel, now known as the St. .lames, in 1842, which, though occupied, was not finished until two or three years later. This was the most pretentious building at the time in the village and was the center of attraction. Here the stage lines passed, and the curious villager found it a convenient point to learn the news and get a glimpse of passengers as the stages changed horses and stopped for meals. A little before the erection of the hotel, Archer erected a frame building on the site of Benedict's block, which was subsequently destroyed by fire. In 1856 the present brick was put up in its place. Dulaney was called to Kentucky by the death of his father, and his store was subsequently occupied by Booth & Greenough. This firm was succeeded by Lyman Booth & Co. (the Greenough interest being represented in the " company"), who built a store building on the corner of Hamilton and Market streets in 1850. Three years later, Mort. Reed erected the block now known as the "Clark corner," and in the year following the block occupied by Bradley & Doll was built by Charles Welch, W. T. Martin block by Tower Bros., and the Sherman House by Summers. The Sherman House was sold to James Wright when the foundation was laid, and was finished by him in 1855 and called the Wright House. In 1856 an addition to the Benedict block, what is known as Streever's block, was erected. This covered the space between " Clark's corner " and the end of the present two-story bricks, and consisted of five buildings. The three nearest Reed's building were erected by Streever, the next one by Henry Wallace, and the last by Wm. Davis. With the exception of a single-story brick where Gallagher's saloon is now kept, these were the principal additions to the business portion of the town up to 1808.
In the meantime a vigorous agitation for a railroad had been started. A line for an east and west road had been surveyed, passing through the central part of the village; but this was seriously antagonized by other railroad interests and failed. Subsequently the Terre Haute, Vandalia & St. Louis route, better known now as the "Van. road," was projected, with lines varying from one to eight miles away from the village. The newspapers and the public-spirited men of Marshall were urgent in their appeals to the people of the county to be ready to support the project liberally with their money, and the township did vote $50,000, in addition to the $100,000 voted by the county at large, to aid this enterprise. The town, however, was subsequently relieved from this special donation. Still the road was not definitely located in the region of the village, the engineer vacillating between the various proposed lines. It was shrewdly suspected by persons interested here that he was waiting for a personal pecuniary inducement which he failed to get from the Marshall people, and receiving peremptory orders to fix the survey, ran the lino a mile out of town. The work was pushed with reasonable vigor, and in 1870 the cars passed within the limits of the corporation. The completion of the Vandalia Road gave business enterprises a new start, but failed to do for the village much that was hoped for, on account of its distance from the central part of the town, and because in making Terre Haute more accessible, it reacted upon the home business interests. During this time the north and south line of railroad was agitated, and in 1874 became a fact. To this venture Marshall gave $50,000, an investment which the community has had no reason to regret. The line passed through the central part of the city and has given its development and growth an impetus which the other railroad failed to do. The finest part of the present business part of the city has been erected since its construction. In 1871 Gorham's block was built on Cumberland street, north of the square, and Legon's block, on Hamilton street, east of the square. In 1872 were erected Chenoweth's block, by Bryan & Chenoweth, and Harlan's hall, on the corner of Hamilton and Market streets. The row of three brick buildings, just west of the Sherman House, was built in 1873. Foster's block, north of the square, was built in 1874, and rebuilt in 1881. The west part of Gallagher's block was rebuilt in 1S74, and the eastern part erected in the following year. Dulaney's grocery building in 1875, and the bank block in 1870; Jno. Archer block, north of square, in 1870; F. A. Berner block in 1877; and Henry Wallace's block in the same year. In 1880 Dulaney's grocery building was remodeled, the block of Kester, Cole & Archer, Dr. Bradley's office building, and the south part of Claypool's block, were erected. In 1881 Bradley's block, Claypool's corner building, Dr. Jayne's block, and Hippard's block, on the site of one of Streever's old buildings, were put up. Whitlock's building, which occupies the site of another store of the old Streever block, was erected in 1882; and Pat. Smith's block in same year.
