DAY BY DAY IN ILLINOIS HISTORY
E. D. Antes
Source: "Day by day in Illinois history"; Hamilton, Ohio: E.D. Antes, 1959
Transcribed for Genealogy Trails by Gladys Lavender
"Time goes, you say, ah, no!
Alas, time stays, WE go."
"Come leave the fields of childhood
Worn out by long employ
And travel west and settle
In the state of Illinois"
From the Boston "Post", 1849
The cities of the state and the Important "firsts" are capitalized
1.1.1680 -- LaSalle and party arrived at huge Indian village near Starved Rock where in 1675 Marquette had opened FIRST ILLINOIS MISSION.
1.1.1745 -- Anthony Wayne born - later was Northwest Territory general.
1.1.1842 -- Abraham Lincoln backed out of his wedding a few hours before it was scheduled. Mary Todd had predicted her husband would attain the presidency and he feared she would "drive" him.
1.1.1863 -- President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, giving freedom to slaves in states in full or partial rebellion.
1.1.1885 -- Marshall Field gave a Mikado Ball for his children. Their CHICAGO home became Japanese wonderland for over 400 guests.
1.1.1886 -- First issue of the "Park Ridge Herald" of PARK RIDGE, printed.
1.1.1895 -- By this day, every European port was closed to our cattle products because our packers slaughtered diseased cattle. In 1898, General N. Miles told a commission he believed 8,000 soldiers had died because of adulterated, poisonous meat shipped to our army in Porto Rico during the war with Spain.
1.2.1843 -- Two Detroit men reported their train trip to CHICAGO took 4 days.
1.2.1900 -- Drainage Canal at CHICAGO opened to provide sewage disposal. It cost $75 million.
1.2.1914 -- Women permitted to serve on juries for the first time in WAUKEGAN.
1.3.1876 -- First issue of Chicago Daily News - became a leading newspaper.
1.4.1682 -- LaSalle, Marquette and Joliet crossed over portage near the head of navigation of "Eschikagou" (Chicago) River.
1.4.1834 -- CHICAGO'S FIRST CHURCH, First Presbyterian, dedicated.
1.5.1795 -- France officially announced her knowledge of Jay's Treaty with Great Britain, ceding all (mid) western forts to United States.
1.5.1816 -- Bill authorizing Indiana to frame a state constitution introduced - second state carved from the Northwest Territory.
1.6.1778 -- Thomas Lincoln, father of Abraham, born.
1.6.1828 -- Ward Hill Lamon born - later became a lawyer in DANVILLE and intimate friend of Lincoln.
1.6.1878 -- Carl Sandburg born in GALESBURG. He became famous as a writer, Lincoln biographer, columnist, lecturer, etc.
1.6.1901 -- P.D. Armour, famous meat-packer, died in CHICAGO - founded Armour Institute which later merged with Lewis Institute to become Illinois Institute of Technology. Also founded with his brother Joseph, Armour Mission Sunday School for all races. His son later lost over $60 million and the family business.
1.6.1906 -- Marshall Field, CHICAGO, died at 71. He was paying the highest taxes of anyone in the U.S. - was worth $120 million at his death.
1.6.1920 -- At Constitutional Convention meetings begun this day, a constitution was framed which abolished cumulative voting, authorized a general income tax on all net incomes, granted CHICAGO a measure of home rule and allowed Cook County full representation in the House, but limited Senate representation to 17. Since the income tax provision militated against the proposed constitution, it was defeated on December 22, 1922
1.7.1918 -- Constitutionality of Selective Services Act upheld by Supreme Court.
1.8.1818 -- First petition for admission of Missouri as a state presented.
1.8.1895 -- Eugene Debs, labor leader, jailed at WOODSTOCK. Courts broke his strike and smashed Railway Union, AFL proposed him for governor.
1.9.1789 -- Treaty of Fort Harmar signed by Indians and General St. Clair.
1.9.1824 -- Sale of town lots in NAPLES, Illinois begun.
1.10.1836 -- CARLYLE, seat of Clinton County, incorporated.
1.11.1803 -- Jefferson asked Senate to approve James Monroe as Minister Extraordinary to France to aid in "enlarging and securing our rights and interest in the river Mississippi and in the territories eastward thereof."
1.11.1913 -- President-elect Wilson spoke before Chicago Commercial Club.
1.11.1805 -- Michigan Territory established by President Jefferson, after Illinois, Indianan and Ohio had entered Union from Northwest Ter.
1.12.1836 -- Kane Co. with 16 townships formed - named for Elias Kent Kane.
1.12.1848 -- Lincoln spoke attacking President Polk and Mexican War. The Illinois State Register branded him a "second Benedict Arnold".
1.12.1864 -- John Milton Hay of Pike County, assistant private secretary to Lincoln, was commissioned a major in the Civil War. He later collaborated on a 10-volume work on the Lincoln Papers and once called Lincoln "the greatest character since Christ".
1.13.1803 -- Monroe was commissioned to buy the Louisiana Territory, which stretched to Pacific Ocean, for not more than $10 million.
1.13.1804 -- President Jefferson sent a map of the Missouri River to WOOD RIVER, where Lewis and Clark were preparing for expedition.
1.14.1837 -- First BLOOMINGTON newspaper published, the Bloomington Observer and McLean County Advocate.
1.15.1680 -- LaSalle and party built Fort Creve Coeur (Broken Heart) on the banks of the Illinois River - second fort built in the west.
1.15.1946 -- Meat packing strike begun involving 263,000 workers.
1.16.1836 -- McHenry County established (included Lake Co.) 1840 census 2,634.
1.16.1872 -- First copy of "North Vermilion Chronicle" of HOOPESTON brought $32.50 at auction. It was then a boom town and expected to become of metropolitan stature. Now noted for its canneries.
1.16.1918 -- U.S. Fuel Administrator, to conserve coal for ships, ordered closing of all manufacturing plants east of Mississippi River not making essentials, for 5 days and 9 subsequent Mondays.
1.16.1920 -- Volstead Act to enforce Prohibition Amendment, went into effect and the era of the "speakeasy" began.
1.17.1865 -- Lincoln wrote to Lt. General Grant asking for a place in the army for his 22 year-old son - not in the ranks, nor a commission with Lincoln furnishing his necessary expenses'
1.17.1865 -- Richard Oglesby (1824-1899) DECATUR citizen, was elected governor of Illinois. He served three terms, was later a state senator, U.S. senator and a Major-general in Civil War. Friend of Lincoln, he was at his bedside in Washington when he died.
1.18.1820 -- Missouri Compromise adopted - it had been suggested by Senator Thomas of Illinois to settle the controversy over Missouri's entering the Union as a free or slave state.
1.18.1865 -- After Lincoln read Jefferson Davis' letter of January 12, he wrote to Francis Blair, his advisor, that he was ready to bring peace to the country - this led to the "Hampton Road Conference".
1.18.1866 -- Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke at Babcock's Hall, ROCK ISLAND.
1.19.1829 -- Macon County created - named for Nathaniel Macon, Rev. war hero.
1.19.1841 -- Joseph Smith, founder and first president of the Mormon Church, received a divine "revelation" . Part of it was that Robert Foster should build him a house - it became the "Mansion house" at NAUVOO, which now is a Mormon shrine.
1.19.1843 -- Little Fort (WAUKEGAN) named McHenry county seat by Legislature.
1.20.1787 -- William Bonnett, fur trader, recorded that news had just arrived at the Chicago settlement from Kaskaskia about Indian uprisings.
1.21.1785 -- A treaty with Indians was attempted at Fort McIntosh, but the Shawnees refused to sign, although many other tribes did.
1.21.1895 -- Steamer Chicora foundered on Lake Michigan - 24 lives lost.
1.22.1867 -- Chicago Opera House offered as prize in a lottery at $5 per ticket. The winner sold it back to the owner for $200,000. The profit was figured at $650,000 and caused wide scandal.
1.23.1813 -- Drunkcrazed Indians attacked River Raisin (Monroe, Michigan) after British had left with American prisoners in War of 1812. They burned any who tried to escape and scalped the wounded.
1.23.1859 -- Charter granted by State of Illinois to the City of WAUKEGAN.
1.24.1867 -- Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke in Unity Hall, CHICAGO.
1.24.1937 -- The Ohio River broke through levees and inundated SHAWNEETOWN (easternmost Illinois city on Ohio River), covering ¾ of Gallatin County. The town later left its riverbank location and moved several miles inland. Here lived the son of Gen. Thomas Posey, officer under Washington. Here LaFayette visited in 1825 and here is the OLDEST BANK IN THE STATE (1816).
1.25.1861 -- Mary Lincoln returned from New York trip after selecting clothes befitting the mistress of the Executive Mansion.
1.25.1946 -- John L. Lewis and his United Mine Workers union returned to the AFL, which they had left in 1936.
1.26.1837 -- Michigan finally entered Union after a two-year boundary dispute with Ohio. Congress awarded a 7-mile strip to Ohio.
1.26.1857 -- John Calhoun, newspaperman, wrote Senator Stephen Douglas that the Kansas legislature "has the subject in hand". Douglas felt Calhoun was helping foist a pro-slavery constitution on Kansas. The Senator had staked his future on the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1.27.1862 -- Lincoln, his patience exhausted because General McClellan did not advance the Union Army, issued General War Order No. 1. All land and naval forces, including the army and flotilla of gunboats at CAIRO were to be ready to move on February 22.
1.27.1910 -- 3,000 members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union paraded through downtown CHICAGO streets to the City Hall and demanded that Mayor Fred Busse enforce Revised Municipal Code of 1905, which forbade the operation of a house of ill-fame.
1.28.1836 -- Lincoln made a speech to the young men of his home town. "There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law," he told them
1.28.1851 -- By Act of Illinois Legislature, the Northwestern University at EVANSTON was chartered.
1.29.1850 -- Henry Clay introduced Compromise of 1850 into the Senate, in an attempt to settle the slavery question.
1.30.1820 -- 22' of snow measured at CHICAGO and ice in river was 18" thick.
1.31.1861 -- This day, shortly before Abraham Lincoln assumed the presidency, he and his stepmother visited his father's grave (died 1851) in Shiloh Cemetery, near Lincoln Log Cabin State Park on Lincoln Memorial Highway. His stepmother was later interred there, also, (1869).
1.31.1910 -- Momentous meeting of the Federated Protestant churches, representing 600 congregations, was held to discuss the social problems of CHICAGO. They asked for a vice commission and Mayor Busse later announced it had been formed.
2.1.1792 -- Expedition from Fort Washington (Cincinnati) arrived at St. Clair's last battleground to bury the 890 dead still strewn there since November. Here General Wayne build Fort Recovery.
2.2.1793 -- After France declared war on England, George Rogers Clark this day offered to help France capture New Orleans territory. This alarmed General St. Clair, already harassed by English sympathizing Indians in his attempt to open the Northwest Territory.
2.3.1809 -- Act of Congress created Illinois Territory. Capital - Kaskaskia.
2.3.1865 -- Lincoln and Seward conferred with 3 Confederate agents concerning peace. Called "Hampton Roads Conference" - nothing accomplished.
2.4.1862 -- Congressman Owen Lovejoy of PRINCETON, Illinois, declared in the House of Representatives, "I here publicly record my inextinguishable hatred of the British Government."
2.5.1779 -- George Rogers Clark and 1274 men began 200-mile march from Kaskaskia to Vincennes held by 500 British to re-capture it.
2.5.1784 -- Nancy Hanks, Lincoln's mother, was born.
2.5.1900 -- Adlai Ewing Stevenson born. Served as governor of state 1948-53 and was Democratic presidential nominee in 1952 and 1956.
6.2.1861 -- Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln gave a "grand levee" at their Springfield home prior to leaving for the inauguration at Washington, D.C.
2.6.1862 -- U. S. Grant commanded troops stationed at CAIRO and captured Fort Henry this day in the Civil War.
2.6.1941 -- Max Annenberg, well-known CHICAGO newspaperman, passed away.
2.7.1682 -- Party headed by LaSalle and Sieur Henrie de Tonti started down Illinois River to its mouth, where they entered the Mississippi River. Tonti had served LaSalle for 10 years, then built Fort St. Louis and Starved Rock, Illinois, where he lived for 20 years trading furs. He is called THE FIRST SETTLER OF ILLINOIS
2.9.1773 -- William Henry Harrison born. He played an important part in shaping the state's history - later was U.S. president 1 month.
2.9.1833 -- The treaty forcing the Sauk and Fox Indians out of Illinois and west of the Mississippi River was ratified by the Senate.
2.9.1866 -- George Ade born. Wrote "Fables in Slang" for a CHICAGO newspaper and was a famous journalist, humourist, dramatist, etc.
2.10.1763 -- The Treaty of Paris was signed - France ceded all the Northwest Territory to Great Britain.
2.10.1861 -- Jefferson Davis who spent part of his Army career in Illinois, learned he had been elected president of the Confederacy.
2.11.1816 -- Indiana entered the Union - 2nd state to be carved from the Northwest Territory.
2.11.1857 -- Villages of East and West Aurora incorporated as city of AURORA, formerly site of Potawatomi village. Aurora Public Library has a 9' clock showing time of day, phase of moon, earth's revolution about the sun and the calendar day, month and year. Clockwork switches lights off and on.
2.11.1859 -- Lincoln lectured at JACKSONVILLE, seat of Morgan County. Phi Alpha Society of Illinois College (1829) sponsored the talk. College's first graduating class was the FIRST IN ILLINOIS. Richard Yates (later governor and senator) and the Rev. James Spilman (composer of "Sweet Afton") were in the class. Wm. Jennings Bryan was also a graduate. When college merged with Jacksonville Female Academy 1.1.1903, it became FIRST CO-EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION IN STATE. The oldest woman's club in U.S., Ladies Education Society (1833) is still active.
2.11.1861 -- Lincoln entrained for Washington and inauguration. Stopped at Indianapolis to speak and the "Indiana Sentinel" later commented "He is a theorist, a dreamer … not a practical man … deficient in those qualities necessary to administer the government wisely."
2.12.1809 -- Abraham Lincoln born at "Sinking Spring" farm, Hodgenville, Ky.
2.12.1861 -- On way to inauguration, Lincoln spoke in Cincinnati in answer to calls from 18 German labor associations. He owned a German-language newspaper for 18 months. His presidential campaign newspaper, "The Rail Splitter" was printed in Cincinnati.
2.12.1914 -- Ground-breaking ceremony held for Lincoln Memorial, Potomac Park.
2.12.1932 -- Lincoln Museum opened in former Ford's Theater, Washington.
2.13.1818 -- George Rogers Clark died.
2.13.1861 -- Official presidential electoral votes announced - Lincoln majority.
2.14.1855 -- City of URBANA, Champaign County was charted. It's first daily newspaper "The Central Gazette" was published in 1853.
2.14.1894 -- Jack Benny (Kubelsky) born in WAUKEGAN. In 1959, junior high school students voted to name their new school for him because "He's the man who put Waukegan on the map." (Radio, TV comedian)
2.14.1929 -- St. Valentine's Day massacre occurred, climaxing CHICAGO'S bootlegging wars of prohibition era. The Al Capone gang machine gunned the 7-man Moran gang in a North Clark Street garage.
2.15.1809 -- Cyrus Hall McCormick, inventor of the reaper, born in Virginia.
2.15.1855 -- The DECATUR public school law was passed.
2.15.1862 -- General Grant and army attacked Fort Donelson. John McClernand, Illinois lawyer and congressman, commanded right wing and heading first brigade was Lincoln's old law associate, John Logan. The fort surrendered, but 500 Union men were dead, 2,108 were wounded - 231 Confederate soldiers were dead, 1,534 wounded.
2.15.1933 -- CHICAGO Mayor Anton Cermak fatally wounded when an assassin attempted to kill President F.D. Roosevelt in Florida. Cermak was succeeded by Edward J. Kelly (1933-40).
2.16.1865 -- Illinois Soldiers' and Orphans' Home incorporated by Legislature.
2.16.1866 -- Cyrus McCormick closed his factory to forestall a strike.
2.16.1883 -- The site of the Diamond Mine between Braidwood and Coal City was scene of a disastrous flood in which at least 74 miners were drowned. Mine was sealed and a monument erected to the dead.
2.17.1837 -- Knox College founded by George Washington Gale at GALESBURG.
