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1837 Illinois Gazetteer

Source: "1837 Illinois Gazetteer . . .," by J. M. Peck, A.M.; Philadelphia, Grigg & Elliott 1837;
transcribed by Genealogy Trails Transcription Team

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A GAZETTEER OF ILLINOIS, IN THREE PARTS:
CONTAINING A GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE, A GENERAL VIEW OF EACH COUNTY, AND
A PARTICULAR DESCRIPTION OF EACH TOWN, SETTLEMENT, STREAM, PRAIRIE, BOTTOM, BLUFF, E TC.;
ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.

By J. M. Peck, A. M. - Author of a New Guide for Emigrants, Etc.



PART THIRD - CONTAINING A PARTICULAR DESCRIPTION OF EACH TOWN, SETTLEMENT, STREAM, PRAIRIE, BOTTOM, BLUFF, &C.
ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED


Apakeesheek Grove, in La Salle county, lies three miles north of Holderman's Grove.

Adam's Fork, a branch of the Skillet Fork of the Little Wabash. It rises in the prairies of Marion county, passes southeast, across the corner of Jefferson, and enters the Skillet Fork in Wayne. The land is well timbered and of good quality.

Alabama Settlement, in the northeastern part of Union county, of about thirty families. The timber, chiefly white oak, with a thin soil.

Albion, the seat of justice for Edwards county, situated in section two, of township two south, in range ten, east of the third principal meridian. It was laid out by Messrs. Birbeck and Flowers, in 1819, and settled principally by English emigrants. The situation is high and healthy. It contains three stores, three house of entertainment, an ox flouring mill, a cotton gin, and thirty or forty families. The court house is of brick, forty-four feet square, two stories, and finished. Albion is forty miles southwest of Vincennes.

Allen's Prairie and Settlement, in Greene county, twelve miles northeasterly from Carrollton. The land is good, the prairie large, with good timber on the water courses.

Allison's Prairie, (sometimes improperly spelt Ellison) in Lawrence county, five miles northeast from Lawrenceville. It is ten miles long, and five broad. The eastern part towards the Wabash, contains some wet land and purgatory swamps, but the principal part is a dry, sandy, and very rich soil, covered with well cultivated farms. Few tracts in Illinois are better adapted to corn than this. The population equals 200 families. This prairie was settled in 1816 and 1817, by emigrants from Ohio and Kentucky, and mostly of the religious sect known in the west by the name of Christians, and the settlement is sometimes called by that name. In a few years death had thinned their numbers. The purgatory swamps, as they are called, around the prairie, had a deleterious influence, and retarded the progress of population. In later years but little sickness has existed, and this settlement furnishes one of many evidences that upon the subjugation of the luxuriant vegetation with which our rich prairies are clothed, and the cultivation of the soil, sickly places will be changed to healthy ones.

Alton, an incorporated town on the bank of the Mississippi, is thought by many to possess advantages from commerce equal to any in the state. It is situated on fractional sections thirteen and fourteen, in township five north, in range ten west of the third principal meridian. It is two and half miles above the mouth of the Missouri, and at the place where the curve of the Mississippi penetrates the furthest into Illinois, eighteen miles below the mouth of the Illinois River, and at the point where the commerce and business of the wide spread regions of the northeast, north, and northwest must arrive. The legislature of Illinois have memorialized congress repeatedly to have the great national road, now constructing through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, cross the Mississippi at this place, and sanguine hopes are entertained that the rights of Illinois in this particular will be duly regarded. Lower Alton has the best landing for steamboats on the east bank of the Mississippi, having a rock of level surface, of suitable height, forming a natural wharf. The state penitentiary has been established here, and many are sanguine that it will be future seat of government. One of the finest bodies of timber in the state surrounds it was for several miles in extent, from which vast quantities of lumber may be produced. Bituminous coal exists in great abundance but a short distance from the town. Inexhaustible beds of limestone for building purposes, and easily quarried, are within its precincts. A species of free stone, easily dressed and used for monuments and architectural purposes, and that peculiar species of lime, used for water cement, are found in great abundance in the vicinity. The corporate bounds extend two miles along the river, and half a mile back. The town plat is laid out by the proprietors upon a liberal scale. There are five reserved for public purposes, a large reservation is made on the river for a public landing and promenade. Market street is 150 feet wide, other streets are one hundred, eighty, and sixty feet, according to the situation and public accommodation. Alton, contained at the commencement of 1837, 20 wholesale and 32 retail stores and groceries, 8 attorneys, 7 physicians, 7 clergymen devoted to their calling, (besides several preachers of the gospel, who follow secular business during the week), 4 hotels, 2 of which have large accommodations, a large steam flouring mill, four large slaughtering and packing houses for putting up pork, which do a large business, and mechanics' shops of various descriptions. There are three printing offices which issue weekly papers, the Spectator, Telegraph and Observer; besides the Illinois Temperance Herald issued monthly. There is a large temperance society, that holds monthly meetings; a lyceum that hold weekly meetings, and two schools. The public buildings are four houses for public worship, and two others expected to be erected soon. The Baptist church has a large stone edifice, with a handsome spire, bell, clock and organ. The basement furnishes three store rooms in front for rent, and a Sunday school room, and a committee room in the rear. The Presbyterian church has a moderate sized stone edifice with a cupola and bell, and a basement Sunday school room. The Methodist Episcopal church has a neat framed edifice with a stone basement and a cupola. The Methodist Protestant church has a small stone building. The Protestant Episcopal church, the Unitarian church, and the German Evangelical church, each meet in private rooms prepared for the purpose. Among the public institutions are a bank, (a branch of the state bank of Illinois), an insurance office, a Masonic lodge of independent odd fellows, a lyceum and a mechanics' association.
Depositories of the Illinois Bible, Sunday school, Tract, and Temperance societies are kept in this town for the supply of the state, and a spacious edifice, four stories high, with a front of hewn stone, is about to be erected by the citizens, by subscription, for which purpose two liberal and wealthy gentlemen have given a lot of the value of more than 5,000 dollars. A large proportion of the funds for the erection of the building has been secured. In no western town of the size, population, and business, has an equal amount been given by its citizens for religious and benevolent purposes within the last two years. The state penitentiary is located in Alton. It has the warden's house, guard house, twenty-four cells, and the exterior wall around the yard erected. The rapidity with which Alton has grown up from a business state to its present prosperous condition has been hardly equalled in the enterprising West. Mercantile business was commenced here in 1831. Its facilities are now great. Real estate has risen here more than 1,000 per cent within two years. The prices of lots depend upon their location. The best stands for business near the river sell from 300 to 400 dollars per foot front. Lots more retired, for private residences, from 100 to 50 and 25 dollars per foot. Stores rent from 1,500 to 400, and dwelling houses from 600 to 200 dollars. Some of the large wholesale stores do business from 250,000 to half a million of collars annually. Seven or eight steamboats are owned here in whole or in part, and arrivals and departures occur every day and all times in the day during the season. Alton now commands a large proportion of the trade of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, and of the interior country for one hundred miles. Besides the public railroads that concentrate here, noticed under the head of "Internal Improvement," a survey has been made and the stock taken for one of the Alton to Springfield, 72 miles, which will open an important line of communication with the interior, and eventually become connected with the great line to the Atlantic cities. The natural surface of much of the town site of Alton is broken by bluffs and ravines, but the enterprise of its citizens and the corporation is fast removing these inconveniences by grading down its hills and filling up its ravines. A contract of 60,000 dollars has recently been entered upon to construct a culvert over the little Piasau creek that passes through the centre of the town, over which will soon be built one of the most capacious and pleasant streets. Since its settlement the citizens of Alton have enjoyed as good health, as those in any river town in the West. Its population is about 2,500. We close this article with the following extract from Beck's Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, written in 1821: "Alton, although yet small, possesses natural advantages rarely equalled. Situated as it is, at the junction of three large and navigable rivers; possessing a fine commodious harbor, and landing for boats at all seasons of the year; surrounded by a fertile country, rapidly settling, it bids fair to become a populous, wealthy, and commercial town."

Aikin's Grove, in Ogle county, lies five miles southeast of Oregon city, and east of Rock River, on the road from Dixon to Princeton and Peoria. Here are three or four small groves, and thirty families.

America, the former county seat of Alexander county, situated on the west bank of the Ohio, on the first high land, and twenty miles above its mouth. The landing at this place is much injured by a sand bar.

Appanooce, a town site and post office on the Mississippi, in Hancock county, ten miles above Commerce, and eighteen miles northwest from Carthage.

Apple Creek post office. (See Waverly).

Apple Creek Prairie, in Greene county, lies north of Apple Creek, to the left of the road from Carrollton to Jacksonville. It is ten miles long, and from two to four miles wide, of good quality, and spread over with large farms, and populous settlements.

Apple River, in Jo Daviess county, rises near the boundary line where its branches interlock with the waters of the Pee-ka-ton-o-kee, runs a southwestern course about forty-five miles, and enters the Mississippi twenty miles below Galena. It is a rocky and rapid stream, with good mill seats, and fifty yards wide at its mouth. The bottoms are excellent land. The uplands hilly and broken. Large bodies of timber are on its banks. Towards its heads is a fine undulating country.

Apple Creek rises near the borders of Sangamon county, runs a southwestern course through the southeastern part of Morgan into Greene county, and enters the Illinois River in section thirty-six, fractional township eleven north, fourteen west. It has several tributaries, which are noticed under their respective names, and which water a valuable tract of country, with a large population.

Arm of the Grand Prairie, in Jefferson county, lies eight miles northwest from Mount Vernon. The soil is tolerably good, and the settlement contains about fifty families.

Armstrong Post Office is in Wabash county, seven miles above Mount Carmel.

Arrowsmith's Settlement is towards the east side of Mercer county.

Ashmore's Settlement, in Coles county, fifteen miles north of Charleston, and on the east side of the Embarras. Timber and prairie good.

Ashton, a post office and town site in Adams county, nine miles south of Quincy.

Athens, a village in Sangamon county, on the east side, and four miles from the Sangamon river, and fifteen miles north from Springfield. It has several stores, one steam mill for sawing and flouring, and about seventy-five families. It has timber of the Sangamon on the west, and the prairies east, with a large settlement around.

Athens, a town site on the left bank of the Kaskaskia River, in St. Clair county, known as Hill's Ferry.

Atherton's Settlement, in Alexander county, two miles east from Unity, containing about one-hundred families. The upland tolerably good.

Atlas, a small town in Pike county, situated on the northwest quarter of section twenty-seven, township six south, range five west. It is on a handsome tract of ground, under the bluffs, half a mile from Snycartee Slough, which is navigable for steamboats to this place, in high water.

Aubuchon, a passage from the Mississippi to the Kaskaskia River, about four miles above the town of Kaskaskia.

Augusta, a town site and post office in Hancock county, on southwest section twenty-three, township three north, range five west, sixteen miles southwest from Carthage. It has several families, and a respectable school.

Augusta, a town site on the west bank of the Illinois River, in Pike county, ten miles east of Pittsfield, and twenty-two miles from Jacksonville. It is opposite the termination of the Jacksonville, Lynnville and Winchester railroad, which is now under contract. Another company has been chartered to extend this line from Augusta, by Pittsfield and Atlas to Louisiana, Mo., from whence another line of railroad has been projected and a charter granted by the legislature of Missouri, across to Columbia and the Missouri River.

Auburn, a town site, in Sangamon county, on the north side of Sugar creek, on the stage road, and contemplated railroad route from Alton to Springfield. It has two stores, one grocery, one tavern, and ten or twelve families, surrounded with a beautiful prairie.

Au Sable. [Fr. sandy-gravelly], a small stream in the eastern part of La Salle county. It rises near the west fork of Du Page, runs south mostly through prairie, and enters the Illinois three miles below the junction of the Des Plaines, and Kankakee.

Au Sable Grove is in the northeastern part of La Salle county, at the heads of Au Sable creek. Here is a fine body of timber surrounded with an extensive and rich prairie.

Aviston, a town site and post office, in Clinton county, on the Vincennes and St. Louis stage road, with a dozen houses.

Bachelder's Grove, in Cook county, eighteen miles southwest of Chicago, contains about two sections of timber, and a large settlement.

Budgley's Settlement, in St. Clair county, five miles northwesterly from Belleville, one of the oldest American settlements in the county.

Bailey's Point, a branch of Vermillion, and settlement in La Salle county, fourteen miles southwest from Ottawa. Here is a small tract of excellent timber surrounded by the choicest prairie. The settlement contains about twenty families.

Baker's Grove, in Ogle county, lies bordering on Rock River, between Grand Detour and Oregon city. It is eight miles long and three miles wide; timber good and land excellent.

Bankstone's Fork, in Gallatin county, rises in the interior, runs a southeastern course, and enters the South Fork of Saline creek, fourteen miles above Equality. It has a fine country on its borders, and a large settlement.

Banning's Settlement, in Shelby county, near the Kaskaskia River, twelve miles south of Shelbyville. The land is good, and plenty of timber and prairie. The bottom on the opposite side of the river is overflowed in high water.

Barney's Prairie, in Wabash county, seven miles north of Mount Carmel, is a good tract of land well cultivated.

Barbee's Settlement, seven miles northwest of Palestine, in Crawford county, with timber and prairie.

Bartlett's Settlement, in the southwestern part of McDonough county, on Crooked creek, fifteen miles from Macomb. The land is good, and the settlement extensive.

Bath, a post office and settlement on the south side of Cass county, on the road from Jacksonville to Beardstown.

Batcheldorsville post office is on the east side of Coles county, seven miles from Charleston.

Bay Creek rises in the prairies towards the eastern part of Pike county, and running westward enters Calhoun county, and forms a kind of bay at its mouth, which is navigable for some miles. The land on its borders is generally good, except about the bluffs, where it is broken.

Beardstown, the seat of justice for Cass county, is situated on the Illinois River, twenty-five miles northeast from Jacksonville, on fractional township eighteen north, and twelve west. It is on elevated ground, sandy soil and entirely above the highest floods. It has thirteen stores, four of which do commission and forwarding business, three groceries, two druggists, four physicians, one large hotel, and several boarding houses, two bakeries, two shoemakers, three tailors, two blacksmiths, two cabinet makers, one silversmith, one watchmaker, four carpenters and house joiners, three cooper shops, one painter and glazier, two tinners, two brick and one stone masons, one carriage maker, two steam flouring mills, with six pairs of stones, one steam sawmill, one steam distillery, and a large brewery, one lawyer, one minister of the gospel, and about 1,000 inhabitants. There is a Methodist and an Episcopalian congregation, but no house of worship.

Canal project. A company has been chartered and surveys made preparatory to the construction of a canal from this place to Sangamon River, at Huron, and from thence to improve the river by slack water navigation to the head. And it has been ascertained that a water communication may be opened at moderate expense across the state to the Vermilion of the Wabash. The construction of that portion of the canal from Beardstown to the Sangamon River can be easily effected.

Bear Creek, a small branch of the Macoupin, twelve miles west from Carlinville.

Bear Creek heads in String prairie, and enters Apple creek, in Greene county. A considerable settlement is on its border.

Bear Creek, a small stream and branch of the middle fork of Shoal creek, and a settlement in Montgomery county. The land is rather level, and inclined to be wet, but fertile.

Bear Creek, a small stream in the southeastern part of Sangamon county, with a considerable settlement. It enters the South Fork of Sangamon from the south side.

Bear Creek, a small stream that rises in the north part of Gallatin county, runs south, and enters the North Fork of Saline creek, ten miles above Equality. Here is much good land, and a large settlement.

Bear Creek, is a fine stream in Adams county, with two principal forks. South Fork rises in one north, six west. North Fork rises in five north, seven west, in Hancock county, and interlocks with the western branch of Crooked creek. They unite in section thirteen, two north, eight west. After passing through the bluffs into the Mississippi bottom, this stream divides into two prongs; one runs a northwest course and enters the Mississippi - the other prong bears a little south of west, receiving several small streams, and enters Boston Bay, one mile above Quincy.

This stream is about forty yards wide at its separation, and has a number of mill seats. Few bodies of land in the state equal that which lies its banks. Large settlements extend along its timber.

Bear Prairie is a small tract in Wayne county, five miles east of Fairfield, with twenty families.

Beaucoup is a large settlement on Beaucoup creek, in Washington county, south of New Nashville. The land is a mixture of timber and prairie, and good second rate soil.

Beaucoup Settlement is in Jackson county, twelve miles northeast from Brownsville, between the Big Beaucoup creek and Big Muddy River. The land is rich, heavily timbered, with a considerable settlement.

Beaver Creek, called also Stinking creek, rises in Bond county, runs south into Clinton county crosses the Vincennes and St. Louis road, four miles west of Carlyle, and empties into Shoal creek, in the northeastern part of township one north, four west. It is about twenty-five miles in length, is a sluggish, muddy stream, and waters a fine tract of county. The settlement extends its whole length.

Beaver Creek rises in Boone county, runs southwest and enters Kishwaukee, twelve miles above its mouth. It is sparsely timbered with walnut, linden, oaks of various species, and oak openings. Soil, sandy and clay; prairies, rolling; fine springs.

Beaver Creek¸ a branch of Iroquois River in Iroquois county.

Beck's Creek heads in the western part of Shelby county, runs southeast, and enters the Kaskaskia in the northern part of Fayette, eighteen miles above Vandalia. It is a mill stream, has much good land on its banks, and rolling prairie adjoining. The timber is oak of various kinds, walnut, locust, coffee nut, cherry, elm, etc.

Begg's Settlement, in the southeastern part of Union county, on the waters of Cash River. It is a fine, undulating, timbered region, and contains about 120 families.

Bellefountaine, a large spring and settlement in Monroe county, ear Waterloo. In the vicinity of this place, several attacks were made by the Indians, forty years since; some of the inhabitants were killed and others taken prisoners.

Belleville, the seat of justice for St. Clair county, is situated on sections twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-seven, and twenty-eight, of township one north, in range eight west of the third principal meridian. It is a neat flourishing village, on high ground, six miles from the American bottom, and thirteen miles east southeast from St. Louis. The public buildings are a handsome court house of brick, finished in a superior style, a brick jail, a clerk's office, a public hall belonging to a library company, and a framed Methodist house of worship. It has two select schools; one for boarders half a mile distant. There are two large merchant steam flouring mills, with six pairs of stones, a brewery, a steam distillery, a wool carding machine, eight carpenters, one cabinet maker, five blacksmith's shops, one tinner's shop, two silversmiths, three wagon makers, one turner and wheelwright, two shoemakers' shops, one millwright, two coopers, two saddlers, two tailors, one bakery, one high school, one common school, a Presbyterian, Baptist and a Methodist congregation, and about 700 inhabitants, of which about 100 are Germans, twenty French, and the residue Americans. There are three lawyers, four physicians, and four resident ministers of the gospel. It is surrounded with a rich and extensive agricultural settlement, and a fine body of timber. Belleville contains a printing office, which issues the "St. Clair Gazette," and is a place of considerable business.

Belleview Prairie, is a rich, dry, prairie, at the foot of the bluffs, in Calhoun county. It is six miles long, and three fourths of a mile wide, with a gradual descent from the bluffs. Belleview post office, is in this settlement, which contains about forty families.

Belvidere, a village of a dozen families, two stores, a post office, saw and grist mill, and rapidly increasing, in the western part of Boone county on the stage road from Chicago to Galena. It is situated on Squaw prairie, and has a delightful appearance. Near the town site is a mound, fifty rods long and about thirty rods wide, elevated seventy feet above the bottom lands of Rock River. On the top of this mound is the cemetery of and Indian called Big Thunder. He died about the period of the Sauk War in 1831 or 1832, and was placed in a sitting position on a flag mat, wrapped in blankets, his scaling knife by his side to cut the plugs of tobacco that are offered him. Over the body is constructed a covering of wood and earth, with an opening in front, where Big Thunder may be seen sitting with his tobacco lying before him. The Indians still visit the place to replenish his stores of tobacco, whiskey, &c. The citizens of this region are about to erect a College edifice on this spot, in a vault under which the bones of Big Thunder will repose unmolested. A charter was granted for the purpose at the recent session of the legislature. The Rev. S. S. Whitman, formerly Professor in the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, New York, is engaged in the enterprise.

Beman's Mill and settlement on Apple creek, in Greene county, seven miles northwest from Carrollton.

Bennington, a post office in the western part of Fulton county.

Berlin, a town site and post office, in Sangamon county, on the west side of Island Grove, seventeen miles west from Springfield.

Bernadotte, a town on Spoon River, in Fulton county, on section nineteen, five north, two west, 12 miles southwest from Lewiston. It has one sawmill, one flouring mill with three runs of stones, three stories, two groceries, one tavern, and a common school.

Spoon River can easily be made navigable to this place.

Berry's Settlement is in the forks of Crooked creek, in Clinton county, eight miles southeasterly from Carlyle.

Bethel, a populous settlement in St. Clair county, ten miles north of Belleville. Here is a Baptist meeting house and congregation, and a moral, religious society of industrious farmers.

Bethany, a post office and settlement, in Sangamon county, twenty-one miles southeast from Springfield, on the road to Shelbyville.

Big Barren Grove is in the western part of Putnam and eastern part of Henry county, 25 miles long, and from 2 to 3 miles wide; and forms the dividing ridge between the waters of Spoon river and the Winnebago Swamp. The timber is scattering, resembling barrens, with various kinds of oaks, hickory, &ct. The west end is called Black Oak Ridge where a colony from Wethersfield, Con., is settled.

Big Bay Creek¸ a small stream that rises in the northeastern part of Johnson county. It takes a southeastern direction receiving Cedar creek in that county and Little Bay creek in Pope county, and enters the Ohio about six miles below Golconda. Its bottoms are wide, and the bluffs rather broken; and towards the Ohio the bottom land produces large quantities of cypress with other growth.

Big Bottom is a settlement in the northwest corner of Alexander county, on Clear creek. The soil is first rate alluvion.

