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Biographies of Cook County Residents
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ROBERT M. SWEITZER. In the public life of Chicago during the present century no one man has been more consistently and steadily honored in a way to reflect his undeniable personal popularity and his strength with the Democratic masses of the city and county than Robert M. Sweitzer. Many figures have come and gone in the public affairs of the county, but in one office, that of county clerk, there has been no change for almost a quarter of a century, though in the meantime the center of gravity in national and local politics has shifted time and again. Robert M. Sweitzer is a native son of Chicago, and was born in that city May 10, 1868, son of Martin J. and Sarah (Lamping) Sweitzer. He was educated in public schools and St. Patrick's Commercial Academy, and subsequently received the honorary Master of Arts degree from the Christian Brothers College of St. Louis. Mr. Sweitzer began his career in 1884, as a clerk with W. F. Mc Laughlin & Company. He was a salesman with James H. Walker Company from 1885 to 1893, and with the John V. Farwell Company from 1893 to 1910. Mr. Sweitzer was first elected to the office of county clerk of Cook County in 1910, and in 1930 was reelected for his sixth consecutive term. As county clerk he is also ex-officio county comptroller and court clerk. The only times Mr. Sweitzer has ever been beaten in a political race were the two occasions when he ran for mayor, the first time in 1915 and then in 1919. His record in elections and in public service justify the general opinion that he is the most resourceful leader of the Democratic party in Northern Illinois. Mr. Sweitzer has devoted himself to the ad ministration of his office, but is a popular member of a number of organizations, including the Chicago Athletic Club, Illinois Athletic Club, Iroquois Club, Butterfield Country Club, Olympia Fields Country Club, Chicago Riding Club, Chicago Yacht Club and the Chicago Schwaben Verein. He is a director of the Illinois Commercial Men's Association and of the Illinois Traveling Men's Health Association. He is an Elk and Knight of Columbus, and on May 29, 1924, Pope Pius conferred upon him the decoration of Knight of St. Gregory the Great. Mr. Sweitzer married, August 3, 1904, Miss Alice Jane Kevil, of Chicago. They have three children, Robert M., Jr., Alice and Margaret. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)



ABRAM DALE GASH has had a career of unusual distinction in several different fields, the law, Masonry, literature and public affairs. For over thirty years he has been one of the very able and successful members of the Chicago bar. In public affairs his outstanding service was as the first incumbent of the office of president of the Illinois State High way Commission, and he deserves a great deal of credit for his work in organizing and laying the foundation for Illinois' modern high way system. Mr. Gash is a native Missourian. He was born near Macon in Macon County, February 11, 1861, son of William Thomas and Maria (Dale) Gash. He is of old American and Revolutionary ancestory on both sides. His great-great-grandfather, Thomas Gash, was a Virginian who in early life went across the mountains to Kentucky and became a planter and slave owner in Mercer County of that state. His will bequeathing quite an extensive estate was probated in Mercer County in 1812. Mr. Gash's grandfather, Samuel Gash, left Kentucky and went to Howard County in Central Missouri in 1831. He was a pioneer there. Abram Dale Gash has in his possession two patents to Government land in that county made out to his grandfather and signed by President Andrew Jackson. In the maternal line Mr. Gash is a descendant of Captain Dale, who served with John Paul Jones in the war for independence.
Mr. Gash grew up in Macon County, Missouri, received his early education there and quite early became interested in politics and for four years was deputy circuit clerk. He utilized the opportunities of that office to take up the study of law. Mr. Gash in 1890 went to Utah and had many interesting experiences in that state. He was admitted to the bar of Utah 1891, and practiced law at Provo, was elected and served as prosecuting attorney of Utah County, serving two terms of two years each, four years; and also served on the staff of the governor of the state. Leaving Utah, he came to Chicago in 1898, and has gained a very high standing as a lawyer of that city. For twenty-seven years Mr. Gash had his offices in the old Oxford Building, at the corner of LaSalle and Randolph streets, a site now occupied by the Metropolitan Building.
In the agenda of improvements which he proposed to work out during his administration as governor, Edward F. Dunne emphasized a program for good roads building, and in enlisting the most capable man to head the newly created Illinois State Highway Commission he selected the Chicago attorney, Abram Dale Gash, who served throughout the four years of Governor Dunne's administration and continued as a holdover for six months in the same position under Governor Lowden. In that way Mr. Gash earned a noteworthy distinction as a pioneer in the good roads movement in Illinois. During that time plans were made and a program of education carried on which may be regarded as the foundation of the highway system by which Illinois now has a hard surfaced mileage equalled by few states in the Union.
Mr. Gash throughout his life has acknowledged a deep call from literature, which has proved an interesting diversion from his professional work. He has written both poetry and prose, and his volume of poems published in 1923, under the title The Triumph and Other Poems, entitles him to an important rank among Illinois poets. Mr. Gash has many Masonic connections in Chicago and while living in Utah he was master of Story Lodge No. 4, A. F. and A. M., at Provo, and had the distinction of being elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Masons of that state. His first wife was Nannie Rutherford, who was the mother of his oldest son, Lowell Edwin Gash. In 1905 he married Maude Blomquist. Their children are William A., Abram Dale, Jr., and Rose Marie. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

GEORGE M. PULLMAN. At the time of his death, October 19, 1897, George M. Pullman was known in both hemispheres as the inventor of the palace car, president of the Pullman Palace Car Company, and founder of the town of Pullman. Mr. Pullman was born in the village of Brockton, Chautauqua County, New York, on the 3rd of March, 1831, son of James Lewis and Emily (Minton) Pullman. George M. was a persistent, self-reliant boy, and at the age of fourteen left the home schools to get into business, his inducements being forty dollars per year and a "chance to learn." After spending a year as a clerk in the Brocton store, he joined his elder brother, R. H. Pullman, at Albion, New York, learned the trade of cabinet making and became his brother's partner, and participated in a fair business until his father's death, November 1, 1853. He returned to his home to be the mainstay of his widowed mother and the four dependent members of the family, and there he took a contract for raising buildings and doing other work along the line of the Erie Canal, which was then being enlarged by the State of New York. In 1859 he moved to Chicago and, with a capital of $6,000, commenced his career as an engineer and contractor, and some of the largest buildings of the Chicago of that day were raised through the energy and ingenuity of George M. Pullman, when a young man of about thirty. Soon after locating in Chicago Mr. Pullman obtained permission from the Chicago & Alton Railroad to experiment in one of its repair shops on two old cars, and see what could be done in the way of sleeping accommodations. At a cost of $8,000 he succeeded in fitting the cars with such taste and ingenuity that they were attached to a regular passenger train and made several trips. In the midst of these initial experiments he went to California, where his ability as a mechanic and engineer assisted him to collect quite a capital with which to push his sleeping car project. Returning to Chicago in the early '60s, Mr. Pullman confidently resumed his enterprise, and with the aid of skillful assistants and at a cost of eighteen thousand dollars, produced a model car within about a year from the commencement of his labors. It was beautifully frescoed, finely upholstered, richly carpeted, and the woodwork showed that the builder had no superior in the country as a cabinet maker. It was an innovation to the railroad world and rightly named the "Pioneer." At this stage of the enterprise Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, and that his precious remains might be duly honored, they were placed in the magnificent "Pioneer," bridges were raised along the line, platforms were adjusted, and the body of the beloved president was conveyed to its last resting place, in Springfield. Not long afterward General Grant, then heralded as the foremost living American, came to his old Galena home, and to bear the war hero thither the palace car was again called into requisition. An other railroad therefore adjusted itself to its magnificence, and before the public were aware, it had been transferred from the class of luxuries to that of necessities. The "Pioneer" was first placed on the Chicago & Alton Road, and sleeping cars modeled upon it were successively introduced on the Michigan Central, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Great Western systems. The Union Pacific first received the benefit of his dining cars. In 1887 he designed the vestibule car and placed the first vestibule trains on the Pennsylvania Company's trunk lines. Mr. Pullman established his first car works at Atlanta, Georgia, in 1866, and in the following year organized the Pullman Palace Car Company and founded the Chicago plant. In 1880 he commenced the erection of his great works at the town of that name, which he also founded, upon a 8,000-acre site, twelve miles south of Chicago on the line of the Illinois Central Railroad. In 1899 the name was changed from the Pullman Palace Car Company to the Pullman Company. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