2.17.1851 -- Charter granted to Illinois Parallel railroad line to construct a railroad from CHICAGO along the shore line.
2.17.1857 -- Waukegan Academy incorporated by the General Assembly.
2.17.1860 -- Lincoln made his famous speech at Cooper Union Hall in New York City. The New York Tribune commented "Since the days of Clay and Webster, no one has spoken to a larger assemblage of the intellect and mental culture of our city."
2.17.1865 -- 22 year-old Robert Todd Lincoln commissioned as Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers with the rank of captain.
2.17.1937 -- Sit-down strikers of the Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation at NORTH CHICAGO refused collective bargaining. In March, 1939, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that sit-down strikes are illegal.
2.18.1861 -- Chicago Tribune incorporated with $200,000 capital. It was to become the oldest and most widely circulated newspaper in CHICAGO and one of the most profitable publishing enterprises in the world.
2.18.1898 -- Frances E. Willard died - her home in EVANSTON now national headquarters for Woman's Christian Temperance Union which she founded - was also first dean of women at Northwestern University.
2.18.1909 -- City of NORTH CHICAGO incorporated.
2.19.1803 -- Ohio entered Union - 1st state carved from Northwest Territory.
2.19.1841 -- Town of Little Fort (WAUKEGAN) incorporated.
2.19.1850 -- BLOOMINGTON incorporated by the State Legislature.
2.19.1888 -- Cyclone swept southern Illinois, leveling half of Mount Vernon leaving 30 dead, 1,250 homeless in a town of 2,500. Clara Barton, Red Cross founder, supervised rehabilitation.
2.20.1833 -- John Reynolds, governor of Illinois, signed act creating Champaign County from part of Vermilion County. County and its seat named for residents' former home - Urbana, Champaign Co., Ohio.
2.20.1835 -- Building begun of Monticello College at ALTON - oldest girls' school in the Middle West.
2.20.1852 -- First train of Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana railroad reached CHICAGO from Toledo, linking city with eastern seaboard. In 2 years, population of city increased from 30,000 to 60,000.
2.20.1919 -- Victor Berger, editor of Milwaukee Leader, indicted for conspiracy to violate Espionage Act by Judge K. M. Landis in CHICAGO.
2.21.1872 -- National Labor Convention began at Columbus, Ohio. David Davis of Illinois was nominated for president of the United States.
2.22.1839 -- Elgin Academy at ELGIN granted charter by Legislature. ELGIN was FIRST CITY IN STATE to levy a tax for free tax-supported schools in 1851. They were under city control until 1873.
2.23.1901 -- CHICAGO HEIGHTS incorporated as a city. In 1903, a Carnegie grant provided the Chicago Heights Public Library building.
2.23.1905 -- First Rotary Club founded at CHICAGO by Paul H. Harris.
2.24.1894 -- Wm. Stead, English editor, issued a sensational 400-page book titled "If Christ Came to Chicago" which blasted disreputable lodging houses, gamblers and also belaboured some of the wealthy. It created world-wide furor.
2.25.1837 -- SPRINGFIELD named capital city of state. Lincoln moved there 183 (sic).
2.25.1867 -- Robert Todd Lincoln admitted to Illinois bar at CHICAGO.
2.25.1895 -- At CHICAGO council meeting, aldermen rushed through daring boodle franchise awarding fictitious company rights to build power plants and construct conduits for 50 years. Citizens promptly called protest meeting and ousted many from public office.
2.25.1913 -- Constitutional amendment empowering Federal government to levy income taxes was ratified by 42 of the 48 states.
2.25.1925 -- Medill McCormick, Senator from 1918-24 died at age 47. His widow, Ruth Hanna McCormick later became a congresswoman.
2.26.1779 -- British surrendered Vincennes to George Rogers Clark, a deed which contributed greatly to saving the mid-west for the U.S.
2.26.1832 -- John G. Nicolay, Lincoln's private secretary, born in Bavaria.
2.27.1837 -- State legislature passed $10 million act for canals, railroads, & roads.
2.27.1837 -- Illinois Waterway project opened.
2.28.1854 -- General Assembly appropriated $6,000 for erection of Supreme Court building, 4th Illinois Appelate Court at Mount Vernon. Its law library is now one of the most valued in the Midwest.
2.28.1854 -- City of ELGIN, Elgin Township, Kane County, incorporated.
2.28.1893 -- Democrats met at Central Music Hall for CHICAGO mayoralty nominating convention and selected Carter H. Harrison. He was elected with the biggest majority in his political career.
2.29.1796 -- Jay's Treaty promulgated by President Washington - British had agreed to evacuate all forts in the west by June 1, 1796.
3.1.1784 -- Virginia completed cession of Illinois land in the Northwest Territory which she had claimed, to the United States.
3.1.1830 -- Lincoln's family began to move by ox team from Gentryville, Spencer County, Indiana to Macon County, Illinois. He was 21. Census showed the state's population to be 157,445.
3.1.1832 -- Lincoln, at 23, announced his candidacy for the legislature.
3.1.1839 -- Lake County established by Act of General Assembly with Burlington (now LIBERTYVILLE) as county seat. Here Samuel Insull, utilities magnate, built a $3 million mansion.
3.1.1911 -- Robert McCormick, Joseph Medill's grandson, became president of the Chicago Tribune Company.
3.2.1805 -- District of Louisiana, which had been part of Territory of Indiana (included Illinois for 1 year) changed to Territory of La.
3.2.1819 -- In 1812, Territory of Louisiana had become Territory of Missouri but this day southern part was set off as Arkansas Territory.
3.2.1821 -- Congress passed act to ease land buyers' situation, permitting all who had purchased speculatively to relinquish such portion as corresponded to their indebtedness with no interest charges.
3.2.1868 -- University of Illinois opened - now has over 15,000 students. It is situated between URBANA and CHAMPAIGN. Its Memorial Stadium was scene of Harold "Red" Grange's rise to national fame in 1925. By 1938, it ranked among the 10 largest in the U.S.
3.3.1837 -- Lincoln protested in the legislature about the riots and mobs against Abolitionists - speech was recorded in the Journal of the House. His was an isolated position in the legislature.
3.3.1847 -- The U.S. government built a lighthouse off WAUKEGAN shore.
3.3.1857 -- On a riotous election day, "Long John" Wentworth elected mayor of CHICAGO. He introduced first successful steam fire engine to city.
3.3.1863 -- Congress passed draft act. In proportion to her population, Illinois raised more soldiers for Northern cause than any other state. CHICAGO had 1/5 of state's population when war began - she had 1/2 at end. George Root of Chicago wrote "The Battle Cry of Freedom". Illinois had 5, 857 killed in action, 3,051 dead of wounds and 19,934 dead of disease as a result of the Civil War. 256,297 of her men served.
3.4.1837 -- The charter incorporating city of CHICAGO was issued at Vandalia Courthouse. Wm. B. Ogden chosen first mayor. In 1830 population was 50. FIRST CHICAGO SETTLER was Jean Baptiste Point du Saible, educated free negro from Santa Domingo. FIRST WHITE SETTLER was John Kinzie from Niles, Michigan, called the "FATHER OF CHICAGO".
3.4.1851 -- First frame building erected in CHICAGO. The Sauganash Hotel, burned. Later at the site, Lake and Market Streets, the Republican Convention Hall, the "Wigwam", was built.
3.4.1861 -- Abraham Lincoln inaugurated 16th president - body guards were necessary because of constant threats against his life.
3.4.1865 -- Lincoln inaugurated for second term - gave famous speech, "… with malice toward none, with charity for all …" Johnson, vice-pres.
3.4.1881 -- James Garfield inaugurated president, his cabinet included Robert Todd Lincoln as Secretary of War.
3.4.1893 -- Adlai E. Stevenson of McLean County took office as U.S. vice-president.
3.5.1792 -- Congress passed act creating "Legion of the U.S." after St. Clair's defeat. With these men, General Anthony Wayne cleared Northwest Territory of Indian menace so settlement could proceed.
3.5.1933 -- President F.D. Roosevelt declared national bank holiday.
3.5.1938 -- Tornado struck BELLEVILLE, killing 8 and injuring many others. In 1814, Belleville succeeded CAHOKIA as seat of St. Clair Co.
3.6.1857 -- U.S. Supreme Court handed down its decision on Dred Scott case. Scott claimed he had lived 2 years at ROCK ISLAND (free soil) with his master and brought suit for his and wife's liberation. The court decreed that Scott was not made free by being taken into the state of Illinois as he was held there as a slave. Issue helped bring on the Civil War.
3.6.1885 -- Ring Lardner born - later became a noted author and CHICAGO newspaper man. An English periodical call CHICAGO "the Literary Capital of the United States" in 1920. It said all but 2 of the novelists of the younger generation had sprung from the Middle Empire that has Chicago for its capital: Dreiser, Anderson, Miss Cather, Mrs. Watts, Tarkington, Wilson, Herrick, Patterson and Churchill. "The new poetry movement is thoroughly Chicagoan." Also, "There is in Chicago a body of critical opinion that is unsurpassed for discretion and intelligence in America."
3.6.1887 -- Strike by Knights of Labor on Gould's Southwest railroad system.
3.6.1900 -- Socialist- Democrat party convention at Indianapolis nominated Eugene Debs, union organizer for president against Bryan and McKinley. He pulled the largest Socialist vote up to that time.
3.7.1959 -- UPI news release from CHICAGO described method of keeping toll booth plaza of new $101 million Calumet Skyway Bridge free of ice.
3.58.1948 -- In Illinois, ex rel. McCallum v. Bd of Education of School District #71, Champaign County et.al, the Supreme Court held that use of state's tax-supported school equipment to enable sectarian groups to give religious instruction violates First Amendment of the Constitution.
3.9.1804 -- Capt. Stoddard of U.S. Army crossed from CAHOKIA to St. Louis to receive transfer of Upper Louisiana from France. Louisiana as France possessed it, included both east and west halves of Mississippi Valley. No exodus of inhabitants occurred as had 40 years before in Illinois.
3.9.1868 -- Warren County Library opened. Inscription over doorway reads, "This is the first building in the state of Illinois given for a People's Library."
3.10.1919 -- U.S. Supreme Court unanimously sustained constitutionality of conviction of Eugene Debs, union leader, under Espionage Act.
3.12.1912 -- Girl Scouts founded by Juliette Low.
3.13.1858 -- Of the state's 59 Democratic newspapers, 55 supported Stephen Douglas over LeCompton, author of pro-slavery Constitution for the state of Kansas.
3.13.1933 -- The nation's banks began to reopen.
3.14.1864 -- Lincoln called for another draft for 200,000 men for 3 years.
3.14.1907 -- Inland Waterways Commission appointed by president to study co-related problems of forest preservation and waterways.
3.15.1781 -- George Rogers Clark promoted to Brig. General of Va. Militia.
3.15.1919 -- The American Legion organized by Col. Theodore Roosevelt.
3.15.1925 -- D.C. Stephenson, Grand Dragon of the 6 million member Klu Klux Klan, boarded a train for CHICAGO with a girl who later charged he had kidnapped her. She died a month later and Stephenson was charged with her death. From that time on, the Klan organization began disintegrating.
3.16.1899 -- Joseph Medill died - CHICAGO Tribune editor for 25 years.
3.17.1842 -- Joseph Smith, Mormon head at NAUVOO, founded the Mormon relief society, now one of oldest such organizations in the country.
3.17.1930 -- Al Capone, CHICAGO mobster, released from Philadelphia prison after serving 10 months on a concealed weapons charge. Racketeering has been practiced for over 2,000 years, but nowhere else was the system developed to such perfection as in Chicago by the "Public Enemy #1". His fortune estimated at $40 million.
3.18.1917 -- News arrived of sinking of 3 U.S. ships by German submarines.
3.19.1687 -- LaSalle killed by his own followers on Texas coast. Largely by his efforts, Illinois was brought within the ken of civilization.
3.19.1904 -- Capt. Alexander Piper, later Deputy Police Commissioner of New York, investigated CHICAGO's police force (by request). Report showed force as a whole inefficient and insufficient and that 1,000 men were needed then and 1,000 more in 2 years.
3.20.1885 -- Steamer Michigan foundered in Lake Michigan.
3.21.19185 -- Railroad Control Act provided for Federal control of railroads to end not later than 1 year, 9 months after ratification of a peace treaty, when the country was at war.
3.22.1861 -- Mayor John Wentworth discharged the entire CHICAGO police force and the city was without police protection for 24 hours.
3.22.1903 -- Anthracite Coal Commission report awarded shorter hours and wage increase to miners, but denied recognition to the United Mine Workers union.
3.23.1860 -- Lincoln arrived in CHICAGO on famous "sand-bar" case, concerning the vagaries of the Chicago River. At this time, he also sat for L. Volk, the sculptor.
3.23.1865 -- Lincoln left Washington to visit Federal Army troops in the field. Met General Grant at Richmond, Virginia April 4.
3.23.1932 -- Effect of the DEBS ruling handed down by U.S. Supreme Court in 1895 was finally localized with the passage of the Federal Anti-Injunction Act by Congress.
3.24.1825 -- Ads appeared for one of the first plows, patented by J. Wood.
3.24.1890 -- In CHICAGO, a step in development of judicial review was made when in the Milwaukee, St. Paul Railroad vs. Minnesota (the Minnesota rate case), the Supreme Court practically overruled the decision in Munn vs. Illinois, 1877.
3.24.1924 -- Archbishops Patrick Hayes of New York and George Mundelein of CHICAGO were made cardinals by Pope Pius XI.
3.25.1853 -- Dr. Wm. Beaumont, whose experiments in gastric research in Michigan made him famous, died at St. Louis.
3.26.1943 -- War Food Administration established by executive order.
3.27.1813 -- Admiral Oliver Perry began supervising building of his fleet with which he later defeated the British fleet on Lake Erie.
3.28.1777 -- George Rogers Clark sent men from his fort in Kentucky to ascertain the strength of the fort at KASKASKIA.
3.29.1688 -- Joutel and other LaSalle men passed through CHICAGO on their way home to Canada, a year after LaSalle's death in Texas.
3.30.1861 -- Lincoln wrote his law partner in SPRINGFIELD that he could not divide out all the government offices among his own relatives, after many of them asked for various positions.
3.31.1675 -- Marquette is said to have landed near the right-of-way of the Chicago and Alton Railroad.
3.31.1902 -- A charter was granted Zion City, Illinois. See 12.31.1899.
3.31.1918 -- First Daylight Saving Time began.
4.1.1835 -- Michigan and Ohio began the 2-year Toledo War over the 7-mile strip of land Ohio had taken contrary to the Northwest Ordinance of '87, which stipulated an east and west line drawn from the southern tip of Lake Michigan to be the northern boundary for all three states. Later Illinois moved her line 61 miles north.
4.1.1861 -- Secretary of State Seward proposed that he take over the administration of the government from Lincoln and that the U.S. engage in war with Europe in order to unite the North and South.
4.1.1924 -- Election day in CICERO - the most disorderly 24 hours in city's history. Citizens who attempted to vote Republican were driven from polls. Voters and workers were kidnapped and held until the polls closed. Frank Capone was killed during the melee.
4.2.1860 -- Lincoln spoke at Dickinson House, WAUKEGAN.
4.3.1792 -- Anthony Wayne appointed Commander-in-Chief in the west to clear Northwest Territory of Indian menace after St. Clair resigned.
4.3.1839 -- The cornerstone for Jubilee College near PEORIA laid.
4.3.1848 -- Chicago Board of Trade established. 3 grain elevators were recently built in preparation for CHICAGO'S becoming world seaport.
4.3.1912 -- Aurora College of AURORA established by the Advent Christian faith.
4.4.1957 -- Blizzard began forming ice field - the spring of '57 has been called "the worst in Great Lakes history".
4.5.1841 -- William Henry Harrison died in Washington one month after assuming presidency - was formerly governor of the Northwest Ter.
4.6.1823 -- Joseph Medill born. Racial-minded, champion of Know-Nothing doctrine (against foreign-born, Jews, Catholics and Negroes), he christened the union of Whigs and Free Soilers the "Republican Party". Was publisher of Tribune and mayor of CHICAGO (in 1871).
4.6.1832 -- Black Hawk War began in northern Illinois when Indians led by Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi and took a village on east side. Lincoln and Jefferson Davis both served in this war.
4.6.1866 -- FIRST POST of Grand Army of the Republic organized at DECATUR.