Big Beaucoup Creek, one of the four heads of Big Muddy River. It rises in the southeastern part of Washington county, township three south, in range two west, runs a south course through Perry county and enters the Big Muddy in section thirty-five, eight south, two west, eight miles above Brownsville. It has much good land on its borders, some excellent prairies, and fine timber, consisting of oak, hickory, ash, poplar, elm, walnut, etc. The bottom land is rather wet. Big Beaucoup is navigable for flat boats.

Big Creek¸ in Pope county, rises in the northern part of the county, runs south, and enters the Ohio, fifteen miles above Golconda.

Big Creek, in Crawford County, a small stream that enters the Embarras in the southwestern part of the county.

Big Creek is a small stream that rises on the Grand Prairie, in Edgar County, runs a southeast direction, passes through a corner of Clark, and enters the Wabash near the point at which the dividing line of the two states leaves that river. The land through which it passes is good, well timbered, and densely settled with a farming population.

Big Creek, in Effingham county, a branch of the Little Wabash, running a southeast course through Brockett's settlement to that river.

Big Creek, in Macon county, a branch of the North Fork of Sangamon. It is formed from Long creek, and Findley's fork.

Big Creek¸ a stream in Fayette county, which rises in the Grand prairie, northeast from Vandalia, crosses the national road twelve miles east of that place, runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia in the lower part of the county.

Big Creek, in the western part of Crawford county, runs south and enters the Embarras.

Big Creek, in Fulton county, a small stream that rises near Canton, runs southwest, and enters Spoon River one mile above the road from Rushville to Lewistown. A considerable settlement and good land towards its head.

Big Grove, in Champaign county, is on a branch of the Salt Fork of the Vermilion River, and is about the centre of the county. It is a body of heavy timbered, rich land, twelve miles long, and an average of three miles in width. The country around is most delightful, the prairie is elevated, dry, and a very rich soil, the water is good, and the county very healthy. The population at Big Grove must now exceed 200 families.

Big Grove, in Kane county, is on the South Fork of the Kishwaukee. The surface around undulating, and the soil a black sandy loam. Stratified limestone, flint, pebbles and coal abound in this region.

Big Grove, in La Salle county, twenty miles northeast from Ottawa, is about three miles in diameter. The land in the timber is wet, but the surrounding prairie is dry, undulating and rich.

Big Grove, a timbered tract, or rather several groves, connected, for twelve miles in length, in the southwestern part of McLean county, on the third principal meridian, and township twenty-one north. It is a fine tract of country, rich in soil and well timbered, on the Kickapoo creek. Bloomington, the county seat, is eighteen miles from the heart of the settlement, which contains from one hundred and fifty to two hundred families.

Big Grove, a beautiful, high, undulating, and rich tract of timber, near some of the heads of the Spoon River, in Henry county. It is twelve or fifteen miles long, and about three miles wide, surrounding with extensive and rather level prairies.

Big Mound Prairie, in Wayne county, is five miles west from Fairfield, three miles in extent, undulating surface, thin soil, and has about fifty families. A large mound gives the name to this prairie.

Big Muddy River, (called by the French who discovered it, Riviere au Vase, or Vaseux) a considerable stream in the southwestern part of the state.

It has four principal heads, which, rising in Washington, Jefferson, and Hamilton counties, and uniting in Jackson county, form the main stream. They are the Beaucoup, Little Muddy, and Middle Fork. The general course of the stream is southwest, and it is navigable some distance above Brownsville. Below Brownsville it turns south to the county line, makes a short bend, and enters the Mississippi near the northeastern corner of township eleven south, in range four west of the third principal meridian.

Its bluffs generally are abrupt, the land along its borders and branches is undulating, and for most of its length well timbered. Valuable salines exist on its banks, and are worked about Brownsville, where there is an inexhaustible bed of bituminous coal. Native copper has been found on its banks in detached masses. It runs through a fine agricultural and grazing country.

Big Neck is a settlement in one south, six west, at the head of the South Fork of Bear creek, in Adams county; a good tract of land.

Big Prairie in White county between the Little and Big Wabash, about three miles in diameter, and nearly all in a state of cultivation. The soil is sandy, but of great fertility.

Big Rock Creek, is a branch of Fox River in Kane county.

Big Woods, a large tract of timbered land, lying on the east side of Fox River, in Kane county, and provided the surveys were run it would lie mostly in townships 38 and 39 N., range 8 east. It is about 10 miles in length and from 4 to 5 miles in width. The timber consists chiefly of white, black, yellow, and bur oaks, sugar maple, linden, black and white walnut or butternut, hickory, ash of various species, poplar, ironwood, elm, cherry, etc. The soil is generally a dark sandy loam; sometimes approaches to clay, generally a little undulating, but in some places quite level and a little wet. The Big Woods are thickly settled on all sides, as is the prairie country adjoining.

Bethel a post office and town site with a dozen families in Morgan county, 12 miles west of Jacksonville.

Bethesda, a post office in Coles county, 8 miles west of Charleston.

Birch Creek, is a small stream that rises in Morgan county, and enters Apple creek in Greene county. The settlement contains about twenty-five families.

Blackberry Creek, in Kane county, rises in the central part of the county, runs the south line of the county. Groves of timber, barrens, and rich undulating prairie along its course.

Black Creek is an insignificant stream, in Pike county, that enters the Syncartee.

Black Partridge Creek, a post office, and a small stream in the upper part of Tazewell county, that enters the Illinois River.

Bloomfield, a town and post office in Edgar county, 10 miles north of Paris, with three stores, two groceries, one tavern, one physician, various mechanics, and about 20 families.

Blooming Grove, a tract of timbered land a large settlement in McLean county, adjoining Bloomington. It is about six miles long from northwest to southeast, and varying in width from one to four miles, containing about twelve square miles of beautiful timber, with a large settlement of industrious farmers around it. Nearly all the land is already occupied with settlers, a majority of whom are from Ohio. Both timbered land and prairie are first rate.

Bloomingdale is a the locality of a colony in Tazewell county.

Bloomington, is the seat of justice for McLean county and is beautifully situated on the margin of a fine prairie and north side of Bloomington-Grove, on section four, township twenty north, range two east. It has eight or ten stores, three groceries, two taverns, two lawyers, three physicians, a handsome academy building, various mechanics, two steam mills for sawing, a Presbyterian and a Methodist meeting house, and ministers, and about 700 population. The surrounding country is most delightful.

Block House, a name given to the American settlement formed about forty years since, in the American bottom, in the southwestern part of St. Clair county. At the foot of the bluffs, near this, is a spring that regularly ebbs and flows, once in twenty-four hours.

Blue Creek, in the upper part of Tazewell county, rises in the prairie, runs west, and enters the Illinois below Spring bay.

Bluffdale, a settlement in Greene county, ten miles west of Carrollton, and under the bluffs that overhand the Illinois bottom. The land is rich, dry, and beautifully situated for six miles in extent, under overhanging bluffs and precipices from which springs of "crystal waters" gush forth. The settlement is generally arranged along the bluffs from Apple creek to the Macoupin, from three to four miles from the Illinois River, and consists of fifty or sixty families. The settlement of Bluffdale has two stores, one grocery, one tavern, one minister of the gospel, and a Baptist congregation, one post office, one school, and various mechanics.

Blue Point, a point of timber projecting into the prairie, in Effingham county, five miles north west of Ewington.

Blue River. There are two small streams of this name in Pike county distinguished as Big and Little Blue. They rise in the middle of the country, run a southeast course and enter the Illinois, in three south, two west, about six miles apart. The land through which they pass is fertile.

Bolive, a town site in the forks of Sangamon River, ten miles southwest from Springfield, surrounded with a large and flourishing settlement.

Boltinghouse Prairie, lies south of Albion in Edwards county. It is about four miles long and three broad, dry, undulating surface, and good soil.

Bon Pas (Bumpau), a small village near the creek of the same name in the northeast part of White county.

Bon Pas, a creek that divides Wabash and Edwards counties. It rises near the Vincennes road, fifteen miles west of Lawrenceville, and taking a southeasterly course, enters the Wabash River in section fourteen, township three south, range fourteen west of the second principal meridian, at the corner of Wabash and White counties. Its banks are low and swampy.

Bon Pas Prairie, four miles northeast from Albion, in Edwards county, and about two miles in diameter. It contains good land, and a settlement.

Bon Pas Settlement, near the southeast corner of Edwards county, between Bon Pas creek and Little Wabash River. It is timbered tract, good land, and contains about sixty families.

Boston Bay is an arm of the Mississippi, above Quincy in Adams county, which, at a tolerable stage of water, furnishes a fine harbor for boats.

Boston, a town site in Canaan settlement, Shelby county twelve miles north of Shelbyville, township thirteen north, four east, on the west fork of the Kaskaskia.

Bostwick's Settlement, is three miles northeast from Hillsboro' in Montgomery county, a dry, rolling fertile, prairie.

Bottom Settlement, commences in the northwestern part of Union county, and extends down the Mississippi. This bottom is timbered, and is from three to four miles wide but part of it is wet inundated. The settlement lies chiefly along the bank of the river.

Bottom Settlement, in Alexander county; lies along the Mississippi, on rich alluvial land, heavily timbered, and contains sixty or seventy families.

Bradley's Settlement is at the head of Kincaid creek, in the north port of Jackson county. It is a timbered region, tolerable land, and has twenty-five or thirty families.

Brattleville, a post office, in Carter's settlement, in McDonough county, twelve miles south of Macomb, and on the mail road to Rushville.

Bridge's Settlement, in Johnson county, ten miles west from Vienna, contains some tolerably good land. Population about sixty families.

Brighton, a town site and post office in Brown's Prairie, the southwest corner of Macoupin county, 12 miles north of Alton. It has two stores, a castor oil factory and a dozen families.

Broad Run, a small stream in Coles county, It rises in the Grand prairie, and runs southwest into Kaskaskia. Settlement small.

Brocket's Settlement on the west side of the Little Wabash, eight miles southwesterly from Ewington, in Effingham county. The surface is tolerably level and the settlement contains forty or fifty families.

Brooklyn, a town site laid off on the bank of the Mississippi River, in St. Clair county opposite North St. Louis.

Brown's Point, a settlement at the head of timber in a large prairie in Morgan county, ten miles south of Jacksonville.

Brown's Prairie, in the corner of Macoupin and Green counties and extending into Madison county, between Wood River and the Piasau. It is rich, dry soil, and is about twelve miles north from Alton.

Brownsville, the seat of justice for Jackson county, is situated on the north side of Big Muddy River, on section two, nine south, and three west of the third principal meridian. It is twelve miles by land, and twenty-five by water from Mississippi, and is surrounded by hills.

The Big Muddy Salines and coal banks are near this place. The population is about twenty families.

Brulette's Creek rises in the north part of Edgar county, and runs eastward across a portion of Indiana into the Wabash. The timber on its banks is chiefly oak. The settlement is in the forks and along the north fork of the creek. The land is good. Prairie predominates over the timbered land. The post office is called Bloomfield.

Brush Creek rises in the east part of Shelby county, runs a southwest course, and empties into the Kaskaskia River, in the south part of the county. The timber is indifferent, and the prairies are level and wet.

Brush Creek rises in the prairies in the south part of Sangamon county, runs north and enters Horse creek, a little above its junction with the Sangamon.

Brush Hill post office is in Cook county, in the northeast corner of township thirty-eight north, range eleven east, and sixteen miles west of Chicago.

Brush Prairie Creek, a trifling stream in Franklin county, rises in a prairie of the same name, runs west, and enters the middle fork of Muddy River. Good timbered land.

Brushy Fork, a small branch of the Embarras on the east side, and in the northern part of Lawrence county. It runs a south course, and enters the main stream six miles above Lawrenceville. The settlement is new, containing twenty-five or thirty families, and a portion of the county barrens.

Brushy Fork, a small stream that rises in the prairie, near the borders of Edgar county, and taking a southwest course, enters the Embarras in Coles county, fourteen miles above Charleston. On the east side the land is rolling and fertile, and there is a settlement of fifteen or twenty families; on the west side of land is level and rather wet.

Brushy Prairie, on the east side of the Little Wabash in Wayne county, eleven miles east of Fairfield, and contains about fifty families.

Buck-heart Prairie, in Fulton county, is northeast from Lewistown, and joins Canton prairie. It is six or eight miles in extent, and has a considerable settlement.

Buck-heart Creek rises near the South Fork on the Sangamon River, runs northwest, and enters the North Fork. It has a considerable settlement.

Buck-heart Grove, at the head of Buck-heart creek, in Sangamon county, fifteen or twenty miles southeast From Springfield. It is a fine tract of timber, about 1,000 acres, surrounded with high prairie and settlement.

Buck Prairie lies in Edwards county, six miles northeast from Albion, and is about two miles and a half across.

Buck-horn Prairie is in Morgan county, six or eight miles south of Jacksonville. The soil is rich, but its surface is rather level and wet.

Buckle's Grove, at the head of the north branch of Salt creek, in McLean county, contains about twelve sections of timbered land, surrounded with rich prairie. It is in twenty-two north, four east, and is about six or eight miles east from Bloomington. Timber principally oak, with some sugar maple, and the land around it rather level.

Buffaloe Grove, in Jo Daviess county, twelve miles north of Dixon's ferry, and on the road to Galena. It contains four or five sections of timber, surrounded with the richest prairie, a post office called Buffaloe Grove, and a town site called St. Marion.

Buffaloe-heart Grove lies in Sangamon county, fourteen miles northeast from Springfield and six miles southeasterly from Elk-heart Grove, which it resembles. It is about three miles long, and one mile and a half wide, containing about for sections of timber and twenty-five or thirty families. The rushes, which cover the prairies around, furnish winter food for cattle.

Buffaloe Rock, a singular promontory of the north side of the Illinois River, in La Salle county, six miles below Ottawa. It rises fifty or sixty feet nearly perpendicular on three sides, and contains on its surface about six hundred acres of timber and prairie.

Bullard's Prairie, sometimes called Gardner's prairie, in the western part of Lawrence county, sixteen miles from Lawrenceville. It is eight or ten miles long, and two miles wide, second rate soil, and has considerable settlement on its borders.

Bullbona Grove in sixteen north, eight east, in Putnam county. Prairie rich and undulating.

Buncombe Settlement, in Johnson county, eight miles northwest from Vienna, contains forty families; soil rather broken, thin an rocky.

Bunker Hill, an elevated town site in the south part of Macoupin county, section fourteen, seven north, eight west, in a large undulating prairie.

Bureau Creek rises in the northern part of Putnam county, runs southwest, received Little Bureau, turns thence southeast, and enters the Illinois River nearly opposite Hennepin. It is a fine mill stream, with a bold current, rock, gravel, and sand in its bottom, and receives a number of branches. About the bluffs of the Illinois the surface of the land is broken, but in general it is excellent the whole length of the stream. Between its branches are fine prairies, undulating, rich, and dry, and along its borders is much excellent timber.

Burnside's Settlement, in Clinton county, five miles north of Carlyle, called by some of Irish settlement.

Burnt Prairie, in the northwestern part of White, and extending into Wayne county, is about two miles in diameter, contains some good land and a dense settlement. Here is a post office and town site.

Burnt Prairie, in Edwards county, four miles northwest from Albion. It is about six miles long and two miles wide, interspersed with small groves and points of timber. The soil is good, and the population dense. Here is a windmill erected by a Mr. Clark, an English gentleman, which does good business as a grist mill.

Byron, a town site in Champaign county in Big Grove, three and half miles northwest from Urbanna, with three or four families.

Cache Merè, a small lake in McHenry county.

Cadwell's Branch, a small branch of the Mauvaiseterre, which it enters from the south, ten miles below Jacksonville. It is a mill stream and rocky.

Cahokia, an old French village, and one of the earliest in Illinois, situated in the American bottom in St. Clair county, five miles south of Wiggin's Ferry, and ten miles north of west Belleville.

The Cahokias, (or according to the orthography of the early French explorers, the Caoquias), one of the tribes of the great nation of Illini, had made this a resting place for a long time previous to the discovery of the Mississippi, probably on account of the game which abounded in the vicinity. It is probably that the first settlement was made here by the French, shortly after La Salle descended the Mississippi, in 1683. Charlevois, who visited the place in 1721, expresses his astonishment that his countrymen had pitched upon so inconvenient a situation, being "half a league" from the river. He says, however, the people told him that the Mississippi once washed the foot of the village, but that in three years it had receded half a league, and that the people were talking of removing to a more eligible situation. In 1766, it contained forty families; and at the commencement of the revolutionary war they had increased to fifty. This is about their present number. It was once the seat of a considerable fur trade. Both the Spanish and French governments, in forming settlements on the Mississippi, had special regard to convenience of social intercourse, and protection from the Indians. All the settlements were required to be in the form of villages or towns, and lots of a convenient size for a door yard, garden and stable yard were provided for each family. To each village were granted two tracts of land at convenient distances, for "common fields" and "commons." A common field is a tract of land of several hundred acres, enclosed in common by the villagers, each person furnishing his proportion of labor and each family possessing individual interest in a portion of the field, marked off, and bounded from the rest. Ordinances were made to regulate the repairs of fences, the time of excluding cattle in the spring, and the time of gathering the crop and opening the field for the range of cattle in the fall. Each plat of ground in the common filed was owned in fee simple by the person to whom granted, subject to sale and conveyance, the same as any landed property. A common is a tract of land granted to the town for wood and pasturage, in which each owner of a village lot has a common, but not an individual right. In some cases this tract embraced several thousand acres. The "common" attached to Cahokia, extends up the prairie opposite St. Louis.

Cahokia creek rises in Macoupin county, runs in a southwestern direction through Madison into St. Clair county, and empties into the Mississippi two miles below the ferry at St. Louis. Through the American bottom the course of this stream is very sluggish, and meanders greatly. A mill dam backs up the water fifteen miles. Near its borders are several lakes and ponds rendering this portion of the American bottom unhealthy. Formerly this creek passed Cahokia village, and entered the Mississippi further down, but a mischievous Frenchman, from some pique against the village, cut a channel from the creek to the river, and formed its present outlet. Along its borders are sixty or seventy mounds of various shapes and sizes.

Cairo is located near the mouth of the Ohio and extends across the point of land from river to river. The termination of the great central railroad is to be at or near the site of Cairo.

Calmaic, a stream at the south end of Lake Michigan. It rises in Indiana, runs westward into Illinois, turns north and enters the lake. Much of the country near the lake is low and swampy. Further up are rapids and falls in the stream.

Caledonia, a town laid off on the bluffs of the Ohio in Alexander county, three miles above America. A wharf is here constructing to secure a good landing for boats which is wanted at America. It has two or three stores, a dozen families, and is thought to be an important site for business.

Calumet, a large stream that rises in Indiana, winds into Illinois, turns again and enters the Lake Michigan, near the boundary line. Much of the country near the lake is low and swampy. Further up are rapids, and good water power.

Calumet, a town site with 8 or 10 houses and a post office near the mouth of the Calumet.

Camden, a town site at the mouth of the Illinois River in the southwest part of Green county.

Cameron's Settlement, in Fulton county, eight miles northwest from Lewistown, is n a tract of good land, a mixture of timber and prairie, with a considerable population.

Campbell's Island, in the Mississippi, ten miles above Rock Island, in the upper rapids of the Mississippi.

Camp Creek, a small stream in Randolph county, that enters the Kaskaskia River on the west side, in five south, eight west.

Camp Creek¸ is an insignificant stream that rises in the prairies which divide Hancock from Warren county, and runs west into the Mississippi.

Camp Creek in Mercer county, rises in the interior of Henry county, runs west and enters Edwards River in township fifteen north, range one west; high, rolling prairie, and Richland grove.

Camp Fork, a branch of Crooked creek in McDonough county, rises in Hickory Grove, on the north side of seven north, two west, runs south, and unites with Drowning fork. The land on these creeks is of the first quality.

Canaan is a rich settlement in Shelby county, twelve miles north of Shelbyville; a very superior tract.

Canaan, a post office in Rock Island county, 20 miles north of Stephenson.

Canteen Creek rises in ridge prairie, in the south part of Madison county, runs a western course, and enters the Cahokia creek in the American Bottom. Little Canteen creek rises in St. Louis county, and enters the main creek about the bluffs.

Canteen Settlement, in Madison county, about six south of Edwardsville.

Canton, a pleasant town in Fulton county, on the borders of a large prairie, fifteen miles north of Lewistown on section twenty-seven, seven north, four east. It is a respectable town, has eight or ten stores, a large academy and a charter for a college, and a population of five or six hundred. The country around is high, undulating, fertile and healthy, with a due mixture of timber and prairie.

Canton Prairie, in Fulton county, commences near Spoon River and runs northward, dividing the waters that fall into Spoon River on the left, from those that enter the Illinois on the right, till it becomes lost in the interminable prairies on Rock River. At Canton it is from two to three miles in width, dry, undulating, and inexhaustibly rich. Further north it becomes inferior.

Cantrill's Creek rises on the eastern side of Sangamon county, runs west, and enters Sangamon River about fifteen miles above Salt Fork. The land on this creek is rather level, the soil rich, and about equally divided into timber and prairie.

Cape au Gris. A small French settlement of this name, (which means Cape of Grit or Grindstone, from the rocks near), was formed on the Mississippi, about the mouth of the Illinois, at the most southern bend of the river in Calhoun county, about forty years since. In 1811, it consists of about twenty families, who had a village on the bank of the river, and cultivated a common field of about five hundred acres in the prairie, one mile from the river. They were driven off by the Indians during the last war with Great Britain. The American population began to enter this county, in 1818.

Carlinville, the seat of justice of Macoupin county, is situated on the north side of the Lake Fork of the Macoupin, in a beautiful prairie. It is on section twenty-eight, ten north, seven west of the third principal meridian.

Carlinville has several stores, one grocery, two lawyers, two physicians, and about 80 families, and is improving rapidly. The state roads from Vandalia to Carrollton, and from Springfield to Alton, intersect at this place. It is fifty-five miles northwest from Vandalia, forty-five miles southeast from Jacksonville, forty-five miles southwest from Springfield, thirty-five east of Carrollton, thirty-five miles north from Edwardsville and thirty-five northeast from Alton. The country around Carlinville is proportionally divided into timber and prairie. A theological Seminary, under patronage of the Presbyterian Synod of Illinois is about to be established at this place, and the railroad from Alton to Springfield will pass through it.