WILLIAM WELLINGTON HUGGETT. Among the men who have contributed toward the definite establishment of Chicago as a world port, none has played a more important role than William W. Huggett, vice president and general manager of the National Terminals Corporation, in active charge of the North Pier Terminal at Chicago and the extensive terminals at East Chicago, Indiana, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Returning to Chicago in 1919, he has been untiring in the building up of the Chicago organization and in placing it in a position of power and influence in Chicago's Commerce. Mr. Huggett is a native Chicagoan and a son of William H. and Bessie (Bradt) Huggett, and both members of Illinois pioneer families. His father was born at Chicago in 1857 of ancestors who came from Sussex, England, with Irish ancestry intermingled. His mother was of the Shirley family on her mother's side, the Shirleys being from Colonial American stock of Massachusetts, who were pioneer settlers on Cherry Valley, near Rockford, Winnebago County, Illinois. The boyhood and young manhood of William W. Huggett were passed in the Woodlawn and Hyde Park section on the South Side of Chicago, where he attended the Walter Scott Grade School and Hyde Park High School. He embarked in the railroad business in the offices of the traffic department of the Illinois Central Railroad, and, developing a great liking for this line of work, was employed as traffic manager for a number of industries on the South Side. When the United States entered the World war, in April, 1917, Mr. Huggett volunteered for service in the United States Marines, and received his training at Paris Island, South Carolina. In the latter part of 1917 he went overseas with the Sixth Regiment of Marines, attached to the Second Division, and served in France until after the close of the war, having been in military service for twenty-six months. Mr. Huggett returned to Chicago in 1919 and entered the employ of the National Terminals Corporation, the headquarters of which are at Indianapolis. He became identified with the North Pier terminal, a subsidiary at Chicago, and assisted in the reorganization of that company, since which time it has had a remarkable growth. He first became general manager and later was made vice president and general manager, in charge of all operations of the North Pier Terminal, as well as the extensive terminals at East Chicago, Indiana and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The warehouse of this company at Chicago, with its three-quarter-mile span, is at the end of Illinois Street, abutting the Chicago River and terminating at its junction with Lake Michigan. Daily at the North Pier there can be seen craft from England, Norway, Sweden, the Latin countries, Newfoundland and South America. Supplies of every sort are unloaded for distribution to the local transportation lines, all of which are represented in the port layout, the railroads through spurs, electric tunnels and boats for service. When the deep waterway is completed, boats plying on the Mississippi will unload at North Pier Terminal or at East Chicago, where British boats now unload iron ores for the steel mills, international oil refineries their petroleum products, and similar cargoes. The new outer drive under way by the South Park and Lincoln Park boards cuts through the heart of the North Pier Terminal, and when it is completed the public will have the opportunity of seeing this at present hidden port of world commerce. Mr. Huggett is still a young man, but has accomplished much in his chosen field of endeavor, in which he is already accounted as an acknowledged leader. He is a member of the American Legion and the Lake Shore Athletic Club and takes a commendable interest in civic affairs, but has found little time to give to matters outside of his business. Mr. Huggett married Miss Agnes Lees and they are the parents of three children: William Stanley, Dorothy Agnes and Ralph Merle. The beautiful family residence is at Hazel Crest, Illinois. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

FRANCES E. WILLARD was born at Churchville, New York, September 28, 1839, but the following year her parents moved to Oberlin, Ohio, and in 1846 came around Lake Michigan through Chicago to a new home in Wisconsin. She attended the Milwaukee Female College in 1857, and in 1859 graduated from the Northwestern Female College of Evans--ton, Illinois, and taught natural science in that school from 1862 to 1866. From 1871 to 1874 she was president of the Woman's College of Northwestern University and in that capacity introduced the system of self government which was adopted by various other colleges. She was professor of aesthetics in the Northwestern University in 1873-74. She resigned her work as an educator to identify herself with the cause of temperance, serving as corresponding secretary of the National Women's Christian Temperance Union. She presented, under the auspices of the National Women's Christian Temperance Union, memorials to each of the four political conventions for the nomination of President of the United States in 1884. She was a founder of the Home Protection party in 1884, and a member of its executive committee, and accepted the leadership of the White Cross movement in her own union in 1886, which remained her special department until her death. She was president of the Woman's Council of the United States from its organization in 1887; a delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1887, and was elected to the Ecumenical Conference in 1889, but was refused admittance. She was president of the American branch of the International Council of Women of the World's Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1888; chairman of the World's Temperance Committee of the Columbian Exposition in 1893, and was also head of the purity work of the World's and National Women's Christian Temperance Unions. She lectured extensively in Europe and the United States, performed many editorial duties and was author of: Nineteen Beautiful Years (1864); Hints and Helps (1875); Women and Temperance (1883) ; How to Win (1884) ; Women in the Pulpit (1888); Glimpses of Fifty Years (1889); A Classic Town (1890); and the following leaflets: "A White Life for Two," "The White Cross Manuel," and "The Coming Brotherhood." She died in New York City, February 18, 1898. A white marble bust by Lorado Taft was placed to her memory in Northwestern University in 1898. Her estate was bequeathed to the National Women's Christian Temperance Union. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

FREDERIC SIEDENBURG, S. J., prominent Catholic educator and sociologist, has since 1911 been an honored member of the faculty of teaching and administration of Loyola University of Chicago. Father Siedenburg was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, January 28, 1872, son of Frederic and Barbara (Kaelin) Siedenburg. He took his Bachelor of Arts degree at Saint Xavier College in Cincinnati in 1893, and in that year joined the Society of Jesus, better known as Jesuits. He continued his studies in St. Louis University at St. Louis, where he received the Master of Arts degree in 1899. He was a member of the faculty of Saint Ignatius College at Chicago from 1900 to 1903, and then returned to St. Louis University as one of its instructors. He devoted himself to his theological studies at St. Louis University from 1904 to 1908, and following that went abroad and was a research student of sociology and economics in the universities of Innsbruck and Vienna during 1909-11. He was ordained a priest of the Catholic Church in 1907. In 1911 Father Siedenburg joined the staff of Loyola University and in 1914 established the School of Sociology (now known as the School of Social Work) which was the first school for the training of social workers under Catholic auspices in the world. Father Siedenburg is still Dean of the School and also of the Downtown College of Liberal Arts. Some idea of the scope of his interests and his activities can be had from a list of the organizations with which he has been connected actively since coming to Chicago. He was vice president of the board of directors of the Chicago Public Library and is a member of the board of public welfare commissioners in the Department of Public Welfare of Illinois. In 1916 he was appointed by Governor Dunne a member of the Illinois Centennial Commission and reappointed by Governor Lowden and he contributed to the great work of that body. He is a trustee of the Social Workers Country Club, member of the Ohio Society of Chicago, the Medievalists, is a Republican. He was for eight years a member of the executive committee of the National Conference of Social Work. He is Chairman of the Chicago Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers; since 1904 has been a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is a life member of the American Sociological Society, American Academy of Political and Social Science and National Conference of Catholic Charities. At the 1931 Illinois Conference of Social Welfare, Father Siedenburg was elected President of the 1932 Conference held at the State University in October, 1932. He is vice-chairman of the Committee of Cultural Relations with Latin America. He was the founder and for fourteen years has been president of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society, is a director of the Illinois State Historical Society, member of the Chicago Historical Society. He is vice president of the Madonna Center, member of the Social Service Club and the Alpha Kappa Delta Sociological Society. Dean Siedenburg is also a frequent contributor to Sociological and Church journals in Europe as well as in America. He has also lectured on social and educational themes in all parts of the United States. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