4.6.1917 -- United States declared war against Germany. Illinois was one of only three states to furnish an entire National Guard Division.
4.7.1917 -- The Socialist party in convention in CHICAGO, passed a resolution against participating in World War I, causing party split.
4.8.1932 -- Samuel Insull, CHICAGO heat, light and power magnate, was informed that his operating companies were going into receivership.
4.9.1682 -- LaSalle claimed for Louis XIV of France the Mississippi River and all its tributaries, after descending to its mouth.
4.9.1842 -- Charles Dickens, famed English author, visited CAIRO, southern-most city of state - later wrote of city in his "American Notes".
4.9.1868 -- Steamer Seabird, headed for CHICAGO, burned on Lake Michigan - 68-103 died. Of 3 survivors, one rode wreckage to EVANSTON, 2 others picked up. Wreckage drifted ashore near LAKE FOREST.
4.9.1869 -- 30,000 saw monument dedicated to Civil War soldiers by Rock Island County, which had sent 2,299 men to the Union army. Major General John Buford selected field where Gettysburg battle fought.
4.9.1959 -- Frank Lloyd Wright, noted architect, passed away at 89 - he designed many homes and buildings throughout the state.
4.10.1821 -- SPRINGFIELD was so-named and designated seat of Sangamon County.
4.10.1827 -- 42 lots sold in new town of DANVILLE, seat of Vermilion County. Ward H. Lamon settled here in 1847 - was Lincoln's law partner.
4.10.1848 -- First trip made from Lockport to CHICAGO on Illinois-Michigan Canal. Canal earned $80,000 first year. City's population - 20,000.
4.10.1933 -- Convention ratified 21st Amendment repealing Prohibition Act.
4.11.1848 -- First boat arrived at JOLIET and was met with bands, cannons and entire population. Incorporated in 1837, Joliet is seat of Will County. 1/3 of the country's wallpaper produced here.
4.11.1904 -- Tug Frank Canfield stranded on Lake Michigan.
4.11.1916 -- First draft of Gettysburg address, the reading copy and original manuscript of Lincoln's second inaugural speech were presented to Library of Congress by children of John Hay, Abe's secretary.
4.12.1861 -- Civil War begun at Fort Sumter, S.C. when "Star of the West" was fired on, while trying to supply Union troops stationed there.
4.12.1910 -- Illinois Supreme Court reversed Judge Richard Tuthill's decision that the Ten-Hour Working Day Law for Women was unconstitutional. Louis D. Brandeis, later a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, voluntarily prepared the 600-page brief.
4.13.1831 -- CHICAGO'S first tax was levied at the FIRST MEETING of the Cook Court of County Commissioners. Russell Heacock was city's FIRST LAWYER and Justice of the Peace.
4.13.1919 -- Eugene Debs, Union organizer active in northern Illinois, entered W. Virginia State prison - was later transferred to Atlanta Penetentiary (sic).
4.14.1865 -- Good Friday - Lincoln struck down by bullet fired by John Wilkes Booth, while attending Ford's Theater in Washington watching "Our American Cousin". Booth had also plotted to kill Vice-President Johnson and Secretary of State Seward.
4.14.1907 -- Steamer Arcadia sunk on Lake Michigan - 14 lost their lives.
4.15.1861 -- Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months service to "put down insurrection".
4.15.1865 -- Abraham Lincoln passed away at age 56.
4.16.1848 -- Formal opening of Lake Michigan-Illinois River Canal.
4.16.1901 -- CHICAGO HEIGHTS -- held its first election - John W. Thomas named mayor. Illinois State Route #1 goes through the city.
4.17.1893 -- Carter Henry Harrison took office as mayor of CHICAGO after being elected with the biggest majority of his political career.
4.18.1818 -- Illinois Enabling Act, providing for organization of state government, fixing northern boundary, became a law. Ignoring the northern boundary set by Northwest Ordinance of '87 (an east-west line drawn from southern tip of L. Michigan), officials held out for a larger share of the lake front and moved the boundary 61 miles north of the line. Capital - Kaskaskia.
4.18.1838 -- Monticello College at ALTON, oldest girls' school in the Middle West, held its first classes.
4.18.1924 -- First production of American Passion Play held in BLOOMINGTON.
4.19.1785 -- Congress accepted Massachussetts' cession of lands she had claimed in the Northwest Territory to the Union.
4.19.1832 -- Lincoln joined volunteers to fight Black Hawk War and was elected captain by the young men of his neighbourhood.
4.19.1861 -- At LINCOLN (only town named for him with his knowledge and consent) first Logan County volunteers entrained for war duty.
4.19.1865 -- Funeral services held for President Lincoln at SPRINGFIELD and Washington. (Burial was at Springfield May 4.)
4.19.1910 -- PARK RIDGE incorporated as a city.
4.20.1836 -- Wisconsin Territory established, cutting it from Michigan to which it had been added 18 years earlier when Illinois became a state.
4.21.1858 -- At first session of state convention in SPRINGFIELD, 9/10 of delegates were for Stephen Douglas-Buchanan men fled from the hall.
4.21.1865 -- Funeral train carrying Lincoln left Washington for SPRINGFIELD.
4.21.1899 -- Juvenile Court system established by state legislature.
4.23.1848 -- First boat came up Mississippi and Illinois Rivers and reached CHICAGO by way of Illinois-Michigan Canal carrying sugar from New Orleans. Joliet had first pointed out the feasibility of such a route in 1673 with a canal through "but half a league of prairie.
4.24.1820 -- President Monroe signed bill to abolish credit system in purchasing land from the government. Price of land reduced from $2 to $1.25 per acre, sold in multiples of 80 acres, to remedy the first great financial panic in U.S. State population - 55,211.
4.24.1933 -- CHICAGO teachers stormed the banks for 50 months' back pay and were paid off in scrip.
4.25.1861 -- So memorable was Stephen Douglas' speech at SPRINGFIELD this day, men who had been his political opponents couldn't talk of it 50 years later without emotion.
4.25.1866 -- 5,000 champions for shorter hours staged a demonstration strike in CHICAGO.
4.25.1872 -- Grand opening of Marshall Field's store in CHICAGO, after the destructive fire. This site later became his wholesale house.
4.25.1875 -- At Lincoln Depot, SPRINGFIELD, Stephen Douglas spoke for the Union cause, enroute to CHICAGO.
4.26.1865 -- John Wilkes Booth killed in a barn after 2 weeks' hysterical searching. Booth played to much applause in CHICAGO in '62. A. Lincoln had seen and admired him and his brother Edward, who was a great Shaksperian (sic) actor, as was their father Junius.
4.27.1861 -- Today, Lincoln ordered erection of a manufactory for arms at ROCK ISLAND, although construction didn't begin until 1863.
4.27.1926 -- 2 gangsters killed in CICERO - first time a machine-gun appeared in gang warfare. It was said Al Capone handled the weapon. Wm. McSwiggin, an Asst. State's Attorney also slain. More than 500 died in the Chicago gangland wars, which lasted 5 years.
4.28.1881 -- In AURORA, arrangements were made for the installation of the first ELECTRIC LIGHT SYSTEM IN THE WORLD, but city did not derive its name from this event, as some think.
4.29.1943 -- The Tug Marions exploded with 3 lives lost.
4.30.1802 -- Congress passed act enabling Ohio to become a state - admitted 10 months later - first state from the Northwest Territory.
4.30.1831 -- ROCK ISLAND settlers petitioned Governor John Reynolds for protection. The Sac and Fox tribes had ordered them to leave the vicinity.
4.30.1865 -- Lincoln's funeral train crossed Indiana state line and body lay in state at the State House, Indianapolis for 18 hours, while 100,000 came to look down on the majestic face.
4.30.1959 -- The first ocean-going vessel reached CHICAGO by way of the St. Lawrence Seaway, which Herbert Hoover once called "The greatest internal improvement yet undertaken on the North American Continent". The Seaway enabled the land-locked Midwest to join the salt-water highways of the world via the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Some predict that Chicago will now become the largest city in the world.
5.1.1837 -- FIRST REGULAR STEAMBOAT SERVICE to head of Lake Michigan (which included a CHICAGO stop) was begun by Oliver Newberry. The finest ship he ever built was the 205' long "Illinois" in 1833.
5.1.1837 -- Banking panic caused CHICAGO'S boom to collapse beginning this day and state went bankrupt. Mayor Ogden kept Chicago from doing likewise. Work on Illinois-Michigan Canal held up for years.
5.1.1846 -- Lincoln, 37, nominated to Congress (his only term) from 7th Illinois District. His opponent was Peter Cartwright, Methodist minister. Stephen Douglas named same day for his third term, but he became a senator when Congress convened.
5.1.1893 -- Opening day of CHICAGO's World's Columbian Exposition, celebrating 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. Millions came to see the "White City" one of Chicago's great triumphs. Influence of the Exposition on both contemporary and subsequent building was tremendous - Daniel Burnham was Chief of Construction.
5.2.1837 -- FIRST CHICAGO ELECTION - William Ogden elected mayor over John Kinzie, Jr., son of the "Father of Chicago". Population - 4,170.
5.2.1918 -- United States government demanded improved fire protection system in WAUKEGAN after Manufacturers' Terminal burned.
5.3.1865 -- At sunrise, Lincoln's funeral train halted at LINCOLN, Illinois depot. At 5a.m., train arrived in BLOOMINGTON, -- awaited by thousands. Large arch over track bore inscription, "Go to Thy Rest".
5.3.1865 -- Lincoln's body lay in state in Hall of Representatives, Sangamon County Courthouse, SPRINGFIELD, where he had made his famous "House Divided" speech. He was later interred in Oak Ridge Cemetery. Original courthouse (1837) jacked up (1899) and another story added under it, rather than raze it when more room needed.
5.3.1886 -- August Spies, co-editor of "Arbeiter-Zeitung" was addressing the striking lumbermen near McCormick plant in CHICAGO when police appeared and believing crowd was attacking them, shot and killed 6 and wounded many others. McCormick II granted a pay increase today to non-union workers, ignoring those on strike.
5.4.1859 -- Wm. O. Stoddard, CHAMPAIGN newspaper editor, published and editorial which "more than any other single writing" informed the public of Lincoln's availability as presidential candidate.
5.4.1886 -- Nationally known "Haymarket Riot" occurred, when a bomb exploded at a mass meeting called by labor men at Haymarket Square, CHICAGO. A policeman was blown to bits and 70 were injured. Police retaliated, killing 6, injuring 72. 4 men were later hanged and several given life imprisonment after this unfortunate occurrence.
5.5.1833 -- In a 12' square log cabin, Father Saint Cyr celebrated his first mass in CHICAGO. Here was laid basis for parish of St. Mary's church on Lake Street. By 1840, the city had 6 churches.
5.5.1833 -- Lots first sold at PITTSFIELD, seat of Pike County. John Hay, Lincoln's secretary and later and ambassador, secretary of state and formulator of Open Door policy in China spent two years here as a student. Collaborated on 10-volume "Abraham Lincoln: A History.
5.6.1935 -- In Railroad Retirement Board vs Alton Railway Co., the Supreme Court held Railway Pension Act of 6.27.1934 unconstitutional.
5.7.1800 -- Congressional legislation creating Indiana Territory, including Illinois country, approved - Vincennes named capital. The legislation went into effect 7.4.1801.
5.7.1861 -- John Hay, Lincoln's secretary, brought to his attention the bitter sarcasm of O.H. Browning (Senator from QUINCY), when he talked of "subjugating the South". Lincoln replied, "Some of our Northerners seem bewildered … by the excitement of the hour.
5.7.1884 -- At 4th convention of Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions held in CHICAGO, a general strike for the 8-hour day was endorsed to begin May 1, 1886. 100,000 workers struck that day.
5.7.1892 -- Archibald MacLeish, three-time winner of a literary Pulitzer prize, was born GLENCOE. Heads American Academy of Arts and Letters, also has served as Librarian of Congress and Assistant Secretary of State. Wrote "JB", hit Broadway play, among others.
5.8.1832 -- Lincoln mustered into U.S. Army for Black Hawk war - camped at MILAN.
5.8.1920 -- Socialist party convention nominated Eugene Debs of Illinois for president of U.S. for 5th time. He conducted his campaign from Atlanta Federal prison. At the turn of the century, Debs was considered a dangerous radical and anarchist - now he is recognized as one of America's great men.
5.9.1860 -- In DECATUR, Republicans convened and endorsed Lincoln as presidential candidate. Richard Oglesby (later state governor, senator and U.S. senator) first gave him nickname "rail-splitter candidate". Lincoln's family had originally settled a few miles out of that city on the Sangamon River, when he was 21 - he worked on surrounding farms as plow boy and railsplitter
5.10.1832 -- Village of White Cloud, Indian prophet (now PROPHETSTOWN) destroyed at the outbreak of the Black Hawk War.
5.10.1908 -- Socialist Party convention began at CHICAGO. Eugene Debs of Illinois for president, Benjamin Hanford, N.Y. for vice-president.
5.10.1940 -- Prohibition Party in convention at CHICAGO nominated Roger Babson, Mass. for U.S. president; Edgar Moorman, Illinois, vice-president.
5.10.1959 -- 1,000-acre tract near MARION announced as possible site for new Alcatraz-type Federal prison. Second in desirability was the 600-acre site 5 miles southeast of TAYLORVILLE.
5.11.1877 -- During construction of Winnebago County Court House at ROCKFORD the entire dome collapsed, causing the death of 9 workmen.
5.11.1894 -- Pullman workers went on strike. They had been fainting at their jobs for want of food. Anyone who joined a union was fired, Pullman had repeatedly reduced wages, but not the rent for the houses in PULLMAN City, which he owned.
5.12.1778 -- George Rogers Clark with 150 Virginia volunteers, set out to take Kaskaskia, major British post in the Illinois country.
5.12.1779 -- News reached George Rogers Clark at KASKASKIA that the Virginia House of Burgesses had made Illinois a county of Virginia. John Todd later commissioned county lieutenant by Gov. Patrick Henry.
5.12.1860 -- Republicans gave money-raising "housewarming" for their national convention hall, the "Wigwam" at Lake and Margaret Streets, CHICAGO.
5.12.1912 -- Socialist party convened and nominated Debs for president.
5.13.1804 -- Lewis and Clark expedition left camp at WOOD RIVER to begin their famed exploratory trip to Pacific coast and back.
5.13.1833 -- The Rev. Jeremiah Porter, CHICAGO'S first resident preacher and FOUNDER OF THE CITY'S FIRST REGULARLY ORGANIZED CHURCH, First Presbyterian, arrived with troops from Fort Brady. On 5.19 he delivered his first sermon; on 5.26, organized first congregation. (Methodists were the earliest religious group to meet for services. First Methodist in Illinois was Captain Joseph Ogle of Virginia who settled at New Design in present Monroe Co. Capt. Ogle's son-in-law, James Lemen was first Baptist in state)
5.13.1884 -- Cyrus McCormick, reaper inventor, died leaving $10 million.
5.13.1908 -- Governors of 34 states and others met at President T. Roosevelt's invitation to discuss preservation of forests, mineral lands and waterways of the country. The result was the National Conservation committee.
5.14.1832 -- Chief Black Hawk and warriors fought soldiers at the Battle of Stillman's Run - opening encounter of Black Hawk War. Lost were 12 soldiers - a 50' monument marks site, on State #72. Survivors' stories spread panic over entire frontier and the easy victory brought many tribes to the chief's aide. Sac and Fox Indians refused to leave their ancient village of Sankermint near ROCK ISLAND - one of the causes of the war. Lincoln and Davis in army,
5.14.1959 -- Congressional Rivers and Harbors Subcommittee announced that 23 navigation projects with a total cost of $70 million were approved today for Great Lakes harbor improvements,
5.15.1889 -- John D. Rockefeller pledged $600,000 toward a university if $400,000 could be gathered from other sources before June 1. Marshall Field, Joseph Ryerson and others pledged - the great University of Chicago was then founded in 1890. Original faculty included 9 college presidents and other well-known professors. Rockefeller gave more than $75 million in all toward the University and Julius Rosenwald gave $4½ million. William Rainey Harper was first president - Memorial Library (1912) named for him.
5.15.1909 -- Fed. government agencies received word from Washington that all horses in their employ were to be given month's vacation each year.
5.15.1938 -- An autogyro landed on roof of new postoffice building in CHICAGO with mail from Municipal Airport - test flight of transfer serv?