Carlyle, the seat of justice for Clinton county, is situated on the west side of the Kaskaskia River, 215 miles by water about its mouth, and on the Vincennes and St. Louis road. It was laid out as a town site, in 1818, on section eighteen, two north, two west, on elevated ground, on the border of a large prairie. The intersection of several public roads from different parts of the state, gives it an appearance of life and business, rarely to be seen in a place so remote from commercial advantages.

Carlyle contains five stores, three taverns, a grist and saw mill by water power, and forty families. The court house is of wood.

Carmi, the seat of justice of White county, situated on the west bank of the Little Wabash, and nearly in the centre of the county. It is surrounded by lands of a good quality, and an extensive settlement, and is in latitude thirty-eight degrees five minutes north, eighty miles southeast by Vandalia. It is now in an improving condition, has four stores, a saw and flouring mill, and a neat brick court house, forty feet square, with a cupola, the whole painted and neatly finished.

Carmi has many good framed houses, and about fifty families, 2 lawyers, and 3 physicians.

Carlous, a post office in Vermilion county, about twenty miles from Danville, west of south, and on the mail route from Vincennes to Chicago.

Carrollton, the seat of justice for Green county, is a flourishing and pleasant village, situated on the borders of String Prairie, nearly equidistant from Macoupin and Apple creeks, and on the dividing line of sections twenty-two and twenty-three, ten north, and twelve west. It has 17 stores, 6 groceries, 2 taverns, 7 lawyers, 6 physicians, 4 ministers of the gospel, 2 male and 2 female schools, 2 steam flouring mills, 2 steam saw mills, one tannery, and about 1,000 inhabitants. The court house is neatly built of brick; forty-four by forty-six feet, two stories, with a handsome spire. Around Carrollton is a beautiful country, tolerably level, rich soil, suitably proportioned into timber and prairie, and densely populated with industrious and thriving farmers. Here are Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist and Reformer societies. Houses of worship for the Baptists, Reformers, and Methodists are erected, and the Presbyterians are preparing to build. Improved farms around Carrollton sell for ten, fifteen and twenty dollars per acre. The houses mostly are framed, or of brick, built in a plain but convenient style.

Carter's Settlement, near the south part of McDonough county, twelve miles from Macomb, on the road to Rushville. The land is gently undulating, soil rich, timber and prairie proportioned, and an extensive settlement.

It is in the south part of four north, two west, between the heads of Sugar creek and Grindstone Fork. This is the oldest settlement in the county.

Carthage, the seat of justice for Hancock county, is situated in the prairie, one mile from timber between the head waters of Bear and Long creeks, and nine miles from the Mississippi, on the northwest quarter of section nineteen, township five north, in range six west. The town was laid off by the commissioners in March, 1833, and about one hundred lots sold the following June; averaging about thirty dollars each. It now contains three stores, one grocery, three carpenters, one blacksmith, two cabinet makers, one wheelwright, one tavern, one brick maker, one physician; but no lawyer. The adjoining prairie is dry, and beautifully undulating. The timber adjacent is excellent. Good water in all this region is obtained by digging wells from fifteen to twenty-five feet deep. Coal is near and in abundance. Since the sale of lots, property has risen in value about fifty per cent.

Cass Post Office, is in Cook county, 22 miles from Chicago, on the road to Ottawa.

Casey's Grove is fifteen miles northeast from Jacksonville, on the road to Beardstown. It is a small grove of from five to six hundred acres on Clay creek.

Casey's Prairie, in Jefferson county, adjoining Mount Vernon, is five miles long and two miles broad; surface tolerably level, soil second rate, and the population consists of about 130 families.

Cash River, a stream in the southern part of the state, which is formed from several branches and a series of ponds that exist in Union and Johnson counties. These unite in Alexander county, through which the main stream follows a devious course, at one time approaching within a mile and a half of the Mississippi, and again approaching near the Ohio, till it empties its waters into the latter river, at Trinity, six miles above its mouth. One of its principal branches rises in Union county, and forms the "Scatters of Cash," which see. Another source of its waters is in Johnson county, in a series of pounds which are connected with the waters of Big Bay creek, in Pope county. The outlet of these ponds is known by the name of Pond Slough. The alluvions of Cash River, where not inundated, are wide, of a rich soil, and heavily timbered.

Cato, a post office on the west side of Clay county, and on the Vincennes and St. Louis stage roads.

Cat Tail Swamp, is in Whiteside county, and connects the waters of the Mississippi and Rock Rivers. It is navigable for small craft at some seasons.

Cave-in-Rock. This natural curiosity, well known to all the navigators of the Ohio River, is situated on the bank of the Ohio, where the dividing line between Pope and Gallatin counties strikes the river. Such caves and piles of rock, are as described in the following sketch, are called by the Indians Mon-e-to - a name spelled Man-i-teau, by the French, and sometimes Mon-it-to by other authors. It signifies "the residence of a spirit," either good or bad. There are several Mon-e-toes in Illinois, Missouri, and other western states. One is at the precipices of the Mississippi adjoining Lower Alton. Two more that give names to streams in Boone and Coles counties, Missouri. The Indians relate some wild and extravagant legends of the freaks of these imaginary beings at the "residences," and they usually propitiate the favour of the Mon-e-to, by liberal offerings, and the firing of guns, as they pass his habitation. The one at the head of this article, known to Americans by the name Cave-in-rock, was long the rendezvous of a class of beings, far more formidable and dangerous to the whites, than the Indian Mon-e-toes. In 1797, it was the place of resort and security to Mason and his gang of robbers; who plundered and murdered the crews of boats, while descending the Ohio. It still answers as a temporary residence for those who need shelter while on the river. The rock is limestone abounding with shells. The following description of this cave is given by Thaddeus M. Harris, and English tourist, made in the spring of 1803, a writer who has done justice to the West in his descriptions generally. "For about three or four miles before you come to this place, you are presented with a scene truly romantic. On the Illinois side of the river, you see large ponderous rocks piles one upon another, of different colours, shapes and sizes. Some appear to have gone through the hands of the most skilful artist; some represent the ruins of ancient edifices; others thrown promiscuously in and out of the river, as if nature intended to show us with what ease she could handle those mountains of solid rock. In some places, you see purling streams winding their course down their rugged front; while in others, the rocks project so far, that they seem almost disposed to leave their doubtful situations. After a short relief from this scene, you come to a second, which is something similar to the first; and here, with strict scrutiny, you can discover the cave.
"Before its mouth stands a delightful grove of cypress trees, arranged immediately on the bank of the river. They have a fine appearance, and add much to the cheerfulness of the place.
"The mouth of the cave is but a few feet above the ordinary level of the river, and is formed by a semicircular arch of about eighty feet at its base and twenty-five feet in height, the top projecting considerably over, forming a regular concave. From the entrance to the extremity, which is about 180 feet, it has a regular and gradual ascent. On either side is a solid bench of rock; the arch coming to a point about the middle of the cave, where you discover an opening sufficiently large to receive the body of a man, through which comes a small stream of fine water, made use of by those who visit this place. From this hole, a second cave is discovered whose dimensions, form, etc., are not known. The rock is of limestone. The sides of the cave are covered with inscriptions, names of persons, dates, etc." [Harris's Tour, etc., Boston, 1805.] The trees have been cut down and the entrance into the cave exposed to view.

Cedar Creek post office is in Warren county, section thirty-five, township twelve north, range three west, and about seven miles northwest from Monmouth.

Cedar Creek¸ in Adams county, which rises in one south, eight west, runs west, and enters Boston Bay. A saw and grist mill has been erected on this stream and the land contiguous is good.

Cedar Creek, in Johnson county, rises in the northeastern part, run south, and enters Big Bay creek. It has large, abrupt bluffs, covered with cedar, and a settlement near it.

Cedar Creek, a branch of Big Muddy River in Jackson county, rises in Union county, and runs first north, and then a western course, and enters Muddy River twelve miles above its mouth. This creek has high bluffs towards its mouth, which abound with cedar. The county is broken, timbered, well watered with springs, and contains about one hundred families. The main settlement is six miles from Brownsville.

Cedar Fork, a branch of Crooked creek, in the northwest corner of Schuyler county, runs through a dry and rather hilly tract of country.

Cedar Fork of Henderson River rises in the great prairie between Henderson and Spoon Rivers and taking a northwestern course, enters the main Henderson. The land along its borders is first rate, and begins to receive cultivation from an industrious settlement.

Centerville, called also "Virginia Centerfield," a settlement at the intersection of the base line or the fourth principal meridian, with the boundary line betwixt Adams and Schuyler counties. Excellent prairie and timbered land, undulating, healthy, and watered by the head branches of McKee's and crooked creeks. A post office is here called Daviston, within Schuyler county, twenty-five miles from Rushville.

Centerville, a post office in Wabash county, situated five miles northwest from Mount Carmel.

Charleston, the seat of justice for Coles county, is situated on the border of the Grand Prairie two and a half miles from, and on the west side of, the Embarras River, on section eleven, township twelve north, nine east. The surface around is tolerably level, the soil fertile, and the settlements already considerable, will soon be extensive. It has three stores, three groceries, and about twenty-five families. It was laid out in 1831, and the first sale of lots took place in that year.

Charter's Grove, a small tract of timber on the waters of Kishwaukee in Kane county.

Chatham, a post office in Sangamon county, north of Sangamon River, and on the road from Springfield to Havanna.

Cheyney's Grove, a settlement near the head waters of the Sangamon, on the east of McLean county, twenty-three north, six east. This timber is an island in the great prairie, of three or four square miles, twenty-five miles east of Bloomington, and the road to Danville. The population in 24 families.

Cherry Grove, a settlement in St. Clair county, eight miles northeasterly from Belleville, with a dense population of Germans.

Cherry Grove, a post office, in Jo Daviess county.

Chester, a town on the bank of the Mississippi River, in Randolph county, and about two miles below the mouth of the Kaskaskia River. It is situated on an elevated strip of bottom land at the foot of the bluffs and is a commercial depot for the country back. Exports by steamboats for 1836, $150,000; imports, $130,000. It has five stores, three groceries, one tavern, one physician, two ministers of the gospel, four warehouses, one steam saw and grist mill, one castor oil factory, and 280 inhabitants.

Chicago, the seat of justice for Cook county, is situated on a river or bay of the same name at the junction of North and South branches, and from thence to Lake Michigan. The town is beautifully situated on level ground, but sufficiently elevated above the highest floods, and on both sides of the river. Its growth, even for western cities, has been of unparalleled rapidity. In 1832 it contained five small stores, and 250 inhabitants. In 1831, there are four arrivals from the lower lakes, two brigs and two schooners, which was sufficient for all the trade of the northeastern part of Illinois, and the northwestern part of Indiana. In 1835 there were about 267 arrivals of brigs, ships and schooners, and 9 of steamboats, and brought 5,015 tons of merchandise and 9,400 barrels of salt. The value of merchandise imported equal to two and a half millions of dollars, besides a vast number of emigrant families, with their furniture, provisions, &c. Owing to the vast influx of emigration, the exports have been but small. There are about 60 stores, 30 groceries, 10 public houses, 23 physicians, 41 lawyers, five ministers and about 5,000 inhabitants. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics, each have houses of worship. The harbor constructed by the United States government is now nearly completed and will afford one of the safest and best on the northern lakes. Chicago is now an incorporated city, under the usual municipal regulations. It has one or more insurance companies, fire companies, water works for the supply of the city from the lake, several good schools and a respectable academy, three printing offices that publish weekly papers and mechanics of every description. The natural position of the place, the enterprise and capital that will concentrate here, with favorable prospects for health, must soon make this place the emporium of trade and business for all the northern country. Back of the town, towards the Des Plaines, is a fertile prairie, and for the first three or four miles, elevated and dry. Along the north branch of the Chicago, and the lakeshore, are extensive bodies of fine timber. Large quantities of white pine exist in the regions towards Green Bay, and about Grand River in Michigan, from which lumber in any quantities is obtained and conveyed by shipping to Chicago. Yellow poplar boards and plank are brought across the lake from the St. Joseph's River. The mail in post coaches from Detroit, arrives here tri-weekly, and departs for Galena, for Springfield, Alton, and St. Louis, and the Danville and Vincennes. The United States owns a strip of elevated ground between the town and lake, about half a mile in width, on which Fort Dearborn and the lighthouse are situated, but which is now claimed, as a pre-emption right, and is now in a course of judicial investigation. Chicago, the steam or bay, on which the town of Chicago is situated. It is made by North and South branches, which form a junction in the upper part of the town, about three fourths of a mile from the lake. The Chicago resembles a vast canal, from fifty to seventy-five yards wide and from fifteen to twenty-five feet deep. Northerly and easterly storms throw the cool waters of the lake into this channel, and raise it about three feet. North Branch, which is the largest, rises a short distance above the boundary line, and near the lake, and runs parallel with the lake shore a southerly course, and is navigable for small boats. Its banks are well timbered, and the land fertile. In spring floods, its waters, in one or two places, flow across the prairie and commingle with those of Des Plaines. South Branch rises in an opposite direction, in the prairies towards the Saganaskee swamp, runs a northern direction about twenty miles, and forms a junction with the North branch, in the town of Chicago. The timber is rather scarce on South Branch.

Chillicothe, a town site and 20 or 30 families, in Peoria county at the upper end of Peoria Lake.

Chippewa, a town site in Madison county, directly opposite the mouth of the Missouri. A steam mill and several buildings are going up.

Choteau's Island, is in the Mississippi River, in the southwestern part of Madison county. It is four miles long, and a mile and half wide, and has several families and farms on it. In extreme high floods the water of the river nearly covers it.

Christian Settlement, see Allison's Prairie.

Christy's Prairie, sometimes called Lewis's Prairie, is in Lawrence county ten miles west of Lawrenceville, moderately rolling, and good second rate land. Population 150 families.

Clary's Grove is a beautiful tract of timber and flourishing settlements, in Sangamon county, eighteen miles northwest from Springfield, and surrounded with excellent prairie. The timber is three of four miles in diameter, consisting of oaks, sugar maple, walnut hickory, linden, elm, locust, and various other specifies. Clary's creek issues from this grove, runs northwesterly, and enters the Sangamon River near the corner of Morgan county. Little Grove is a smaller tract contiguous to Clary's Grove; timber and prairie of the same quality.

Clayton is a town site on the east side of Adams county, on section thirty-five, township one north, range five west.

Clay Creek rises in the prairies in the northeastern part of Morgan county, passes through two lakes in the bottom, and enters the Illinois River below Beardstown.

Clay Lick, a branch of Cedar creek, in Union county. The land is hilly, and heavily timbered.

Clay Prairie, in Clark county, lies west from Union Prairie, and eight miles southwest from Darwin. It contains a large settlement.

Clear Creek, a small stream that rises in the prairies near Paris, Edgar county, and leaving the county at its southeast corner, passes across a strip of Indiana, and enters the Wabash. It is a mill stream, and the land on each side is good.

Clear Creek, a small stream in Putnam county, ten miles south of Hennepin. Along its banks are fine timber and the adjoining prairies are excellent.

Clear Creek, a stream that rises in Union county, runs south and enters the Mississippi in the northwestern part of Alexander county. One branch rises in the northern part of Union, the other in the neighborhood of Jonesboro'.

Clear Creek, in Sangamon county, rises in the prairies between Salt creek and the North Fork, runs a southwestern course, and enters the Sangamon River near the junction of the North and South Forks. This is a good mill stream; the country on its borders rather level, timber good, considerable prairie, and a population of 200 or 300 families.

Clear Creek, a small stream in Morgan county, that passes through the narrows and enters the Illinois River below Beardstown.

Clear Creek, post office, is at Mechanicsburg, 14 miles east of Springfield, and on the road to Decatur.

Clear Lake, an expansion of water in the American Bottom, St. Clair county, about ten miles westerly from Belleville.

Clendening's Settlement, in Greene county, six miles southwest of Carrollton.

Clifton, a post office on Sugar creek, Clinton county.

Clifton, on the bank of the Mississippi, four miles above Alton. Here is a landing, a steam saw mill, an excellent free stone quarry, and a quarry of water cement lime stone, and a town site.

Clinton, a town site, post offices and half a dozen families, in the northern part of Macon county, 24 miles from Decatur.

Clinton Hill is three miles north of Belleville, in St. Clair county, and the residence of John Messenger, Esq. It is an elevated timbered tract, containing some excellent springs, and a valuable stone quarry. The Richland Baptist church have their house of worship here.

Clio, a post office in the northwest corner of Pike county, 22 miles northwest from Pittsfield.

Coal Banks, in the bluffs of St. Clair county, east side of the American Bottom, and seven miles from St. Louis, ferry. Several beds have been opened along the bluffs, within three miles. The coal is bituminous, burns well, and appears to be inexhaustible. About 300,000 bushels are now taken to St. Louis annually, and the demand for it is rapidly increasing.

Coal Creek, in Schuyler county, heads near Crane creek, runs east, and enters the Illinois, four miles above Beardstown.

Coal Creek, in the northwest part of Putnam county, 3 miles west of French Grove, and runs into swamps. Here is coal in abundance and a beautiful grove of timber.

Cochran's Grove, a post office and settlement in Shelby county, ten miles east of Shelbyville.

Coffee Creek, an inconsiderable stream in Wabash county, that enters the Wabash River, six miles below Mount Carmel. A settlement of the same name is along its course. It is a timbered country, undulating, and broken.

Cold Prairie is in American Bottom, in St. Clair county, on the road from St. Louis to Belleville.

Cold Spring Settlement and post office is in Shelby county, on the road from Vandalia to Shelbyville, twenty miles south of the latter place. The land is second rate, and proportioned into timber and prairie. The was formerly called Wakefield's Settlement.

Colinsville, a village, post office, and settlement, in the south part of Madison county. Here is a store, a large mill for sawing and grinding, and several mechanics. A meeting house and Presbyterian church of fifty members, a large Sabbath school, and a body of sober moral and industrious citizens, render this an interesting settlement.

Columbus, a town near the centre of Adams county, of 40 or 50 families.

Columbo Creek rises in Perry county, runs a southeast course, and enters Big Beaucoup, in Jackson county.

Columbus, a town site in Randolph county, near the Flat Prairie - eighteen miles east of Kaskaskia, on section one, five south, six west. Here is an academy, a congregation of Reformed Presbyterians, and an industrious and large settlement. The post office is called "Shannon's Store."

Commerce, a town, landing and post office on the Mississippi in Hancock county, 16 miles northwest of Carthage, and at the head of the Lower Rapids, in seven north, one west. It has two stores, one grocery, and 12 or 15 families.

Compton's Prairie, in Wabash county, twelve miles west of Mount Carmel. This is a small, rich, level prairie, inclined to be wet, and has twenty-five or thirty families.

Concord, a post office and settlement, sometimes called "Slocumb's," in White county, between the Little and Big Wabash, below Big Prairie.

Concord, a town site on the Iroquois River, opposite Iroquois town. It has a steam and grist mill, and two or three families.

Coon Creek, a branch of the North Fork of the Kishwaukee in Kane county. It rises in township forty north, range four east, and runs west.

Coonsville, a small creek and settlement, on the south side of Apple creek, in Greene county, and six miles northwest from Carrollton.

Coop's Creek, a branch of the Macoupin, in Macoupin county. It rises in the prairies towards the head of Cahokia creek, runs a northwesterly course, and enters the main stream below the forks. Timber and prairie, undulating and rich.

Copperaus Creek, in Fulton county, towards the eastern part. It rises near Canton, runs a southeastern course, and enters the Illinois River in six north, five east. Much of it is timbered tract; some good prairie, and a large settlement.

Cottonberger's Settlement, on Salt creek, in the northwest part of Macon county, eighteen miles north from Decatur.

Cotton Hill Prairie is in Sangamon county, between South Fork and Horse creek, twelve miles south of Springfield.

Court Creek runs through Knox county, from northwest to southeast, and enters Spoon River.

Covington was formerly the seat of justice of Washington county, but after its division in forming Clinton, this place was left in the northwest corner of the county, and now contains half a dozen families. It is situated on the left bank of the Kaskaskia River, in section thirty-three, township one north, three west. Should the contemplated improvements of the Kaskaskia River be carried forward so as to be navigated by stream, Covington may become a place of some importance. It is fourteen miles from Nashville.

Cownover's Branch, in Morgan county, rises at the head of Jersey prairie, and enters Indian creek near Smart's mill.

Cox's Grover, a small body of timber on the line of Cass and Sangamon counties.

Cox's Prairie, northeast of Brownsville, in Jackson county, near Big Beaucoup, contains about four sections of good rolling land.

Crab Orchard, a small creek that rises in the south part of Franklin county, passes into Jackson, and enters the Big Muddy, fifteen miles above Brownsville. The country adjoining is level and good, and the settlement has forty or fifty families.

Crawfish Creek, a small stream in Wabash county, that enters the Wabash River six miles above Mount Carmel. The adjacent country is sterile and broken.

Crawford's Creek is an insignificant stream in Adams county, containing excellent land and timber. It enters the south prong of Bear creek.

Crane Creek, a small stream in Schuyler county, which rises near Rushville, runs south through a timbered region, and enters the Illinois a few yards above the mouth of Crooked creek.

Crane Creek, a trifling stream that enters the Sangamon River from the north side, below Miller's Ferry.

Crane Creek, in Whiteside county, rises near the south fork of Plum creek, runs west, then south and enters Rock River fifteen or twenty miles below Dixon's Ferry, near the foot of the second rapids. Its length is about twenty-five miles. The timber near it is in groves, and the country generally the finest for farming purposes. It is a good mill stream.