LYMAN TRUMBULL was born in Colchester, Connecticut, October 12, 1813, was educated there, at the age of twenty went to Georgia and taught school, studied law at the same time and was admitted to the Georgia bar in 1837. In the same year he came to Illinois, locating at Belleville, St. Clair County. His public career upon which his reputation largely rests commenced in 1840 by his election to the State Legislature. Before the expiration of his term, he was appointed in 1841 secretary of the state of Illinois, and after two years of service in that office resumed the practice of law, in which he soon ranked among the leaders of the bar in the state. He was tendered the position of secretary of state by Governor Carlin, but before his acceptance the tender was withdrawn by Governor Ford. His next political ventures consisted of two unsuccessful attempts to secure the nomination for Congress. He was shortly thereafter a candidate for United States senator and for the nomination for governor, in both of which ventures he was likewise unsuccessful. In 1846 he secured the nomination for Congress, but was defeated; in 1848 he was nominated and elected one of the justices of the State Supreme Court under the new constitution and was reelected in 1852, but resigned in 1853.
During the comparatively short period of his occupancy of a seat on the bench he distinguished himself by the accuracy of judgment he displayed, acute discrimination and familiarity with organic and statute laws. In 1854 he was elected a member of the Thirty-fourth Congress and before taking his seat the Legislature elected him to the United States Senate for the term beginning March 4, 1855, and ending in 1861. During this period he served as chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary, one of the most important senate committees during this period of great agitation. As senator he was outspoken against the policy and doctrines of the old Democratic party with which for years he had been prominently identified and became active in promoting the policies advocated by the new Republican party. In all questions relating to slavery he acted in direct opposition to his colleague, Stephen A. Douglas, and fought bitterly the popular sovereignty plan of settling the slavery question in territories and future states. His advocacy of the policies of the new party and his able opposition to his able colleague, Douglas, soon gained for him a national reputation as statesman of extraordinary ability. In 1860 he advocated the election of Lincoln, and subsequent to the election, but before the inauguration, he was one of the few men in the Senate who was outspoken in favor of the adoption of prompt and vigorous methods for the maintenance of the Union. In 1861 he was elected for a second term and reelected for a short term in 1867. During the period from 1861 to the end of his term as senator, and as chairman of the Judiciary Committee, he framed and advocated many of the most important acts passed by Congress during the period immediately subsequent to the war, among which was the amendment to the Constitution abolishing slavery.
In the impeachment trial of President Johnson he voted for acquittal on the articles of impeachment. He resided in Belleville until 1849, when he removed to Alton and in 1863 to Chicago, where he became a leader of the bar in that city. He did not reenter public life after the expiration of his third term in the United States Senate until 1880, when he was a candidate for governor against Shelby M. Cullom, in which campaign he was defeated. He died in Chicago July 10, 1896. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

LEONARD SWETT was born near Turner, Maine, August 11, 1825; was educated in Waterville (now Colby) College and studied law in Portland, Maine, for two years. He was on his way south with the intention of locating there as a lawyer at the time of the Mexican war and entered the service as a private soldier in the Fifth Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. He was invalided out in July, 1848, and went to Bloomington, where the next year he entered upon the practice of law. Associated with him in practice on the same circuit were John T. Stuart, Edward D. Baker, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen T. Logan, and among this group he was recognized as a leader. Like all lawyers of his day, he became interested actively in politics soon after his admission to practice and in 1852 he canvassed the three congressional districts as Whig elector, and a few years later, upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, he united with other Whigs in the formation of the Republican party. He was a pronounced anti-slavery advocate, and spoke throughout the state on this subject. During the campaigns of 1854-56-58-60 his interest in this question and his association with Lincoln led him to advocate the latter's nomination for the presidency by the new party, and his influence with a small group of able lawyers in the circuit did much to secure Lincoln's nomination and later his election. Lincoln relied upon the friendship and advice of a few men who were not members of his cabinet, and while Swett held no official position with the government throughout Lincoln's administration, it is said that he spent most of his time in Washington during that period as the advisor of the President, often being intrusted by him with confidential missions of the utmost importance. In 1865 Swett removed to Chicago and formed a partnership for the practice of law with Judge V. H. Higgins and Col. D. Quigg. The prominent and unselfish position he had occupied as Lincoln's friend and adviser and his activities in the events leading up to the war, together with his known ability as a lawyer, soon brought him a large practice, and he became in a short time one of the leading members of the bar. While possesed of a keen, logical mind and rare mental attainments, he was a man of broad sympathies. His reputation rests not so much upon his association with Abraham Lincoln and participation in events of national importance as upon his genial and affable disposition and his achievements as a practicing lawyer. He died in Chicago June 8, 1889. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

THOMAS HOYNE, pioneer Chicago lawyer, was born in New York City February 11, 1817. His ambition and remarkable intellectual talents enabled him to triumph over an early life of poverty and adversity, and while earning his living in New York he laid the foundation of that broad knowledge and culture which later distinguished him. Largely due to the influence of George Manierre, whom he met in a debating club in New York, he came to Chicago at the close of 1837 and became an assistant to Mr. Manierre, then clerk of the Circuit Court. He continued his studies under J. Young Scammon, was admitted to the bar in 1839 and in a few years had made a reputation not only as a well-read lawyer, but a brilliant and resourceful advocate and orator. He was a partner of Benjamin F. Ayer, and after 1864 had as one of his partners Oliver H. Horton. He remained head of the firm of Hoyne, Horton & Hoyne until his death. He was a Democrat and Free Soiler, and in 1853 President Pierce appointed him United States district attorney of Illinois, and in April, 1859, he became United States marshal and supervisor of the census in the northern district of Illinois in 1850. He was one of the very active members of the Union Defense Committee during the Civil war. In 1876 he was candidate for mayor on the Reform ticket, and though the balloting gave him a majority of 33,000, the office was given to the regular democratic candidate by order of a circuit judge, and Mr. Hoyne refused to carry the contest further. He helped found a chair of international and constitutional law in old Chicago University in 1859, was the first secretary of the Chicago Astronomical Society, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Chicago Historical Society, and from 1877 until his death was president of the board of trustees of the Union College of Law. Among his writings his "The Lawyer as a Pioneer" is one of the valuable sources of information regarding the history of the early Chicago bar. Thomas Hoyne was killed in a railroad accident July 27, 1883, at the age of sixty-six. He married a daughter of Dr. John T. Temple of Chicago, and their son, Thomas M. Hoyne, carried on the general work of his father and added much to the prestige of the name Hoyne in Chicago. A third generation is represented by Maclay Hoyne, a grandson of Thomas Hoyne the elder. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

MARK SKINNER, born at Manchester, Vermont, September 13, 1813, was connected on the maternal side with the Pierpont family, and his father, Richard Skinner, was eminent as a Vermont lawyer, and served as governor, member of Congress and chief justice of that state.
Mark Skinner graduated from Middlebury College in Vermont in 1833, later spent a year in the New Haven Law School of Yale, and had as private instructors, Judge Ezek Cowen, the noted author of Cowen's "Treatise," and also Nicholas Hill at Albany, who was a master of the profession. Arriving at Chicago in July, 1836, Skinner was shortly thereafter admitted to the bar; practiced for a time with George A. 0. Beaumont; and in 1847 became a partner of Thomas Hoyne. He was city attorney in 1840, school inspector in 1842, United States district attorney in 1844, a member of the Legislature in 1846, and was chairman of the meeting in 1846 which made the arrangements for the great harbor and river convention in 1847.
In 1852 he succeeded Giles Spring as judge of the Cook County Court of Common Pleas. On account of ill health he declined a renomination to the bench in June, 1853. At his entrance on the duties of judge, finding the calendar overladen, he sat continuously for seven months, cleared it up and kept ahead. Toward the close of his term there was argued before his court the prayer of James H. Collins for an injunction against the Illinois Central Railroad for appropriating land at rear of Mr. Collins' residence. This brought into Illinois courts for the first time the dispute over riparian rights on the lake shore which subject continued to provide a theme for litigation until very recently. As a lawyer it is said that no one of his contemporaries so extensively represented non resident capitalists or handled larger amounts of the borrowed money so extensively used in building up the City of Chicago. Among the interests with which he especially identified himself was the Reform School, of which he was one of the founders and president of the first board of directors. He helped organize the Young Men's Association and the Chicago Lyceum, was the first president of the Chicago Sanitary Commission and during the war was a member of the United States Sanitary Commission; was long connected with the Chicago Relief and Aid Society; and was identified with almost every public enterprise and improvement projected during his active citizenship in Chicago. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