5.16.1832 -- Phillip D. Armour born in New York. Moved meat-packing plant to CHICAGO in 1875 from Milwaukee. During Civil War made $1,800,000 profit from barrelled pork. Swift and Morris are other large packers.
5.16.1944 -- George Ade died - famous humourist, CHICAGO newspaper man, writer of comic operas and musical-comedy librettos.
5.17.1673 -- Marquette and Joliet left St. Ignace, Michigan on expedition to find the great river spoken of by the Indians (the Mississippi).
5.18.1675 -- Marquette, 37, died near river later named for him in Michigan.
5.18.1796 -- Act approved by Congress providing for sale of public lands - 640 acres @ $2 per acre in parcels - credit system inaugurated.
5.18.1860 -- Norman B. Judd nominated Lincoln for presidency, Hannibal Hamlin for vice-presidency. Caleb B. Smith of Indiana seconded nomination (had been offered post of Secretary of Interior).
5.19.1749 -- Ohio Company organized by Virginians and Englishmen with grant of 500,000 acres on the Ohio River, chartered by King George II.
5.19.1875 -- Mary Todd Lincoln declared insane by a jury and committed to an institution at BATAVIA.
20.5.1812 -- Illinois became a territory second-grade, with suffrage for all white males over 21 who paid taxes and had lived in territory over a year. Pierre Menard was presiding officer of Territorial Legislature and first Lt. Governor of the state. Ninian Edwards was governor (FIRST) of territory - Edward Coles was second gov.
20.5.1868 -- Republican National Convention began at CHICAGO and adopted name "National Republican Party". U. S. Grant, GALENA citizen, was nominated for president and Colfax of Indiana for vice-president.
5.21.1852 -- The Michigan Central railroad ran its first train into CHICAGO - one day in advance of its rival, the Michigan Southern.
5.21.1852 -- Schooner Thomas Hume disappeared on Lake Michigan with all hands.
5.22.1848 -- Democratic National Convention at Baltimore nominated Michigander Lewis Cass for president - all Illinois delegates for him.
5.23.1959 -- Teacher of the Year title given to Reino Takala of HINSDALE.
5.24.1861 -- Col. Elmer Ellsworth of Illinois and his regiment of Fire Zouaves of New York City were sent to take Alexandria, Virginia. After he had removed a Confederate flag from a building there, he was shot, becoming the FIRST CASUALTY OF THE CIVIL WAR. He was a friend of Lincoln's and his betrothed lived in ROCKFORD.
5.24.1880 -- CHICAGO first families celebrated 21st birthday of Cyrus McCormick III where Goldmark's "Rustic Wedding" was performed for first time in the city.
5.25.1763 -- A Potawatomi tribe from Detroit seized Fort St. Joseph.
5.26.1924 -- Immigration bill signed, cutting off flow of immigrants.
5.26.1934 -- Century of Progress Exposition opened its 2nd year at CHICAGO.
5.27.1763 -- Fort Miamis (Fort Wayne) taken by Indians
5.27.1895 -- In "re Debs", U. S. Supreme Court declared that the Federal injunction to prevent strikers from interference with interstate commerce and mails was legitimate.
5.27.1896 -- Prohibition party convention began at Pittsburgh. Platform strictly concerned with prohibition of manufacturing and sale of intoxicating liquors. Hale Johnson of Illinois nominated for U.S. vice-president.
5.27.1896 -- A tornado struck EAST ST. LOUIS, killing more than 100 people and causing much property damage. June, 1903, city was flooded. Incorporated January, 1859, it is just north of CAHOKIA.
5.27.1933 -- Century of Progress Exposition at CHICAGO begun, marking centennial of the founding of the city - it ended 11.12.1934.
5.28.1830 -- President Jackson signed Indian Removal Act, for general removing of Indians to land west of Mississippi River.
5.28.1835 -- John B. Beaubien attempted to buy the Fort Dearborn reservation under the law of pre-emption of public lands for $94.61. The land agent had no precedent to go by, so took Beaubien's money and gave a receipt. He would have received 50 acres with 3,265 residents but after 7 months court action, Beaubien's money was returned.
5.28.1922 -- Railroad Labor Board ordered wage reduction of 13% to affect 400,000 railroad employees.
5.29.1848 -- Wisconsin entered the Union after failing to get back the 61 miles of territory Illinois had taken.
5.29.1856 -- Lincoln gave his "Lost Speech" at the Anti-Nebraska convention when the state Republican party was organized at BLOOMINGTON.
30.5.1869 -- Memorial Day first observed as designated by the Grand Army of the Republic, although it had been celebrated once before, 2 years earlier.
5.31.1917 -- Race rioting in EAST ST. LOUIS went into its 4th day (lasted 16). More than 100 Negroes killed and $400,000 property damaged.
5.31.1942 -- Civilian truck production halted because of demands of World War II.
6.1.1796 -- Congress set aside land north of Ohio R. for Continental veterans.
6.1.1829 -- Original town of DACATUR platted. Incorporated as a city in 1836, it was named for Stephen Decatur, naval hero. Known as "Soybean capital" it was made seat of Macon County.
6.2.1880 -- Republican National Convention began at CHICAGO. Garfield outran Grant on 36th ballot for presidency. Arthur nominated vice-pres.
6.2.1924 -- All Indians born in U.S. declared citizens by Act of Congress.
6.3.1832 -- Illinois asked Indiana for help with Black Hawk War which began to ferment when settlers shot down a messenger from Black Hawk with a flag of truce, coming to ask if the Indians could harvest the crops at their former Illinois home.
6.3.1861 -- Stephen A. Douglas died at 48. Now recognized as one of few men of his era with truly broad national vision, (served as state representative and senator). The oldest sculptured monument in CHICAGO is of him, sculptured by Volk, who also did Lincoln.
6.3.1864 -- With a troop of federal soldiers from Camp Douglas, General Burnside closed down the Chicago "Times" because it had attacked Lincoln for arresting Vallandigham. Lincoln ordered paper be printed again the next day.
6.3.1895 -- In CHICAGO, Alderman John "Bath House" Coughlin and friends attempted to run through Council the famous Calumet & Blue Island Railroad ordinance, seeking right-of-way from Indiana state line to 95th Street, a route which would shut off far south side of city from Lake Michigan. Passed by Council, but vetoed by mayor.
6.3.1903 -- President Theodore Roosevelt spoke in BLOOMINGTON.
6.3.1959 -- Nation's new population center announced as "somewhere in Clay County, Illinois". The center shifted west because of admission of Hawaii and Alaska as states to the Union.
6.4.1683 -- LaSalle wrote a letter on his objections to a canal which Jolie had suggested at the portage near the Chicago River.
6.4.1821 -- First circuit court held in Lawrenceville, Lawrence County, which was named for Capt. James Lawrence, commander of the "Chesapeake" in War of 1812. His dying words in the War of 1812 were "Don't give up the ship". FIRST WOMAN EXECUTED in state hanged in LAWRENCEVILLE in 1845 for poisoning her husband.
6.4.1903 -- James Millikin University dedicated at DECATUR with President T. Roosevelt giving dedicatory address. Home of Mr. Millikan, banker, leader in commerce and industry, is now Decatur Civic Art Institute Building. Orville B. Gorin Library was built later.
6.4.1906 -- President Theodore Roosevelt made public "Reynolds and Neill Report", revealing loathsome conditions in meat-packing houses.
6.5.1911 -- Illinois FIRST STATE TO ADOPT SYSTEM OF MOTHERS' PENSIONS.
6.5.1946 -- LaSalle Hotel burned at CHICAGO - 61 perished in the fire.
6.6.1932 -- Creditors of Samuel Insull demanded his resignation as chairman of People's Gas, Public Service and Commonwealth Edison after unaccountable accounts turned up during receivership of these companies.
6.7.1701 -- It was decreed that the Seminary of Foreign Missions "Shall dwell alone in Tamoroa and that they shall receive in a friendly manner the Jesuit fathers when they shall pass there". The missionaries were guided by Tonti (FIRST WHITE SETTLER OF STATE) to CAHOKIA in 1699. They became embroiled with the Jesuit fathers, who previously had conducted all missionary work here - hence the decree. At Cahokia is OLDEST HOUSE IN THE STATE _ Jarrot Mansion (1799).
6.7.1796 -- Elias Kent Kane born. Later became pioneer lawyer, territorial judge, first secretary of the state and a U.S. Senator.
6.7.1848 -- Whig convention at Philadelphia - Lincoln attended. Zachary Taylor nominated for president and M. Fillmore of N.Y. for vice-president. Illinois delegates voted for Lewis Cass of Michigan.
6.7.1892 -- Republican National Convention re-nominated Benjamin Harrison for president and Whitelaw Reid of N.Y. for vice-president.
8.6.1830 -- Warren County incorporated - named for Joseph Warren, major general of militia at Bunker Hill. Monmouth made county seat 6.6.1831.
6.8.1835 -- First issue of the CHICAGO newspaper, the "American".
6.8.1869 -- Frank Lloyd Wright born in Wisconsin. Later became world-famous architect and lived in OAK PARK - here built an unusual house. He also designed the Abraham Lincoln Center Building.
6.8.1920 -- Republican National Convention at CHICAGO - Harding and Coolidge.
6.9.1846 -- Wisconsin Territory became a state after clauses pertaining to the issue of Illinois taking part of her land were stricken out.
6.9.1880 -- Greenback or National Party in convention at CHICAGO.
6.9.1936 -- Republican National Convention at Cleveland. Nominated Alfred Landon of Kansas for president and Frank Knox vice-president. Knox later served as Secretary of Navy in World War II. He controlled Chicago "Daily News" from 1931-1944. J. Knight bought it.
6.10.1847 -- First issue of Chicago "Tribune".
6.10.1857 -- On eve of '57 depression, the Merchants' Savings, Loan & Trust Company opened its doors - CHICAGO'S first formidable bank.
6.10.1865 -- Robert Todd Lincoln resigned his army commission and went to CHICAGO to live with his mother.
6.10.1924 -- Republican National Convention at Cleveland nominated Calvin Coolidge for president and Charles G. Dawes of EVANSTON for v.p.
6.11.1805 -- Detroit destroyed by fire, which started in a stable.
6.11.1896 -- Act of Congress provided for purchase of Petersen House in Washington, where Lincoln died. It was purchased for $30,000.
6.12.1806 -- Nancy Hanks and Thomas L. Lincoln married.
6.12.1832 -- Militia came to Fort Dearborn to participate in Black Hawk War. On 6.17, 2 companies of regulars arrived by FIRST STEAMBOAT to come to these waters, the "Sheldon Thompson".
6.12.1894 -- American Railway Union opened its first convention at CHICAGO after Pullman Palace Company men of Pullman City joined them. Their wages had been cut 5 times in 7 months and George Pullman refused to arbitrate. When the convention voted a boycott of Pullman cars for 6.26, owners of the nation's railroads saw their chance to break the union.
6.13.1848 -- Industrial Congress with representatives of labor organizations met at Philadelphia - nominated William S. Waitt of Illinois for U.S. vice-president.
6.13.1959 -- Adlai Stevenson announced he "will not be nominated" for a third Democratic presidential candidate in 1960.
6.14.1671 -- Beside St. Mary's River rapids, St. Lusson claimed for France all of interior North America and the Great Lakes.
6.15.1812 -- General Hull began march to British-held Detroit with 2,200 men.
6.16.1894 -- A judge at SPRINGFIELD applied for federal troops during a coal strike, but U.S. Attorney General Olney wired that the governor should be applied to for assistance. 100,000 miners were idle.
6.16.1908 -- Republican National Convention at CHICAGO - Wm. Taft and James Sherman.
6.17.1673 -- Joliet and Marquette found the Mississippi River - "with a joy that I cannot express" wrote Joliet later.
6.17.1858 -- In accepting nomination for state senator, Lincoln made his famous statement, "A house divided against itself cannot stand". 90 counties of the 95 passed resolutions for him at SPRINGFIELD.
6.17.1861 -- President Lincoln received first message ever sent by telegraph from a balloon.
6.17.1887 -- Steamer Champlain lost by fire on Lake Michigan - 22 died.
6.17.1924 -- Farm Labor party began its convention at St. Paul. Duncan MacDonald of Illinois nominated for U.S. president.
6.17.1931 -- Lincoln's tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery was rededicated by President Herbert Hoover, after extensive remodeling.
6.18.1855 -- Steamer Illinois was FIRST SHIP THROUGH SAULT (Soo) CANAL.
6.18.1912 -- At Republican National Convention in Chicago Coliseum, Taft and Sherman re-nominated for president and vice-president, respectively.
6.19.1888 -- Republican National Convention at CHICAGO - nominated Benjamin Harrison for president and Levi Morton of N.Y. for vice-president.
6.20.1848 -- In House of Representatives, Lincoln criticized President Polk's veto of appropriations for internal improvements. He declared improvements on the Mississippi and its tributaries "a must".
6.20.1893 -- Eugene Debs announced formation of American Railway Union. Within a year, it had 150,000 members.
6.20.1926 -- Eucharistic Congress of Roman Catholic church began at CHICAGO. It attracted over a million pilgrims.
6.20.1940 -- F.D. Roosevelt appointed Frank Knox Secretary of the Navy. He controlled Chicago "Daily News" from 1931-1944, when he died.
6.21.1833 -- URBANA chosen seat of Champaign County. The next year, city was incorporated. Its first church, a Methodist, was begun in 1840.
6.21.1886 -- Trial begun for Haymarket "anarchists". It was "fixed" and shame was brought to CHICAGO by this "lynch-law" trial. Memorial services are held yearly for the men who were later hanged.
6.21.1892 -- Democratic National Convention at CHICAGO re-nominated Grover Cleveland for U.S. president and nominated Adlai E. Stevenson I of BLOOMINGTON for vice-president.
6.21.1904 -- Republican National convention at CHICAGO - T Roosevelt nominated.
6.21.1922 -- HERRIN coal miners struck in protest against strike breakers. 32 men were murdered in what is called the "Herrin Massacre".
6.22.1912 -- Progressive Party convened at CHICAGO - T. Roosevelt for president.
6.22.1937 -- Joe Louis became the world's heavyweight boxing champion by knocking out Jim Braddock in the 8th round at CHICAGO.
6.22.1938 -- Joe Louis defeated Max Schmeling in the Savoy Ballroom, setting off one of the wildest celebrations ever witnessed in CHICAGO.
6.23.1933 -- Ceremony held at bridge of the new Illinois Waterway project, a 327-mile trade barge route from Lake Michigan to Mississippi R. which linked the Great Lakes with Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Secretary of War and New Orleans and CHICAGO mayors attended the opening.
6.24.1814 -- FIRST NEWSPAPER IN STATE printed at KASKASKIA.
6.24.1839 -- Gustavus Swift, pioneer in meat-packing industry, born in Mass.
6.24.1881 -- Schyler County Courthouse cornerstone laid at RUSHVILLE, former home of E. Scripps - founder of Scripps-Howard chain of newspapers.
6.24.1929 -- FBI men called to Chicago District Attorney's office to formulate plans to stop the illegal activities of the Al Capone mob.
6.25.1673 -- Marquette and Joliet, in their search for a route between Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, found the great village of the friendly Illinois Indians.
6.25.1832 -- Col. John Dement's forces fought Black Hawk's warriors at Battle of Kellogs Grove near LENA.
6.25.1912 -- Democratic National Convention nominated Woodrow Wilson.
6.26.1784 -- Spain closed Mississippi River to navigation by Americans.
6.26.1833 -- Oldest Protestant congregation in Chicago organized in carpenter shop of Fort Dearborn, now First Presbyterian church, Kimbark ?.
6.26.1893 -- Gov. John Altgeld pardoned 3 convicted "anarchists" sentenced to life imprisonment after the "Haymarket Riot", (1886)
6.26.1894 -- American Railway Union boycotted Pullman cars and boycott turned into a strike although Union tried to avoid it. This year began many strikes and riots in the nation - over 750,000 went on strike.
6.26.1944 -- Republican National Convention at CHICAGO nominated Dewey for president.
6.26.1959 -- St. Lawrence Seaway dedicated by Britain's Queen Elizabeth and President Dwight Eisenhower. First section alone cost $1/2 billion. Revenue bonds are expected to be paid off in 50 years by tolls. Event had television coverage all over America.