Crooked Creek, on the military tract, from its size, length, and number of its branches, should be called a river; but it is not our province to make or alter names. The term "creek" is applied to this stream on the maps, and in the vocabulary of the country. It rises in numerous branches in McDonough and Hancock counties, and near the borders of Warren, runs a southern course through McDonough and Schuyler counties, and enters the Illinois in section thirteen, one south, one west, six miles below Beardstown. It can easily be made navigable some distance. No better land can be found in Illinois than the country in general watered by this stream; and the many small tributaries emptying into it from the east and west not only afford many mill seats, but apportion the timber and prairie so nearly equal as to render almost every tract capable of immediate settlement. It is to be regretted that much of the land in this section of the county is owned by non residents, and that it is held at prices much too high to suit the circumstances of settlers, or the relative value of land in this state. The country generally on Crooked Creek is gently undulating, dry soil, inexhaustibly rich, and where timber exists it is of excellent quality. Here are found oaks of different species, walnut, sugar maple, linden, hackberry, hickory, cherry, honey locust, mulberry, elm, ash, and various other growth common to the state. The soil is an argillaceous mould, from one to four feet deep. Near the mouth of Crooked Creek is an extensive bottom on the Illinois, inundated in high water, but affording an extensive range for stock during the greatest part of the year. Bituminous coal is found in great abundance along this stream and its tributaries, with several quarries of free stone.

Crooked Creek, in Marion county, rises in the Grand Prairie near Salem, runs a southwesterly course, and enters the Kaskaskia River above Covington.

Crooked Creek, an insignificant stream and branch of the Little Wabash, in White county, eight miles above Carmi. It is a timbered region, and the settlement is large.

Crow Creek rises in the north part of McLean county, passes through the southwestern part of La Salle, and enters the Illinois River in Putnam county below Hennepin. There is a fine skirt of timber and much good prairie along its borders.

Crow Creek, a small stream in Putnam county that enters the Illinois River from the west side. It rises in Crow Grove, (Boyd's) and runs an east course.

Crow Grove, or Boyd's settlement, forty miles above Peoria, in the stage road to Galena. It is a beautiful tract of country, in fourteen north, eight east from the fourth principal meridian, and thirteen miles west of Hennepin.

Crow Meadow post office is in Putnam county, on the road from Peoria to Ottawa.

Crow Prairie lies near the Illinois River, in Putnam county, on the east side, twelve miles below Hennepin. It is six miles long and three miles wide, good soil, and timber around it.

Crow Prairie is in Putnam county, on the west side of the Illinois River. It is twelve miles long, four miles wide, and dry, rich, farming land.

Cumberland, a post office on the National Road, 6 miles east of Vandalia.

Curran¸ a post office in Gallatin county, 13 miles northwest from Equality.

Cutler's Settlement, in Coles county, eight miles northeast from Charleston, on the east side of the Embarras. The soil, both of the timbered land and prairie, is good, and the settlement contains from forty to fifty families.

Cypress, a sluggish creek in Gallatin county, between Equality and Shawneetown, which runs into the Saline creek. The land in the vicinity is generally good and heavily timbered.

Crystal Lake, a beautiful sheet of water in McHenry county, with gravelly banks and a delightful prospect.

Dan Joe's Grove, so called from Joseph Smith, but more commonly known to the people, by the euphonious name of "old Dad." It is in Putnam county, section four, eighteen north, nine east.

Danville, the seat of justice for Vermilion county, is situated on the Vermilion River of the Wabash, on section eight, in township nineteen north, and in range eleven west from the second principal meridian. It is on a dry, sandy, and elevated surface, surrounded with heavy timber on the east, north, and west, but open to the prairie on the south. It has fourteen stores, three groceries, three taverns, five lawyers, six physicians, various mechanics, a public land office for this district, and a printing office from which issues weekly the "Danville Enquirer," and 700 inhabitants. The Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians each have congregations. There are about 120 families. The country around is populous, and rich land.

Darwin, the seat of justice of Clark county. It is situated on the Wabash, in section twenty-seven, ten north, eleven west from the second principal meridian, adjoining Walnut prairie, and contains about twenty families.

Daviston Post Office is at the place where the base line of the fourth principal meridian crosses the dividing line of Adams and Schuyler counties, twenty-five miles south of west from Rushville on the road to Quincy.

Dawson's Grove, called sometimes "Old Town Timber," in McLean county, twelve miles east from Bloomington, and at the heads of Kickapoo and Salt creek, in twenty-three north, and three and four east. The road from Pekin to Danville passes through this grove. It is long, and intersected with some barrens. Timber principally oak with some sugar maple. The prairie around it is very rich.

Dead Man's Grove, in Coles county, six miles west of Charleston. It is almost circular, about two miles in diameter, and contains three or four sections of indifferent timber, surrounded with a rich and undulating prairie, and is monopolized by two or three families. It receives its name from the circumstance of a man perishing here with cold several years since. The old Kickapoo towns were adjoining this grove.

Deaton's Mill, one of the first settlements in Morgan county, on the Mauvaiseterre, three miles northwest from Jacksonville. Here is a steam mill and a large and flourishing settlement.

Deausix, a trifling stream, and branch of the Kaskaskia River, in the southeastern part of St. Clair county.

Decker's Prairie, a small tract of second rate, undulating land, in Wabash county, twelve miles northeast from Mount Carmel, with about twenty-five families.

Decatur, the seat of justice for Macon county, is situated on the west side of the North Fork of Sangamon River, and on the borders of an extensive prairie. It is on the northeast quarter of section fifteen, in sixteen north, two east from the third principal meridian. It is dry, elevated, and bids fair for health, rich, and has a fine settlement.

Decatur has three stores, several mechanics and about thirty families.

Delhi, a post office and town site in the south part of Greene county, 22 miles from Carrollton. It was formerly called "Lurton's.

Des Plaines River [Riviere des Plaines, Fr.] rises in the Wisconsin territory, a few miles above the boundary line of Illinois, and about six miles from Lake Michigan. It runs a south course, generally over a bed of limestone rock, and forms one of the prominent branches of the Illinois River, by its junction with the Kankakee. Groves of timber are found on its banks, and interspersed through the vast prairie region. The country along its borders is rapidly populating, not withstanding the apparent deficiency of timber. In many places along the Des Plaines rock may be easily obtained both for fencing and building. The country is well watered, the streams perennial, and the soil rich, and covered with luxuriant herbage. It is frequently written and pronounced Aux Plaines or O'Plane.

Devil's Anvil is a singular rock, of considerable elevation, and the top jutting over its base, near the road from Equality to Golconda. The surrounding country is very hilly, with rocky precipices, and exhibits all the desolation and wilderness of a mountainous region.

Devil's Oven is a singular promontory of sand rock that projects into the Mississippi, in Jackson county, one miles above the Grand Tower. It has a cave resembling the mouth of a mammoth oven, to be seen from the river.

Diamond Grove, a most beautiful tract of timber in Morgan county, two miles southwest from Jacksonville. It is elevated above the surrounding prairie, and contains 700 or 800 acres, and surrounded with beautiful farms.

Diamond Grove Prairie, in Morgan county, south and adjacent to Jacksonville. It is four miles in extent, rich soil, undulating, dry surface, and mostly covered over with fine farms.

Dickerson's Lake is in the Illinois bottom, in Morgan county, ear the bluffs.

Dillard's is a large settlement in Gallatin county, eight miles northwest of Shawneetown. The land generally is good.

Dillon's Post Office is in the town of Liberty, Tazewell county. Here is a large settlement called Dillon's.

Dixon's Ferry, and post office in Ogle county, on Rock River, on the stage road from Peoria to Galena. The country around is excellent, but there is a deficiency of timber for dense settlements. Formerly called O'Gee's Ferry.

Dixonville, a town site at Dixon's Ferry on the south side of Rock River, in Ogle county. It contains 2 stores, 2 taverns, 1 grocery, a steam saw mill, 10 or 12 families, and is a pleasant site. Here the stage roads from Chicago by Napiersville - from Ottawa by Troy grove - and from Peoria by Windsor and Princeton all concentrate, and pass into Galena. Rock River here is 206 yards wide and is crossed by a rope ferry boat.

Donson's Prairie is on the west side of Clark county, six miles wide, and twice as long, level, considerably wet and a rather thin and clay soil.

Donohue's Settlement is in the northeast corner of Jefferson county, on Adam's creek, ten miles from Mount Vernon. It is mostly a timbered tract, and has twenty or thirty families.

Downing's Settlement, in Bond county, nine miles south of Greenville. It is on the waters of Beaver creek, and is well furnished with timber and prairie.

Douglass, a post office on the east side of Macoupin county fifteen miles northeast from Carlinville.

Dresden, a town site near the junction of Des Plaines and Kankakee, and on the line of the canal. It has one store and two or three families.

Drewry's Creek, a branch of Crab Orchard. It rises in Union county, runs a devious course northeasterly in Jackson county, and has a settlement of fifteen or twenty families. The land timbered, and second rate soil.

Driftwood, a post office in Iroquois county, on the road from Danville to Chicago.

Drowning Fork, in McDonough county. It rises in the prairies six north, one west, runs a southwestern course, and uniting with other branches, forms Crooked creek. It has a large body of excellent timber, surrounded with extensive prairies.

Dry Fork, a small stream in Macoupin county. It rises towards Cahokia creek, runs a northwesterly course, and enters the Macoupin above the forks.

Dry Fork, a branch of Shoal creek, in the northwest part of Bond county.

Dry Grove is a timbered tract in McLean county, in twenty-four north, one east, six miles north of west from Bloomington, and lies at the head of Sugar creek. It is about ten miles long, from east to west, high, dry, and undulating, and contains a settlement of about fifty families.

Dry Point, a small branch of Lake Fork of the Macoupin. The head of the timber is well known on the old road from Edwardsville to Springfield, and is nine north, six west, nine miles southeast from Carlinville.

Duck Grove, a small body of timber north of Holderman's Grove in La Salle county.

Dudley's Settlement, in Coles county, seven or eight miles east from Charleston. Including Richwood's, a fine body of timber south, it is an excellent tract of country, and contains more than 120 families.

Duncanton, a post office in Mantua settlement, in the southwestern part of White county, on the mail road from McLeansboro' to Shawneetown.

Dunwood's Mill is on Indian creek, Morgan county, eight miles north of Jacksonville.

Du Page, [Riviere du Page, Fr.] a beautiful stream in Cook county. It rises in two forks, which unite in the settlement of Fountaindale. One fork rises near the Des Plaines, and runs a western course, and forms a junction with the other fork, which rises towards Fox River. After the junction it runs a southwestern course through groves and prairies, and enters the Des Plaines three miles above its junction with the Kankakee. There are large settlements on this stream at Walker's Grove and Fountaindale.

Dutch Church Creek, in Pike county, takes its name from a bluff of a singular shape resembling one of the antiquated buildings of New York in Knickerbocker's days. It rises in the interior, and enters Snycartee.

Dutchman's Creek, a small branch of Cash River, in Johnson county. The land on this creek is excellent, and the settlement extensive.

Dutch Hill, a settlement in the southeast part of St. Clair county, and east of the Kaskaskia River. The land is good, and a mixture of timber and prairie.

Dutch Settlement, in Union County, lies south and in the vicinity of Jonesboro'. The land is good, rolling, and well timbered. The settlement contains probably 200 families and is watered by Clear creek.

Eaton's Mill, is noticed as the name of a settlement in Jasper county, near Crawford, on the west side of the North Fork of the Embarras.

Eagle Creek, a small stream in Gallatin county. It rises in the interior, runs south, and enters the Saline creek near its mouth. Some broken, and some good land, and a large settlement are on this stream.

Eagle Creek, or L'Aigle creek, in Monroe county. See Fountain Creek.

Eagle Point, a post office in Macoupin county, 16 miles northwest from Carlinville.

East Fork of Cash River rises in Johnson county, twelve south, three east, runs south, by Vincennes, and enters the main stream below the "Scatters of Cash." The timber consists of cypress, cedar, walnut, oaks of various species, etc.

East Fork of Kaskaskia River rises on the north side of Marion county, near the waters of the Little Wabash, runs west along the part of Marion, crosses the northeast corner of Clinton, and enters the Kaskaskia, in the southwest corner of Fayette county. It has a heavy body of excellent timber on its banks; the prairie adjoining are undulating and rich, and the settlements along this water are extensive.

East Fork of Shoal Creek, a stream and a settlement in the eastern part of Montgomery county. The stream rises n a large prairie in the northern portion of the county, runs southwestwardly, and enters the main creek near the south side of Bond county. The settlement extends along the timber which lines its banks and the land is tolerably level and fertile.

East Fork of Silver Creek rises in the northeastern part of Madison county, and unites with the West or main fork a short distance below the Marine settlement.

Edinburg, a town site in Sangamon county, in thirteen north, two west, 28 miles southeast from Springfield. Three stores, one grocery, one tavern, and a dozen families, surrounded with an excellent country along the south fork of Sangamon River.

Edmonson's Prairie, in McDonough county, six miles southwest from Macomb, is from one to two miles wide, ten miles long, and contains twenty-five or thirty families.

Edwardsville, the seat of justice for Madison county, is situated on sections two, three, and eleven, of township four north, in range eight west of the third principal meridian, twenty-one miles northeast from St. Louis, on the Springfield road, and twelve miles southeast from Alton. It has a court house and jail of brick, a land office for Edwardsville district, seven stories, two taverns, two physicians, four lawyers, a castor oil factory, various mechanics, and about seventy families. Here is also an academy and a commodious building. The Baptists and Methodists each have houses of worship. The inhabitants are generally industrious, intelligent, moral, and a large proportion professors of religion. The location of Edwardsville is pleasant, on high ground, healthy, and in the centre of a fertile, well watered, and well timbered country, settled with enterprising farmers. It is in latitude thirty-eight degrees forty-five minutes north.

Edward's Settlement is in the north part of Pike county, on McRaney's creek.

Edwards River rises in the prairies of Henry county, fifteen north, four east, runs west through Mercer county, where it turns south and enters the Mississippi near the Upper Yellow Banks. The country on this river is undulating, the timber in skirts and groves, the prairies large, and a supply of good water.

Eight Mile Prairie, in the southwest corner of Franklin county, eighteen miles southwest from Frankfort, level, and has a dense population. It is from one to two miles in diameter.

Elbridge Post Office, in Edgar county, 10 miles from Paris, on the road to Terre Haute.

Elgin, a town site on Fox River, in the south part of McHenry county.

Ellisville, in Fulton county, on the west side of Spoon River, near the north side of seven north, two east. It has three stores, one tavern, a mill and a dozen families. A large prairie lies west. The land on the river is rather broken and timbered. Situation twenty miles northwest from Lewistown.

Ellison, a small stream that rises in the prairies of Warren county, runs west, and enters the Mississippi six miles below Henderson River. It has a fine settlement, and a rich body of land on its banks.

Elkheart Grove, in Sangamon county, north of Sangamon River, and about twenty miles northeast from Springfield, in eighteen north, three west. It is a beautiful grove of timber, containing six or seven hundred acres, on the right hand of the great road leading to Peoria, Ottawa, and Chicago. The timber is oak, walnut, linden, hickory, sugar tree, etc. The prairie adjoining is rich soil, rather wet, and furnishes summer and winter range for cattle. Several families are settled here.

Elkhorn¸ a stream that rises in Washington county, south of Nashville, runs northwest, and enters the Kaskaskia River. The country on its borders is tolerably level, and has a large settlement. A post office is here.

Elkhorn Grove is in Jo Daviess county, west of Buffaloe Grove. It is nine miles long, and from one to three miles wide. A beautiful prairie surrounds it, and Elkhorn creek passes through it.

Elkhorn Creek, in Jo Daviess county. It rises near Red Oak Grove, passes through Elkhorn Grove, runs southwest, and enters Rock River twenty miles below Dixon's Ferry. Here is a beautiful country, and the timber in groves.

Elk Prairie lies between the little Muddy and Beaucoup creeks, in Perry county, and is about five miles in extent. It is dry and tolerably level; soil second rate, and the settlement contains about twenty-five families.

Elm River, a branch of the Little Wabash. It rises in two heads, in the Twelve Mile prairie, in Clay county, north of the Vincennes road, and taking a southeastern direction, enters the Little Wabash in Wayne county. The west branch of Elm River bears the name of Raccoon creek.

Embarras River, (pronounced Embroy in Fr.) a considerable stream in the eastern part of the state. It rises in Champaign county, eighteen north, nine east, near the sources of the Kaskaskia, the two Vermilions, and the Sangamon Rivers. It runs south through Coles county, receives several smaller streams, enters Jasper, turns southeast across a corner of Crawford, passes through Lawrence county, and enters the Big Wabash, about six miles below Vincennes. The country on the Embarras is various, though there is much good land. Towards its head the prairie greatly predominates, the timber being in groves, and narrow strips along its banks. In Coles county, north of Charleston, the timber is from two to six miles wide. Below that place it gradually widens to the distance of eight or ten miles. It consists of the various qualities common on this side of the state. Generally the prairies through which it flows are second rate for more than half its length from its mouth. Its bottoms are inundated in very high floods. The main stream and its branches afford many good mills seats. From the vicinity of Lawrenceville to Vincennes, in high freshets, the Embarras and Big Wabash unite their waters and spread over the country for seven or eight miles in extent. Hence, from this occasional observation to travelling on the ole "Vincennes trace," as the obscure path through the prairies to Kaskaskia was then called, the early French explorers gave the name "Embarras" to this stream.

Embarras, a town site of Coles county, one half mile east of the Embarras River, at the junction of the national road and the road from Palestine to Shelbyville, twenty miles south of Charleston, and fifty-two miles east of Vandalia. Good springs of water, high, rich, undulating prairie, and abundance of tine timber are said to belong to the conveniences of this location.

Embarras Settlement, in Coles county. I have given this name to an extensive tract of country thinly populated, extending along the west side of the Embarras, and north of Charleston. The quality of the land is on a medium with the rest of Coles county. South of Charleston, and on the same side, the country is thinly settled.

Eminence, a town site near Sugar creek in Tazewell county.

Emmettsburg, a Roman Catholic Irish and German settlement, or hamlet, on the line of the canal, eight miles above Juliet.

English Settlement is in Morgan county, west of Jacksonville, on Cadwell's, Walnut and Plum creeks. There are about one hundred families, mostly from Yorkshire, England, and farmers. They appear to be well pleased with the country, and to be accumulating property.

English Settlement, in the east part of Monroe county, is on Prairie de Long creek, in township three south, eight west. It contains about forty families, amongst whom are a number of English Catholics.

Equality, the seat of justice for Gallatin county, situated on the north side of Saline creek, on section fifteen, nine south, eight east. It has nine stores, four groceries, two taverns, a brick court house forty feet square, two stores high, and neatly finished, a number of mechanics of different trades, and about seventy or eighty families. It is situated in the vicinity of the salt manufactories, fourteen miles south of Shawneetown. The adjacent country south and west is broken and rough; north and east is much good land.

Elvira Settlement, in Johnson county, on Lick creek, a branch of Cash River. It is about fifteen miles northwest from Vienna, and contains thirty or forty families. The land is rich and level.

Essex's Settlement, in the forks of Spoon River, in the western part of Putnam county, townships twelve and thirteen north, in range six east from the fourth principal meridian. The surface is undulating, excellent timber, rich prairie, good water, stone quarries, a saw and grist mill, and about fifty families. The post office is called Wyoming.

Estes's Prairie, in Franklin county, fourteen miles north of Frankfort, is level, dry, and has a thin population on its borders.

Evan's Settlement, on the north side, and near the head of Cash River, and on the eastern border of Union county. It has about forty families.

Ewington, the seat of justice of Effingham county, is situated on the national road, twenty-nine miles from Vandalia, in a northeastern direction, on the west bank of the Little Wabash River, and on section five, seven north, five east. The site is elevated, and surrounded with timber. Opposite is the bottom land of the Little Wabash, about one fourth or a mile wide, and in high floods occasionally inundated. Ewington will probably become a pleasant village, though but little improvement is yet made.

Ewing's Fork, a branch of the Middle Fork of the Big Muddy River, in Franklin county.

Exeter, a town site and post office on the Mauvaiseterre, in Morgan county, fourteen miles west of Jacksonville. It has a large flouring mill, two or three stores, and about fifteen families, and is surrounded with a large settlement.

Eyman's Settlement, in St. Clair county, four miles southwest of Belleville - a mixture of timber and prairie.

Fairfield, the seat of justice for Wayne county, is on the border of Hargrave's prairie, on section six, township two south, range eight east. It contains three stores, one tavern, a handsome brick court house, and about twenty-five families. Large quantities of castor oil are manufactured at a press located here, belonging to Messrs. Leech & Turney.

Fairfield, is a small but pleasant settlement in the northwest part of Hancock county, in seven north, eight west.

Fairfield is a town site in Adams county, on section eleven township one north, range eight west, and has 10 or 12 families surrounded with a large settlement called Bear creek.

Fair Mount, a pleasant situation in the Macoupin prairie, Green county, sixteen miles a little west of south from Carrollton.

Fall Creek is a small stream in Adams county, eight miles long, which enters the Mississippi a few miles below Quincy.

Fancy Creek¸ a small branch of the Sangamon River. It rises in the prairies, takes a westerly course, and enters the river below the junction of the North and South Forks. The country is level, and the population considerable.

Fancy Farm, a post office in Franklin county, 9 miles east-southeast from Frankfort.

Fanning's Creek, a small branch of Apple creek, eight or ten miles long, in Morgan county, and has a dense population of about two hundred families.

Farm Creek, a small stream in Tazewell county, that runs west and enters the Illinois River opposite Peoria. Its bottoms are rich, bluffs broken, with white oak timber, and occasionally cedar. It is a mill stream.

Farmington, a town site and post office in the northeast corner of Fulton county, on the road from Canton to Knoxville. Elegant, rich, and rolling prairie around.

Fayette, a town site and post office in Greene county, adjoining Macoupin county, on sections twelve and thirteen, township ten north, ten west, and on the road from Alton to Jacksonville. It has two stores and several families.

Fayette, a town site on the west side of the Kaskaskia River in St. Clair county, 16 miles southeast from Belleville, long known as Pulliam's Ferry. It is on elevated ground and a good situation for a town site.