J. SOULE WARTERFIELD is a native of Western Tennessee, but has lived in Chicago since boyhood and for many years has been a prominent figure in real estate circles, especially in the constructive side of that business. Mr. Warterfield is now vice president of Starrett Brothers, Incorporated, one of the largest building construction firms in the United States. The headquarters of the company are in New York. However, the business originated in Chicago, during the '90s, at the time of the World's Fair. Starrett Brothers were pioneers in the construction of the modern skyscraper type of building. Many of the loftiest buildings in Chicago, New York and other large cities of the United States have been erected by this firm as owners and con tractors. The head of the organization, Col. William Starrett, is well known in the building industry as author of The Skyscraper, a very interesting and popular account of the technical side of modern building construction. The books originally ran as a series of articles in The Saturday Evening Post in 1929. J. Soule Warterfield was born at Union City, Tennessee, June 24, 1888, son of J. Soule and Lila (Stanbrough) Warterfield.. His first American ancestor, Phillip Warterfield, settled in Virginia, in 1715.. Mr. Warterfield is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was educated in the South Division High School of Chicago and at the age of nineteen became identified with construction work as construction manager for the Chicago firm of engineers W. S. Shields & Company. From 1910 to 1917 Mr. Warterfield was manager of the industrial department of the noted real estate organization of Whiteside & Went worth. Later he became a partner in the firm of Warterfield & Cousin, who managed some well known properties in the central district, including the Hartford Building and Morrison Hotel. He left that organization to join Starrett Brothers, Incorporated. Mr. Warterfield has had a prominent part in real estate organizations in Chicago. For two years he was manager of the Chicago Real Estate Board, was a director of the Chicago Board and the State Association of Real Estate Boards, was secretary and treasurer of the State Association and was chair man of the property management division of the National Association of Real Estate Boards. He was also active in the Building Managers Association, the Maywood Real Estate Board, Chicago Board of Underwriters, is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, the Lake Shore Athletic Club, Hamilton Club, Chicago Rod and Gun Club, West-ward Ho Golf Club and the Columbia Yacht Club.
Mr. Warterfield during the World war volunteered in the regular army and went with the Twenty-third Engineers to France, being overseas nearly two years. He was with the Army of Occupation in Germany. He has been active in American Legion circles. Mr. Warterfield was for four years editor of the Chicago Realtor.
He married in 1919 Miss Flora Oswald, of Chicago. His business address is with the Starrett Brothers' office at 8 South Dearborn Street and his home is at 1405 South Eighth Avenue. Maywood. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

BRYAN LATHROP, who died May 13, 1916, was a wealthy, generous and public spirited citizen to whom the people of the city were indebted during his lifetime and since for his constructive work in behalf of several of Chicago's cultural and philanthropic institutions. He was born at Alexandria, Virginia, August 6, 1844, and came to Chicago in 1865. During his early career he was identified with the real estate business, and later as a manager and trustee of estates and as an investment banker. Mr. Lathrop had a prominent part in the movement to place the Theodore Thomas Orchestra on a permanent basis, and for a number of years was president of the Chicago Symphony Orchestral Association. He was also president of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, was a trustee of the Chicago Art Institute and the Newberry Library. He married a daughter of Judge Asa 0. Aldis. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

MATTHEW LAFLIN, who was born in Massachusetts December 16, 1803, and died May 21, 1897, was the last survivor of the Chicago pioneers whose lives were linked with Fort Dearborn. His life record was a story of New England thrift and business sagacity rafted on western energy, enterprise and adventure. His father was a gun powder manufacturer, and Matthew Laflin's first business was driving a wagon over New England selling the product of his father's mill. Later he and his brother, Luther Laflin, acquired a powder factory in New York State. It was in search of sales for the output of this factory that Matthew Laflin came to Chicago in 1837 to negotiate a sale of powder to the builders of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. He decided to establish Chicago as the western head quarters of the business. During the winter of 1838-39, Mr. Laflin and his family lived in old Fort Dearborn. In order the better to handle the business of his growing western agencies, Mr. Laflin in 1840 formed a partnership with Solomon A. Smith, under the name of Laflin & Smith. While a member of this firm Mr. Laflin became interested in the possibilities of Chicago real estate, and after 1849 concentrated his attention upon real estate. At one time he owned 140 acres of land within the Chicago city limits. He was one of the largest land holders on the West Side in the vicinity of Ogden Avenue and what is now Lafiin Street. In that then out lying locality he established Chicago's first stockyards. He built and owned a famous tavern there, known as the Bull's Head Hotel. He was one of the principal promoters and largest owners of Chicago's first water works which drew its supply from the lake instead of wells. Matthew Laflin was one of the sturdy and courageous citizens who sustained the community in the depression that followed the financial panic of 1857. He refinanced the Elgin Watch Company when it was on the verge of failure, and became one of the largest stockholders in the company. It was his capital and enterprise that laid the foundation of Waukesha as a famous Wisconsin watering resort. During the war he was a Union Democrat. One of the chief monuments to Matthew Laflin in later years is the Chicago Academy of Sciences in Lincoln Park. He provided the home of that institution, formerly known as the Matthew Laflin Memorial. His sons, George H. and Lycurgis, were also prominent Chicago business men. George H. Laflin was identified with the old Chicago Hydraulic Company, which established the first water works. The brothers opened the first house for the sale of fine paper in Chicago, a business in which they continued until the fire of 1871. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

LEVI Z. LEITER not only accumulated a great fortune as a Chicago merchant, but gave to that city the inspiration of his generous and public spirited leadership in times of adversity and prosperity. His is a name honored in Chicago traditions along with those of Marshall Field, Potter Palmer, John V. Farwell and others with whom he was contemporary and associated. Of Calvinistic Dutch stock, he was born at, Leitersburg, Maryland, in 1834, and died June 9, 1904. His business apprenticeship was served in his home state and at Springfield, Ohio, and in the summer of 1854 he arrived in Chicago. For nine years he was associated with the firm of Cooley, Wadsworth & Company, which was the predecessor of John V. Farwell & Company. Both he and his fellow employee, Marshall Field, acquired an interest in the firm, and in 1865 they sold out to John V. Farwell and bought from Potter Palmer a controlling interest in the business that pioneer merchant had built up. For a year the business was continued under the firm name of Field, Palmer and Leiter. On January 1, 1867, Mr. Palmer sold out all of his interest to the two younger men, and from that time until 1881 the house was Field, Leiter & Company. It was one of the firms that suffered complete loss of building and stock in the great fire, but immediately rebuilt and continued in business on a larger scale than ever.

After retiring from the mercantile business in 1881, Mr. Leiter concentrated his attention upon his real estate interests. He was one of the original directors and a large stock holder in the Illinois Trust & Savings Bank. As a man of wealth, Levi Z. Leiter indulged his individual taste and intellectual curiosity in the collection of books and art works and bestowed his wealth generously and wisely in support of institutions that have been land marks in Chicago's cultural progress. For many years he was a director of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, which rendered inestimable service in behalf of the thousands of homeless people after the fire. He was the second president of the Chicago Art Institute, was the first president of the old Commercial Club, was a liberal supporter of the Chicago Historical Society and of the American Sabbath School Union. He married in 1866 Mary Theresa Carver. His son Joseph Leiter, a native of Chicago, who was president of the Veigler Coal Company of Illinois, and one of the executors of the Leiter estate, will be long remembered for his spectacular operations in the wheat market in 1897-98. Mary, one of the daughters of Levi Z. Leiter, became the wife of Lord Curzon, viceroy of India. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

HARLOW N. HIGINBOTHAM. The greatest community and collective enterprise Chicago carried out in the nineteenth century was the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. It marked, as one discerning artistic critic said, "the real beginning and the inspiration for a new era of art and architecture in this country." Moreover, while the "white city" as a material entity disappeared quickly, it was "a dream city that will never die." It is generally acknowledged that the chief figure among the many men and women who brought the great exposition through its difficulties to its glorious accomplishment was Harlow N. Higinbotham, who served as president of the exposition from 1892 until its close. His devotion to this great cause involved a tremendous personal sacrifice, both to his business affairs and his own comfort, but in that respect h exemplified a type of citizenship that has been one of Chicago's greatest assets. Mr. Higinbotham was one of Chicago's great merchants, and for many years a close associate and partner of Marshall Field. He was a native of Illinois, born at Joliet October 10, 1838, and died April 18, 1919. He was educated in Lombard University at Galesburg, attended a commercial college in Chicago, and enlisted in the famous Mercantile Battery of Chicago at the beginning of the Civil war. At the close of the war in 1865 he became an employee of Field, Palmer & Leiter, and in 1868 attained a partnership in the firm of Field, Leiter & Company. From 1881 to 1901 he was a partner in the firm of Marshall Field & Company.