Marshall has never laid any claim to special advantages for manufacturing purposes, but so far as abundance of good timber and shipping facilities are concerned in the question, the city is admirably adapted to such enterprises. Coal and water are secured with reasonable facility and at reasonable cost; and these various qualifications have recently attracted the attention of capitalists seeking a location, but receiving little or no encouragement from leading men, have gone elsewhere. The early community was not independent of this class of business, especially of grist and carding mills. These were a necessity, and that community that could sustain such enterprises was deemed highly favored. Marshall early secured the mills best known in pioneer times, and when the country outgrew these crude affairs, the city was fortunate enough to secure their natural successors, and so flouring and woolen mills have been a prominent factor in the city's business prosperity. The earliest among these more modern manufactories was a carding mill, started here in 1841, by Wm. McKeen. It stood where the property of Wm. Bartlett is now placed, the building having been moved across the street and now occupied by Ben. Dangler as a residence. The propelling power was an old-time treadwheel, but in 1849 the machine was transferred to the steam mill and propelled by its machinery. In the older settlements on the eastern and western sides of the county, there were a good many sheep kept for that time, and these brought considerable patronage to the mill. It was nearly the only one in this section of the State and people came from a large area of country. The mill was maintained for some fifteen years, making a comfortable competence for the proprietor.
The first steam flouring mill in the county was erected on the National Road in the west part of town. Before it was completed, the projector of the enterprise, Le Vay Cory, sold the structure to Wm. McKeen, who in company with Ebenezer Payne carried on the business for a number of years, when the death of Mr. Payne dissolved the partnership. McKeen then sold his interest to the Payne estate, when it was conducted by the firm of Martin & Payne, who subsequently sold it to Laingor & Fasig. From this firm it passed into the hands of Payne & Besser, and thence to Besser & Martin. The mill originally started with two run of stone, but two more were subsequently added. A mill-pond was at first constructed and used for years, but becoming offensive to the neighborhood it was abandoned and water drawn through eleven hundred feet of pipe from wells near the woolen factory. It was gradually supplied with all improvements of the time and did a large custom business, grinding about 400 bushels of wheat a week, 200 bushels of corn per day, beside other grains which were in regular demand. On October 6th, 187I:, the structure took fire and was totally destroyed, the firm losing $10,000, without a dollar's insurance. Another mill was built in the following year on the site of the old structure by A. M. Payne and Wiss. Harlan. This was a fine brick structure with modern improvements, a large capacity, and intended for commercial purposes. It was built and furnished at a cost of $25,000, and for nearly five years did a large business. It changed bands several times, and was owned by A. M. Payne and D. S. McMullen when it was destroyed by fire. Payne's interest at that time was rented by J. S. Lycan, and the business was conducted under the firm name of Lycan & McMullen. About two o'clock on September 11, 1879, fire was discovered in the upper story, and the citizens summoned to the rescue by the steam whistle. But the flames had got beyond the resources of the city and it proved a total loss, save a few fixtures which were removed from the lower part of the mill. A large warehouse, not quite finished, but containing about ten thousand bushels of wheat, stood within thirty feet of the mill, but fortunately escaped the flames. There was a light insurance, but not enough to cover half of the loss. The warehouse was subsequently moved to the Wabash railroad, near Market street, and gradually converted into an elevator. It is provided with steam power, a corn-sheller with a capacity of thirty-five hundred bushels per day, and a corn buhr. It has a storage capacity of 20,000 bushels, and is now rented and operated by Emerson & Archer.
In 1872 Ewalt, Lycan & Co. built the Little Giant Mills on South Bend street. Lycan subsequently sold his interest, and rented Payne's half in the Marshall Mills. When that was destroyed, he purchased an interest in the Little Giant Mills again. It was rebuilt in 1874, and has a capacity of fifty barrels of flour per day. Quaker City Mill was erected in 1874 by Joseph Cork at a cost of $16,000. It has a capacity of 125 barrels per day and an elevator attached. Messrs. Besser & Marvin now own and operate the mill.
A natural successor to the old carding mill, but in no way connected with it, is the Marshall Woolen Mill. This enterprise was begun by the erection of a wooden building on nearly the exact site of the "Little Giant Mill" in 1853. The projector of this business, E. L. Janney, was a resident of Palestine and a lawyer by profession. His eyes failing him, he was induced by his brother-in-law, Mr. Alexander, to go into this business and the two gentlemen came to Marshall for this purpose. The mill did a thriving business for some five years when it was totally destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt and continued in operation until the present brick structure was erected near the old site, at a cost of about $12,000. The early business was largely custom work and drew its patronage from a large area of surrounding country. Home-made clothing was at that time the general wear, and customers were in the habit of coming long distances to get their wool worked up, frequently waiting two or three days for their turn. In the last mill some improved machinery was placed and considerable commercial work done. A good grade of jeans, a coarse sort of cashmere, common flannels, and a good quality of blankets were manufactured. But of late years the industry has languished, the mill operating only a part of the time.