6.27.1844 -- Joseph Smith, founder of Mormon church and brother Hyrum of ?? taken from a jail and killed by a mob at CARTHAGE, seat of HANCOCK County because of their sanction of plural marriages. He had organized the church in 1830, now known formally as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints with 1.5 million ?
6.27.1905 -- Eugene Debs and others called a convention in CHICAGO and formed "Industrial Workers of the World" - I.W.W.
6.27.1932 -- Democratic National Convention in CHICAGO named F.D. Roosevelt and John Garner. Roosevelt pledged the nation a "New Deal".
6.28.1836 -- Harriet Martineu, English writer, sailed from CHICAGO for Detroit and later wrote a widely-read book about the trip.
6.28.1894 -- Labor Day (first Monday in September) made legal holiday by Congress.
6.29.1778 -- George Rogers Clark camped near VIENNA (1818), Johnson County, during his march from Fort Massac to KASKASKIA.
6.30.1821 -- William Clark, brother of George R. Clark, closed his office as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in St. Louis after having negotiated 30 Indian treaties in Illinois, Missouri and Wisconsin.
6.30.1833 -- 4,000 volunteers from Illinois marched to Dixon's Ferry in pursuit of Black Hawk, whom they fought three weeks later at Madison.
6.30.1906 -- Meat Inspection Act passed.
6.30.1918 -- Eugene Debs arrested on charge of interfering with recruiting.
7.1.1833 -- Work was begun to improve harbor at CHICAGO.
7.1.1919 -- Daily air-mail service begun between New York and CHICAGO.
7.1.1921 -- Railroad employees' wages reduced by 12% by Railway Labor Board.
7.1.1957 -- Beginning today, over $6 million will be spent during this federal fiscal year on Cal-Sag Project. Congress has appropriated $12.5 million, with an estimated $195 million needed.
7.2.1861 -- Lincoln empowered General Scott to suspend privilege of habeas corpus.
7.2.1894 -- U.S. Attorney General Olney secured an injunction under Sherman Anti-Trust Act to prevent striking Railway Union from interfering with mails or interstate commerce and recommended to President Cleveland that troops be sent to CHICAGO to keep order. Arrived 7- ??
7.2.1921 -- War with Germany ended when Harding signed joint resolution.
7.2.1932 -- F.D. Roosevelt flew to CHICAGO to accept presidential nomination.
7.3.1904 -- Socialist Labor party convention at New York nominated C. Corrigan of N.Y. for president and Wm. W. Cox of Illinois for vice-president.
7.4.1778 -- George Rogers Clark and 175 men entered the village of KASKASKIA under Virginia authorization to win the Illinois country.
7.4.1801 -- Act making Illinois part of Indiana Territory became effective.
7.4.1803 -- Under orders of Secretary of War Henry Dearborn, men from Detroit, under the direction of Captain John Whistler (grandfather of the famous painter) began building Fort Dearborn (CHICAGO).
7.4.1831 -- First auction sale of lots was conducted in BLOOMINGTON, seat of MacLean County. Governors Hamilton and Fifer were native sons.
7.4.1836 -- Large celebration held as first spade of earth turned at CHICAGO where South Fork joins South Branch for Illinois-Michigan Canal.
7.4.1847 -- Convention of Protest began at CHICAGO after President Polk vetoes current River and Harbor Bill. Lincoln and Horace Greely attended.
7.4.1861 -- Lincoln called the 37th Congress to special session to provide means for crushing the rebellion in the South.
7.4.1873 -- PARK RIDGE (originally Pennyville) incorporated as a village.
7.4.1904 -- Rock Island County organized. On 5.3.1841, ROCK ISLAND was incorporated and made seat of Rock Island Co. Augustana College was moved here in 1875 by Augustan Lutheran Synod. City flooded in 1888, 1892, 1920 and 1922.
7.5.1852 -- Act of incorporation approved for city of JOLIET - C.C. VanHorn was first mayor. City is located on both sides of DesPlaines River and is seat of Will County. College of St. Frances established in 1874. Joliet Junior College is oldest junior college in continuous operation in U.S. (1901)
7.5.1932 -- Prohibition party convention at Indianapolis named Wm. Upshaw for president and Frank Regan of Illinois for vice-president.
7.5.1949 -- PARK RIDGE adopted city manager form of government.
7.6.1959 -- Queen Elizabeth and Prince Phillip of England visited CHICAGO - only American city on their tour to open St. Lawrence Seaway. An estimated 2 million saw them during 13 hour visit, with 2,000 policemen required to keep back crowd. Mayor Richard Daley gave a banquet and Governor Wm. Stratton greeted them. 28 U.S. warships - greatest concentration in Lake Michigan since War of 18? lined up for the ceremonies. The destroyer U.S.S. Joseph P Kennedy Jr. took part also (ship named for son of owner of Merchandise Mart. Kennedy, Jr. was killed in World War II. First place the Queen visited was the International Trade Fair.
7.7.1863 -- Samuel Waters Allerton, pork and cattle dealer, founded CHICAGO First National Bank.
7.7.1865 -- 4 of the alleged 8 assassins of Lincoln hanged. Mary E. Surrat was hanged as a conspirator - she kept a boardinghouse where John Wilkes Booth hatched an unsuccessful plot to abduct Lincoln. It now seems certain she wasn't party to the assassination plans and her hanging is regarded as a great miscarriage of justice.
7.7.1896 -- Democratic National Convention at Chicago nominated Wm. Jennings Bryan of Nebraska for U.S. president and Arthur Sewall of Maine for vice-president. They also adopted a platform for free coins of silver and gold.
7.8.1869 -- Wm. Vaughan Moody born in Indiana. Later a University of Chicago professor, he authored "The Masque of Judgement", "The Great Divide", "The Faith Healer", etc.,
7.8.1885 -- At the Democratic National Convention in CHICAGO, Grover Cleveland was nominated for president (then serving as governor of New York) and Thomas Hendricks of Indiana for vice-president.
7.8.1894 -- President Cleveland ordered dispersal of all unlawful assemblage in the state during the railway workers strike. By the next day strike incidents had been suppressed, but 12 men had been shot dead and $685,000 property damage had been sustained.
7.8.1896 -- William Jennings Bryan gave his famous "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic convention in CHICAGO.
7.9.1858 -- Stephen (Little Giant) Douglas arrived in CHICAGO. The militia fired a 150-gun salute from Dearborn Park and 30,000 packed the street in front of the Fremont House, greeting him enthusiastically.
7.9.1955 -- J. Lester Buford, Superintendent of Schools of District 80 of Mount Vernon, was elected president of the National Education Assn. and listed in "Who's Who". Mount Vernon was founded in 6.7.1819 and is county seat for Jefferson County. State governor Louis Emerson (1929-1933) was a native son.
7.9.1959 -- F. Kozlov, Soviet first deputy premier, visited farms near MORRIS.
7.10.1840 -- John Stone, hung for murder - CHICAGO'S FIRST LEGAL EXECUTION.
7.11.1834 -- FIRST LARGE VESSEL to enter Chicago River, the schooner Illinois sailed into harbor which had just been improved and deepened.
7.11.1895 -- Waukegan Library Association incorporated.
7.12.1843 -- Joseph Smith, Mormon head, received the "plural wives" revelation at NAUVOU. He was murdered 6.27.1844 because of this.
7.12.1904 -- Stockyards strike began - 50,000 men out for almost 2 months.
7.12.1909 -- A date not celebrated by U.S. taxpayers - Congress passed along to the states a proposed constitutional amendment empowering the Federal government to levy income taxes - ratified 2.25.1913.
7.13.1787 -- Ordinance of '87 passed by Congress of Federation - a set of laws governing territory northwest of Ohio River, including Illinois.
7.13.1832 -- Henry Schoolcraft and party discovered source of Mississippi River is Lake Itasca, Minnesota.
7.13.1912 -- Seat of Wm. Lorimer declared vacant by Senate following investigation of bribery charges in his election in Illinois 2 years before.
7.13.1920 -- Farm Labor party met in first nominating convention at CHICAGO.
7.14.1855 -- Archa Campbell became the first mayor of Urbana. In July, 1874, the city's first Free Library was opened.
7.14.1920 -- Single Tax Convention at CHICAGO ended - MaCauley for president.
7.15.1830 -- Sacs and Foxes, who had fled to ROCK ISLAND after Sioux and Menominees had massacred some of their tribe, agreed on a neutral strip with the Sioux. JIM THORPE, a Sac and Fox Indian, made sports history in 1912-19. King Gustav V of Sweden and sports writers labeled him "best football player in history and the greatest athlete the world has yet seen". He excelled as a bowler, golfer, marksman, swimmer, wrestler, boxer, in baseball and track.
7.15.1940 -- Democratic National Convention at CHICAGO - F.D.R. for president.
7.16.1908 -- Prohibition party convention ended at Columbus, Ohio. Eugene w. Chafin of Illinois named for president, Watkins for vice-president.
7.17.1765 -- Illinois French began moving across Mississippi River to escape rule by England after Treaty of Paris signed. Today, commandant at St. Philippe surrendered Fort Chartres, the chief lieu of the district, to the British and left for St. Louis.
7.17.1862 -- Lincoln authorized Congress to call out militia between 18-45 for 9 months service - Draft of 1862.
7.17.1877 -- Workmen on B. & O. railroad quit in protest against wage cuts - the agitation spread from city to city with mounting violence.
7.18.1871 -- Work completed on Illinois-Michigan Canal at CHICAGO to dredge river to reverse current and force sewage down to Illinois River.
7.19.1887 -- The AURORA Zouaves, world champion fancy drill team organized.
7.20.1864 -- Day set for revolution in Illinois, Missouri, Indiana and Ohio by "Order of the Sons of Liberty". They planned to release the Southern prisoners from camps at CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, Columbia and Indianapolis and create a Northwest Confederacy. Their political head arrested just before revolution began, ending movement.
7.20.1894 -- U.S. troops withdrawn from Chicago after railway strike ends.
7.21.1899 -- Ernest Hemingway born in OAK PARK (largest community with village form of government in U.S.). Other well-known citizens are Janet Lewis, novelist; Doris Humphrey, dancer: Dr. William Barton, clergyman; Bruce Barton, journalist and Louis Caldwell, head of bureau of radio law in Washington. Frank Lloyd Wright, famous architect, also resided here for a time.
7.21.1918 -- Train wreck at Gary, Indiana killed 63 circus performers. They are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, FOREST PARK with 5 granite elephants for a tombstone. Cemeteries comprise ½ of the city corporate area, containing over 300,000 graves.
7.22.1861 -- General George B. McClellan appointed commander of Army of the Potomac - he was formerly of CHICAGO, chief engineer, then vice-president of Illinois Central Railroad. In November, he became commander-in-chief. (Voted for Douglas in only ballot he ever cast.)
7.22.1916 -- James Whitcomb Riley, famous Midwest poet, died at age of 66.
7.22.1934 -- John Dillinger, then most notorious person in U.S., shot to death in front of CHICAGO theater by FBI agents. He committed robbery in MONTICELLO, robbed banks of $500,000 and was blamed for at least 13 killings.
7.23.1885 -- U.S. Grant died in New York where he had moved in 1880 from his home in GALENA - now that city's principal tourist attraction.
7.24.1684 -- LaSalle sailed with colonists from France, in order to control interior North American fur trade.
7.24.1858 -- Lincoln challenged Douglas to divide time and address the same audiences.
7.24.1915 -- When the "Eastland", chartered for an excursion of Western Electric Company of CICERO, rolled over at Clark St. Bridge in the Chicago River, 812 people drowned - most of them from BERWYN.
7.24.1946 -- Improvement project for Sag Channel, which connects the Little Calumet River with Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Cal-Sag junction, was approved by Congress. Chicago is predicted by some to become world's greatest port with the St. Lawrence Seaway.
7.25.1877 -- Rioting broke out when 8,000 stormed BURLINGTON roundhouse - 3 dead, 8 wounded. A general strike by all railroad workers in CHICAGO had begun the day before. On the 26th, 10,000 sympathizers of the strikers swarmed about Halsted St. viaduct. Federal troops entered city in afternoon - 30 killed, 100 wounded.
7.25.1960 -- Republicans convene for the 14th CHICAGO convention. (Democrats have held 9 there). Meeting will be in 25-year-old International Amphitheatre. A $34 million convention hall is now under construction on the Lake Michigan Shore at 23rd St. Chicago metropolitan area ranks first in nation in new and enlarged plants since WWII. These include 41-story Prudential Building, Inland Steel Building, Borg-Warner Building, Sun-Times Building and U.S. Fidelity and Guaranty Building. Also built recently are the Executive House, Sinclair Building, Morton Building, Mutual Trust Building and American Fore Building and many apartments.
7.26.1926 -- Robert Todd Lincoln died in Vermont.
7.26.1947 -- At midnight, Lincoln's official papers were opened to the public at the Library of Congress. Robert T. Lincoln's will had stipulated that they not be opened until 21 years after his death. 4,000 books have been written about Abraham Lincoln of Illinois.
7.27.1876 -- Victor Fremont Lawson became owner of Chicago "Daily News" - he founded famous world-wide news service of the "News" in 1898.
7.27.1919 -- At South Side beach, CHICAGO, on a hot day, race rioting began which lasted 4 days, resulting in 38 killed, 537 injured, $2 million property destroyed by fire and thousands left homeless.
7.27.1943 -- Steamer Bruce Hudson exploded at CHICAGO - 3 dead.
7.28.1794 -- General Anthony Wayne, with 2,000 well-drilled Legion regulars, 600 Kentucky riflemen and 900 more on the way, began his campaign against the Indians in the Northwest Territory.
7.29.1829 -- Potawatomi Indians ceded northern Illinois to U.S. but by Act of Congress and an Indian treaty, settlers were forbidden entry until 1836.
7.29.1936 -- "The Dubuque Riot" as it is known in Mississippi River history, occurred. 4 killed as riot ended control of the raftsmen over the boats and attracted widespread attention.
7.29.1936 -- MS Material Service foundered on Lake Michigan - 15 lost.
7.30.1945 -- 1,000 Chicagoans, including Mayor Kelly, Governor Green and Senator Brooks attended Palmer House party for Robert McCormick.
7.31.1837 -- ALTON incorporated as a city. The world became aware of Alton in 1939 when its citizen, Robert Wadlow, had achieved the height of 8'8" by his 21st birthday. He weighed 490#, wore size 36 shoes and was the tallest human being of whom medical science has record. He died in 1940.
8.1.1848 -- 30 deaths from cholera occurred today in CHICAGO - 1 in 36 of the population had it this year. In 1852 there were 630 deaths. In 1854, there were 1,020 victims. Cholera came every year.
8.1.1866 -- Horace White succeeded Joseph Medill as editor-in-chief of the Chicago "Tribune". Now newspaper disagreed with G.O.P. policies.
8.2.1832 -- Black Hawk War ended today when most of the Indian warriors were massacred by Illinois militia. Chief Black Hawk sought refuge with the Winnebagoes, but they surrendered him to the government 8.??
8.2.1882 -- The "Rivers and Harbors" bill, passed by Congress over Presidential veto, authorized over $18 million for public works.
8.2.1894 -- The Pullman Company reopened after a strike and all American Railway Union members had to surrender their Union cards. The next day the Union declared the strike closed. Debs was in prison.
8.2.1909 -- The first consignment of the new Lincoln pennies was received by the state. This was the first new penny design since the Civil War - issued to commemorate 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth.
8.3.1795 -- Treaty of Greenville signed with terms of Indian submission. A large amount of land was ceded to the whites, including "a piece of land six miles square at the mouth of the Chickago River', which military authorities recognized as a strategic point to command the farther reaches of the Northwest Territory. For the first time, U.S. recognized Indian title to land lying within its boundaries. If Anthony Wayne had not won the Northwest Territory, England would probably have retained her possession.
8.3.1824 -- A state poll was taken for a constitutional convention - it was general understanding that a convention meant the introduction of slavery into the state. Result - 6,640 votes against, 4,972 for.
8.3.1907 -- At CHICAGO, Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis fined Standard Oil of Indiana $29,240,000 for receiving rebates in violations of Illinois law of 1903 after they were found guilty in U.S. District Court. 7.22.1908, fine set aside by Federal Court of Appeals at Chicago and 11.10.1909, case dismissed after a re-trial.