Fever River, in Jo Daviess county, rises near the Platte Mounds in two branches, the East and West forks, runs a southwesterly course past Galena, and enters the Mississippi seven miles south of that place. It is navigable at all times to Galena by steamboats of any size, and in high water, two miles above. For this distance it is deep and sluggish. The stream above Galena runs with a swift current over a rock and gravelly bottom, is full fine fish, and, like all the streams in this region, it is fed with perennial springs. In the East Fork settlement, which is twelve miles east from Galena, the timber is scarce, but there is much excellent prairie, and the lead mines are the best in Illinois. Population of farmers and miners about fifty families. On the West Fork or main creek is a considerable settlement, and some good farms. The alluvion on the stream is fine, and a tolerable supply of timber. This settlement is eight miles in a direct course, and twelve miles the travelled way, northeast from Galena.

Fever River has been incorrectly called Bean River (Riviere au Feve, Fr.) We have given its proper name from two traditionary accounts. The first is, that in early times the Indians were carried off by a mortal sickness, supposed to be the small pox. This circumstance gave rise to the name of another creek now called Small Pox. The other tradition, and the correct one is, that it derived its name from a French trader by the name of Le Fevre, who settled near its mouth.

Finch's Settlement is on a branch of the South Fork of Spoon River, in the southwestern part of Knox county.

Five Mile Grove is in the south part of Cook county, on the road from Hickory creek to Kankakee and Danville.

Flag Creek¸ a trifling steam in Cook county, that rises in the prairie between Du Page and Des Plaines, runs easterly, and enters Des Plains below the road from Plainfield to Chicago. The land on its borders rather wet.

Flat Branch rises in Shelby county, runs northward, and empties into the South Fork of Sangamon, in the northwest corner of the county. The county prairie and timber, and a settlement of seventy or eighty families. The bed of the stream is rocky.

Flat Prairie, a well cultivated prairie and large settlement in Randolph county, twenty miles east of Kaskaskia, settled chiefly by Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, who have a resident minister and a respectable society.

Flora, a post office in Edgar county, 8 miles east of Paris.

Floria, a town site and settlement in Putnam county, 5 miles east of Hennepin - a delightful situation.

Ford's Ferry, in Gallatin county, on the Ohio, twenty miles below Shawneetown, and twenty-five miles south of Equality. It is on the great road from the southern parts of Kentucky and Tennessee to Illinois and Missouri.

Forked Creek, a small creek in Will county, and branch of the Kankakee. A post office of the same name is on it.

Forks of Sangamon is the name given to the settlement near the junction, and between the North and South forks of the Sangamon River. It is eight or ten miles south of Springfield. The surface is rather wet, level, considerable prairie land, with large bodies of timber on both streams. Here is a large settlement, and a town has been laid off, called Bolive.

Fort Prairie, in Bond county, between the forks of Shoal creek, and from two to eight miles north of Greenville. It is gently undulating, and surrounded with settlements.

Fork Settlement, in Clinton county, Shoal creek and the Kaskaskia River, twelve miles southwesterly from Carlyle.

Forks of Spoon River. These are two principal branches that form the heads of this stream, and for which distinction I shall call the East and West forks.

The East Fork rises in fifteen north, six east, runs south, through townships fourteen, thirteen, and twelve, of the same range, where it turns west, and meets the West fork, receiving in its course a number of smaller streams. There is much excellent land on this fork and its branches; prairie predominates, but it is generally dry and rich, with groves and points of timber, and many fine springs.

The West Fork, rises in the southeast part of Henry county, in township fourteen north, five east, runs a southeasterly course, and unites with East Fork near the township line between four and five east. The country adjoining is similar to that on the East Fork, except that the surface is more undulating. The timber is good, and in considerable bodies. Near the junction of these streams is much excellent timber, with a strip of fertile prairie between. Here is a considerable settlement, a grist and saw mill, and a post office. It is sometimes called Essex's Settlement.

Fort Chartres was a large stone fort, built by the French, while in possession of Illinois. It is situated half a mile from the Mississippi, and three miles from Prairie du Rocher, in the northwestern part of Randolph county. It was originally built by the French in 1720, to defend themselves against the Spaniards, who were then taking possession of the country on the Mississippi. It was rebuilt in 1756. The circumstances, character, form and history of this fort are interesting, but I have not room in this place to give them. Once it was a most formidable piece of masonry, the materials of which were brought three or four miles from the bluffs. Within the walls were the commandant's and commissary's houses, a magazine for stores, barracks, powder magazine, bake house, guard house and prison. This prodigious military work is now a heap of ruins. Many of the hewn stones have from the Mississippi approached and undermined the wall on one side in 1772. Over the whole fort is a considerable growth of trees, and most of its walls and buildings have fallen down and lie in one promiscuous rain.

Fort Edwards is situated on the Mississippi in the southern part of Hancock county, five miles below the foot of the Lower Rapids, and directly opposite the mount of the River Des Moines. This was a military post till within a few years past, situated on a high rocky bluff of sand stone, which does not show itself on the surface. The country back is well timbered for a short distance, is of good soil and is now partially settled. Native alum is said to be found in considerable quantities near this site. Opposite the water is deep, the current gentle, and affords a good landing. When the river is low this will be the place to which the produce of the interior will be brought. A town called Warsaw is near this place.

Fort Massac, formerly a military post, situated on the Ohio River, on the dividing line of Johnson and Pope counties, eight miles below Paducah at the mouth of the Tennessee. "A fort was erected here by the French when in possession of the western country. The Indians, then at war with them, laid a curious stratagem to take it. A number of them appeared in the day time on the opposite side of the river, each of whom was covered with a bear skin and walked on all fours. Supposing them to be bears, a party of the French crossed the river in pursuit of them. The remainder of the troops left their quarters to see the sport. "In the mean time a large body of warriors, who were concealed in the woods nearby, came silently behind the fort, entered it without opposition, and very few of the French escaped the massacre. They afterwards built another fort on the same ground and called it Massac, in memory of this disastrous event. [see Beck's Gazetteer, Art. Fort Massac; and Stoddard's Sketches of Louisiana.] In 1750 they abandoned the position. After the revolutionary war the Americans repaired or rebuilt it, and kept a garrison here for several years. The buildings are now destroyed. According to Ellicott, the latitude of Fort Massac is 37 degrees 15 minutes north.

Foster's Settlement, in the southeast corner of McDonough county, on the head of Sugar creek.

Foster's Settlement, of sixty or seventy families, lies on Mounse's creek, five miles south of Decatur.

Fountain Creek, a small stream in Monroe county. It rises in New Design settlement, running first northeast, then northwest, and finally bending round to the southwest it enters the Mississippi River in section seven, three south, eleven west. It is also called Eagle, and by the early French explorers, L'Aigle creek.

Fountain Bluff, frequently called the "Big Hill," in Jackson county. It is a singularly formed eminence, or rocky bluff on the Mississippi, six miles above the mouth of the Big Muddy River. It is of an oval shape, eight miles in circumference, and with an elevation of 300 feet. The western side is on the river, and the top is broken, full of sink holes, with shrubs and scattering timber. The north side is nearly perpendicular rock, but the south side is sloping, and ends in a fine rich tract of soil, covered with farms. East is an extensive and low bottom with lakes and swamps. Fine springs of limpid water gush out from the foot of this bluff on all sides. North, and along the bank of the Mississippi, is dry and rich alluvion with a line of farms, known by the name of the "Settlement under the Bluff."

Fountaindale, a flourishing settlement in the forks of the Du Page, Cook county, thirty miles west of Chicago. Here are perennial springs, beautiful timber, rich soil, extensive prairies, and good society of industrious and enterprising farmers. The Methodists and Presbyterians have congregations and constant preaching.

Fountain Green, a town site and post office in Hancock county, on section twenty-eight, township six north, range five west, ten miles northeast from Carthage. A flourishing settlement.

Four Miles Prairie, in Perry county, adjoining Pinckneyville, is seven miles long and four miles wide. It is an elevated, dry, undulating, and fertile tract, with a dense settlement, and lies between the Big Beaucoup and Little Elm creeks.

Fourteen Mile Prairie, in Effingham county, receives its distance along the national road. It lies east of Ewington, is generally level, but has some dry land and good points of timber.

Fox River, one of the principal branches of the Illinois. It rises in the Wisconsin territory, passes through a series of small lakes about the boundary line, and enters the Illinois River at Ottawa. Its general course is south. At the boundary line its width is forty-five yards. Several bodies of fine timbers line its banks, especially about the mouth of Indian Creek and the Big Woods. At the rapids, five miles above its mouth, are most extensive water privileges. Here the river is from eighty to one hundred yards wide, with the bed and banks of coarse grained sandstone. The rapids are sixteen feet descent, and both sides of the river will admit of mills and machinery for three-fourths of a mile with inexhaustible supplies of water. The deficiency of timber near this spot is the only drawback upon it; but inexhaustible bodies of coal are to be found but a few miles distant. It furnishes a vast amount of water power, and can be easily navigable by dams and slack water. From the town of Elgin near the south part of McHenry county, it is a deep sluggish stream, connected with a string of lakes, and is navigable within fifteen miles of Milwaukee. Hence, with small expense, a navigable communication may be opened from Lake Michigan by Milwaukee and Fox River.

Fox River, a tributary of the Little Wabash, dividing the counties of Clay and Lawrence. It rises in Jasper county, runs south, and enters the Little Wabash near the line of Edwards county. The land along its course is about second quality for this portion of the state.

Fox River, in the northeastern part of White county. It is a bayou that puts out from the Big Wabash, runs a few miles, and again enters that river. The late Morris Birbeck, Esq., known as one of the English emigrants to Edwards county, and author of "Letters from Illinois," was unfortunately drowned in attempting to swim this stream on horseback.

Fox River post office, is near Fox River in White county.

Frakers, a small settlement between the forks of Spoon River, and the borders of Henry county, thirteen north, four east.

Franklin Grove, in Ogle county, les between Grand Detour and Winnebago inlet with seven or eight families settle around it.

Frankfort is the seat of justice for Franklin county, on section twenty, seven south, three east of the third principal meridian. It is situated on elevated ground, and has five stores, two groceries, one tavern, with a blacksmith, wagon-maker, saddler, and tan-yard, together with a horse mill, a distillery, and 150 inhabitants.

Franklin, a town site and post office in Morgan county, thirteen miles southeast from Jacksonville. It has two stores, one grocery and twenty families.

Frazier's Creek rises near the base line, in Adams county, runs west, and falls into the south prong of Bear creek. Along it are fine farms and a beautiful country.

Free's Settlement is on the boarders of a handsome prairie, in the southeastern part of St. Clair county, between the two Mud creeks, eighteen miles from Belleville.

French Grove, in Putnam county, sixteen north, seven east - a small grove settled around; prairie dry and undulating

French Grove, a small settlement in the northwestern part of Peoria county, on the branches of Spoon River. It contains three or four sections of excellent timber in groves, with abundance of rich, dry rolling prairie around it.

French Settlement, in the southeastern part of Lawrence county, ten miles from Lawrenceville, is a timbered tract, and rather broken. Of the population, which consists of sixty families, about one half are French.

French Village, in St. Claire county, called formerly Little French Village, was formed by settlers from Cahokia, about forty years since. It lies on the bottom, near the bluffs, on the road from Belleville to St. Louis, and contains fifteen or twenty families.

Friends Creek, a branch of the North Fork of Sangamon, in Macon county, sixteen miles northeast from Decatur. The land is good, and the settlement large.

Funk's Grove, a settlement in McLean county, twelve miles southwest from Bloomington. The grove is roundish in form, contains about eight square miles; and lies on the main branch of Sugar creek. It has an excellent soil, fine water, and is monopolized by a family connection of the name of Funk from Ohio, who raise large numbers of cattle.

Fulfer's Creek, near the south border of Effingham county, enters the Little Wabash below Brockett's settlement. There is a considerable quantity of good land on its banks, and a settlement of twelve or fifteen families.

Fulton, a town site at the mouth of the Ohio River, where it is contemplated to erect a monument to the memory of Robert Fulton, whose inventive powers in the application of steam to navigation is fast transforming the immense regions of the valley of the Mississippi into the garden of the world. Mercantile enterprise will undoubtedly yet triumph over the obstructions of nature, and erect a spacious city at the mouth of the Ohio River.

Gagnie, a sluggish stream that runs southwest into the Mississippi, and forms the boundary line between Randolph and Jackson counties.

Galena is the seat of justice for Jo Daviess county, and the principal town in the lead mine county. It is pleasantly situated on Fever River, and on the fourth principal meridian. It has eighteen or twenty stores, a dozen groceries, four taverns and hotels, a printing office that publishes the "Gazette," a weekly paper, four lawyers, three physicians, two schools, two preachers, a pipe and sheet lead manufactory, a flour and saw mill, a gunsmith, silversmith, saddler, tailor, several carpenters, blacksmiths, brick and stone masons, etc. There are about three hundred families and ten or twelve hundred inhabitants. Fever River is navigable for steamboats to the town.

Gap Grove, lies in Ogle county, to the north of the road from Dixonville to Buffaloe Grove. Three sections of timber.

Garden Prairie, between Richland and Rock creeks, in Sangamon county, is a level, rich, beautiful prairie, two miles wide, and six or eight miles long, fourteen miles northwesterly from Springfield, and contains a population of one hundred and fifty families.

Germany, a settlement of Pennsylvania Germans, in Sangamon county, four miles northeast from Springfield, and near the mouth of Sugar creek.

Geneva is a post office and town site in Morgan county, about ten miles southwest from Jacksonville.

George's Creek heads in the interior of Johnson county, runs south, and enters the ponds between the Big Bay creek and Cash River. The land is tolerably rich, and the settlement contains twenty-five or thirty families.

Georgetown, a post town and village, containing about twenty families and three stores, situated on the north side of the Little Vermilion, in eighteen north, eleven west, in Vermilion county, ten miles south of Danville. A fine country, and flourishing settlements around it.

Georgetown, a town site in Sangamon county, twenty miles northeast from Springfield, between Lake Fork and Salt creek, in section nineteen, eighteen north, two west.

Georgetown, in the eastern part of Randolph county, contains one store, two groceries, a mill, and seven or eight families. The post office is called "Steele's Mill."

Gilead, the former seat of justice of Calhoun county, is situated at the foot of the bluffs, three-fourths of a mile from the mouth of Salt Prairie slough, on section eight, eleven south, two west. It has two stores, and a dozen families.

Gilham's Settlement is in Bond county, nine miles east of north from Greenville. The land is of inferior quality, consisting of both timber and prairie.

Gilmore's Settlement is on Crooked creek, in Clinton county, on the road to Shawneetown, twelve miles southeast of Carlyle.

Girard, a town site in the northeast part of Macoupin county, on the road from Alton to Springfield.

Golconda is situated on the south side of Lusk's creek and north bank of the Ohio. It is the county seat of Pope, and has three stores, one grocery, two taverns, and about twenty dwelling houses, chiefly framed and brick. The court house is of brick, thirty-six feet square, two stories, with a neat cupola. It is situated on the fractional township thirteen south, in range seven east of the third principal meridian.

Goose Creek enters the North Fork of Sangamon, in Macon county, twenty-five miles northeast from Decatur.

Goshen is the oldest settlement in Madison county, along the bluffs, west and southwest of Edwardsville.

Grable's Settlement, in Gallatin county, is sixteen miles west from Equality, on the road to Frankfort. It is a large settlement, with considerable tracts of good farming lands.

Graham's Settlement, in Alexander county, on the north side, twenty-five miles northwest from America. The upland is thin soil, but there is a rich bottom on a branch of Cash River, which runs through this settlement.

Grafton is a town recently laid off, two miles below the mouth of the Illinois, in Greene county. It is situated on a strip of elevated land, under the bluffs, and on the banks of the Mississippi, and has a good landing. It is on fractional section fifteen, township eight north, in range twelve west from the third principal meridian. Several islands in the Mississippi make this point the real junction of the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, as to navigation. This country a few miles back is rich, and becoming densely populated.

Grafton is twenty-four miles from Carrollton, and ten miles from St. Charles, in Missouri, and must soon become a thoroughfare for travelling from the Sangamon country across the Mississippi to St. Charles, and the regions along the Mississippi River. It has a post office, several stores and warehouses, 400 or 500 inhabitants, and promises to be a place of considerable business. A charter for a railroad from this place through Carrollton to Springfield has been obtained, the company organized and a portion of the stock taken. A chartered company are about to erect a splendid hotel, and a printing office is to be established here in a few weeks and a weekly paper issued.

Grand Cole, an eminence in a large prairie, in the eastern part of Randolph county.

Grand Detour, a singular bend in Rock River, in Ogle county, five miles above Dixonville. Here a town of the same name has been laid off, and by cutting a canal across the neck of the bend for a short distance, a valuable hydraulic power will be gained. An enterprising company are engaged in the project.

Grand Marais, called also Clear Lake, in St. Clair county in the bottom, between the French Village and Cahokia.

Grand Passe, two lakes in the Illinois bottom, at the southwest corner of Greene county, so called by the French explorers of Illinois, from the successive flocks of geese seen flying from the one to the other. They are connected with Apple creek by a stream called Fishing creek.

Granger's Prairie is in the northwest part of Adams county, and is three miles long and from one and a half to mile wide. Very rich land.

Grand Point, a small stream and settlement in Washington county, six miles northeast from New Nashville, and contains about twenty families. The creek runs north and enters Crooked creek.

Grand Prairie. Under this general name is embraced the prairie country lying between the waters which fall into the Mississippi, and those which enter the Wabash Rivers. It does not consist of one vast tract, boundless to the vision, and uninhabitable for want of timber; but is made up of continuous tracts, with points of timber projecting inward, and long arms of prairie extending between the creeks and smaller streams. The southern points of the Grand Prairie are formed in the northeastern parts of Jackson county, and extend in a northeastern course between the streams of various widths, from one to ten to twelve miles, through Perry, Washington, Jefferson, Marion, the eastern part of Fayette, Effingham, through the western portion of Coles, into Champaign and Iroquois counties, where it becomes connected with the prairies that project eastward from the Illinois River and its tributaries. A large arm lies in Marion county, between the waters of Crooked creek and the East fork of the Kaskaskia River, where the Vincennes road passes through in its longest direction. This is frequently called the Grand prairie. Much of the largest part of the Grand prairie is gently undulating; but of the southern portion considerable tracts are flat, and of rather inferior soil. No insurmountable obstacle exists to its future population. No portion of it is more than six or eight miles distant from timber, and coal in abundance is found in various parts. Those who have witnessed the changes produced upon a prairie surface within twenty or thirty years, consider these extensive prairies as offering no serious impediment to the future growth of the state.

Grand Prairie, in Crawford county. The tract of prairie between Embarras and Wabash Rivers, commencing in Crawford county, and running northward through Clark and Edgar into Vermilion county, is called Grand prairie, by the citizens of those counties. It is not of great width, interspersed with long points of timber on the streams, and frequently throwing out arms of prairie land between those streams The prairie soil in this region is not equal in quality to that further north and west. With the exception of the sand prairies along the Wabash, the soil is thinner, less undulating, and more inclined to be wet.

Grand Tower, a perpendicular sand rock rising from the bed of the Mississippi, near the Missouri side, and a short distance above the mouth of Big Muddy River. The top is level, seventy or eighty feet high, and supports a stratum of soil on which are found a few stunted cedars and shrubs. Here are indications that a barrier of rock one extended across the Mississippi, and formed a grand cataract. The bed of the river, at a low stage of water still exhibits a chain of sunken rocks. The "Devil's Tea Table," "Back Bone" etc., are names given by the boatmen of the Mississippi to the singularly formed, abrupt, and romantic precipices that line the banks of that river in the vicinity of the Grand Tower.

Grand View, a village in the southwestern part of Edgar county, ten miles from Paris, and on the state road to Vandalia. It is on, and surrounded by a beautiful, rolling rich prairie, near the head waters of Big creek. A post office is here.

Grassy Creek, in Franklin county, a branch of Crab Orchard. Good land.

Graysville, a town of fifteen or twenty families and a convenient landing on the Big Wabash, in the northeast corner of White county, and at the mouth of Bon Pas creek. It has 3 stores, 1 grocery, 2 taverns, one steam saw and grist mill and 100 inhabitants. Exports about $100,000; imports, $30,000 per annum. This is a convenient place of deposit for Edwards county.

Gregory's Settlement, in Clinton county, fifteen miles northwest of Carlyle.

Green Plains, a post office and settlement, in Hancock county 8 miles southeast of Warsaw.

Greenfield, a town site near Lick creek, in Sangamon county, fifteen miles southwesterly from Springfield on sections three and ten, fourteen north, seven west. Heredith's mills are in the vicinity.

Greenfield, a town site in Green county, in String prairie, 10 miles east from Carrollton. It has two stores, a carding machine and a dozen families.

Greenfield, a town site in Putnam county, near the head of the Bureau timber, on section twenty-four, eighteen north, ten east. It has half a dozen houses.

Greenup, a town site and post office, on the National Road east of the Embarras, in Coles county. It has 2 stores, 2 saw and one grist mill and about 20 families.

Greenville, the seat of justice for Bond county, is a pleasant village on the East Fork of Shoal creek, on section ten township five north, in range three west of the third principal meridian. It has 4 stores, 3 taverns, 3 physicians, 1 lawyer, various mechanics, and 200 inhabitants. The court house is a two story frame building, unfinished.

Green's Settlement, in Bond county, seven miles southwest from Greenville. The country around is proportioned into timber and prairie.

Green River has its rise in the Winnebago and other swamps in Ogle and Henry counties, runs west a course through Henry county, and enters Rock River in township seventeen north, one west. It is a deep sluggish stream well adapted to navigation and below the swamps has much fine land both timber and prairie.

Griggsville, a town site and post office in Pike county, eight miles northeast from Pittsfield, on sections fifteen and twenty-two, four south, three west. It is four miles west of Phillip's Ferry on the Illinois River, on high ground, and on the border of a large undulating prairie, and surrounded with good settlements.