There was little demand for early banks here, and there has never been one of issue in the town. In 1857, the Eagle Insurance Company was chartered, with Nathan Willard, Uri Manley, Chas. Johnson, Robt. Brown, and Sam'l McClure as stockholders. The charter authorized the company to loan money at any rate of interest that might be agreed upon between the contracting parties. No attention was paid to insurance save, perhaps, an agency business, the evident intention being to establish a loan office without the liabilities and restrictions of a regular banking charter. The business never assumed any great importance and gradually died out. It was subsequently revived by Bates, of Terre Haute, and McMullen, of Marshall, and in 1875, was succeeded by the Clark County Bank. This organization while possessing the old charter, went into business under the general law pertaining to incorporations. The stockholders at this time were Robt. Brown, John Morton, Jonathan Hogue, D. D. Doll, and D. S. McMullen, with Brown as president, Doll as vice-president, and D. S. McMullen, cashier. The present officers are, Jno. Morton, president, Robt. Brown, vice-president, and T. W. Cole, cashier. Another private bank was started in June, 1S79, by Robt. L. Dulaney, and still continues, doing its share of the business.
Until 1848, Marshall was without a newspaper. The town was small and the development of the county' such that a newspaper venture did not promise abundant returns for the investment. The village was not, however, lost sight of by the pul)lic prints of the neighboring towns. Occasional communications from the " county seat of Clark County " appeared at irregular intervals in the Paris and Terre Haute papers, but they were so much taken up with personalities that nothing is to be gleaned from them as to matters of public interest. There was but little to induce the early founding of a newspaper here. The proprietors, though men of political ambitions, seem to have had less faith in newspaper influence than is generally entertained at this day, and they do not seem to have exerted any influence in securing such an establishment. It would doubtless have proven a valuable adjunct to the other means employed to develop the village, but the man and the hour did not coincide. The harmony of political tastes was another retarding feature. On most of the important state and national questions, there was little diversity of sentiment and what really existed was of such an uncertain character that no permanent lines were drawn. The Whigs, so long as they kept the field, were in the large majority, and the " Know Nothings " ran a short but successful career, but since then until 1862, the Democratic party has been in the ascendancy. During the War of the Rebellion, party differences were largely ignored and the Republican or Union party was the prevailing organization, but since its close party lines have once more been drawn more according to earlier affiliations and both of the great parties are represented with a slight preponderance in favor of the Democratic.
Journalism here, in the language of a noted politician, has been a " haleyon and vociferous proceeding." There has never been manifested any loss for language to express editorial convictions or to characterize the views or conduct of opposing writers, and much of the editorial writing has been marked more by forcible than elegant expression. In common with most early newspapers, those of Marshall have given much more space and effort to the cultivation of public opinion than to the dissemination of local news, which, perhaps, the nature of early communities and their surroundings more fully warranted than at present. But with the growth and development of the town, the newspaper has developed until Marshall is now represented by four weekly papers equal in ability to any of the surrounding towns.
The first paper published in Marshall was the Illinois State Democrat. It was democratic in politics, and was owned and conducted by John M. Crane and Nathan Willard The paper showed considerable ability, the enior editor being a man of some editorial. experience, though of somewhat erratic habits. Late in 1848, soon after the paper was established, Mr. Crane withdrew, leaving Mr. Willard sole proprietor, who continued its publication until the spring of 1853, developing a native capacity which gained for him an enviable reputation as a journalist. At this time he sold the paper to Messrs. J. C. Robinson and Jacob Zimmerman, who reinforced it by the purchase of the Marshall Telegraph, an opposing paper which had sprung up in the campaign of 1852, and changed the name of the combined journals to the Eastern Illinoisan. The paper continued without further change until December, 1856, when S. S. Whitehead became proprietor, as he had been editor during the most of the preceding campaign. Several gentlemen were associated with Mr. Whitehead in the business management of the paper at various times until in 1861; when it became evident that the civil war was soon to occur, he sold out his entire interest in the Illinoisan to H. H. Peyton, " to avoid the heat and anger sure to result." The latter gentleman, however, entered the army in August, 1801, and Mr. Whitehead was compelled to take the paper into his own control. The publication was continued until 1865 when, public duties making it impossible for him to attend to its management, he sold the office to Mr. John Littlefield. For nearly thirteen years its publication ceased, but in January, 1878, its publication was revived and it is now the organ of the more pronounced wing of the Democratic party. It is now a six-column folio, devoted principally to politics.