After the Fair, Marshall Field spent a million dollars in buying up many of the treasures of art, science and industry that had been exhibited at the exposition, and he and Mr. Higinbotham and other public-spirited citizens raised the funds for the organization of the Field Columbian Museum, which was housed in the Fine Arts Building in Jackson Park until the more permanent structure for the museum was erected on the Lake Front. Mr. Higinbotham served as president of the Field Museum from 1897 to 1909. His generous interests went out to many other causes: He was president of the Newsboys' and Boot b'acks' Association, of the Chicago Free Kindergarten Association, the Chicago Home for Incurables, and the Municipal Sanitarium for Tuberculosis. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)


HON. EDWARD J. BRUNDAGE, who began the practice of law in Chicago in 1893, has figured almost constantly before the people of his home city or state in some public office, from member of the Legislature to president of the Cook County Board of Commissioners, judge of the Court of Claims and attorney general of Illinois.

He was born at Campbell, New York, May 13, 1869, and when he was eleven years of age his parents moved to Detroit. At the age of fourteen he left school and began winning his own way. His first employment was in a railroad office, and when the headquarters of his chief were transferred to Chicago, he went along. While thus employed he studied law, and in 1893 was graduated from the Chicago College of Law. He was elected to the Illinois General Assembly in 1898, again in 1902. In 1901 he was a member of the board of commissioners as vice president from Illinois to the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. He was elected president of the Cook County Board in 1904 and reelected in 1906, and it was during his term in that office that the new County Building was erected. In April, 1907, he became corporation counsel of Chicago and set a record of remarkable diligence and energy in handling the work of that office. Mr. Brundage was judge of the Court of Claims of Illinois in 1915-17. He was elected attorney general in 1916, at the same time that Frank 0. Lowden was elected governor. He was reelected in 1920, and for eight consecutive years was the efficient head of the law department of the state government. Among other features of his work as attorney general were his successful defense of the two-cent passenger fare law, his vigorous prosecution of the riot cases in East St. Louis, his upholding of the constitutionality of the hard road act under which Illinois initiated its road building program. Soon after retiring from office Mr. Brundage was appointed receiver for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, and served in that capacity until March, 1928.

Mr. Brundage is a Knight Templar and thirty-third degree Scottish Rite Mason. He married December 17, 1913, Germaine Vernier, and has four children. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

JOHN JACOB GLESSNER became a resident of Chicago just before the great fire, was an important figure in making Chicago a center for the manufacture and distribution of farm machinery, and for years played a leading role in the civic and cultural life of the community.
Mr. Glessner was born at Zanesville, Ohio, in January, 1843. His early education was acquired in the public schools of Zanesville and in the local newspaper business. In 1864 he entered the field of harvesting machinery manufacture, becoming a member of the firm of Warder, Bushnell & Glessner at Springfield, Ohio. For many years he was vice president of that corporation. In order to manage the business of his firm from a point nearer the center of the agricultural belt in the West, he became a resident of Chicago in 1870. He was credited with an important share in the remarkable success of his company, and when its business was combined with that of other leading harvester machinery companies and the International Harvester Company came into existence, Mr. Glessner was chosen vice president. He is still a director of the International Harvester Company.

As a Chicagoan, Mr. Glessner was called upon as a wise counselor and successful manager of various municipal and charitable institutions. While he was president of the Citizens Association that body prepared the drainage canal bill and secured its passage by the Legislature. For about seventeen years he was a director of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society. He has been president of the board of trustees of Rush Medical College, a trustee of the Chicago Orphan Asylum, of the Chicago Orchestral Association, and of the Chicago Art Institute. He was at one time president of the old Chicago Commercial Club. Mr. Glessner married in 1870 Frances Macbeth, daughter of James R. Macbeth of Springfield. His children are John George M. and Mrs. Frances Lee. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

WILLIAM R. HARPER, first president of the University of Chicago, was born at New Con cord, Muskingum County, Ohio, July 26, 1856. At the age of eight years he entered the preparatory department of Muskingum College, and in 1870 was graduated with the degree Bachelor of Arts, delivering his graduating oration in the ancient Hebrew language. He continued his graduate studies in Yale University in 1873-75. From 1880 to 1886 he held the chair of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in the Baptist Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, Illinois. He resigned to take the chair of Semitic languages at Yale University, three years later was appointed Woolsey Professor of Biblical Literature, and instructor in Semitic languages in the Divinity School, performing the duties of three offices until the close of the school year 1890-91. In the meantime he had been principal of the Chautauqua College of Liberal Arts.
The crowning work of his life was the establishment of the University of Chicago. Under the auspices of the American Baptist Educational Society a plan was projected for establishing a university in Chicago. In 1889, John D. Rockefeller contributed $600,000 as an endowment fund if $400,000 more was pledged in ninety days. This amount was soon raised, and a site of twenty-five acres valued at $400,000 was purchased. Dr. Harper assumed the duties of president in June, 1891, having as his aims the creation of the most comprehensive and liberal university in the world, and the reformation of the present system of collegiate education. The boldness of his scheme, not the least of which was the securing of an endowment fund of several mil lions of dollars, gave confidence in him to those to whom he appealed. Mr. Rockefeller added $1,000,000 to his original subscription, of which $800,000 was designed as an endowment for non-professional graduate instruction. The executors of the Ogden estate donated $500,000 for a scientific school, and an additional fund of $1,000,000 was raised. The work of practical instruction began in October, 1892, and by December there were five hundred and eighty-nine registered students in all departments. Doctor Harper was head of the Department of Semitic Languages, and as head of the University made his influence felt in every department. His chief characteristics were manifested in his plans of work, his policies of government, and his methods of teaching. He was paramount as a teacher, and in certain lines he was probably the greatest pedagogue of his generation.
Doctor Harper was at the same time extensively engaged in literary labors and was author or editor of a long list of text books and critical reviews. He died at Chicago January 10, 1906. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

WALTER Q. GRESHAM was a citizen of Indiana when not a national figure, but he was for several years a Federal judge of the Seventh Judicial Circuit and as such held court at Chicago, succeeding Judge Drummond. He was born in Harrison County, Indiana, March 17, 1833. His father, William Gresham, was killed in 1835 while performing his duties as sheriff, and soon afterward his widow and children moved to Harrison County, Indiana. Walter Q. Gresham was a student of Indiana University, was admitted to the bar in 1854 and first entered politics as a speaker against the Nebraska bill, and subsequently, in 1856, for Fremont, the Republican presidential candidate. He was elected a member of the Indiana Legislature in 1860, and during the Civil war organized a company, and served successively as captain, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and on the recommendation of General Grant was promoted to brigadier-general August 11, 1863. March 13, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallantry before Atlanta. In December, 1869, he was appointed by President Grant, United States District Judge for Indiana, and was on that bench until April, 1882, when he became postmaster-general in President Arthur's cabinet. One conspicuous act while he was post master-general was barring the Louisiana lottery from the mails. On September 4, 1884, he was transferred to the treasury department, but in December, 1884, he resigned to become United States Judge for the Seventh Judicial District holding court at Chicago. He distinguished himself by his remarkable grasp of legal complications, and his decision in the celebrated Wabash Railway case showed courage in protecting minority rights from aggression by some of the great railway magnates of that time. Though he had always been a Republican, Judge Gresham accepted the invitation of President Cleveland to be come Secretary of State in March, 1893. He held this office a little more than two years. He died at Washington, May 28, 1895. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

SIDNEY NICOLAS STROTZ. A world center for sports is not the least among the claims advanced for Chicago's premier place among the great cities of the world. Nowhere does amateur or professional sportsmanship receive a more spontaneous patronage and applause. Within the past decade Chicago, largely due to the public spirited activity of groups of citizens or individuals, has presented for the sport loving world unsurpassed facilities for their exercise. These facilities include magnificent racing tracks, the great Soldiers Stadium on the lake front, and perhaps greatest of them all, because it affords perfect arenas and immense auditorium for indoor sports of all kinds, the wonderful stadium at 1800 West Madison Street.
For this magnificent institution the sport loving world owes a great debt to Sidney N. Strotz, president of the Chicago Stadium Corporation. Mr. Strotz is a young man, prominent and successful in business, and has found a means of expressing his public spirit through the institution which he helped create and of which he is now the head. Mr. Strotz was born in Chicago April 26, 1898, son of Charles N. and Clara A. (Heinemann) Strotz. His mother still lives in Chicago. His father, who died in 1928, was at one time a member of the tobacco manufacturing firm of Grady & Strotz, but for many years before his death was connected with the American Tobacco Company at New York.