Grindstone Fork, a branch of Crooked creek, in the south part of McDonough county.

Griswold's Post Office is located in Lockwood's settlement, Hamilton county, twenty miles north of Equality.

Gros Point is a promontory that puts into Lake Michigan, twelve miles above Chicago. It is twenty feet high, projects two hundred yards into the lake, rich, timbered land, and settled around.

Groveland, a post office and town site, in Tazewell county, on section twenty-seven, township twenty-five north, range five west, and on the road from Springfield to Peoria.

Guilford, the new county seat of Calhoun county, is situated on the west side of the Illinois River, in fractional township eleven south, two west, one mile below and opposite the mouth of the Macoupin. It has been recently laid off and is said to be well situated for business purposes. A company has been chartered to cut a canal from the Mississippi near Gilead, the former seat of justice, to the Illinois River at Guilford. The distance does not exceed three miles, and by tunneling a short distance under the bluff, it is said the work can be accomplished, and a steamboat canal constructed at comparatively small expense. This communication would save fifty miles navigation from the Illinois River to the Upper Mississippi, and, as the latter is elevated considerably above the former, create an immense water power, which is the object of the company.

Gum's Fort. See Henderson's Settlement, Knox county.

Gun Prairie, in Jefferson county, six miles south of Mount Vernon, two miles long, and one mile wide. The land is good, and the settlement contains twenty families.

Hadley's Creek rises in the north part of Pike county, in four south, three west, and enters the Snycartee slough. The land is undulating but good.

Hadley, a post office and settlement, in Will county, eight miles northeast of Juliett, and on the road to Chicago.

Hamburg, a landing on the Mississippi, in Calhoun county, and the residence of John Shaw, Esq., ten miles northwest of Gilead. The landing is said to be good, and the bank high. Here is a post office of the same name.

Hammet's Settlement, in Coles county, on the east side of the Embarras, twenty-two miles north of Charleston. The land is good, generally rolling, and the settlement has twelve or fifteen families.

Hancock Prairie commences about Bear creek, in Adams county. This is an extensive tract of rich prairie, tolerably level, which runs through Hancock county, enters Warren, and stretches between Henderson and Spoon Rivers indefinitely north. Its width is various, being from ten to twenty miles. The principal road to Rock River and northward passes through this prairie.

Hanover, a town site in Tazewell county, on sections seventeen and twenty, township twenty-seven north, range two west, and on the road from Springfield, via Tremont, to Ottawa. A steam mill and several buildings are in process of erection. A charter has be obtained for a college which is contemplated to be brought into operation by the Baptist Reformers.

Harden's Settlement, in the southwest part of Hancock county, on the head and along the North fork of Bear creek. The land is excellent and well watered, with a tolerable supply of good timber.

Hargrave's Prairie, in Wayne county, adjoining Fairfield. It is about seven miles long and two wide; rolling, and thin soil. Population about one hundred families.

Harkness's Settlement is on the west side of Peoria county, adjoining Fulton, twelve miles west from Peoria.

Harris's Creek rises in the bluffs of the Ohio River, in Gallatin county, runs a north course, and enters Saline creek, fifteen miles below Equality. Much of the land on its borders is rough and broken, interspersed with tracts of good soil.

Harrisonville, the former seat of justice of Monroe county, situated on the east bank of the Mississippi, and nearly opposite Herculaneum. It is a place of very little account, having not more than half a dozen families.

Havanna, a town site and landing on the Illinois River, directly opposite the mouth of Spoon River.

It has an eligible situation on a high sand ridge, fifty feet above the highest floods of the river. It is on section one, township twenty-one north, in range nine west of the third principal meridian.

Havanna is well situated to receive the produce and direct trade of a pretty extensive country on both sides of the Illinois River, and is on the great thoroughfare from Indiana, by Danville and Bloomington to the counties that lie to the west and north.

Haw Creek is a branch of Spoon River, twenty miles long that rises in the middle part of Knox county, runs east, and enters Spoon River. The country on its borders is first rate for settlements, which are forming fast. It has some mill seats.

Hawkins Prairie, in Green county, on the south side of the Macoupin, and nine miles east of south from Carrollton.

Hazel's Settlement is in Pope county, on the road to Vienna.

Head of Apple Creek is an extensive settlement in the southeastern part of Morgan county, eighteen miles from Jacksonville. It is a fertile tract, tolerably level, and has about three hundred families.

Head of Apple River is a settlement in Jo Daviess county, southeast of Galena.

Head of Richland is a fine settlement of fifty or sixty families in Sangamon county, seventeen north, seven west, on Richland creek, fourteen miles northwest from Springfield. The land is high, dry, undulating and rich. Here is an excellent flouring mill by ox power, and a carding machine and clothier's works, for dressing cloth.

Head of Silver Creek, a settlement in the northeastern part of Madison county, surrounded with large prairies.

Head of Wood River, a settlement in the south part of Macoupin county. It is a good tract of land, and the settlement is considerable.

Henderson River rises in Knox county, takes a southwestern course through Warren, and after receiving several branches, enters the Mississippi in ten months, five west, through a low and inundated bottom. It is a beautiful stream, furnishes some good mill seats, and has a fine body of timber on its banks. The country on Henderson is considered one of the finest bodies of land in Illinois. Its principal branches are South fork, and Cedar forks. The timber is oaks of various species, hickory, walnut, ash, elm, sugar maple, linden, etc.

South Fork of Henderson River rises in ten north, five west, runs through an excellent body of land and fine settlements in Warren county. The heads of all the streams in this part of the state are in rich and dry land.

Henderson Settlement lies in Knox county, on Henderson River, ten miles north of west from Knoxville. Here is a large body of rich timbered land, surrounded with dry, fertile, first rate prairies. The settlement is sometimes called Gum's Fort.

Henderson's Creek, in Greene county, a small stream that rises near the line of Morgan county, runs a south course, and empties into Apple creek.

Hennepin, the seat of justice for Putnam county, is situated in the great bend, and on the east bank of the Illinois River, and the border of De Pru prairie, on section nine, township thirty-two north, in range two west of the third principal meridian. Its situation is elevated, the surface gently ascending from the river, with an extensive body of rich adjacent. The bottom opposite is about one mile and half wide, and overflowed in high water. This town was laid off in 1831, and contains ten stores, 4 groceries, 3 taverns, 3 lawyers, 4 physicians, Presbyterian and Methodist congregations, court house and jail, a good school, and 475 inhabitants. Steamboats ascend to this place at a moderate stage of water.

Herron's Prairie is in the southwest part of Franklin county.

Herrington's Prairie, eleven miles northwest from Fairfield, in Wayne county, is eight miles long, from two to four miles wide, surface rolling, soil second rate, and has a settlement of fifty families.

Hickory Creek, in Coles county, rises in the Grand prairie, runs southeast, and enters the Embrass five miles below Charleston. It is a good mill stream, and the land through which it passes is undulating and rich; the settlements contain 120 families.

Hickory Creek rises in Cook county, runs a westerly course, and enters the Des Plaines nearly opposite Mount Joliet. On its banks are large bodies of excellent timber, intermixed with good prairie land. The settlements are extensive.

Hickory Creek, a small stream in Fayette county. It rises about nine miles east of Vandalia in the prairies, runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia five miles below Vandalia. The soil is think, timber post and other species of oak.

Hickory Creek Post Office, is in Fayette county, in the centre of a large settlement, four and half miles southeast from Vandalia, and on the road to Salem.

Hickory Grove, in Champaign county, on the north branch of Salt Fork, and 12 miles east of Urbanna. The timber is from half a mile to one and a half miles wide, and the soil and prairie round first rate.

Hickory Grove, a post office, and large settlement, on the borders of Shoal Creek prairie, in Bond county, nine miles south of west from Greenville. The prairie is large undulating, and rich. The timber adjoining is excellent and abundant. The settlement contains seventy or eighty families and a store. Many European Germans are settling in the prairie.

Hickory Grove, a settlement near a point of timber in the Macoupin prairie, Green county, twelve miles south of Carrollton, and on the road to Alton. The settlement is spreading over a fine, rich, prairie, moderately undulating.

Hickory Grove, in McDonough county, in seven north, two west, is a small and beautiful tract of timber, on the head of Camp Fork. This is sometimes called Walnut Grove. The prairie around it is undulating and rich.

Hickory Hill Settlement, in Wayne county, eighteen miles west from Fairfield, and on the west side of the Skillet Fork. It is a mixture of timber and prairie, soil second quality, and population about fifty families.

Higgin's Creek, a small stream in Fayette county, that enters the Kaskaskia from the west, three miles above Vandalia.

Higgin's Settlement, in Crawford county, is five miles south of Palestine.

Highland, a town site in the Looking-Glass Prairie, Madison county, 16 miles southwest from Edwardsville. An extensive settlement of Germans is in its vicinity.

Highland Post Office and settlement is in Pike county between Pittsfield and Atlas.

High Prairie, a beautiful prairie and fine settlement in St. Clair county, eight miles south of Belleville.

Highsmith's Settlement, in Crawford county, ten miles south of Palestine. Here are considerable barrens, the timber is oak, hickory, etc., the soil a medium quality, the population twenty or twenty-five families.

Hillsboro', the seat of justice for Montgomery county, is situated twenty-eight miles northwest from Vandalia. It has six stores, two taverns, three blacksmiths, three carpenters, one cabinet-maker, two physicians, two tanneries, one shoemaker, two tailors, one tinner, a post office, 70 families, and about 350 inhabitants. It is situated in an elevated region, near middle fork of Shoal creek. The Presbyterian society in this place has built a neat brick edifice, in the modern style, for a house of worship.

Hillsboro' is a healthy and flourishing town. The principal road from Vandalia to Springfield, and another from Shelbyville to Alton, pass through this place.

Hitesville, a town site and post office on the east border of Coles county, 12 miles from Charleston.

Hittle's Grove, in Tazewell county, lies between little Mackinau and Sugar creek. It is four miles long and two miles wide, and surface level; the adjoining prairie undulating.

Hodge's Creek, in Greene county, rises in Pratt's prairie, runs southwesterly, and enters Grand Passe. It is also called Hurricane.

Hodge's Fork, a branch of the Macoupin from the north side, which unites with the main stream twelve miles east from Carrollton, and near the line of Greene county. Towards its head it is called Otter Creek. See North Fork of the Macoupin.

Hog Prairie is in Hamilton county, a few miles west of McLeansboro'. It is about two miles in diameter, level, and rather wet.

Holderman's Grove, in La Salle county, is sixteen miles northeast from Ottawa, containing about 500 acres of timber, and a settlement of several families. Here is a town site and a post office called Lisbon.

Holland's Grove, a settlement on Farm creek, in Tazewell county. The timber and prairie are first rate. It adjoins Peoria Lake.

Holland's Grove post office is in the town of Washington, which see.

Honey Creek is a stream that rises in the prairies of Warren county, runs west twenty miles, giving name to a low bottom, and enters the Mississippi, below Ellison.

Horse Creek rises near the centre of Monroe county, runs a southeasterly course into Randolph county, and enters the Kaskaskia River, in five south, east west; several settlements lie along this creek where there is good timber and prairie land.

Horse Creek, in Sangamon county, rises in the prairies towards the head of Macoupin, and enters the South fork of Sangamon about section twenty, fifteen north, four west.

Horse Prairie, in Randolph county, on Horse creek, a rich undulating tract, and contains forty or fifty families.

Horse Shoe Lake, in Alexander county, eight or ten miles long, and from half a mile to one mile wide. Its name indicates its form, and its outlet is into Cash River.

Horse Shoe Prairie, is in the Virginia settlement, McHenry county, 7 miles west of Fox River.

Howard's Settlement, in Pope county, on Big creek, fifteen miles northeast from Golconda, comprises excellent land, and about seventy or eighty families.

Howard's Settlement, in Madison county, on the borders of the Looking Glass prairie, thirteen miles southeasterly from Edwardsville.

Howard's Settlement, near Potatoe creek, in Fulton county, twelve miles south of west from Lewiston. The soil is good, of the description called barrens.

Hoxey's Settlement, in Madison county, on the West fork of Silver creek, nine miles northeast from Edwardsville. The prairie is undulating and rich.

Hudson, a settlement of New England people in McLean county, ten miles north of Bloomington, south side and in the bend of Mackinau River.

Hutson's Creek is a small stream in Crawford county, that flows into the Wabash.

Hutsonville, a small town and post office, on Hutson's creek, nine miles north of Palestine, in Crawford county.

Huey's Settlement, on the west side of the Grand prairie, in Clinton county, three miles east of Carlyle. A rich tract of prairie, bordered with heavy timber.

Hugh's Settlement, in Alexander county, on the west side of Cash River, seventeen north from America. Mill Creek, a branch of Cash River, runs through it. The bottom and the upland are both good, and the settlement has forty or fifty families.

Huron, a town site in Sangamon county, on the south side of the Sangamon River, about thirty miles north northeast from Springfield, on the road to Fulton county. It is a good situation for a town, and where the Beardstown Canal is projected to utilize with the Sangamon River. It was formerly called Miller's Ferry.

Hurricane Settlement, in the eastern part of Montgomery county, and western part of Fayette counties. It extends along the timber of Hurricane Fork, has a rolling surface, which is broken near the creek; the timber is post oak, and the soil rather thin.

Hurricane, an extensive settlement along the creek of that name and on the eastern side of Bond county. The prairie is rather wet, the timber excellent, and in large bodies.

Hurricane Post Office is in Hurricane Settlement, Montgomery county, on the road from Vandalia to Hillsboro', and equidistant from these places.

Hurricane Fork, a branch of the Kaskaskia River, rises near the line of Montgomery and Shelby counties, runs south, near the western line of Fayette county, and enters the Kaskaskia on the right side, twelve miles below Vandalia. The banks of this stream are well timbered, and the low bottoms occasionally inundated.

Hutchen's Creek, a branch of Clear creek, in Union county, ten miles from Jonesboro'.

Hutchen's Settlement, in Perry county, five miles south of Pinckneyville. The surface is undulating, the soil of a middling quality, and the settlement small.

Illinois Prairie, formerly called Wolf Prairie, commences near the mouth of the Illinois River, in Calhoun county, and extends twenty miles along the foot of the bluffs, adjoining the alluvion of the Illinois. Its average width is one and a half mile, the soil is good and thirty families are settled here.

Illinois River, a beautiful stream of water that passes diagonally through the state, and enters the Mississippi twenty miles above the mouth of the Missouri.

It commences under its proper name at the junction of the Kankakee and Des Plaines. From thence it runs nearly a west course, (receiving Fox River at Ottawa, and Vermilion near the foot of the rapids), to Hennepin, in township thirty-three north, and in range two west of the third principal meridian. Here it curves to the south, and then to the southwest, receiving a number of tributaries, the largest of which are Spoon and Sangamon Rivers, till it reaches Naples. Here it bends gradually to the south, and continues that course till within six miles of the Mississippi, when it curves to the southeast, and finally nearly to an east course. Its length, (without reckoning the windings of the channel in navigation), is about 260 miles. It is navigable at a moderate stage of water to the foot of the rapids, 210 miles; and to Ottawa, nine miles further, in high water, for steamboats.

It going up the river at a low stage of water the following bars and impediments to the navigation exist:

1. French bar, gravel, twenty miles above the mouth, near Smith's ferry - three feet deep at low water.
2. A bar fourteen miles further up - channel close to an island - two and a half feet at low stage.
3. At Hodge's warehouse, seven miles above the mouth of Apple creek, there is difficulty in getting a point, but no bar.
4. Six miles below Naples is a centre bar - channel near the side of the river.
5. At Meredosia, is a narrow channel on the opposite side, but no getting to the landing at very low water.
6. Three fourths of a mile below Beardstown is a bar, extending, like a wing dam, nearly across the river, excepting a narrow passage near the west shore. Any boat that can pass this bar will reach the port of the rapids.

From this imperfect sketch of the obstructions to the navigation of this river at low water, it will be seen that with the comparatively trifling expense of 100,000 dollars, which the legislature has provided, the navigation of the Illinois may be made good at all stages of water. At high floods this river overflows its banks and covers its bottoms for a considerable extent. The Mississippi, at extreme high water, backs up the Illinois about seventy miles to the mouth of the Mauvaiseterre. Besides several villages and commercial towns, which are springing up on banks of the Illinois, there are many landings for goods, and deposits for produce, where temporary warehouses have been erected. The commerce of this river now is extensive, and increasing with a rapidity, known only in the rich, agricultural regions of the western states. Several steamboats are constantly employed in this trade, and many others make occasional trips. About thirty-five different boats passed and landed at Beardstown in 1836, making the arrivals and departures 450. The following account of arrivals of steamboats at Naples, from 1828 to 1831, will show the increase during those years.
1828, the first year of steamboat navigation - 9 arrivals
1829 - 3 arrivals
1830 - 24 arrivals
1831 - 186 arrivals
1832, from March 4 to June 19 - 108 arrivals by 19 different boats

Illinois Town, a small village of a dozen families, in St. Clair county, on Cahokia creek, opposite St. Louis.

Illiopolis, a town site, laid off on a magnificent scale in Sangamon county, twenty-two miles east of Springfield, on the road to Decatur. It is a handsome elevated site in prairie.

Indian Creek, a branch of Fox River from the northwest. It enters the main stream ten miles above Ottawa, and five miles above the rapids. Large bodies of fine timber lie in this stream; the surface of the country is undulating, and the soil good. On the 20th of May, 1832, fifteen persons belonging to the families of Messrs. Hall, Daviess, and Pettigrew were barbarously massacred by the Indians near this creek. Two young ladies, Misses Halls, where taken prisoners, and afterwards redeemed, and two young ladies made their escape. The bodies of men, women, and children were shockingly mutilated, the houses of the settlers burned, their furniture destroyed, and their cattle killed - all in daylight, and within twenty miles of a large force of the militia! This was done by the Indians under the infamous Black Hawk! A portion of that band were exterminated during the same season by the combined forces of United States troops and Illinois militia, and the remaining dispersed over the prairies west of the Mississippi. Settlements are now rapidly forming on Indian creek and Fox River, and much excellent country remains to be possessed in that quarter.

Indian Creek, a stream in Morgan county, near the borders of the Sangamon, runs a westerly course, passes through a string of lakes in the Illinois bottom, until its waters mingle with the Illinois, near the corner of the base line and the fourth principal meridian. It passes through a beautiful and fertile country, diversified with timber and prairie. The French explorers called it La Ballance.

Indian Creek, in Lawrence county, rises in the prairies west, runs southeast, and enters the Embarras five miles below Lawrenceville. It has much good land in its vicinity, both timber and prairie, and a settlement of 150 families.

Indian Creek, a small stream in Madison county, between Edwardsville and Alton, that enters Cahokia creek.

Indian Creek, a small stream and post office in Gallatin county 11 miles northwest from Equality.

Indian Creek a branch of the Des Plaines, rises in McHenry county, runs southeasterly, and enters the Des Plaines in Cook county. The land along its course very excellent.

Indian Creek, a small stream that rises in the east part of Sangamon county, and enters the Sangamon River above Salt creek. The timber adjoining is excellent, and the prairie is undulating and rich.

Indian Creek a small stream in the northern part of Bond county. It runs west and enters Shoal creek.

Indian Creek a name of one of the forks of Spoon River. It rises in Henry county, runs across the northeast corner of Knox, and enters Spoon River in twelve north, six east.

Indian Creek, in Coles county, and a branch of the Embarras. It rises in the Grand prairie, runs southeast, and enters the principal stream eight miles below Charleston. The land is good, both timber and prairie, and the population forty or fifty families.

Indian Prairie, in Wayne county lies ten miles northwesterly from Fairfield, surface level soil of an inferior quality, with a scattering settlement of fifteen or twenty families.

Inlet Grove, in Ogle county, lies on the road from Dixonville to Chicago, 16 miles from the former place. The inlet is a stream that rises near the heads of the south fork of the Kishwaukee, runs a southwestern course for 50 miles, part of that distance through swamps, until it is lost in the Winnebago swamp.

Irish Grove, in Sangamon county, on the road from Springfield to Peoria, eighteen miles from the former place. It is two miles from Salt creek, and is three miles long and one mile and a half wide, and contains a settlement of about fifty families. The land is good, and the timber is chiefly oak of various kinds.

Irish Settlement in Randolph county, six miles northeast of Kaskaskia on Plum Creek.

Irish Settlement, on the Ohio River, in Pope county, about fifteen miles above Golconda, is on a rich alluvial soil, and contains about one hundred families.

Iroquois, a town site and post office, on the south side of the Iroquois River, in Iroquois county, in twenty-seven north, eleven west. It has 3 stores, 2 groceries, 1 tavern and twenty families. Montgomery joins it.

Iroquois (Riviere de Iroquois, Fr.) a considerable river which rises in the northwestern part of Indiana, and taking a northwest course, flows into the Kankakee River, and thus forms one of the heads of the Illinois. It received its name from the circumstance of a large party of the Iroquois Indians being surprises and massacred on its banks by the Illinois nation. [Charlevois.] The Kickapoos called it Macoabella. Others have called it Canawaga. It is probably stream that the Commissioners for settling the boundary between Illinois and Indiana called Pickaminck. It crosses the boundary line in township twenty-seven north where its width is 175 links. The country through which it passes will soon be covered with settlements, the surface being fine and undulating, the soil rather inclined to sand, dry and rich, and the timber abundant. Sugar creek is a principal branch.

Iroquois City, a town site laid out in Iroquois county, on section twenty-five, township twenty-seven north, range twelve west, but contains no houses.

Irwin's Settlement lies in the western part of Hamilton county. The surface is undulating, the soil second rate, and timbered.

Island Grove, a large body of excellent timber, surrounded with rich prairie, in Sangamon county, sixteen miles west of Springfield, and on the road to Jacksonville.

Island Grove, a body of timber near the west side of Montgomery county, containing about 600 acres.

Jackson's Grove, a post office in Fulton county, on the road from Lewistown to Canton equidistant from the two road from Lewistown to Canton equidistant from the two places. Here is a considerable tract of barrens.