The Flagg of Our Union, was a five-column folio, started on May 30, 1861. The leading principles of this paper are suggested by its title. The Illinoisan was hostile to the prosecution of the war by the North, and while its attitude in this met with the support of a considerable element in the county, the majority of the people, without regard to political faith, called for an exponent of the Union sentiment. It was in response to this sentiment and some more substantial encouragement, that John Littlefield began the publication of the Flag. His political affiliation had been with the " Know Nothings," but in this venture, he cautiously planted himself on the Union side of current questions. In his first article Mr. Littlefield said: " We shall contend for a strict observance of the Constitution and the enforcement of the laws. * * * We shall ignore politics and discussions as to the cause of the war. But, in the language of Stephen A. Douglas, ' fight the battles of our country first, and talk about the causes after.' " This newspaper venture was started on small capital and limited editorial experience, but it gradually gained support until it passed beyond the stage of an experiment to a regular institution of the county. The publication of the Flag was suspended, however, at,the end of the third volume, when the editor entered the army, but did not leave the State. In April, 1865, having purchased the press and material of the Illinoisan, Mr. Littlefield launched the Marshall Messenger, the first issue appearing April 28, 18G5. In his salutatory the editor says: "The Messenger will be independent in all things." It started as a six-column folio, but has since been enlarged to a six-column quarto with the inside furnished by an '"auxiliary" printing establishment.
Of the papers which have disputed the political field in Marshall with the Democratic journals, the earliest was the Marshall Telegraph. This paper was started to aid the Whig campaign of 18j3, with Messrs. Jones & Farley as editors and proprietors. This venture was the outgrowth of a general desire of the Whig supporters for an organ and prominent members of the party invested considerable money in furnishing the office. The paper subsequently passed into the hands of Charles Summers, who sold it to the Democratic contemporary in the spring of 1853. In April or May of the following year Messrs. E. Callahan and S. F. Andrews, issued another paper of " Know Nothing " proclivities, reviving the name of the Marshall Telegraph. Mr. Callahan retired from the management in the following fall, Mr. Andrews conducting it in the support of the Republican party until the winter of 1837-8 when its publication was suspended. In the following June or July Messrs. N. O. McKeen and John A. Whitlock started the Marshall Journal in the interest of the Republican party which continued until the fall of 1859, when it was absorbed by the Illinoisan. It was edited by John A. Whitlock alone, after Mr. McKeen's retirement in the early part of 1858, and subsequently by Dr. W. S. Goodell, who published it as an independent organ, until its demise. The extinction of Republican papers, however, did not indicate the death of Republican sentiment in the county, and in 1868, the Clark County Herald made its appearance. The editor and proprietor, M. O. Frost, had been formerly an attache of the Cincinnati Commercial, and in 1867 was publishing the Hotel Reporter at Covington, Ky. He was placed in communication with several of the prominent Republicans of Marshall, and the result of a conference was an agreement on Mr. Frost's part to establish a paper if 500 subscribers could be secured. This a committee of Republicans undertook to secure, and with such success that Frost was written to come with his paper. About 400 subscribers were secured, and the first issue of the Herald appeared August 28, 1868. The Messenger was then in undisputed possession of the editorial field, and viewed the establishment of a Republican journal as a challenge to political combat. Since the first issue of the Herald a vigorous fusilade has been maintained between these papers, which was varied on the revival of the Illinoisan by a triangular distribution of the skirmish. The Herald has been eidarged to the proportions of a six-column quarto, printed entirely in its own office. It has been marked during its history for the attention paid to the publication of local news.