Sidney N. Strotz attended the public schools of Chicago, continued his education in St. John's Military Academy, and was a student of Cornell University when he left college to join the colors during the World war. He enlisted as a private, became a member of the Three Hundred and Twenty-sixth Battalion of the Tank Corps, and spent eighteen months overseas. While there he was advanced to sergeant, first class, in the Engineers. For six years after the war Mr. Strotz was connected with an automobile supply company. He then organized and became president of the American Sales Corporation, and later was one of the organizers and became vice president of the Wrap-Rite Corporation of which he is now vice president and of which he was general manager until he was called to the office of president of the Chicago Stadium Corporation.
Mr. Strotz and his brother, Harold C. Strotz, handled most of the work of financing the building of the great stadium on West Madison Street, and they have been leading figures in the development of the stadium for its complete service to the world of sport and entertainment and as the most perfect convention hall in America. Mr. Strotz is a member of the Chicago Athletic Club, Rotary Club, Steuben Club, National Auditorium Managers Association, and the American Legion. His home is at 483 Illinois Road in Lake Forest. Mr. Strotz married Frances Vyse, a native of Chicago and daughter of Arthur J. Vyse. Their three children are Shirley, Charles Nicolas II, and Sandra. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE was born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 1816, learned the trade of printer, graduated from Harvard Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1840, and soon afterward went west and located at Galena, Illinois, beginning practice with Charles S. Hempstead in 1841. Along with a good knowledge of the law he possessed an invincible courage and fearlessness, and that was equally necessary to success either in the law or in politics, in the early days of Galena which was a characteristic mining center. Several incidents are told of his having exercised physical as well as moral suasion during his early career at Galena. He continued to practice until elected to Congress on the Whig ticket in 1852, and continued to represent his district until 1869, taking a prominent position as a Republican on the organization of that party. On account of his long service he was known as the "father of the house," administering the speaker's oath three times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James G. Blame. General Grant in 1869 appointed him his secretary of state, but he soon afterwards resigned to become ambassador to France, where he achieved special distinction. He was the only official representative of a foreign government who remained in Paris during the reign of the commune. For his conduct he was honored by the governments of France and Germany alike.
After his return to the United States he made his home in Chicago. He was strongly favored as a candidate for the presidency in 1880. For several years he devoted much of his time to literary pursuits. Mr. Washburne compiled and published in 1882 a book which is an important contribution to Illinois biography,
Sketch of Edward Coles. He died at the age of seventy-one in Chicago October 22, 1887, and left a large estate. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

WASHBURNE, Elihu Benjamin, Congressman and diplomatist, was born at Livermore, Maine, Sept. 23, 1816; in early life learned the trade of a printer, but graduated from Harvard Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Coming west, he settled at Galena, forming a partnership with Charles S. Hempstead, for the practice of law, in 1841. He was a stalwart Whig, and, as such, was elected to Congress in 1852. He continued to represent his District until 1869, taking a prominent position, as a Republican, on the organization of that party. On account of his long service he was known as the "Father of the House," administering the Speaker's oath three times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James U. Blame. He was appointed Secretary of State by General Grant in 1869, but surrendered his portfolio to become Envoy to France, in which capacity he achieved great distinction. He was the only official representative of a foreign government who remained in Paris, during the siege of that city by the Germans (1870-71) and the reign of the 'Commune." For his conduct he was honored by the Governments of France and Germany alike. On his return to the United States, he made his home in Chicago, where he devoted his latter years chiefly to literary labor, and where he died, Oct. 22, 1887. He was strongly favored as a candidate for the Presidency in 1880. ["Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois" Transcribed by Kim Torp]


JOHN M. SCHOFIELD, who rose to the rank of major-general in the United States Army, was born in Chautauqua County, New York, September 29, 1831, was brought to Illinois at the age of twelve, and in 1853 graduated from the West Point Military Academy. He was an artillery officer and a military instructor until the beginning of the Civil war. For a time he was major in a regiment of Missouri volunteers, was made captain of artillery in the regular army May 14, 1861, served as chief-of-staff to General Lyon at the battle of Wilson's Creek, became major-general of volunteers November 29, 1862, and from May 13, 1863, to January 31, 1864, commanded a department of the Missouri. He then was assigned the command of the department and army of the Ohio and participated in Sherman's Atlanta campaign and was with General Thomas in the pursuit of Hood's forces, culminating in the battles of Franklin and Nashville. For gallant and meritorious services at Franklin he was commissioned brigadier-general in the United States Army and brevet major general. During the military reconstruction he served successively as commander of the department of North Carolina, the department of the Potomac and the First Military District of Virginia, and from June 2, 1868, was secretary of war under President Johnson until March 14, 1869. He was promoted to major-general of the regular army March 4, 1869, and commanded various departments and military divisions, and for a time was superintendent of the West Point Military Academy. In 1883 he succeeded General Sheridan in command of the military division of the Missouri with headquarters at Chicago. On the death of General Sheridan in 1888 he was assigned by President Cleveland to command the United States Army with headquarters at Washington. General Schofield died in 1906. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

ANTHONY JOSEPH SCHMIDT was admitted to the bar in 1912 and since that year his abilities and industry have served to put him in the front rank of the Chicago bar. He is member of the law firm Gorman, Schmidt & McGrath, at 30 North LaSalle Street.
A native of Chicago, he was born May 22, 1885, son of Joseph and Veronica (Slipf) Schmidt. His parents were born in Germany and after their marriage came to America and settled in Illinois in 1869. His father for many years was superintendent of the Harvey Mill & Lumber Company.
Anthony Joseph Schmidt attended public and parochial schools in Chicago, the Chicago Seminary of Sciences and was graduated LL. B. from the Chicago Law School in 1912. Subsequent work and post-graduate studies brought him the degree Doctor of Jurisprudence from the Chicago Law School in 1914. Mr. Schmidt for a few years practiced alone and since 1922 has been a member of the firm Gorman, Schmidt & McGrath. This firm handles an extensive general practice. Mr. Schmidt's special forte is real estate, probate and chancery law. He is a member of the Chicago Bar Association and Chicago Law Institute, the Phi Alpha Delta legal fraternity, is a member of the Olympic Golf Club, Birchwood Country Club and Knights of Columbus, of which latter he is a past deputy grand knight, lecturer and advocate. He first married Jule Meyer, deceased, and afterwards married Martha Niles. His home is at 1225 Chase Avenue. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

SAMUEL MILES HASTINGS, Illinois manufacturer, who during 1915-17 was president of the Illinois Manufacturers Association, and reelected president in 1931, has frequently come before the public as a speaker on industrial subjects. His experience and achievements have made him one of the outstanding figures of the present generation.