Jackson Grove, in Will county, six miles south of Juliet.

Jacksonville is one of the largest inland towns in the state, and seat of justice for Morgan county. It is situated on elevated ground, in the midst of a most delightful prairie, on sections twenty and twenty-one, township fifteen north, in range ten west of the third principal meridian. The plat of this town was laid off in 1825, but its rapid growth did not commence in three or four years. Few towns exhibit a finer prospect than does Jacksonville, from whatever side the traveller approaches. The surrounding prairie country, now in a state of cultivation is beautifully undulating, and uncommonly rich. The timber in sight is either in groves, or spread along the waters of the Mauvaiseterre and Sandy. Jacksonville has 16 stores, 6 groceries, 2 druggist's shops, 2 taverns or hotels, several respectable boarding houses, 1 baker, 2 saddlers, 3 hatters, 1 silversmith, 1 watchmaker, 2 tinners, 3 cabinet makers, 1 machinist, 1 house and sign painter, 6 tailors, 2 cordwainers, 4 blacksmiths, 3 chair makers, 1 coach maker, 1 wagon maker, 1 wheelwright, 11 lawyers and 10 physicians. It has 1 steam flour and 1 saw mill, a manufactory for cotton yarn, a distillery, 2 oil mills, two carding factories a tannery, and 3 brick yards, with a proportion of various mechanics in the building line, and other trades. The public buildings are a spacious court house, of brick, a neat framed building for the Presbyterian house of worship, a large brick building for the Methodist society, and a handsome edifice, also of brick, for the Episcopalian denomination, another of wood for Congregationalists, a lyceum, a mechanics' association, a male and female academy, a brick market house, and a county jail. The college edifices are one miles west from the town. There are two printing offices that publish weekly papers, the "Patriot," and the "News," and also a book and job printing office, with a back bindery attached, and a monthly religious periodical. The present population of Jacksonville is about 2,500; exclusive of the college students. Situated near the center of the county, and in the midst of one of the finest tracts of land, densely populated with industrious and enterprising farmers with the advantages of good water, health, and good society, Jacksonville must continue to prosper, and doubtless will attract many emigrants who are seeking an agreeable home in the "far west." The railroads projected and now working from this place to the Illinois River, have been noticed under the head of "Internal Improvements."

Jacksonville, a settlement in St. Clair county, on the bluffs, eight miles northwest from Belleville.

Jarvis's Settlement is near the head of Ellison, in Warren county. Here are two townships of valuable timber, surrounded with immense tracts of fertile prairie.

Jersey Prairie is a beautiful and rich prairie, in Morgan county, ten miles northerly from Jacksonville. The land is rich, timber adjoining excellent, the people moral and industrious, the settlement extensive and populous, and decidedly health.

Jerseyville, town site and post office in Greene county, fourteen miles south of Carrollton; a beautiful situation in the prairie, containing twenty or twenty-five families.

Job's Creek is a small stream in part of Cass county, runs north, and passes through several small lakes into Sangamon River.

Job's Settlement, called also New Hope, in the northwest part of McDonough county, in townships six and seven north, range four west. The timbered land in the several forks of Crooked creek, and the intervening tracts of prairie, are all of first rate quality. Houston's Bagby's, Dicken's forks, are small streams north of Job's Fork, and are heads of Crooked creek.

Johnson's Creek, a small stream in the south part of Jo Daviess county. Its head is toward Rock River, its course west, and it enters the Mississippi, thirteen miles above the Marais d'Ogee, and twenty-five miles below Plum River. The land towards its mouth is low and marshy; towards its head it is gently undulating, occasional groves of timber, and well adapted to farming.

Johnson's Settlement, on Sugar creek, in Clinton county, twenty miles south of west from Carlyle.

Jonathan's Creek is a tributary of the Kaskaskia, in Shelby county.

Jonesboro', the seat of justice for Union county, is situated on section thirty, twelve south, one west, in a high, rolling tract of country, nine miles from the Mississippi, twenty-five miles south-southeast from Brownsville, in latitude thirty-seven degrees, twenty-five minutes north. It has about twenty-five families, seven stores, one tavern, one lawyer, two physicians, two ministers of the gospel, one carding machine, and various mechanics. The court house is a framed building, two stories high, and finished; and a brick jail. The surrounding country is undulating and healthy and contains several good settlements.

Jones's Creek post office. (See Liberty, Randolph county.)

Jordan Creek rises in the interior of Wabash county, and enters Bon Pas creek near the northwestern corner of the county. It passes through a fertile tract, both timbered and prairie, and has a considerable settlement ten or twelve miles northwest from Mount Carmel.

Jordan's Prairie, in Jefferson county, six miles north of Mount Vernon, is five miles long, and one mile and a half wide. The land is second rate, and the settlement contains about fifty families.

Jordan's Prairie post office is on section thirteen, one south, two east, eight and a half miles north of Mount Vernon.

Jordan's Settlement, in Jasper county, on the west side of the Embarras River. In the centre of this settlement is the contemplated county seat.

Juliett, the seat of justice for Will county, located on both sides of the Des Plaines, and at the crossing place of the Illinois and Michigan Canal.It has fourteen stores, two groceries, one drug store, three taverns, a saw and grist mill, and the benefit of great water power, various mechanics, six lawyers, five physicians, a Methodist and an Episcopal society, and about 600 inhabitants. This should have been called Joliet, from one of the earliest French explorers.

Kane Post Office, in Macoupin settlement, Greene county, nine miles south of Carrollton.

Kankakee, one of the principal streams that form the Illinois River. It rises in the northern part of Indiana, near the south bend of the St. Joseph River, runs a westerly course into Illinois, where it receives the Iroquois, and forms a junction with the Des Plaines, in section thirty-five, township thirty-four north, and in range eight east from the third principal meridian. Here is a large body of fine timber, but along the Kankakee there is very little timber. It runs swiftly, and has a lime stone bed. At the ford of the Vincennes and Chicago road it is two-hundred yards wide. This is 178 miles north of Vincennes, and forty-seven miles south of Chicago. The prairie country through which it passes is generally of Vincennes, and forty-seven miles south of Chicago. The prairie country through which it passes is generally of good soil, gently undulating, and interspersed with sand ridges. Navigation for small craft can be effected through the Kankakee and St. Joseph. This river was discovered by the French at a very early period, and was one on the principal routes to the Illinois country. Its aboriginal name was Theakiki, or as pronounced in French, Te-au-kee-kee, which by the fatality attendant upon many of the aboriginal names carried through French into English, has become fixed in the sound and orthography of Kan-ka-kee.

Kankakee, a town site in the forks of the Kankakee and Des Plaines Rivers, with one store and three or four houses, saw mills, &c. Near the point the land is overflowed at high water. Further back is fine bottom and rolling prairie. Calculations are made for a city here at some future time.

Kaskaskia, the seat of justice for Randolph county, and formerly the seat of government of the Territory of Illinois. It is situated on the right bank of the Kaskaskia River, seven miles above its junction with the Mississippi. The early French explorers made one of their first settlements at this spot, shortly after the visit of La Salle, in 1683; and so long as the French continued in possession of the Illinois country, Kaskaskia was its capital, and was flourishing and populous. In 1721, when Charlevoix visited it, there existed a Jesuit college. Its ruins are now scarcely visible. In 1763, when the county east of the Mississippi was ceded by France to Great Britain, it contained about one hundred families. Of late years its population and trade has been much reduced. It numbers now about fifty or sixty families, a majority of whom are French. The court house is of brick. A Roman Catholic chapel, and a nunnery and female boarding school are here. Kaskaskia is the location of the land office for this district.

Kaskaskia River, a large and navigable stream. It rises in Champaign county in township twenty north, range eight east, near the waters of the Sangamon and the Vermilion of the Wabash, and running in a southwestern direction through Coles, Shelby, Fayette, Clinton, St. Clair, and Randolph counties, enters the Mississippi, in sections fourteen and fifteen, nine south, seven west, about 120 miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It is four hundred miles in length, following its meanderings, and receives a large number of tributaries, which are noticed under their respective names. An extensive body of timber from two to ten miles wide, is found along this stream, generally of a good quality, consisting of oaks of various kinds, as overcup, burr, walnut, hickory, ash, hackberry, elm, white and sugar maple, honey locust, cotton wood, sycamore, pecaun, mulberry, sassafras, box elder, etc. The country through which it passes is undulating, and fertile, adapted to the growth of corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, and some cotton. The latter is not a sure crop in all seasons; but with proper care, a sufficient quantity may be raised for home consumption. The bottoms of this stream are from half a miles to two or three miles in width, and subject to inundation in high floods. The legislature in its system or internal improvement, appropriated $50,000 to improve the navigation of Kaskaskia River. The chief obstructions are logs, sand banks and short bends. A steamboat went up as far as Carlyle in April, 1837.

Kellogg's Grove, in Jo Daviess county, thirty-five miles east-southeast from Galena, and on the road from Dixon's ferry. It is a small grove of three or four hundred acres, with several small groves near it.

Kellogg's Grove, a small tract of timber of La Salle county seventeen miles northeast from Ottawa.

Keltner's Fork, in Morgan county, is a small branch of Indian creek. It rises near Jersey prairie.

Key's Creek rises in the interior of Pike county, and enters the Snycartee slough. The bottom is excellent land proportioned into timber and prairie. About the bluffs very uneven, towards the head of the creek moderately undulating.

Kickapoo, a stream that rises near Spoon River in two forks denominated East and West forks. East Fork rises in sections eleven and twelve, eleven north, seven east, runs a southwestern course. West Fork rises in ten north, four east, runs a southeasterly course and unites with the east fork in section thirty-four, ten north, six east. The Kickapoo then takes a southern course, and enters the Illinois River two miles below Peoria. On the forks there is much excellent land, with groves and points of timber, interspersed with barrens. The country bordering on the main creek has considerable bodies of fine timber, but the land is generally too uneven for convenient cultivation.

Kickapoo, a branch of Salt creek in Sangamon county. It rises in Dawson's Grove, McLean county, in twenty-three north, four east, runs a southern course and enters Salt creek in Sangamon county, in the north part of nineteen north, three west. It furnishes good mill seats, when the water is not too low; and the soil and timber on each side of the creek are first rate.

Kincaid Creek, is a small branch of Big Muddy River, which heads in Randolph county, runs southeast, and enters that stream twenty-four miles from its mouth. The land along this creek is rocky, broken, heavily timbered with poplar, oak, etc., and the settlement is small.

Kinsawl's Settlement, near the northern side of Gallatin county, on the road from Carmi to Equality. The land is rather inferior, and the settlement considerable.

Kishwaukee or Sycamore, a branch of Rock River. It is divided into North, East and South forks, and these again have numerous branches. The branches of North Fork head in Winnebago, Boone and northeast corner of McHenry counties, and in the Wisconsin Territory, of which the Beaver, Piskasau and Pappoose creeks are best known. The East Fork has several heads in the northern parts of Kane county. The South Fork originates in several heads in the interior of Kane, and southeastern corner of Ogle counties. One of its heads is near the Paupau grove. The East and South Forks unite in township forty-one north, range three east, where is a large body of timber, twelve sections or more of various kinds and the prairies adjoining undulating and rich. Along the East Fork the prairie is flat and rather wet. Ohio, Norwegian and Big Groves are found in this region. The North and South Forks unite in township forty-three north, range two east, and the main Kishwaukee enters Rock River on section twenty-two, township forty-three north, range one east, of the third meridian. The country in general is an undulating surface, a rich, deep, black, sandy, calcareous soil, and abounds with lime and free stone, coal, and fine perennial springs, while the different streams produce good mill site. There is a deficiency of timber as there is through the northern part of Illinois. Much of it is in groves, many of which equal in appearance English parks. There are also extensive tracts of barrens or oak openings, as they are called by the people, and the whole country gives most unequivocal promise of health.

Kite River, in Ogle county, rises in the prairie north of Paupau Grove, runs a west-southwest course and enters Rock River one and a half miles, below Oregon. Soil rich and sandy, timber scattering, surface tolerably level. Besides other timber, there is yellow and white poplar, or aspin.

Knight's Prairie lies west of McLeansboro', in Hamilton county, with a settlement around it.

Knob Prairie, fifteen miles northwest from Frankfort, in the corner of Franklin county, is low and west, and has a small settlement.

Knoxville is the county seat of Knox county, and is pleasantly situated on an elevated and rich prairie on the north side, and adjoining the timber of Haw creek. It is on section twenty-eight, eleven north, and two east of the fourth principal meridian. It was laid off about 1832, contains now 40 families and bids fair to become a thriving inland town. The surrounding country is rich, and settling fast with industrious farmers.

Knox's Grove, in the northeastern part of Putnam and extends into La Salle and Ogle counties. It is at the head waters of the Bureau.

Knox Settlement, in Putnam county, on Sandy, thirteen miles southeast from Hennepin, is a large and flourishing settlement.

Lacon, (formerly Columbia) is on the left bank of the Illinois River in Putnam county, 20 miles below Hennepin surrounded with a populous and rich settlement. It has 3 stores and 15 or 20 families.

La Fox, a post office on Fox River in Kane county, near the Big Woods.

La Harpe, a town and post office in Hancock county, in seven north, five west, with a beautiful country, interspersed with timber and prairie around it.

Lake Fork, a main branch of Macoupin creek, which rises in the prairie between the heads of Shoal creek, and Sangamon waters, and near Macoupin point which see. Blow the point it passes through a small lake, or pond.

Lake Fork, a branch of Shoal creek, that rises in seven north, five west, runs a northeastern direction, and enters the west fork of Shoal creek in Montgomery county.

Lake Fork of Salt Creek is formed by a long lake in the northeastern part of Sangamon county, runs a north course and forms one of the heads of Salt creek. It is in township seventeen north, and range two and three west.

Lake Joliet is an expansion of the River Des Plaines, two miles below Mount Joliet and opposite Mount Flat Head, in Will county. It is about five miles long, 60 or 70 rods wide, and deep water.

La Marche, a small stream and branch of the Kickapoo in Peoria county. Excellent land and a fine body of timber, especially near its mouth.

Lamaster's Settlement is in Schuyler county, on Crane creek four miles south of Rushville.

Lamotte Creek rises in the interior of Crawford county, runs east and enters the Wabash below Palestine.

Lamotte Prairie is a sandy and rich tract of prairie, in Crawford county, eight miles long, and from one to five miles broad. The soil is well adapted to the growth of corn.

La Salle Prairie, a prairie, a prairie and large settlement in Peoria county, adjoining Peoria Lake. The southern part is sandy, rich and undulating; the northern portion is a mixture of clay and sand, elevated in the middle.

La Salle Prairie is an elevated bottom, above the highest floods, ten miles long, and from three to four miles wide. At the shore of the lake the water is deep, and the landing good. The settlement contains about 100 families and is fifteen miles distant from the county seat.

Laughton's, an old trading house and settlement on the Des Plaines, in Cook county, twelve miles west of Chicago.

Lawrenceville, the county seat of Lawrence county. It is situated on the west bank of the Embarras River, nine miles from Vincennes, on the St. Louis road, and elevated ridge. It contains three stores, two groceries, two taverns, and sixty or seventy families. The court house is of brick, and is a respectable building. A saw and grist mill is on the Embarras, adjoining. Its exports per annum $50,000; imports $30,000.

Leaf River, in Ogle county, rises in North Grove, near the source of Pine creek, runs east about 12 miles, and enters Rock River four or five miles below Stillman's run. It has several branches of four or five miles in length, fine groves of timber, and rich calcareous soil on its borders.

Lebanon, a beautifully situated village in St. Clair county, twenty miles northeast from Belleville, and one mile east of Silver creek. It is on elevated ground, surrounded with a beautiful, populous and well cultivated district of county and on the Vincennes and St. Louis stage road.

Lebanon has a stream mill for manufacturing grain - an ox mill for flouring, on an inclined plane, a post office, two public houses, seven stores, one grocery, three physicians, mechanics' shops of various kinds, and about sixty families. The Methodist college, located in the immediate vicinity of Lebanon, has been noticed under the head of "Education" in the first part of this work. The Methodist society embraces the largest proportion of the religious community about Lebanon. There is a large society of the Methodist Episcopal church, and a small society of the Methodist Protestant church.

Leesburgh, a town site in Montgomery county on sections seven and eight, township ten north, five west.

Lemarde Prairie, in Wayne county, seven miles northwest from Fairfield, about six miles long, and three wide, of inferior quality, with a small population.

Lester's Point, in Iroquois county in twenty seven north, eleven west - a point of timber, surrounded with a rich, undulating prairie.

Lewis's Creek, a trifling stream in Jackson county, enters Big Muddy near the coal band four miles east of Brownsville.

Lewis's Settlement, in the southern part of Pope county, above and opposite the mouth of Cumberland River. This is the oldest settlement in this part of the state, and contains sixty or seventy families.

Lewiston, the seat of justice for Fulton county, situated on section twenty-two, five north, three east, four miles east of Spoon River, and twelve miles from the Illinois. It has three stores, two taverns, a framed court house, painted white, about forty families. Lewistown is surrounded with a heavy body of timber, chiefly of white and other oaks; the soil rather thin, and surface broken.

Lexington, a town site in the north part of McLean county, eighteen miles northeast of Bloomington, on the road to Chicago.

Liberty, a town and post office in Adams county, near Weigle's settlement.

Liberty a town site on the Mississippi, in Randolph county on section seven township eight south, five west. It has a steam saw and flouring mill, six stores, three groceries, two taverns, one minister, two physicians and 140 inhabitants. One house for public worship.

Lick Creek, a branch of Sugar creek, of Sangamon county. It rises on the western side of the county, takes an easterly course through a rich and populous tract, with good timber, and enters Sugar creek a short distance above its mouth. The settlements extend its whole length, and the borders of the prairie adjoining are well populated.

Lick Run is a branch of Indian creek, in Morgan county near the bluffs of the Illinois.

Lima, a town site and post office in Adams county, 18 miles north Quincy, and has eight or ten families.

Lincoln, a post office and town site in Macoupin county, near the head of Wood River, and on the road from Edwardsville to Springfield. It is thought to be an eligible situation, and will soon be surrounded by a large settlement.

Linden Bottom, in Greene county, south of Macoupin called also the "Richwoods." It is a fine tract of timbered land, elevated and rich, yet in appearance its surface resembles alluvion. It has a large settlement extending from the Macoupin River to Otter creek.

Linden Grove, a small body of excellent timber in the northeast part of Morgan county, surrounded with rich, undulating prairie.

Lisbon, a post office and town site at Holderman's Grove, in La Salle county, sixteen miles northeast from Ottawa.

Little Beaucoup Creek, a small stream in Perry county, and a branch of Big Beaucoup creek, between that stream and Little Muddy.

Little Crooked Creek rises in Washington county, near Nashville, runs a north course, and enters Crooked creek near its mouth. Land good, surface undulating, and a mixture of timber and prairie.

Little Detroit is the French name for the "Strait" or narrows in Peoria Lake.

Little Indian Creek, in Morgan county, rises in Silvan Grove, runs southwest, and enters Indian Creek.

Little Mackinau is a stream in Tazewell county, that runs westward, and enters the Mackinau. The settlement here is extensive.

Little Missouri Creek, a branch of Crooked creek, in the western part of Schuyler county an eastern part of Adams county, twelve miles from Rushville. Green's Settlement is on the southern, and Brown's Settlement on the northern side of this creek. The country is a mixture of timber and prairie.

Little Mount Prairie is in Wayne county, three miles southwest from Fairfield, about two miles long, and one mile wide. Here is a small but high mound, covered over with the graves of the aboriginal people.

Little Muddy is one of the four heads of the Big Muddy River. It rises in the southeastern corner of Washington county, crosses the line into Jefferson, then into Franklin and finally into Jackson, where it enters the parent stream on the right side, in section thirteen, eight south, one west. A post office. It has good timber and prairie on both sides.

Little Piasau, called also Cave Spring branch, rises in a large spring among the bluffs of Lower Alton, and passes through the town into the Mississippi.

Little Rock River, rises in Jo Daviess county, runs south into Whiteside county and enters Rock River in township nineteen north, east four west. There is much good land along its course.

Little Rock Creek rises in the interior of Kane county, and runs south into Fox River.

Little Saline, in Gallatin county, rises in the bluffs of the Ohio River, runs a north course and enters the South fork of the Saline creek, eighteen miles above Equality. It waters a tolerably good country, with a scattering population.

Little Sandy, a small creek that heads in Sweet's prairie, in the south part of Morgan county; and enters Sandy creek, about the bluffs of the Illinois. A large tract of timbered land is on it.

Little Silver Creek rises in the Looking Glass prairie, in the northeastern part of St. Clair county, runs southwest past Lebanon, an enters Silver creek two miles below that village.

Little Vermilion rises in the prairies west of Fox River, runs south, and enters the Illinois near the foot of the rapids. Just below is the termination of the canal, and the site of a great commercial town. Its Indian name is Pe-cum-sauk-in, or Tomahawk.

Little Wabash River rises in township eleven north, range six east, in the large prairies towards the head waters of the Kaskaskia, and running south through the counties of Coles, Effingham, Clay, Wayne, Edwards, and White, enters the Big Wabash, in the northeast corner of Gallatin county, seven south, ten east. It is about one hundred and ten miles in a direct line from its heads to its mouth, though about one hundred and fifty miles to follow its meanderings. Its principal tributaries are Skillet Fort, Fox, and Muddy. It is navigable for flat boats and small craft, at a full stage of water - about forty of the former leaving it annually, from Wayne and White counties, with beef, port, corn, cattle, and some tobacco, for the New Orleans market. The timber upon the banks of the Little Wabash is generally heavy, and of a good quality, and is several miles in width. In Clay county is some poplar. The country adjoining is generally fertile, but the bottoms are subject to inundation at high floods. The country between the Little Wabash and the Skillet Fork, is generally flat, and in some places inclines to be wet. Several valuable mills have been erected on this stream in White county.

Little Woods is a tract of timber on Fax River, in Kane county above the "Big Woods." The land of excellent quality, but swampy in places.