Church Progress, is a weekly paper pubished in the interest of the Catholic church. It was projected by the pastor of the Catholic church here, in 1873. It was designed simply as a means of communication from the pastor to the people of his congregation and was first issued monthly in a four page pamphlet form. The church was heavily in debt and this means was taken to stimulate the members to larger contributions. The scope of the paper was gradually enlarged, becoming semi-monthly in January 1880, and weekly in its publication during the present year. It is a seven column folio and is still edited by Rev. Charles Kuhlman.
But the permanent progress of a community is not measured alone bv its business success. Indeed such success depends very much upon the foundation society lays in the school and church. This fact was clearly foreseen by the founder of the city and early provision was made for these aids to civilized development. The liberal donations and the sentiment of Col. Archer on this subject led the early settlers to believe that the best of educational advantages would soon be within their reach, but they did not wait for schools to come to them. Such men as Col. Archer, Whitlock, Griffith, Bartlett and Neal, set about securing a school-house at once, and in 1837 the first building for this purpose was erected on the southwest corner of the college lot. A school was taught here in the following winter by Thomas Handy, who lived on Union Prairie. In the following year Jonathan Greenouch, who was a native of Maine, wrote inviting Dean Andrews to this place with a view of promoting the school interests. He was a graduate of Bowdoin College and came in the latter part of 1838. After fitting up the school-house which had been used by Handy, and the court for its first session, he taught a term or two of public school, and later, a private school in a frame building erected for the purpose. In the meantime there was a general desire that the donation of land on which to erect a college should be permanently secured by the founding of such an institution. This was the prime object of Andrews' coming to Marshall and he proposed at once to erect a building for such purpose if assisted by the people. To this proposition the people responded liberally, and about 1852 Mr. Andrews erected the main part of the brick building which is now used for the public school. No definite information can be gathered of this early school, save that for some years it was generally patronized and fairly successful under the guidance of the projector. Some eight or ten years after its founding it occurred to some of the leading Methodists of the town that it would be advisable to establish a sectarian school, to which proposition Mr. Andrews lent a willing ear and eventually sold his property to certain trustees for $3,000, certain gentlemen securing the payment of S1,000, by joint note and the balance secured by mortgage on the property. " Marshall College " proved no better as a financial investment than other un-endowed colleges, and the makers of the note were obliged to meet its payment. The mortgage was subsequently met in the same way, Samuel Park, John English, James McCabe and P. McNutt assuming the burden for the Methodist society, in August, 1865. Two years later McNutt conveyed his interest to the other trustees, and on Feb. 33 1867, the property was advertised for sale. Mr. English subsequently bought it, and in 1871, sold it to the public school trustees for graded school purposes.
Among the early successors of Mr. Andrews was E. D. Wilkins, who carried on the schools with promising success from about 1856 to 1861. This was the period of the school's greatest prosperity, which, however, grew rapidly less at the opening of the war. The Flag says of the close of the school year in There was a slim attendance at the examination. No examining committee being present at the exercises." B. G. Bradshaw succeeded Mr. Wilkins as president, with Prof. Hughs as assistant, and L. H. Bradley and Sheridan Cox as teachers. In 1803, a primary department was added and in the following year .Mr. and Mrs. P. McNutt engaged as teachers. Mr. McNutt succeeded to the presidency in the following year and was assisted by Professor Merrick from Ohio. Mr. McNutt was subsequently appointed traveling agent and was succeeded by Rev. Wm. S. Hooper who, a little later, combined the duties of teacher with those of pastor to the Methodist church here. The college term rates at this time were, for the First Preparatory class,87.00; 2nd. Prep, class, $8.50; Freshman class, $9.00; Sophomore, Junior, and Senior classes, $10.00; contingent fee, $1.00. Various causes combined to' work against the prosperity of this school during the war and especially after its close. The growth of graded schools, and the Lick of sufficient capital to place the institution in the front rank of collegiate institutions was severely felt by the management. Still the school was maintained for some time after the building passed into private hands, until it finally ceased in 1867 or 1868.