Mr. Hastings was born at Rimersburg, Pennsylvania, August 14, 1860, son of Eli and Rachel Whitehall (Kerr) Hastings. A year or so after his birth his father enlisted in a Pennsylvania company and regiment for service in the Union army. Eli Hastings was a cabinet maker by trade. In 1865 the family came to Illinois and located at Gardner. The Hastings family is of Revolutionary and Colonial ancestry. Samuel M. Hastings attended school at Gardner, Illinois, and his business career was begun in the humble capacity of clerk in a dry goods store at Braidwood. In 1879, at the age of nineteen, he had acquired an active interest in a retail dry goods store there. In 1884 he moved to Streator, where he continued in business for five years and since 1889 has been a factor in the commercial and industrial life of Chicago. Mr. Hastings from 1889 to 1893 was abroad traveling on business in Europe. On his return to Chicago he engaged in the manufacture and sale of computing scales. Mr. Hastings was president for twenty-five years of the Dayton Scales Company, and now chairman of its finance committee, one of the largest organizations of its kind in the world and a division of the International Business Machines Corporation, of which he is also a director. He is a director of the Central Republic Bank & Trust Company, and chairman of the board of the Highland Park State Bank. His home is in Highland Park and he was mayor of that North Shore suburb for twelve years, from 1915. For a number of years he has been president of the board of trustees of the Highland Park Presbyterian Church He is a Republican, member of the Chicago Athletic Association, Old Elm Country Club and many other civic and social organizations

He married, September 16, 1881, Miss Jannette Rankin, of Braidwood. She died in 1922 In 1925 Mr. Hastings married Nettie Ann Moore. He has one son, Rolland Thomas Rankin Hastings, who is president of the Sanitax Brush Company. The son married Ruth Beebee and has three children, Holland, Lydia and Jean. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

BALFORD QUINTIN SHIELDS, Chicago lawyer and industrial journalist, was reared and educated in Kansas and first came to Chicago during the World war period and spent a year or so in the American diplomatic service.
He was born at Lost Springs, Marion County, Kansas, in 1894, son of Joseph B. and Clara (Fengel) Shields. Both the Shields and Fengel families were early settlers in Kansas. Joseph B. Shields, who still makes his home at Marion, Kansas, was born in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Shields have been a prominent family. They are of Scotch Irish descent. A kinsman of the family was Gen. James Shields, one of the distinguished officers of the Civil war. Joseph B. Shields moved to Kansas in 1881 and has lived in Marion County for over half a century. He has been a farmer and cattle raiser, and is credited with being the oldest breeder of Here ford cattle in that state, and where he is still engaged in the cattle business. His name is widely known for his prowess and activities in public and political affairs. He was the founder and is still president of the Kansas Mutual Telephone Company. He was one of the founders of the Farmers Union in Kansas and has been a leader in that organization. During the Populist uprising in Kansas in the early 1890s he espoused the principles of the organization, though previously he had been a Democrat.
His wife, Clara Fengel, went with her parents to Kansas in 1871. The Fengels were Kansans through the blighting period of the 1870s, when the state suffered visitations of grasshoppers and plagues of drought and financial calamities. Her father, John Peter Fengel, was of French-German ancestry and came from Frankfort-on-the-Rhine region. He first located on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River, later moved to Villisca, Iowa, and from there went to Kansas.

Balford Quintin Shields was reared in a rural locality, and had a first hand and practical acquaintance with farming, stock raising and the business interests of a small town. His educational advantages were crowned by several years in the Kansas State Agricultural College at Manhattan. While there he studied journalism, and was graduated with the Bachelor of Science degree in 1918. Immediately after leaving college he was assigned duties as an attaché of the war department's surgical staff in Chicago, and after the armistice was sent by the state department as vice consul to New South Wales, Australia. He was in that service at Sydney for over a year. After returning to Chicago Mr. Shields attended Northwestern University School of Commerce and studied advanced journalism for two years or four semesters. He then entered the John Marshall Law School, and received his degree Juris Doctor in 1925. Since that date he has been busily engaged in the practice of law. The field of work in which he is especially interested and in which he has shown decided talent has been in commercial law, in the handling of estates and probate matters, and insurance law. Some of his clients have brought him business from as far west as the Pacific Coast. Few men in such a brief period of years have been so successful as Mr. Shields in establishing an independent reputation and business in a great city like Chicago. Mr. Shields still retains a keen interest in journalism, especially that relating to trade and industrial matters. He has been a regular contributor to trade and industrial publications. Mr. Shields has his offices at 77 West Washington Street and his home is in the Brevoort Hotel. He is a member of the Chicago Bar Association, the Commercial Law League of America, the Insurance Claim Association of America, and the honorary journalistic fraternity Sigma Delta Chi. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

JACOB G. GROSSBERG. A practicing Chicago lawyer for forty years, Jacob G. Grossberg has built into his reputation the qualities of a penetrating intelligence, the resources that are the result of study and scholarship, a broad-mindedness and a great ability in handling matters invested with public interest.

Mr. Grossberg has lived in Chicago since he was twelve years of age. He was born in Kovno, then Russia, now Lithuania, on April 10, 1870. In 1882 his parents came to the United States and after a few months in Cleveland moved to Chicago in the same year. In Chicago, Mr. Grossberg attended public schools, and in 1888 was graduated from the old South Division High School at Twenty-sixth Street and Wabash Avenue. After graduating he entered the Northwestern University Law School, then known as the Union College of Law, and was granted his LL. B. degree in 1890. He is perhaps the oldest practicing lawyer in Chicago of Russian-Jewish parentage. In his early years as a lawyer he was associated with Senator James Hamilton Lewis, with whom he is again associated at the time of this publication, in 1932. When Senator Lewis became corporation counsel of Chicago, during the administration of Mayor Dunne, Mr. Grossberg was appointed special assistant corporation counsel in traction matters. Judge Dunne's story of his long fight for municipal ownership of public utilities as presented on other pages of this publication gives credit to some of Mr. Grossberg's special contributions to the movement. His labors cleared up many of the tangled questions and smoothed the path toward municipal ownership, and he also contributed many articles in the public press on the subject. Mr. Grossberg was at one time president of the Municipal Ownership League of Chicago, and he organized and became the first president of the Public Owner ship League of Illinois. When Mayor Dunne became Governor Dunne Mr. Grossberg served as a member of the Mining Investigation Com mission and as attorney for the State Board of Arbitration.

His personal and professional services have again and again been at the disposal of organizations representing the liberal spirit of the community. He was legal representative for Chicago in opposing the injunction sought by the traction companies to restrain the city from enforcing the safety ordinances, and he carried the case to the Supreme Court, which sustained the position of the city government. Many residents of Chicago will recall the organization known as the Washington Park Forum, popularly known as the "Bug Club," whose meetings were frequently interrupted by the police until Mr. Grossberg, as attorney for the Forum, secured a perpetual injunction restraining the South Park Commissioners from interfering with public speaking under the auspices of the club in the park. Mr. Grossberg represented the Pokagon tribe of Indians in presenting their claim to lake front lands. Still another exercise of his legal influence and efforts, which attracted a great deal of public attention, was his service as attorney for the exhibitors of the famous film "Birth of a Nation" when it was first introduced in Chicago. He succeeded in enjoining the city administration under Mayor Thompson from interfering with the showing of the picture. He has also been prominent in Jewish organizations, his most notable work being the organizing of the Jewish Congress movement. He acted as president of the Jewish Congress Association for the middle western states in 1915-17. Mr. Grossberg married, January 30, 1894, Doris Elkan. They have four children, Victor, Ralph, Herbert and Edith. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

THOMAS J. McNULTY is president of McNulty Bros. Company, an old established firm of builders and contractors in architectural, sculpture and plaster work. The McNulty Studios in Chicago are the head. quarters of a large force of modelers, sculptors and other experienced craftsmen, who are relied upon to express the genius of this company for some of the finest work in their line anywhere in America.

Thomas J. McNulty was born in Ireland, in 1861. The firm of McNulty Bros. Company grew from the ambitious efforts of Thomas J., Michael F. and Patrick Henry McNulty, three Irish boys who came to America in search of fame and fortune. Of these three brothers Patrick Henry died in New York in 1920. Thomas J. McNulty served his apprenticeship at Philadelphia. He has been a resident of Chicago since 1884. The firm of McNulty Bros. Company was organized in 1890. Besides the main plant and offices in Chicago, branch establishments are maintained in Detroit and Pittsburgh. Michael F. McNulty has charge of the business at Pittsburgh.
The business of McNulty Bros. Company covers an extensive field, not only in all classes of plaster ornamentation and finish, but in the use of plaster as an intermediate and final stage in the ornamentation of great office and industrial structures. Their work is exemplified in prominent buildings in Chicago and all the other leading cities of the county. These include banking, commercial and industrial buildings and in many instances the chief charm and attractiveness of such buildings are derived from the modeling and sculpture work done on them by the artists an artisans of McNulty Bros. Company. The original designs for their work are made by architects and sculptors and then worked out in clay and plaster. These plaster castes furnish the matrix for the more permanent work of the builder, being transmuted into marble, bronze, granite, metal or whatever material is suitable in the decorate design of the structure. The work of McNulty Bros. Company can be seen in many of the principal buildings in the eastern, central and southern states. The McNulty Brothers' business is one built upon honor and one that has brought well deserved fame to three ambitious and serious minded immigrant youths from Ireland.