8.4.1830 -- The survey plat made by James Thompson of the State Canal Commissioners was filed - FIRST IN CHICAGO'S CORPORATE HISTORY. In 183? city designated seat of Cook County, in 1833, incorporated as ??
8.4.1854 -- A tornado struck ROCK ISLAND - at least 7 were killed.
8.5.1833 -- CHICAGO incorporated as a town with less than 200 population. Only 13 voters went to the polls and 12 voted for the proposal. Town lots were then put up for sale. Incorporated as a city in 1837.
8.6.1778 -- 5 weeks after George Rogers Clark had taken the forts at KASKASKIA and CAHOKIA, news of it reached British Lt. Col. Henry Hamilton at Vincennes. Hamilton directed all British military policy from the Great Lakes to the Cumberland range - the forts were important.
8.7.1679 -- LaSalle set sail in the "Griffin" to traverse the Mississippi River all the way to Mexico.
8.7.1812 -- Dispatches reached Capt. Heald at Fort Dearborn to evacuate the fort as War of 1812 had begun and inhabitants were in danger.
8.7.1927 -- Vice-president Charles Gates Dawes of EVANSTON spoke at the dedication of the International Peace Bridge.
8.8.1814 -- American commissioners met British at Ghent, Netherlands. They demanded we renounce Northwest Territory, agree to establish no ports on Great Lakes shores or put war vessels on the Lakes, etc. Our agents refused - it was 4 months before terms were agreed.
8.8.1862 -- 4 days after Lincoln issued call to draft 300,000 troops, 500 men crossed from Detroit to Windsor to escape army duty. Later, a train was stopped going from CHICAGO to Detroit and 26 men removed - many left for Europe or filed disability claims while others cut off fingers or had all their teeth pulled.
8.9.1830 -- Wedding date of Mrs. Juliette Kinzie, author of "Wau-Bun" which means "The Early Days" and was recently re-issued. She was the daughter-in-law of John Kinzie, "father" of Chicago.
8.9.1849 -- Lincoln was commissioned Secretary of Oregon Territory, but Mrs. Lincoln did not want to live there, so he declined.
8.10.1833 -- First town trustees of CHICAGO were elected at Sauganash Tavern.
8.10.1861 -- Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo. Illinois, Kentucky and Iowa boys lay dead beside Missouri boys - 1,200 killed and wounded.
8.10.1875 -- The Decatur Public Library was founded.
8.10.1959 -- All Toll collectors of the Centennial Bridge over Mississippi River between ROCK ISLAND and Davenport, suspended after FBI and the state authorities disclosed $750,000 shortage.
8.11.1858 -- Stephen Douglas spoke at BEARDSTOWN on the Illinois River, branding Lincoln's convention speech "an infamous lie".
8.12.1806 -- Lewis and several men of the Lewis-Clark Expedition met Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock, trappers from Illinois - the first white men they had seen in over 1½ years, as they neared their base at WOOD RIVER, on their return from the Pacific coast.
8.12.1858 -- Lincoln spoke at BEARDSTOWN repeating conspiracy charge against Douglas.
8.12.1861 -- U.S. Grant of GALENA, wrote to his sister while on duty at SPRINGFIELD, where he had enlisted for the Civil War.
8.13.1858 -- Stephen Douglas spoke at HAVANA in Spoon river country, Mason County - called Lincoln a liar, coward and a sneak!
8.14.1858 -- Lincoln spoke at HAVANA, replying to Douglas' speech of the previous day. Lincoln often stayed at the Taylor House here.
8.14.1869 -- McDonough County Courthouse cornerstone at MACOMB was laid by the Masonic Lodge, as was the custom of the day.
8.14.1945 -- Illinois celebrated the end of World War II all over the state.
8.15.1812 -- The garrison under General Heald and inhabitants of Fort Dearborn attempted to flee, but almost all were massacred a few miles from the fort by Indians aiding the British. Today, the British demanded surrender of Detroit, next day received it.
8.15.1871 -- To solve CHICAGO'S sanitation problem, the Illinois-Michigan Canal was deepened, using lake water to cleanse the river. 4 years of construction, costing $3 million was completed today.
8.16.1856 -- Lincoln spoke at OREGON, seat of Ogle County.
8.16.1858 -- During Senate campaign, Lincoln spoke at BATH from home of a friend, Gen. James Ruggles, who was a member of Illinois General Assembly. He was carried on a stretcher to vote for Lincoln.
8.17.1821 -- Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan Territory, held a council with 3,000 Indians at CHICAGO on north side of the river. Terms were refused until 8.29, when every chief had signed. When Cass gave Indians liquor, 10 murders were committed in the next day.
8.18.1834 -- Marshall Field born - later illustrious CHICAGO merchant.
8.18.1835 -- CHICAGO saw the final act in its Indian history. The warriors gathered for their subsidies and 800 staged a howling war dance before they were moved across the Mississippi River to new land.
8.19.1818 -- Kaskaskia "Illinois Intelligencer" noted that Shadrach Bond was withdrawing from contest for delegate to Congress. He had no opposition when he ran for Governor and was elected FIRST GOVERNOR OF THE STATE. Pierre Menard elected Lt. Governor; Elias Kane appointed Secretary of State; John McLean, Representative in Congress; Daniel Pope Cook, Attorney-General; Jesse B. Thomas, Senator; Ninian Edwards, Senator. Edwards was FIRST GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS TERRITORY. FIRST CAPITAL - Kaskaskia, second VANDALIA.
8.20.1794 -- Battle of Fallen Timbers occurred, during which General Anthony Wayne decisively defeated his Indian foes.
8.21.1858 -- Lincoln-Douglas debates began. 10,000 attended the first one held at OTTAWA, LaSalle County. City claims State Senator Wm. Peddick and former Chief Justice of Illinois Supreme Court and John Caton as citizens.
8.22.1862 -- In answer to an editorial by Horace Greeley, Lincoln said, "My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union and it is not either to save or destroy slavery."
8.23.1818 -- First American-built steamship on Great Lakes, the "walk-in-the-Water", began her maiden voyage.
8.24.1816 -- Indian Treaty was drawn specifically with building of portage canal in mind, 10 miles north and 10 miles south of Chicago River.
8.24.1849 -- PEKIN incorporated - third seat of Tazewell County. During the steamboat traffic era, it was major port on Illinois River. Its first public school, called the "Cincinnati school" founded 183?
8.24.1857 -- Panic of 1857 began as stocks fell, commodity prices sank and bankruptcy followed bankruptcy. It halted construction of Illinois State Normal University at BLOOMINGTON, OLDEST TEACHERS' UNIVERSITY IN STATE and one of the first normal schools in U.S.
8.25.1831 -- Major Thomas Biddle and Spencer Pettis, member of 21st Congress, killed each other in a tragic duel in area of EAST ST. LOUIS, known as "Bloody Island". Charles Dickens wrote of the duel in "American Notes". Robert E. Lee supervised building a dike there.
8.26.1858 -- Lincoln spoke at AMBOY, Lee County. Town's first newspaper was published in 1854 by Augustus Dickens, brother of author Charles.
8.26.1935 -- United Auto Workers received its charter at its first convention in Detroit from the American Federation of Labor.
8.27.1679 -- The "Griffin", carrying LaSalle, landed at St. Ignace, where he found 4 of the 15 men he had sent ahead previous autumn to buy furs and visit tribes along Illinois River to prepare for his coming.
8.27.1832 -- Chief Black Hawk was surrendered to U.S. government by the Winnebagoes Indians, with whom he had sought refuge at end of war.
8.27.1840 -- Lincoln made a campaign speech at MOUNT VERNON. Here, between sessions of First Grand Division of State Supreme Court (held 1848-1896) Lincoln and Douglas argued politics.
8.27.1858 -- Lincoln-Douglas debate at FREEPORT, Stephenson Co. Lincoln also spoke at CARLINVILLE, BLOOMINGTON, MONTICELLO, PARIS, EDWARDSVILLE.
8.27.1863 -- Ford's theater in Washington opened to public with the dramatic pageant, "The Naiad Queen".
8.27.1865 -- Charles Gates Dawes born at EVANSTON. Later became banker, statesman and vice-president of U.S. Forwarded Dawes Plan in 1924 to Reparations Commission of Allied Nations to reduce payment of reparations and aid stabilization of German finances.
8.27.1959 -- Pan-American Games began in CHICAGO - climaxing the Festival of the Americas, both "firsts" for the U.S. See 9.7.
8.28.1920 -- 19th Amendment passed giving women right to vote.
8.29.1864 -- Democratic National Convention at CHICAGO nominated General Geo. McClellan for president. He led criticism of Lincoln for president.
8.29.1911 -- Today Chicago "Tribune" proclaimed itself "The World's Greatest Newspaper".
8.30.1914 -- Steamer "City of Chicago" burned on Lake Michigan.
8.31.1858 -- Lincoln addressed audience whose sympathies were with Douglas at CARLINVILLE. Here 71 years later, a Lincoln Memorial unveiled.
8.31.1908 -- Eugene Debs, Socialist nominee for the presidency, left CHICAGO's LaSalle station to campaign. He covered 20,000 miles, spoke 10 times daily - drew a larger crowd than Taft at Evansville, when they spoke there on the same day.
9.1.1683 -- Dated at "Checagou", LaSalle wrote a letter in farewell to the men at Fort St. Louis, as he prepared to return to France.
9.1.1838 -- William Clark (of Lewis and Clark fame) died at St. Louis.
9.1.1857 -- Monmouth College at MONMOUTH, opened under the auspices of United Presbyterian church, a co-educational college.
9.1.1914 -- The last known survivor of the uncounted billions of passenger pigeons once so common in northern Illinois and Michigan, died of old age at Cincinnati, Ohio Zoological Gardens - 29 years old.
9.1.1919 -- Communist Party held first convention of CHICAGO - chiefly Russian speaking, it forms American section of Third of Russian Interna??
9.2.1850 -- Eugene Field born. In Chicago "Daily News" (later "Record") his column, "Sharps and Flats", helped establish the newspaper columnist. His poems include "Little Boy Blue", "Wynken, Blynken and Nod".
9.2.1850 -- Inauguration of the Aurora branch of the Burlington Railroad - later changed to Chicago, Burnlington and Quincy Railroad. In 185? FIRST FREE SCHOOL IN ILLINOIS was established at AURORA.
9.2.1858 -- Abraham Lincoln spoke at CLINTON, including his now famous saying "You can fool all of the people some of the time and some of the people all of the time, but you can't fool all the people all the time".
9.2.1862 -- For first time, after a series of defeats in the war and jealousy among cabinet members and generals, Lincoln offered to resign.
9.2.1892 -- Officials of the Garfield Park race track in CHICAGO arrested its effort to stem gambling. For following 3 days, police halted races, arresting hundreds. After one man was killed resisting arrest, 9/12 of council voted to keep the Park gates locked.
9.2.1896 -- "Sound Money" Democrats met at Indianapolis as National Democratic party on gold standard. John M. Palmer of Illinois was nominated for president and Simon Buckner of Kentucky for vice-president.
9.2.1919 -- Communist Labor party organized at CHICAGO by Socialist left-wingers not accepted by Communist Party, then holding first convention.
9.2.1945 -- Japan formally surrendered on battleship Missouri, Tokyo Bay.
9.3.1879 -- Swift Company shipped first frozen beef to Boston in refrigerated ca??
9.4.1792 -- Anthony Wayne created 4th Sub-legion of his army, assigned William Clark (brother of George Rogers Clark) to it and began intensive training. Troops killed bears for clothing when theirs wore out.
9.4.1878 -- Potter Palmer invited anyone (by advertisement) to build a fire center of any room in Palmer House at CHICAGO to prove it was fire proof.
9.5.1905 -- Marshall Field, famous Chicagoan, married second time at age 71.
9.6.1867 -- President Johnson laid cornerstone of monument to Stephen Douglas in CHICAGO, during his presidential tour.
9.7.1959 -- Pan-American Games end in CHICAGO - billed as "the largest international sports event to be held in this part of the world". The accompanying festival featured exhibits of Pan-American sculpture, art and architecture, concerts by Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chicago Chamber Orchestra, folk dances, dramas and fold music.
9.8.1832 -- Caleb Atwater, Indian commissioner, wrote in the "Sangamo Journal", No poor man in the Eastern states, who has feet and legs and can use them, has any excuse for remaining poor where he is, a day or even an hour." He was referring to rich Illinois soil.
9.8.1858 -- 4th Lincoln-Douglas debate at CHARLESTON, seat of Coles County, (Lincoln's family had passed through here when moving from Indiana in 1830). Eastern Illinois State Teachers College (1899) is here.
9.8.1868 -- Steamer Hippocampus foundered in Lake Michigan - 25 lost.
9.8.1860 -- Steamer Lady Elgin collided with the Augusta on Lake Michigan with the appalling total of 297 lives lost.
9.9.1730 -- 300 Fox Indians and families bound for Iroquois country were slaughtered by French soldiers and Indian allies after a 3-week siege near what is now PLANO - (town settled by Norwegians).
9.9.1910 -- Carferry Pere Marquette #18 sank in Lake Michigan - 29 lost.
9.10.1813 -- Capt. Oliver H. Perry's fleet defeated British fleet at Battle of Lake Erie. Perry sent famous message to General Wm. Henry Harrison, "We have met the enemy and they are ours!"
9.10.1833 -- Andrew Jackson called council of Indians of Illinois and Ter. of Michigan at CHICAGO, to open land for settlers.
9.10.1871 -- Chicago "Tribune" warned of miles of firetraps, pleasing to the eye, looking substantial, but all sham shingles" - a city of wood. Less than 1 month later, October 8, the city was destroyed by fire.
9.10.1875 -- Steamers Equinox (20-26 lost) and Mendota (12 lost) foundered on Lake Michigan. 1929, the Andasta foundered with 27 lost.
9.10.1918 -- Airmail was carried from CHICAGO to New York in 12 hours, 55 minutes. FIRST TIME COMPLETED IN 1 DAY.
9.11.1902 -- Western Ill. State Teachers College opened at MACOMB, McDonough Co.
9.12.1861 -- Chicago Irish Brigade, under Col. J.A. Mulligan began defending Lexington against 20,000 Confederates, but surrendered 9.20.
9.13.1848 -- Lincoln addressed a Whig convention in Massachusetts.
9.14.1786 -- Connecticut ceded its lands in Northwest Territory to the U.S.
9.15.1858 -- Lincoln and Douglas debated at JONESBORO, Union Co. before 1,500.
9.15.1873 -- Steamer Ironsides foundered on Lake Michigan, 24-30 lost.
9.16.1880 -- General U.S. Grant spoke at Fairgrounds Park, ROCKFORD.
9.17.1858 -- Lincoln spoke at PARIS as candidate for U.S. Senator.
9.17.1859 -- Lincoln spoke at Cincinnati - "I say there is room for us all to be free … it positively wrongs the mass of white men that the Negro should be enslaved!"
9.17.1923 -- First "one-way ride" occurred when CHICAGO gangsters were taken for a ride and later were found murdered.
9.18.1679 -- LaSalle's "Griffin" sailed from an Indian village loaded with furs - it was to return later for him, but was never seen again. Lake Michigan's FIRST MARITIME MYSTERY.
9.18.1793 -- George Washington donned the Mason's apron and laid the cornerstone for the main portion of the U.S. Capital building - during re-construction work in 1959, this cornerstone disappeared.
9.18.1854 -- Stephen Douglas spoke at ROCK ISLAND was also there in 1860.
9.18.1873 -- Financier Jay Cooke failed - state shared in the economic panic.
9.19.1950 -- WILMETTE held its second annual Charter Day. The first public school here was opened in 1871.
9.20.1850 -- At Stephen Douglas' instigation, FIRST FEDERAL LAND GRANT FOR RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION was made to Illinois.
9.20.1854 -- "Peoples' Convention" organized in AURORA and adopted the name "Republican Party", proclaiming doctrines of a new party.
9.20.1878 -- Upton Sinclair, famous novelist, was born. His novel, "The Jungle", about poor working conditions in meat-packing industry of CHICAGO caused wide public reaction, His political adventure novels in "Lanny Budd" series also attracted wide audiences.
9.21.1832 -- Sauk (or Sac) and Fox Indians agreed in treaty signed today to remain west of Mississippi River. Senate ratified it 2.9.183?
9.21.1856 -- Illinois Central Railroad between CHICAGO and CAIRO completed.