In the meanwhile the public schools had grown into considerable importance. A stone school-house succeeded the early frame building about 1840 or 1842, and was situated in the eastern part of town. Some five or six vears later a brick school-house was erected on the lot donated for a female academy, and as the population of the town was increased, school room facilities were augmented by hiring vacant rooms about town, the office of the St. James Hotel serving this purpose for a time, and in 1868, some of the rooms in " Marshall College" building were also used. The inconveniences of holding schools in the several parts of town without a central building, gradually created a demand among the people for some better provision for school rooms. The question of purchasing the hotel on the corner of Michigan and Cumberland streets was early submitted to a popular vote and negatived. In 1865, it was again submitted to the people and carried by a majority of three in favor of the proposition, but the minority was so large and a counter-agitation to buy the college building sprang up, so that the trustees did nothing about it. In 1868, the subject was again raised, by an offer of the proprietors of the building to sell it for $4,000, in four annual installments. If, however, the railroad was not built, the price was to be reduced to $3,000. The building was at this time in a dilapidated condition, and some two or three thousand dollars were estimated as the cost of refitting and repairing it. The matter thus passed on until August 8, 1871, when it was decided by a popular vote of 138 to 39 to purchase the building for $3,000. The property was at once overhauled, re-plastered, re-fitted, and repaired at a cost of nearly $2,000. The public schools were graded about 1852 or 1855 by a Mr. Griffith. In 1865, there were three departments ; in 1873, these had grown to seven, and there are at present twelve departments for which ten teachers are employed. The school year is eight months; the average monthly salary for teachers is $53; highest $80 and lowest $25.
Church influences were felt in Marshall as early as the coming of schools, but they did not result in permanent organizations until some years later. Services were early held by Congregationalists, Methodists and Catholics in private houses and school-houses, and about 1840, an effort was simultaneously put forth by Dean Andrews, T. F. Day and Patrick Conahy, to organize a society of their respective denominations
The Congregational Church was organized April 3, 1841, by Dean Andrews, John Black, Elza Neal, A. M. Chapin and Willard Center, assisted by the Rev. A. M. Jewett of Terre Haute, Ind. The members were the gentlemen named, with their wives, and Nancy Black and Emeline Cole. Dean Andrews was licensed as a minister, April 7, 1842, and ordained as pastor of this church in May of the following year. He served the church, however, from April, 1841, continuing until October of 1852, and subsequently from September, 1864, until his death in September, 1873. He was a man of large influence and public spirit, and his loss was seriously felt. Between the two terms of Mr. Andrews' service. Rev. Jacob P. Chapman was pastor, and served with acceptance. Following the death of Mr. Andrews, Rev. J. T. Graves officiated as pastor until October, 1876, when a vacancy occurred until 1880, filled temporarily by Revs. M. A. .Tewett, S. S. Martin and others. In September of the latter year, Rev. H. M. Burr was called, and served as pastor until September, 1883, since which time the church has been without a pastor. The church building is a frame structure standing on Hamilton street north of Cumberland street, and was erected in 1843, at a cost of about $1,500. This sum was raised by subscriptions varying from a widow's mite of three cents to the donation of a pair of Fairbanks' scales, the latter contributed by Mr. Fairbanks himself. The original trustees were John Black, Elza Neal, Dean Andrews, Wm. Dougan, Jesse Mark, J. K. Greenough, and John Bartlett. This was the first place of worship erected in the town, and although lacking many of the modern conveniences, is still a comfortable place of worship and a well preserved building. A weekly prayer meeting was instituted at the time the church was organized in 1841, and has been regularly maintained since. A Sunday school was also organized at the same time, and still exists, with an attendance of about seventy scholars and officers. It was about the first school of the kind organized in the county. Burns Archer is the present superintendent.
A Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in the year 1841, also. There were some ten persons of this denomination in Marshall; Abel English and wife, Uri Manley and wife, T. F. Day and wife, James Martin and wife, Hannah Chapman and Mrs. Hays. Abel English was a local preacher of New Jersey, and under his lead a church was organized at the court house in June of this year. Rev. Burr of the Livingston circuit, "supplied " the church, and meetings were h Id in the Andrews frame school-house. About 1845, an effort was put forth to secure a permanent place of worship, and the following gentlemen were elected trustees with a view to carrying this effort to a practical issue; Abel English, Uri Manley, James Martin, T. F. Day, Willard Center, John Combs and Simeon Poole. The work was undertaken in earnest, and Mr. Day undertook the task of circulating a subscription paper. This was a task of no small dimensions, as not only was the home field to be canvassed, but aid was sought in Edgar and other counties where there were older Methodist societies. He secured subscriptions to the amount of some $800, which by contract with the trustees he retained, and rendered service on the building at $1.75 per day. This proved a valuable contract to the church, as the full subscription was not realized and the cost of collection proved an item worth consideration. The frame was erected on Hamilton street, just south of Market, in 1846, but for lack of funds, remained unenclosed until the next year. The building of this structure was a heavy burden to the little church, and each one was obliged to shoulder all the responsibility he could carry. The labor fell principally upon Mr. Day who, with the sons of Mr. English, got out all the timbers, went to the land of Mr. Blundell in Wabash Township, got the poplar logs and hauled them to the mill. The lumber was sawed at English's mill on Big Creek. It is related that the bridge across the stream partly washed away, leaving a part of it standing half way over the stream. There was no way to get the wagon to where the lumber was piled, and as the only resort the lumber was brought to the wagon. To do this every board was brought to the end of the broken bridge and stood up in the stream, from whence it was taken and carried up a steep bank to the wagon. This work was performed principally by Mr. Day and illustrates some of the difficulties to be overcome to secure the place of worship. It was finally completed, and in 1849 dedicated by Rev. Hiram Brick. This building sufficed until 181 3, when the present brick structure was erected on Mechanic street. For some time previous, however, the building had proved too small to comfortably accommodate the audience, and services were held in the court house, in the school house, in Manley's office, and in the Congregational church. During the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Pilcher the church experienced a remarkable revival, which resulted in some 300 additions to the church, and the subject of a new building was forced upon the church. A building committee was appointed, which decided upon a brick structure, the plan of which was drawn by an architect of Terre Haute. Work was commenced in spring of 1873, and the present building, 40 by 80 feet, erected at a cost of nine thousand dollars. The church numbers now about 200 members, and is in a flourishing: state. Among the ministers who have served the church since Mr. Pilcher, are the Revs. Slagle, Obenchain, Burkett, McVey, and the present pastor. Rev. Robt. Mclntyre.
The first Catholic who settled in Marshall was Patrick Conahy, a brother of the Bishop of Kihnore, Ireland. A year later five German Catholic families settled on farms south of Marshall. Father Bouteau, who built churches in Terre Haute and North Arm, was the first priest to visit this place. After him. Father Lallemier, of Terre Haute, attended to the spiritual wants of these early settlers, saying mass in their houses. The first priest stationed in Marshall was Rev. Hugh Brady in 1848, who remained about one year, during which time he besjan to build the first Catholic Church in Clark County, and roofed it. He died suddenly while on his way to Chicago to see the bishop. After him, the little congregation was attended by Revs. F. Ingolsby, G. A. Hamilton and Thos. Ryan, from North Arm, once in every two months. Father Ryan completed the old church, which still stands, though long alienated from its sacred office. A graveyard was donated in the time of Father Ryan. After him Revs. D. Byrne, John Vahey, and others, attended here. In 1851, Bishop Van de Velde, of Chicago, visited Marshall and administered the sacrament of confirmation. In 1860, Rev. H. Horen became resident pastor, and in the same year purchased a square fronting on Hamilton street, and on it laid the foundation for the present church building. In 1867, Rev. John A. Mark became pastor, and completed the new church, which was dedicated October 20, 1872, by Revs. J. A. Mark, F. Stick, and Francis, O. S. F. On this occasion twenty-nine persons received the sacrament of confirmation.
Rev. J. A. Mark, after having completed the church, put up two substantial buildings for school purposes. At the time of his removal in 1872, the congregation was heavily in debt. The Franciscan Fathers of Teutopolis attended the congregation until May, 1874, when Rev. I. Wegener was appointed pastor. 1 and remained such until June 1876. From this time until December 9, 1876, Rev. P. Raynerius, O. S. F., of Teutopolis, attended the congregation. Since then Rev. C Kuhlman has been pastor. The congregation, consisting now of about one hundred families, principally Irish, have extinguished the heavy debt under which they have labored so long, and is now in a thriving condition.