Thomas J. McNulty married Miss Josephine Davis, of Chicago. To their union was born a family of eleven children, eight sons and three daughters. Their names are Joseph D., Thomas Joseph, William G., James F., John P., Paul Davis, Robert, Edward D., Mary C., Eunice Anne and Nancy Claire. All were born in Chicago, were educated in the schools of that city, and several of the sons finished their education in Georgetown University at Washington, where members of the McNulty family have been represented in the student body during most of the time for a quarter of a century. Three active junior members of the firm at Chicago today are the sons Joseph D., James F. and Robert. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

J R. STANLEY CROWDER, dealer in investment securities and head of the J. R. S. Crowder & Company, at 10 South LaSalle Street, has lived all his life in Chicago and has a consecutive experience since youth in the banking business.
Mr. Crowder was born in the Ravenswood section in the Town of Lakeview, where his parents were early settlers. His birthplace was only a few blocks from his present home at 4506 North Lincoln Street. His father, the late Richard L. Crowder, was born in Surrey, England, in 1848 and came to America when nineteen years of age. After a brief stay at Kalamazoo, Michigan, he went to Florida, and in the early 1870s came to Chicago, locating in Lakeview. He had the honor of serving as the first postmaster of Lakeview. Richard L. Crowder died in 1928. His wife, Laura Hooper Crowder, who died in 1927, was born at Woking, near London, and was a child when her parents came to Chicago. Her father, John Wesley Hooper, was also an early settler in Lakeview. Mrs. Richard L. Crowder was the first regent of the Robert Burns Chapter, Daughters of the British Empire, serving in that capacity for several terms. She did much for the British Old People's Home and was otherwise well known in British societies.

J. R. Stanley Crowder attended Ravenswood Grammar School and Lakeview High School and began his career as a messenger for the old Commercial National Bank. He put in six years with that bank, which became the Continental & Commercial National Bank and for thirteen years was a banker in his old home neighborhood, with the Sheridan Trust & Savings Bank. He started there as teller and later became vice president and director. He left the Sheridan Trust & Savings Bank and became vice president of Frank P. Parish & Company, when that firm of dealers in investment securities established their Chicago offices. Then, in March, 1930, Mr. Crowder organized his own business as investment bankers.

Mr. Crowder takes much pride in his long and active connection with the All Saints Episcopal Church. When he was six years old he became a choir boy, and later, as his voice matured, became a member of the regular choir. This is one of the older church choirs in Chicago. For nearly twenty years he has been treasurer of the church. His interest in music has made him a member of the Mendelssohn Club and several other organizations devoted to the cultivation of sound musical taste. He has been an official in movements and organizations to make Uptown Chicago better known as a business and social center. He is a past- president of the North Shore Kiwanis Club, which he helped organize. He is a member of the Midland Club and Executives Club, belongs to the various Masonic bodies, the Chicago Yacht Club. He married Miss Martha Hipp, of Bucyrus, Ohio. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

CORNELIUS J. HARRINGTON is a prominent young Chicago lawyer, master in chancery of the Superior Court of Cook County, Illinois, and a World war veteran. He was born in Chicago, August 5, 1897. His parents were natives of Ireland. Mr. Harrington attended parochial and public schools, completing his high school work, and was in his nineteenth year when he volunteered for service in the World war. In June, 1917, he enlisted in Battery D of the One Hundred and Forty-ninth United States Field Artillery, which prior to the war had been the old First Illinois Field Artillery. The One Hundred and Forty-ninth Field Artillery became a unit in the famous Rainbow Division, and this regiment has been frequently referred to as "Reilly's Bucks," its commander being Gen. Henry J. Reilly. Mr. Harrington accompanied his regiment overseas on October 18, 1917, and served a total of eighteen months overseas, in France and Germany. With his regiment he participated in five major offensives and defensives in France, including the Champagne-Marne defensive, the Aisne-Marne offensive, the St. Mihiel offensive, the Meuse-Argonne offensive, and other engagements. Chicagoans have been very proud of the splendid record made by this field artillery regiment. Mr. Harrington received his honorable discharge from the army in May, 1919, and at once resumed his law studies at DePaul University College of Law. He received the LL. B. degree in 1921 and the LL. M. degree in 1922. Mr. Harrington has been practicing law since 1921, when he be came associated with the office of one of Chicago's leading law firms, McCormick, Kirkland, Patterson & Fleming. Later he became counsel for the Board of Election Commissioners of the City of Chicago, and for several years has specialized in election contests. In 1923 he was appointed master in chancery of the Superior Court of Cook County to Judge John J. Sullivan, and in December, 1929, was reappointed for his fourth consecutive term in that office. In addition to his duties as master in chancery Mr. Harrington is counsel for the Board of Assessors, and also counsel for the Democratic party in Cook County, and has built up a successful, general law practice. His offices are at 111 West Washington Street. He is a member of the Phi Alpha Delta law fraternity, Knights of Columbus, LaSalle Assembly, Elks, Illinois Athletic and Crystal Lake Country Clubs. Mr. Harrington resides at 5433 Ellis Avenue. He married Miss Carolyn Speer, and they have three sons, Cornelius, Robert and James. ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

Mrs. CHARLES J. TRAINOR. Death took from Chicago's charitable and social life a very beautiful figure when Mrs. Charles J. Trainor passed away in August, 1930. For thirty-five years she had been prominent in woman's club circles throughout Illinois. She was regarded as an authority on political, civic and parliamentary questions and was outstanding in the numerous organizations with which she was affiliated. She was a past president of the Chicago Federation of Women's Organization, founder and president of both the Native Daughters of Illinois and the South Side Catholic Woman's Club, treasurer of the Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs, chair man of American Citizenship for Illinois, Chicago chairman of immigration of the National Council of Catholic Women, immigration chair man of the Ambrose Club and a member of Big Sisters and the Illinois Club. The best part of her work was done in deeds of practical charity, but she was also greatly admired for her intellect and culture. She was a writer and lecturer and an authority on Illinois history. Above all, she was a devout and militant Catholic, and her personal life was a constant expression of her faith.

Her maiden name was Mary Agnes Rafferty and she was born in Chicago, August 23, 1870, member of the well known Rafferty family that has contributed a number of prominent characters to Chicago's public life. Mrs. Trainor was survived by her husband, Charles J. Trainor, Chicago attorney and master in chancery, and a son, James J. Trainor. For years Mrs. Trainor gave liberally of her own means and of her individual labors to the charitable work carried on by the church in connection with foreign groups. In many instances that work went forward and prospered because of her individual participation, and after her death parish priests and monsignors have declared they hardly knew how they could get along without her. In recent years a large population of Mexicans of the working class, most of them poor, have congregated in the steel mill district of South Chicago. Here they came under the spiritual care of the parish of Our Lady of Guadaloupe. In connection with this church Mrs. Trainor extended a great deal of her time and energy, and so endeared herself to these humble people that she was spoken of as an angel of mercy. At her funeral a great group of them came to her home and overwhelmed it with flowers. She had done similar work among the Italians in the southwest section of the city. Her influence as a writer and lecturer extended, as has been noted, to a wide field of activities and organizations. She made addresses to hundreds of clubs in Chicago and throughout Illinois and the Middle West. She spoke in all the leading cities of Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri and other states. On the lecture platform she was known for her addresses on a wide range of topics, among them being the following: "American Citizenship," "Responsibility of American Citizenship," "The Struggle for Individual Freedom," "We, the People," "Growth and Development of Political Parties," "Current Events," "The Foundation of Good Government," "Why the Woman's Club," "Illinois Under Three Flags," "Club Ethics," "Parliamentary Procedure." "The French in Illinois," "The Power of Organization," "Why be a Club Woman," "The Declaration of Independence," "The Constitutions of the United States and of Illinois," "Great Charters of Liberty," "Early History of Illinois." ("ILLINOIS, The Heart of the Nation" by Hon. Edward F. Dunne, Volume IV, 1933, Transcribed by Kim Torp)

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