9.21.1858 -- A large crowd met Lincoln at depot and escorted him to Fithian House in DANVILLE, now marked by a Lincoln Memorial Boulder.
9.22.1783 -- Congress forbade settlers to occupy land belonging to Indians.
9.22.1919 -- Great steel strike began in Gary, Indiana to force U.S. Steel Corporation to recognize unions. 1.8.1920 called off as failure.
9.22.1927 -- Famous "long count" (14 seconds) boxing match took place at Soldier Field, CHICAGO, when Jack Dempsey made mistake of hovering over Gene Tunney, whom he had knocked down, instead of retiring to his neutral corner. 104,943 people paid $2,658,660 to see Tunney retain his title and more than 50 million were listening to the radio account.
9.23.1806 -- Lewis-Clark expedition reached St. Louis after journey of 2 years, 4 months to Pacific coast and back. The next day, they visited CAHOKIA and WOOD RIVER, their base.
9.24.1812 -- Wm. H. Harrison named Commander of Army of Northwest Territory.
9.24.1844 -- Brigham Young, who took command of Mormons after their leader Joseph Smith was murdered, announced Mormons would leave Illinois.
9.24.1856 -- Steamer Niagara burned on Lake Michigan with 65 lives lost. 1864, Steamer Tonawanda exploded in Chicago River.
9.24.1862 -- Lincoln signed preliminary Emancipation Proclamation which decreed all slaves in seceded states would be freed 1.1.1863.
9.25.1871 -- Palmer House, CHICAGO, opened - burned in fire 10.8.1871.
9.26.1930 -- Ships Our Son, Salvor and North Shore lost on Lake Michigan.
9.27.1833 -- 8,000 Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatomi Indians signed treaty with U.S. Commissioners, relinquishing all claims to land east of the Mississippi River - 5 million acres.
9.27.1865 -- William S. McCormick, brother and partner of Cyrus, reaper inventor, died at JACKSONVILLE.
9.28.1836 -- First published account of the Piasa bird about which Marquette had written in 1673, appeared in ALTON "Evening Telegraph". Bird was supposedly large enough to carry off an Indian.
9.28.1839 -- Frances E. Willard, later EVANSTON'S most famous citizen, born. Served as dean of women and Professor of Aesthetics at Northwestern U. (chartered 1851), later organized World Women's Christian Temperance Union. Her home is now WCTU national shrine.
9.28.1899 -- Steamer R.J. Gordon burned in Chicago Harbor.
9.28.1907 -- Handsome cross unveiled near right-o-way of Chicago & Alton RR as spot where Marquette had landed on 3.31.1675. Cross was later removed and hung on a barn when new bridge was built in 1930.
9.30.1809 -- Treaty of Ft. Wayne signed as General Wm. H. Harrison obtained cession of 3 million acres of land in the Indiana Territory.
9.30.1843 -- U.S. Grant of GALENA reported for first duty to Ft. Jefferson near St. Louis after having been graduated from West Point.
9.30.1859 -- Lincoln's most vigorous statements on the relationship of capital and labor were made in a speech to farmers at Milwaukee State Fair. He carried Wisconsin with a handsome majority later.
9.30.1931 -- "Public Enemy #1" Al Capone pleaded guilty of income tax evasion in a CHICAGO court. He died in 1947, aged 48.
10.1.1858 -- Abraham Lincoln spoke at PITTSFIELD.
10.1.1892 -- University of Chicago first opened. John D. Rockefeller and Julius Rosenwald donated millions - its endowment exceeds $12 million. Wm. Rainey Harper was the first president. Thornton Wilder, later of the school, wrote the famous play "Our Town".
10.1.1932 -- State's Attorney Swanson cabled Samuel Insull in Paris to return for questioning. Insull tried to escape but was arrested and tried for using the mails to defraud. He was freed, but his power was ended - at death in 1938 he left $1,000 cash and over $14 million in debts.
10.2.1951 -- Mount Vernon adopted the first city manager government in the state under the new state law.
10.3.1887 -- Schooners City of Green Bay and Havana lost on Lake Michigan.
10.4.1854 -- Abraham Lincoln replied to a speech of Stephen Douglas at Springfield on the Kansas-Nebraska question.
10.4.1887 -- Steamer California foundered on Lake Michigan with 9-14 lost.
10.4.1912 -- Vice raids begun by the State Attorney on CHICAGO'S resorts.
10.5.1787 -- Arthur St. Clair appointed governor of Northwest Ter. by Congress.
10.5.1857 -- Illinois State Normal University opened in BLOOMINGTON - oldest teachers' university in Illinois - among the first normal university established in U.S. Second building erected was library.
10.5.1937 -- F.D. Roosevelt made his "Quarantine the Aggressor" speech at the dedication of CHICAGO's Outer Drive. It brought bitter attacks by isolationists. The Drive over Chicago River was planned to carry 85,000 vehicles per day. It is the largest bascule bridge in the world, (Outer Drive Bridge).
10.6.1899 -- Soldiers and Sailors Monument dedication at Courthouse Square PEORIA, attended by President McKinley and 30,000 others.
10.6.1931 -- The FBI arrested Al Capone, Public Enemy #1, in CHICAGO.
10.7.1778 -- British Lt. Col. Henry Hamilton, in command at Detroit, set out to recapture Vincennes, key position of region between the La? and Ohio River, after he heard of George R. Clark's success.
10.7.1858 -- Lincoln-Douglas debate at GALESBURG, Knox County was held before 20,000 in town of 5,000. Lincoln's speech has been labeled as his "best". The speaker's platform was built against Knox College building, where Eugene Field, Carl Sandburg, Don Marquis and George Fitch studied. George W. Ferris of GALESBURG built the first ferris wheel for the Columbian Exposition in 1893.
10.7.1891 -- The Ulysses S. Grant Monument by Louis Rebisso was unveiled.
10.7.1895 -- CHICAGO council passed a 50-year franchise for Union Elevated Co. which was to operate all 4 loop elevated lines then being built. This was a Charles C Yerkes project.
10.7.1915 -- Poet James Whitcomb Riley's 76th birthday celebrated - National Commissioner of Education decreed processions, recitals, etc. in all U.S. schools. (Wrote "Raggedy Man", Little Orphant (sic) Annie").
10.8.1835 -- Shurtleff College at ALTON was named for him this day, after a large donation by Benjamin Shurtleff, M.D. Founded by a Baptist missionary, it began as Alton Seminary.
10.8.1838 -- John Milton Hay, Lincoln's secretary, was born at Salem, Indiana. His family soon moved to WARSAW, Illinois.
10.8.1871 -- A Sunday never to be forgotten by CHICAGOANS - fire began in Patrick O'Leary's stable at 137 DeKoven Street. Before it was over at least 250 people burned to death, 2,000 acres were ravaged and 17,450 buildings were in 3 1/3 sq. miles of ashes.
10.9.1871 -- The Steamer Navarino burned in Chicago Harbor.
10.9.1874 -- Joseph Medill again became editor-in-chief of CHICAGO'S "Tribune".
10.10.1765 -- The French flag at Fort de Chartres, which had flown over New World for 150 years, was lowered. The British raised their flag and established FIRST MIDWEST COURT OF JUSTICE. (12.6.1768)
10.11.1871 -- Troops entered CHICAGO to restore order following looting, vandalism and re-setting of the fire. Mayor Mason handed over control of CHICAGO to General Sheridan and martial law was declared. Pinkerton's police issued notice that no mercy would be shown looters - they would be shot on sight.
10.12.1868 -- The Marshall Field store first opened for business.
10.12.1898 -- At VIRDEN, a riot occurred when coal miners struck and mine owners brought in 300 Negroes and 75 armed guards this day to supplant the union men. 10 miners and 6 guards were killed, 30 wounded. Gov. Tanner said, "these mine owners … have gone far enough.
10.13.1858 -- 6th Lincoln-Douglas debate at QUINCY, Adams County, before 12,000. County and city named for John Quincy Adams and is formerly site of Sauk Indian village. For 20 years, it was 2nd largest city in state. O.H. Browning lived here - a U.S. senator during Lincoln's presidency and secretary of interior under Andrew Johnson.
10.14.1897 -- CHICAGO aldermen voted $12,000 to the Civil Service Commission.
10.15.1802 -- Treaty of San Ildefonso, ceding Louisiana Territory back to France from Spain was signed. Spanish Louisiana stretched from west coast of Mississippi River to California coast. The title of La. acquired from France by U.S. had its source in this treaty.
10.15.1858 -- Last of the 7 Lincoln-Douglas debates held at ALTON. In 1842, Lincoln was challenged by State Auditor James Shield to a duel because of a lampooning article in a SPRINGFIELD newspaper written by Mary Todd (whom Lincoln married later that year). Lincoln chose broadswords and Alton as the dueling ground. After a conference between the seconds, Shield accepted a formal statement from Lincoln and the duel was called off.
10.15.1874 -- Lincoln tomb dedicated - now contains bodies of wife and sons Edward, William and Thomas (Tad). It was built with volunteer contributions of $200,000. Robert Todd, only son to reach maturity, is buried in Arlington National Cemetery - died 1926.
10.16.1802 -- Morales, Spanish Intendent, suspended the rights of America to use the Mississippi River.
10.16.1854 -- At PEORIA, Lincoln delivered the first of his great speeches on slavery, after Stephen Douglas had spoken all afternoon.
10.16.1855 -- The southern half of BLOOMINGTON was razed by fire.
10.16.1880 -- Steamer Alpena foundered on Lake Michigan with 60-101 lost.
10.16.1940 -- First registration day of draft - 1,008,316 male residents of U.S. were registered in Illinois, 544,294 in Cook County and 464,022 in other 100 counties. 900,000 men and 19,000 women served in the Armed Forces. There were 8,879 casualties in the Navy, 18,601 in the Army. From 1942-5, state manufactured for war use, goods valued at an estimated $27 billion. Scientists of U. of Chicago contributed to invention of atomic bomb and of Illinois found a way to decontaminate water for soldiers.
10.16.1943 -- Mayor Edward Kelly dedicated CHICAGO'S first subway, 5 mi. long.
10.17.1793 -- A supply train of 28 wagons for General A. Wayne's army was attacked by Indians near Fort St. Clair, the first engagement in which Tecumseh took part as a minor war chief. He came to the aid of Black Hawk 39 years later in Illinois.
10.17.1863 -- Lincoln called for 300,000 volunteers to serve for 3 years.
10.17.1910 -- William Vaughn Moody, U. of Chicago professor and author of "Masque of Judgement", "The Great Divide", etc. passed away.
10.17.1931 -- Federal Court at CHICAGO found Al Capone guilty of 5 income counts - sentenced him to 8 years in Alcatraz prison.
10.18.1790 -- General Josiah Harmar, in the first of a long series of expeditions to defeat the Indians, was defeated by them near Fort Wayne, beginning a 5-year Indian War in Northwest Territory.
10.19.1803 -- Congress ratified treaty purchasing Louisiana from France for $15 million. Jefferson had feared the British would conquer La. thus strangling American trade down the Mississippi River.
10.19.1845 -- The murderers of Col. George Davenport of Rock Island County were hanged in ROCK ISLAND. The widow of John Long, one of those hanged, gave his skeleton to a doctor and it now hangs in the courthouse. ROCK ISLAND, MOLINE and EAST MOLINE of Illinois and DAVENPORT of Iowa are known as the "Quad Cities". The Iowa city took its name from Col. George Davenport, first resident-settler of Rock Island, where Dred Scott spent 2 years.
10.19.1897 -- George Pullman died in CHICAGO. His family, fearing reprisals from former employees, many of whom he had paid starvation wages, buried his casket in concrete bound down with steel rails.
10.20.1858 -- Lincoln addressed people of RUSHVILLE, east of Schuyler County.
10.21.1850 -- CHICAGO City Council refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Act.
10.21.1892 -- Dedicatory exercises of World's Fair in CHICAGO held. Mrs. P. Palmer opened ball in Auditorium attended by King and Queen of Spain, U.S. Vice-president Levi Morton, members of Supreme Court, Robert Todd Lincoln. John Phillip Sousa's band played.
10.22.1858 -- Lincoln spoke at CARTHAGE, Hancock Co. in senatorial campaign.
10.22.1887 -- Statue of Lincoln by Augustus Saint-Gaudens was unveiled - it is regarded by many as the noblest portrait statue in country.
10.23.1898 -- The L.R. Doty sunk, 17 lost. 1929 Stmr. Chicago stranded.
10.24.1880 -- Village of River Forest organized, suburb of CHICAGO. Contains Rosary College, Concordia Teachers College, the Dominican House of Studies and several houses by Architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
10.25.1674 -- Pere Marquette set out for KASKASKIA to establish a mission.
10.25.1841 -- Lincoln drew up a legal document for purchase of land from his father, when he was a member of law firm of "Lincoln and Logan".
10.25.1848 -- First run on Galena and Chicago Union Railroad.
10.26.1825 -- Erie Canal was completed, connecting Great Lakes with New York City. Settlement of Illinois then began increasing rapidly.
10.26.1832 -- Warren County jail first opened - first prisoners were Indians.
10.27.1884 -- Wilbur Storey, owner of Chicago "Times" died.
10.28.1893 -- Near the close of World's Fair, Carter Harrison, CHICAGO mayor, spoke at a convention of mayors. That night he was shot and killed by Eugene Prendergast, frustrated aspirant for a city post.
10.28.1895 -- Sensation trial of H.H. Holmes, "Monster of 63rd St." began. He killed between 30 to several hundred people in his CHICAGO home, which contained facilities for torture, cremation, etc. Jury decided his fate in 1 minute - he was hanged 5.7.1896.
10.29.1887 -- Stmr. Vernon lost on Lake Michigan, 36-41 dead. 1918, Stmr. Rising Sun stranded. 1929 Stmr. Wisconsin foundered - 16 lost.
10.30.1837 -- Chief Black Hawk of Illinois, Keokuk and followers were received in House of Representatives at Boston after Black Hawk had been set free at ROCK RIVER. He toured the country.
10.30.1846 -- MONMOUTH and Warren County's first newspaper issued.
10.30.1955 -- O'Hare Field, CHICAGO International Airport, was opened to scheduled passenger operations, the WORLD'S LARGEST AIRPORT IN AREA - 6,325 acres.
11.1.1836 -- Lincoln, deputy surveyor of Sangamon Co., surveyed town of B?
11.1.1858 -- the OLNEY "Times" claimed it was first newspaper to support Lincoln for the presidency. Olney is seat of Richland County.
11.2.1860 -- Abraham Lincoln elected president of the United States. In that year, Jane Addams was born in CEDARVILLE. She founded the Hull House social settlement of CHICAGO. 5.1.1892 she opened first public playground in city - once served as inspector of garbage. Spent her life working for the poor, for child-labor laws, day nurseries, adult education, sanitation, woman suffrage, etc. She died in Chicago of cancer 5.21.1935.
11.2.1920 -- Harding and Coolidge elected U.S. president and vice-president with 16,152,200 votes. Eugene Debs of Illinois got 919,799.
11.3.1702 -- Louis XV of France ceded to his "beloved cousin", King of Spain the country known as "Louisiana" - all land drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries, secretly glad to be rid of it.
11.3.1896 -- McKinley and Hobart won U.S. presidential election. Palmer, Illinois received 133,148 votes.
11.3.1908 -- Taft and Sherman elected U.S. president and vice-president with 7,678,908 votes. Eugene Debs of Illinois polled 420,793 votes.
11.4.1842 -- Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd wed at 441 S. Second Street, SPRINGFIELD at home of Mary's sister, Mrs. Ninian Edwards. Mrs. Edwards' father was 3rd governor of state. Wedding ring was inscribed, "A.L. to Mary, Nov. 4, 1842. Love is eternal". Mrs. Lincoln passed away in this house in August, 1882.
11.4.1919 -- New opera house opened on bank of Chicago River - cost $16 million.
11.4.1924 -- Coolidge elected president - C. Dawes of EVANSTON vice-president.
11.5.1855 -- Northwestern University at EVANSTOWN opened. In 1959, the 101st annual commencement was held with 2,636 graduates.
11.5.1901 -- OAK PARK incorporated - largest community with village form of government in U.S. First settler in 1833, Joseph Kettlestring.
11.5.1912 -- Wilson and Marshall elected to highest offices in nation with 6,293,4545 votes. Eugene Debs of Illinois received 900,672.