On April 4, 1846, a petition signed by fourteen persons was presented to the Palestine Presbytery in session at Paris, requesting to be organized into a church. The Presbytery gave the petition a favorable reception and appointed Revs. H. I. Venahle and R. H. Lilly, and Elders .lames Welsh and T. M. Brooks, a committee to attend to the organization. On the 25th of this month, the committee and signers to the petition met at Martinsville and organized a society to be called the " Marshall Presbyterian Church." The original members were Alexander, Prudence, Rachel, Amy, John R., and Mary Jane Matthews, William and Jane King, James and Sarah Gibson, Rachel Babcock, Thomas B. and Jane McClure and Prudence Cochran, all of whom lived in the vicinity of Marshall and Martinsville. Alexander was made Elder, and for some years meetings were held alternately at Martinsville and Marshall, at irregular intervals, using school-houses, private residences and other church buildings for the purpose. About 1857, a fixed location was agitated and in the following year a neat, frame place of worship was erected on Hamilton street, in the south part of town. This effort cost the church a severe struggle and the house was not completed until a year later. In 1877, the building was remodeled and put in complete repair. Its steeple was subsequently blown down and has not yet been replaced. The building occupies a good-sized plat of ground and is surrounded by a handsome young grove, forming the pleasantest church property in the city. Its regular pastors have been, Ellis Howell, from 1855 to 1865; R. C. McKinney, 1808-09; Thomas Spencer, 1871-72; George F. Davis, from 1876. For years the church had no regular ministry, and its growth, somewhat retarded by this circumstance, has been slow from the beginning. Of late years, the Sabbath school has been considerably enlarged, and the general condition of the church and congregation much improved. The entire membership numbers about one hundred and thirty-two.
The ministers of the Evangelical Association, visited this county as early as 1843, and as many Germans had settled here and were without church facilities in their own language, they gladly seconded the efforts of the association in establishing societies. The first appointment was made at a point about seven miles southeast of Marshall, in the neighborhood of Mr. Kraemer's. Soon after an appointment was made for a point four or five miles east of Marshall, and L. Mannbery made leader, and another four miles west of Marshall, at the house of G. A. Fredenberger. In 1855, Marshall was made an appointment and services held at the residences of G. Markel and others. The first camp meeting was held a mile and a half southwest of the Grand Turn. Thus, until 1850, Clark County was served by two ministers whose labors took them to Dubois, Spencer, Gibson, Vanderbilt, and Warick counties, Indiana. The first German minister in Marshall was John Schrefley, and was succeeded by C. Augenstein, C. Lindner, A. Nicolai, G. G. Platz and others. The first church was built here in the summer of 1849, at a cost of about $700. A few years later a parsonage was built near the church and subsequently was enlarged and is now valued at $600.
Societies are well represented in Marshall, each of the principal orders having lodges here. Marshall Lodge, No. 133, Free and Accepted Masons was chartered October 8, 1856, by Jas. H. Hibbard, Grand Master of the State, with James C. Robinson, Nathan Willard, Jacob Zimmerman, J. P. Woodside, Thomas Brown, Wm. S. Price and J. S. Gimbrel, as charter members. The lodge held its meetings in Benedict's block, later in a hall north of the court house square, but more recently have fitted up a hall in Dulaney's block, where the members now have very comfortable quarters.
Eureka Lodge, No. 64, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized July 15, 1850, in a room over Booth's store. The charter members were Robt. L. Dulaney, Newton Harlan, Nathan Willard, Albert D. Saiford, Howard Harlan, Daniel Safford and Benjamin Stover, the latter of whom is the only one of the charter members now living. The first regular place of meeting was in Benedict's hall, from which the lodge moved to the third story of D. D. Doll's building and later to W. T. Martin's building where the lodge-room now is. The lodge now has a membership of ninety-six.
The William B. Archer Post, No. 119, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized February 21, 1881, with L. S. Kilbourn, M. O. Frost, Milton Harris, George Slusser et al, as charter members. They have a finely furnished hall in Claypool's block. The Knights of Honor have a lodge here which numbers about a hundred members, occupying the same hall with the G. A. R. It was organized June 16, 1881.
The History Of Crawford and Clark Counties Illinois edited by William Henry Perrin 1883
The History of
Crawford and Clark County
W. H. Perrin, O. L. Baskin & Co., 1883
Transcribed by Kevin Ortman and Barbara Z.
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