11.5.1917 -- EAST ST. LOUIS dropped aldermanic for commission form of government after House of Representatives found much municipal corruption.
11.5.1940 -- Roosevelt and Wallace elected to the highest offices in nation.
11.6.1820 -- Elections held in state - Ninian Edwards, first governor of Illinois Territory and Jesse B. Thomas again elected senators.
11.6.1900 -- McKinley and T. Roosevelt elected U.S. president and vice-president with over 7 million votes. Eugene Debs of Illinois received 87,814. McKinley died 9.4.01 and Roosevelt took office 45 minutes later at 2:15 a.m.
11.7.1876 -- Plot to kidnap (sic) Lincoln's body was foiled by Secret Service men. After the leader of a gang of counterfeiters was sentenced to prison, his followers decided to take Lincoln's body from the tomb, bury it in Indiana dunes then inform the leader, who's force the governor to "ransom" the body by granting him pardon.
11.8.1837 -- Elijah Lovejoy, noted Abolitionist editor, was murdered while protecting his 4th press from a pro-slavery mob at ALTON. He became a martyr in the slavery dispute. A monument was erected to him at Alton City Cemetery in 1897 by the state of Illinois.
11.8.1864 -- Lincoln re-elected U.S. president, Andrew Johnson, vice-president.
11.8.1904 -- T. Roosevelt elected president - Debs again on Socialist ticket.
11.9.1712 -- Father Marest, French missionary, wrote a letter from KASKASKIA calling the lake "Michigan" for first time, noting it was wrong to call it the "Illinois" as those Indians did not live there.
11.9.1863 -- Lincoln attended the new Ford's Theater in Washington to see John Wilkes Booth in "The Marble Heart". 17 months later, Booth was to leap to the same stage after mortally wounding Lincoln, shouting, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" - "thus always with tyrants!"
11.10.1896 -- Deed for Petersen house where Lincoln died, was transferred to U.S. government. It was refurnished in 19332 by women's patriotic organizations as nearly as possible to what it was in 1865.
11.10.1909 -- Case against Standard Oil dismissed after re-trial. Judge K. Mt. Landis had fined the company over $29 million for violating law.
11.11.1859 -- Samuel Insull born. Later he became owner of the "el" - the 3 electric railroads of CHICAGO, president of 15 corporations, chairman of 56, member of the board of 81, dictator of electric light, gas and power industry of city and its suburbs.
11.11.1887 -- Union men convicted of bombing at the Haymarket Riot hanged. At FOREST PARK is a monument to them. Memorial services for the 4, Engel, Fischers, Parsons and Spies are observed here each year.
11.11.1940 -- 3 ships, 57 lives lost on Lake Michigan - storm hit all Great Lakes, 60 died as several freighters sunk next day on Lake Michigan.
11.12.1934 -- World's Fair of 1933 closed in CHICAGO.
11.13.1883 -- Steamer H.C. Akley foundered on Lake Michigan - 6 dead.
11.14.1877 -- Field, Leiter & Co. burned - $750,000 merchandise ruined.
11.14.1877 -- Wm. F. Coolbaugh, president of Union National Bank in CHICAGO, shot himself to death at foot of statue of his friend Stephen Douglas because of the depression caused by the Panic of 1873.
11.15.1863 -- Lincoln proclaimed last Thursday of November as day of general Thanksgiving. (Changed to 4th Thursday in 1939 by F. Roosevelt.)
11.16.1869 -- Almost 100 vessels driven ashore or sank during storm on Lakes.
11.18.1958 -- The Carl D. Bradley sank on L. Michigan - 33 lost, 2 rescued.
11.19.1752 -- George Rogers Clark born in Va. One historian said, "But for him the borders of Canada might be on the Ohio and Allegheny rivers.
11.19.1794 -- Jay completed his treaty with England, settling differences between her and United States over the Canadian boundaries.
11.19.1863 -- Lincoln delivered Gettysburg address at dedication of National Cemetery. It was not written on old envelope. It contained ? words and 15,000 heard it, but little note was made of it.
11.20.1848 -- FIRST CARLOAD OF GRAIN TO COME BY RAIL arrived at CHICAGO.
11.20.1863 -- J. Medill, Chicago "tribune" editor, sent a protest to Washington about a new call for Civil War soldiers. Lincoln replied ?? that next to Boston, CHICAGO had mostly called for war. CHICAGO recruited 6,000 more - 28,000 of 156,000 population saw service.
11.21.1847 -- Stmr. Phoenix enroute to CHICAGO, burned - over 200 lives lost.
11.22.1895 -- Eugene Debs, labor leader, was released from prison at WOODSTOCK. The noted actor, Orson Welles, is a native of this city.
11.23.1954 -- General Motor's 50,000,00th U.S.-made vehicle finished today. Pop?
11.24.1845 -- Little Fort (WAUKEGAN) Reading Room and Library Assn. established.
11.24.1881 -- Steamers Lake Erie and Northern Queen sank on Lake Michigan.
11.24.1931 -- Judge J.H. Wilkerson of CHICAGO fined Al Capone $56,000 and sentenced him to serve 11 years in a Federal penitentiary.
11.25.1876 -- Heirs of Wm. Petersen sold house where Lincoln died for $4,5??. So many came to stare, new owners gladly sold to government 189?.
11.25.1913 -- The Rouse Simmons left Manistique on yearly trip to CHICAGO with Christmas trees. Disappeared during snow storm - 17 lost.
11.26.1833 -- John Calhoun published the Chicago "Democrat", FIRST ISSUE OF CITY'S FIRST NEWSPAPER. 6.10.1847 "Tribune" absorbed "Democrat".
11.26.1872 -- The Souvenir sank on Lake Michigan with 6 lives lost.
11.27.1865 -- Remodeling work on Ford's theater at Washington completed. It was never opened after Lincoln was shot - now is Lincoln museum.
11.27.1905 -- Marshall Field II died after shooting himself while loading ?.
11.28.1895 -- FIRST AUTOMOBILE RACE IN U.S. took place from the heart of CHICAGO to suburbs - 54 miles at 7½ miles per hour. Won by F. Duryea in a self-made auto. First marketable car in country said to have been built by Charles and Frank Duryea in 1893.
11.29.1760 -- British took possession of Lake posts surrendered by French.
11.30.1889 -- The David Dows foundered on Lake Michigan. 1905, 10 ships lost on Lakes during storm. 1934, Steamer Henry Cort stranded.
12.1.1791 -- 10 amendments to Constitution were certified (Bill of Rights).
12.1.1824 -- Total presidential votes cast in state was 4,706. 2 electoral votes for Jackson and 1 for Adams.
12.2.1895 -- Democrats elected Tommy Gahan as chairman of Cook County Central committee, defeating alderman John Powers, a Yerkes man.
12.2.1942 -- At University of Chicago, medicine born of atomic age had its beginning. CHICAGO is recognized as medical capital of the world.
12.3.1679 -- With 30 men in 8 canoes, LaSalle began journey from St. Joseph River south to Illinois River and villages of Illinois Indians.
12.3.1818 -- Illinois Territory became 21st state and Wisconsin Territory created. Population was 40,258, short of 60,000 stipulated by Ordinance of 1787. Northern boundary set 61 miles beyond Ordinance line, but there were no Wisconsin officials to protest. Illinois took 8,000 square miles - 14 counties. Today more than ½ of population lies within this belt. When Wisconsin entered Union, her governor tried to reclaim original boundary, but U.S. government offered canals, harbors and railroads instead.
12.3.1836 -- First amateur theatricals in state presented at SPRINGFIELD.
12.3.1863 -- First prisoners arrived at ROCK ISLAND arsenal (used as Confederate prison.) 10,000 held there at one time. 2,000 prisoners and 400 guards died from freezing and smallpox that winter.
12.4.1674 -- Marquette and 2 Frenchmen began to paddle down Lake Michigan shore - later camped on banks of the Chicago River until spring.
12.4.1845 -- Lake County Courthouse opened for occupancy.
12.4.1941 -- The Chicago "Sun", morning newspaper, first appeared on streets. Owned by Marshall Field III, it carried congratulations from F.D. Roosevelt, of whom the "Tribune" was so highly critical.
12.5.1865 -- Secretary of Treasury Hugh McCullock of Illinois submitted to House annual report on finances recommending speedy retirement of greenbacks. House passed concurring resolution by large majority 12.18.
12.5.1933 -- Most of nation celebrated Prohibition repeal.
12.6.1768 -- First court under English jurisdiction was held in Illinois country at Fort de Chartres.
12.6.1847 -- Abe Lincoln took his seat in 30th Congress of United States.
12.6.1949 -- Dr. Andy Hall of Mount Vernon was elected "Outstanding General Practitioner of the Year" by American Medical Assn. - is now 94.
12.7.1854 -- Steamer Westmorland foundered on Lake Michigan - 17 lives lost.
12.7.1941 -- Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor setting off World War II.
12.8.1863 -- Lincoln asked Congress to establish system to encourage immigration.
12.9.1778 -- Hearing of George Rogers Clark's success in capturing KASKASKIA. Virginia Assembly decreed Illinois was to become a county ?.
12.9.1889 -- CHICAGO'S Auditorium opened with Governor Fifer of BLOOMINGTON. President Harrison and Vice-president Morton among 15,000 to hear Adeline Patti sing. President remarked to vice-president "New York surrenders, eh?" Building was torn down in 1941.
12.10.1856 -- Lincoln spoke at Republican banquet in CHICAGO, ".. let us re-inaugurate the good old 'central idea' of the republic … ".
12.11.1816 -- Bill passed to admit Indiana to statehood, although less than ¼ of the state had as yet been ceded to the white man.
12.12.1778 -- Patrick Henry wrote 3 pages to George Rogers Clark at KASKASKIA for "two of the best stallions" he could find, as he had heard Illinois horses were so fine. They were to be sent well-guarded, without delay (approx. 700 miles!) He had promised Clark 500 men, but never sent them. When letter came, Clark was preparing to retake Vincennes from British with 120 men, so he ignored it.
12.12.1835 -- Elias K. Kane died while serving his second term as U.S. Senator. Kane County was named for this lawyer, judge, member of Constitutional Convention of 1818 and first secretary of the state.
12.14.1799 -- George Washington died at Mount Vernon - owned 110,000 acres.
12.14.1857 -- Stephen Douglas called conference of senators advising, "I believe Jeff Davis and other Southern ultras are ready for di?? Union.
12.15.1796 -- General Anthony Wayne, hero of Northwest Territory, died.
12.16.1865 -- Cleng Peerson died. He had established more than 30 Norwegian settlements in Mississippi Valley, one of which was NORWAY on the Fox River. Memorial erected by state in 1934 to Peerson.
12.16.1950 -- President Harry Truman declared existence of national emerge?.
12.17.1778 -- British Lt. Col. Hamilton re-captured Vincennes, key position in Region between Lakes and Ohio River, from Clark's procons?.
12.17.1885 -- Steamer Orphan Boy foundered on Lake Michigan - 12 lives lost.
12.18.1840 -- John Beaubien, who had attempted to buy Fort Dearborn for $9? Under Preemption of Public Lands law, was given back his money without interest by Supreme Court action. (See 5.28.1835).
12.18.1850 -- Illinois Wesleyan University founded - supported by Conference of Methodist church. In 1930, absorbed Hedding College of Abingdon. Buck Memorial Library contains over 50,000 volumes.
12.19.1898 -- CHICAGO City Council voted down Allen Law, which would have extended traction company franchises for 50 years - newspaper estimated city would have been cheated out of $150 million. C.T. Yerkes was thorough - he sold his traction holdings and moved to London, ending era when his money could control aldermanic vote.
12.20.1847 -- N.Y. editor Horace Greeley wrote after Stephen Douglas" courageous fight for Kansas to be a free state, "Douglas could carry this state for President tomorrow … against … anybody!"
12.22.1825 -- Illinois census announced at 72,817.
12.22.1847 -- Lincoln's first House speech took issue with Polk on Mexican War.
12.23.1913 -- Federal Reserve Act passed dividing country into 12 districts with a member bank in a central city in each.
12.23.1921 -- President Harding freed Eugene Debs from prison without restoring citizenship. Considered a villain then, Debs is now a hero in labor history. He died in 1926 at age 71 in ELMHURST.
12.24.1814 -- Treaty of Ghent signed between Britain and America, restoring almost exact conditions that existed before the War of 1812.
12.24.1919 -- Railroads returned to private control by order of the President.
12.25.1830 -- The State Legislature created McLean County.
12.25.1865 -- Union stockyards at CHICAGO incorporated by State Legislature.
12.26.1949 -- Einstein's generalized theory of gravitation announced.
12.27.1943 -- Railroad seized by government to avoid a strike during W. W. II.
12.28.1917 -- President Wilson took over control of all railroads - appointed Wm. McAdoo director general. Today is Wilson's birthday - 1856.
12.29.1808 -- Andrew Johnson, who became president at Lincoln's death, was born in Tennessee.
12.29.1836 -- Fort Dearborn at CHICAGO was abandoned by the U.S. Army.
12.29.1905 -- Charles T. Yerkes, builder of the CHICAGO Loop, died.
12.30.1903 -- Stage curtain at CHICAGO's Iroquois Theater caught fire, causing panic, which resulted in between 588 and 602 deaths, mostly women and children, who were viewing the play, "Mr. Bluebeard". Memorial services are held annually in the City Council chambers.
12.30.1951 -- MOUNT VERNON was given the "All American City Award".
12.31.1863 -- After unseasonably warm weather, the temperature became terribly cold, causing many Confederate prisoners of war and Union guards at ROCK ISLAND and other Illinois prison camps to slowly freeze to death.
12.31.1899 -- John Alexander Dowie, Scottish faith healer and founder of the Christian Catholic Apostolic church, announced his plan for the city of ZION. Within a few years, the population had become 10,000. The church owns all industries and commercial establishments. Prohibited are liquor, tobacco, cards, oysters, pork and clams. Dowie believed the world to be flat, although he had taken a trip around it. He died in 1907.
OTHER INTERESTING DATES
1.30.1900 -- Baseball's American League organized. It included teams from CHICAGO, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee and Minneapolis,
2.2.1876 -- Baseball's National League organized.
2.20.1960 -- The world's tallest apartment building (60 stories) will be erected on the Chicago River between State and Dearborn Streets, it was announced today.
3.10.1876 -- First practical telephone invented when Alexander Graham Bell said on a wire stretched between 2 rooms, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you".
3.13.1868 -- Impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson began - only U.S. president to have them brought against him.
3.14.1794 -- Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin.
3.20.1865 -- John Wilkes Booth planned to abduct Lincoln today, but the plan was foiled.
3.25.1947 -- An explosion at a Centralia, Illinois mine killed 111 miners.
4.19.1893 -- Charles Duryea tested first gasoline automobile at Springfield, Mass.
5.8.1905 -- Dwight Huss of Detroit set out on the first transcontinental auto race. Leaving New York City in an Oldsmobile, he finished 44 days later.
5.10.1869 -- First transcontinental railroad was joined at Ogden, Utah.
5.17.1954 -- Unanimous decision by the United States Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in the nation's public schools is unconstitutional.
5.18.1852 -- Massachusetts became the first state to pass the law making school attendance compulsory by children between the ages of 8 and 14.
5.20.1862 -- Lincoln signed Homestead Act providing free land for Western settlers.
5.20.1927 -- C. Lindbergh took off for Paris to complete first nonstop Atlantic flight.
5.24.1844 -- S. Morse transmitted messages by electricity between Baltimore and Washington.
7.4.1828 -- Baltimore and Ohio established the first passenger railroad in United States.
8.17.1807 -- Robert Fulton launched the first steamboat - the "Clermont".
9.5.1774 -- The first Continental Congress met at Philadelphia.
9.17.1911 -- The first transcontinental flight (84 hours flying time) began at New York and finished at Pasadena, California 11.4.1911.
10.24.1861 -- The transcontinental telegraph was completed.
12.12.1901 -- Marconi signalled the letter "S" by radio from England to Newfoundland.
12.16.1773 -- The Boston Tea Party took place.
12.17.1903 -- The Wright brothers made the first flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
12.21.1620 -- The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
[Source: "Day by day in Illinois history"; Hamilton, Ohio: E.D. Antes, 1959 - transcribed by Gladys Lavender]
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