Liverpool, a town site on the right bank of the Illinois River, in Fulton county, six miles above the mouth of Spoon River. The site has been called Bailey's Island, from being surrounded in the rear by a slough at high water, over which a causeway or levee is about to be constructed. It is the landing place for Canton, and the termination of the Liverpool, Canton and Knoxville rail road.

Livingston, a village on the national road, in Clark county. It is in the timber of Big Creek, fourteen miles from Terre Haute, in Indiana and ten miles west of north from Darwin. It has three stores, three groceries, three taverns, one physician, two ministers, various mechanics, and 150 inhabitants.

Lockport, a town site on the Illinois and Michigan Canal, at the termination of the lake level, thirty-four and a half miles from Chicago. Here will be two locks established, each ten feet lift, which will give twenty feet fall for the immense quantity of surplus water that can be brought from Lake Michigan, equal to 10,000 cubit feet of surplus water per minute, after supplying the canal, and making full allowance for leakage, evaporation, &c., enough to drive 234 pairs of mill stones, four and a half feet diameter. A large town and extensive manufacturing operations will be here as soon as the canal is completed. Near this place the Des Plaines has fifteen feet fall.

Lockwood's Settlement, near the south fork of Spoon River, on the border of Warren county, township ten north, range one west. An excellent tract of country.

Lockwood's Settlement is in the south part of Hamilton county. The surface is rolling, timbered, and the soil second rate.

Locust Creek, a branch of Elkhorn creek, in Washington county, and has a settlement on its three miles south of Nashville; country chief prairie.

Locust Grove, a post office and settlement in Shelby county, five miles east of Shelbyville.

Logan's Settlement is in a good tract of country, in Gallatin county, eighteen miles northwest from Shawneetown.

Lollard's Settlement is ten miles northwest from Shawneetown, in Gallatin county, and contains much good land.

Long Creek, a branch of Big Creek, in Macon county.

Long Creek lies west of Au Sable Grove, in the eastern part of La Salle county.

Long Prairie, thirteen miles northwest from Mount Carmel, in Wabash county, is undulating, second rate land, with twenty-five or thirty families.

Long Prairie, in Edwards county, north of Albion, nine miles long, and from one mile to one and a half wide, interspersed with groves and points of timber.

Long Prairie, a branch of the Twelve Miles prairie of Clay county, projecting into Wayne. It is eight or ten miles long, three miles wide, level, poor soil, and has a population of twenty-five or thirty families.

Long Prairie, in Jefferson county, five miles west of Mount Vernon, is four miles long, and one mile and a half wide. It lies between the Middle and West forks of Big Muddy River, is tolerably good land, and contains a settlement of forty families.

Looking Glass Prairie, a large, rich, beautiful, and undulating prairie lying between Silver and Sugar Creeks, and on the eastern border of St. Clair county. It commences near the base line, in range six west, and extends northward and twenty miles into Madison county, and is from six to ten miles in width. Few Prairies in the state present more eligible situations for farms than this. Extensive settlements are on its borders, and project into its interior.

Lorton's Prairie, on the north side of Apple creek, in the upper part of Greene county. It is a tract of excellent land, has good timber, and contains about eighty families.

Lost Creek, in Marion county, rises in the Grand prairie runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia River, near the mouth of Crooked creek.

Lost Grove is seven miles east of Sidney, on the eastern border of Champaign county.

Lost Prairie, in Perry county, seven miles west of Pinckneyville, is three miles long, and one mile and a half wide. It has a rich soil, high undulating, surface, and a good settlement. There are two prairies between this and Pinckneyville, called Eaton and Conant prairies.

Loup Creek, an insignificant branch of Silver Creek, in St. Clair county, in township one south, range seven west.

Luken's Prairie is on the south side of Lawrence county, with a settlement of fifty or sixty families.

Lusk's Creek, a small stream, running southwardly through Pope county, and entering the Ohio at Golconda.

Lynn Grove, in Champaign county, is four miles south of Sidney, from seventy-five to one hundred acres of timber, mostly linden and honey locust.

Lynnville, a town site and post office in Morgan county, and a point on the rail road from Jacksonville, by Winchester to the Illinois River. It has three stores, three groceries, and fifteen or twenty families. It is in the prairie at the head of Walnut creek, in an English settlement, and eight miles southwest from Jacksonville.

Lyons, is a town site of the Des Plaines at Laughton's old trading house, twelve miles west of Chicago. It now has a sawmill, three houses and a tavern.

Mackinau, (Michilimacinac) a navigable stream in Tazewell county. It rises in the prairie near the centre of McLean county, and after receiving several small branches, runs southwesterly through Tazewell county, and enters the Illinois three miles below Pekin. It is a clear stream, and has Little Mackinau, Rock, Walnut, and Panther creeks for its branches. The Mackinau bottoms are rich, but its bluffs are very broken, thin soil, from one to two miles in width, and the timber chiefly white oak, and some clear. The prairies adjoining are rolling, dry, and tolerably good. Towards its head the land is less broken, timber various, and soil rich. It has a number of mill seats.

Mackinau, a small village, and formerly the county seat of Tazewell. It is situated on the Mackinau creek, in twenty-four north, two west, sixteen miles north of east from Pekin, surrounding with a large settlement. It is located in the prairie, on the southeast side of Mackinau.

Macon County Prairie, an extensive tract, from twelve to twenty miles in width, lying north of Decatur, and betwixt the North fork of the Sangamon and Salt Creek. Some parts are level and wet - other portions dry and undulating.

Macoupin Creek, a considerable stream that rises in the north part of Macon county; runs southwesterly, passes through Green county, and enters the Illinois River twenty-six miles above its junction with the Mississippi, in section twenty-four, eight north, fourteen west of the third principal meridian. Its branches are Phill's, Dry Fork, Bear, and Hodge's Creeks, and Lake Fork. The country along its banks is generally fertile, suitable proportioned into timber and prairie, and has a line of settlements through Macoupin and Greene counties.

Macoupin is aboriginal, and in all the French authors, spelled Ma-qua-pin, but it has become legalized on the statute books of the state in the uncouth form given at the head of this article, and usually pronounced by the people, Ma-goo-pin. This word is said to be the Indian name of a vegetable with a large round leaf, growing in the lakes and ponds of Illinois, called by some people "splatter-dock" and found plentifully near this stream. The large roots of this plant, if eaten raw, are very deleterious. The Indians, in early times, dug holes in the earth, which they walled with stone, and after heating them with large fires, put in the roots covered them with earth, and in two days at the rank poisonous taste was gone. They were then put on poles and dried for food. In this form they are eaten by the natives. [see Charlevoix's Voyage to North America, 1721.]

Macoupin Prairie, a large prairie in Greene county, between the Piasau and Macoupin, moderately undulating, rich, and rapidly settling. The road from Alton to Carrollton passes through this prairie. Towards the Illinois River, on the west, and the Macoupin Creek on the east, are extensive bodies of fine timber. Emigrants from Vermont, and other northern and eastern states, are covering over this part of this county with fine farms. The settlement in the south part of this prairie is sometimes called South Greene.

Macoupin Settlement lies near the timber bordering upon the Macoupin creek and prairie, in Green county, nine miles south of Carrollton. This settlement was commenced in December, 1816, by Daniel Allen, and John and Paul Harriford, and was then the most northern white settlement in the Illinois Territory. The prairie land is rich, but rather level, and the timber adjoining good. Kane post office is in this settlement.

Macoupin Point, a noted stand at the junction of the roads from Edwardsville to Springfield, and from Hillsboro' to Morgan county and Beardstown, sometimes called Henderson's stand.It is in the northwest corner of Montgomery county, at the head of the timber, on the south fork of the Macoupin. South, along the roads to Edwardsville and Hillsboro', the surface of the prairie is flat and wet. North, towards Sugar creek, it is dry and undulating.

Maddux Settlement is in Clinton county, near the mouth of Crooked creek, eight miles south Carlyle.

Manchester, a post town in Morgan county, on section twenty-eight, thirteen north, eleven west of the third principal meridian. It is on the main road leading from Carrollton to Jacksonville, eighteen miles from each place on the north side of Mark's prairie, and surrounded with a body of excellent timbered and prairie land.

Mantua, a large settlement in a timbered tract, in the southwestern part of White county, ten miles from Carmi. Duncanton is the post office.

Marais d'Ogee (Ma-re-do-she) is a sluggish stream, and a series of swamps, extending from Rock River to the Mississippi, and constituting the present boundary between the counties of Rock Island and Whiteside. It is about twenty miles long, and in some places one mile, and in other places twenty or thirty yards wide. Near the Mississippi, where the road crosses, it is a clear stream of water, twenty yards wide, and sandy bottom. It is supposed that a canal might be cut, at very little expense, through this swamp into Rock River.

Marchant's Settlement, on the north side of Fulton county, twenty-four miles east of north from Lewiston.

Marine Settlement, a flourishing settlement in Madison county, between the east and west forks of Silver creek, and twelve miles east of Edwardsville. The settlement was commenced by Captains Blakeman and Allen, in 1819. The settlement is large, and spread over an undulating, rich, and beautiful prairie, and is healthy and well watered. A post office.

Markham's Settlement, in Macoupin county, on Taylor's creek, twelve or fifteen miles west of Carlinville. The land is good, surface undulating, and equally divided into timber and prairie.

Marrow Bone, a small creek in the north part of Shelby county. It rises in Macon county, runs southeast through Bone's settlement, into the west fork of the Kaskaskia.

Marseilles, a projected manufacturing town, on the north side of the Illinois River, at the Grand Rapids, eight miles above Ottawa. A chartered company are engaged in constructing dams, mills, &c. Flour and lumber are made here, and the water power is immense and easily commanded. A post office has been established here. The canal will pass through it, and it already assumes the aspect of a bustling, enterprising village.

Marshall, a town site in Clark county, on the national road, on sections thirteen and twenty-four, township eleven north, twelve west. It is a pleasant, healthy situation, and bids fair to become a place of some importance.

Marshall's Prairie, north of Cox's prairie, fourteen miles northeast of Brownsville, in Jackson county, is rich, undulating land, and the settlement contains a dozen families.

Martin's Creek and Settlement, in Wayne county, on Elm River, five miles north of Fairfield. The settlement consists of fifty or sixty families, and the creek is a branch of Elm River.

Martinsville, a town site and post office on the national road, in Clark county.

Mason, a small stream that enters the Illinois River from the south, twelve miles below the junction of the Kankakee with the Des Plaines. It is called also Nettle Creek.

Mason Grove, in a La Salle county, lies eighteen miles northeasterly from Ottawa. It lies on the Little Mason, is five miles long, and one mile wide, a tract of excellent land. It is called also Virginia Grove.

Mason's Prairie and settlement is in the southwestern part of Lawrence county, from twenty to twenty-five miles from Lawrenceville, with seventy or eighty families.

Mauvaiseterre, a stream in Morgan county, that rises in the prairie on the borders of Sangamon county, in several branches, runs a west course near Jacksonville, and flows into the Illinois River two miles below Naples. Above Jacksonville, it is divided into North, South, and Brier or Middle Forks. For beauty of situation, fertility of soil, salubrity of climate, a due proportion, of timber and prairie, good water, and almost every other advantage for agricultural purposes, no country in the wide spread valley of the west exceeds this, and yet by a most singular misnomer, the French, who explored the Illinois River, called it Mauvaise terre" - poor land.

Maysville, the seat of justice for Clay county, is situated on the borders of the Twelve Mille prairie, and near the Little Wabash River, on the stage road to Vincennes. It has three taverns, three stores, and about twenty families. The adjacent prairie is undulating, and second rate.

McAdam's Settlement is in Bond county, four miles south of Greenville; the land level, and tolerably good, and a settlement large.

Macomb, the seat of justice of McDonough county, is situated on elevated ground, in a delightful prairie, between Drowning Fork and Town Fork, near the centre of the county. It is on the southwest quarter of section thirty-one, six north, two west, and was laid off in 1831. In 1832 it contained three sores, one grocery, about twenty families, and promises soon to become a pleasant inland village, with a considerable population around it.

McCord's Settlement, in Bond county, on the east side of the west fork of Shoal creek, eight miles northwest of Greenville. The land is good, and there is due a proportion of timber and prairie.

McCormack's Settlement, lies towards the southwestern part of Pope county.

McCreery's Settlement, in Franklin county, ten miles east of Frankfort, in a timbered tract of country. The timber consists of oaks of different kinds, hickory, some poplar and other varieties. The soil is good, rather undulating, and the settlement large.

McEaver's Settlement is six miles southeast of Carlyle, in Clinton county, on the waters of Crooked creek.

McFatridge's Settlement, in Johnson county, eight miles northeast from Vienna, on the old road from Golconda to Kaskaskia, and on the waters of Cedar creek. The surface is rather unbroken, the soil thin, and the settlement contains sixty or seventy families

McHenry, a town site in McHenry county, twelve miles south of the state boundary, and on the west side of Fox River. Surrounded with excellent prairie, and timber in groves and bur oak openings or barrens.

McKee's Creek, in the military tract, enters the Illinois River, in the northeast part of Pike county, in township three south, in range two west of the fourth principal meridian. It is made up of three principal branches, known by the names of North, Middle, and West forks.

North Fork, which is the longest branch, rises in Adams county, near the base line, in range five west, runs a devious course into Schuyler county, and receives a number of small tributaries. Its general course to the Illinois River is southeast.

Middle Fork originates near the boundary of Pike and Schuyler counties and enters the west fork a few miles above its junction with the main stream.

West Fork rises in the northern part of Pike county, where it interlocks with the waters that fall into the Mississippi, and after running an eastern course, joins the main stream a few miles above its mouth. The land on McKee's creek and branches is excellent, suitably proportioned into timber and prairie, which is gently undulating and rich. The settlements already are large, and population is increasing from emigration. The same obstruction to rapid settlement exists here as in all portions of the military tract. Much good land is held by non residents. Could the land all be had at a reasonable price, this tract of country would soon be overspread with large farms.

McKee's Branch, a fork of Sugar creek, in Schuyler county, is a mill stream, three miles north of Rushville.

McLeansboro', the county seat of Hamilton county, situated on high ground in township five south, and in range seven east from the third principal meridian. The settlement around is pretty extensive and the town contains twenty or twenty-five families.

McRaney's Creek, is a small stream that heads in Adams county, passes into Pike, and enters the Snycartee slough. The land is proportional divided into timber and prairie, and of a good quality.

Meacham's Grove, now called Salem, is in Cook county, near the head of Salt creek, and contains about three sections of timber, of sugar maple, walnut, oaks, linden, ash, elm, hickory, &c. The prairie is undulating and rich. Around that and other small groves are about twenty-five families.

Mechanicsburg, a town site in the prairie near Clear creek, fifteen miles east of Springfield, on the road to Decatur. Post office Clear Creek.

Melrose, a town site and post office, situated in Clark county, twelve miles southwest from Darwin. It has eighteen or twenty families.

Menomone, a stream in the northwest corner of the state. It rises in Iowa county, Wisconsin territory, runs southwest, and empties into the Mississippi three miles below the boundary line. The surface near its mouth is broken, and towards its head are rich prairies, and rich mines of lead. The timber is scarce, in groves and patches for six or eight miles up. Length about fifteen or twenty miles.

Meredosia, a town site, landing, and place of considerable business on the Illinois River in Morgan county, six miles above Naples. It is situated on an elevated sand ridge, with a good landing when the water is not too low. Here are two stream mills, several stores, and fifty families; and to be a point in the Northern cross rail road from Quincy by Springfield, to Indiana.

Meredosia can be approached from the bluffs and table land, without crossing any lakes or sloughs, which is not the case with other towns on the river in Morgan county. Much of the mercantile business of Jacksonville passes through this place. Above the town is a singular bayou, from whence its name, which, in French orthography, would be, Marais d' Ogee. Exports for pork, lard, flour, beef, corn, whiskey, butter and potatoes, $200,000. Imports in various kinds of merchandise landed at Meredosia, $450,000.

Meredosia Bay, is a body of water connected with the Illinois River, above Meredosia. It is seven miles long; its width varies from one half to one mile.

Middle Fork of Big Muddy River, one of the four heads of Big Muddy River, in Franklin county. It rises on the borders of Hamilton county, runs a southwestern course, and enters the main stream a few miles west of Frankfort. The country along its borders is divided into timber and prairie; the surface tolerably level and the soil good second rate.

Middle Fork Settlement, in Jefferson county, lies between Mount Vernon and Long prairie; a timbered tract, good sugar tree groves, and a pleasant settlement.

Middle Fork of Shoal Creek rises in the prairies of Montgomery county, eight north, four west, passes Hillsboro', and enters Shoal creek about four miles above Bond county line.

Middle Fork of Silver Creek rises in the prairies northeast of the Marine settlement, in Madison county, runs south and enters the East fork.

Middle Grove, a post office and settlement on the north side of Fulton county, on section six, township eight north, four west and on the road from Canton to Knoxville.

Middleton's Ferry, on the Kaskaskia River, twenty miles east of Belleville, and fourteen miles southeasterly from Lebanon.

Middletown, in Sangamon county, is laid off in the prairie, between the timber of Salt creek and Irish grove, near Musick's station. Several families, &c.

Mier's Settlement is in Bond county, on the west side of Beaver creek, and two miles south of Greenville.

Milan, a post office and town site in the south part of Calhoun county, fractional section twenty-eight, township thirteen south, one west.

Mill Creek, a small stream that rises in the southwestern part of Edgar county, runs diagonally through Clark, and enters the Wabash near York.

Mill Creek, a small mill stream, in Randolph county. It enters the Kaskaskia River on the east side, one mile above the town of Kaskaskia.

Miller's Settlement adjoins the Mississippi, on the west side of Alexander county. Here is some bottom, and rolling upland, generally good. Population about thirty families.

Miller's Settlement, near the centre of Mercer county. A good tract of country.

Miller's Settlement, in Macon county, four miles west of Decatur, in the south side of Macon county prairie. Soil rich with good timber adjoining.

Mill's Prairie, in Edwards county, eleven miles northeast from Albion, four miles long, and two and a half wide - a fine and well settled tract.

Milton was once a town site, situated on Wood River, in Madison county, two miles southeast of Alton.

Mitchell's Settlement, in St. Clair county, six miles east of Belleville - a fine tract of country.

Monk Hill is situated on the American bottom, in the borders of Madison county, eight miles northeasterly from St. Louis. The circumference, at the base, is about six hundred yards, and its height about ninety feet. On the south side, about half way down, is a broad step, or apron, about fifteen feet wide. This hill, or mount, was the residence, for several years, of the monks of the order of La Trappe, the rigid and austere of all the monkish orders. The monastery was originally situated in the district of Perche, in France, in one of the most lonely spots that could be chosen. They fled from the commotions of that kingdom to America, lived for a time in Kentucky, and came to Illinois in 1806 or 1807, and settled on this mount. They cultivated a garden, repaired watches, and traded with people, but were generally filthy in their habits, and extremely severe in their penances and discipline. In 1813, they sold off their personal property, and left the country, for France.

Monmouth, the seat of justice for Warren county, is in the prairie, and, on the south side of the timber of Henderson River. It is located on section twenty-nine, eleven north, two west has flourishing settlement, and a first rate tract of country around it. It has four stores, two groceries, one tavern, two physicians, no lawyers, and about twenty families.

Montebello is a town site, post office and settlement in Hancock county on the bluffs of the Mississippi one and a half miles above the foot of the lower rapids. There is considerable settlement along the river, the whole length of the rapids.

Montecello, the site of the Alton Female Seminary, a delightful situation on the borders of Scamet's prairie, four and a half miles north of Alton.

Montezuma, a town site, post office, and landing on the right bank of the Illinois River in Pike county, thirteen miles southwest from Pittsfield.

Montgomery, a town site in Adams county, in section twenty-seven, township two south, six west, with four families.

Moore's Prairie, in Jefferson county, is eight miles long, from two to three miles wide, and from six to twelve miles southeast of Mount Vernon. A post office. Some portions are flat and wet, other parts dry and gently undulating, and the settlement along its border consists of seventy-five families.

Moore's Prairie, in St. Clair county, is five miles east of Belleville, and about the same in extent. It is tolerably level, of good soil, and spread over with fine farms.

Moore's Settlement, in Monroe county, near Waterloo in an extensive settlement.

Morgan's Creek, in Kane county, rises in Ausauble grove, runs west, and enters Fox River, one mile above the south boundary of Kane county.

Moss's Settlement, in Pope county, near the heads of Big Bay and Lusk's creeks; twenty miles from Golconda. It is a good tract of country.

Mounse's Creek, a small stream, and a branch of the North fork of Sangamon, in Foster's settlement, Macon county.

Mount Carbon, a coal bank on Muddy River, four miles above Brownsville, in Jackson county. Large quantities are exported from this place down the river. Here is a large stream saw and grist mill.

Mount Carmel, the seat of justice for Wabash country, is situated on high ground, on the Wabash River, and on section twenty, in fractional township one south, and in range twelve west from the second principal meridian. This town was laid off in 1818, by Rev. Thomas S. Hinde, of Ohio, on the project of establishing a moral, temperate, and industrious village. The prospective improvement of the rapids of the Wabash near this place, is thought to give it peculiar importance as a place of business. The country around is high, undulating, healthy, and contains an extensive settlement of industrious farmers. The court house and jail are brick. The Methodist society, which is large, has a house of worship. In Mount Carmel are ten stores, two groceries (or "doggeries," as our correspondent calls them, and further states, "the keepers are getting ashamed of them") - two taverns and a third in course of preparation, one stationed preacher, and four local preachers, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, one German Reformed preacher, two physicians, one steam doctor, three lawyers, and from one thousand to twelve hundred population. The religious denominations, are Methodists (Episcopal), numerous, evangelical Lutherans, associated with the German Reformed, Presbyterians, some Baptists and Episcopalians, three steam mills, one ox tread mill, mechanics and trade of various descriptions, a foundry for castings for machinery, etc. The commerce of this place is considerable, and from the 31st of March to the 12th of April, 1837, 26 steam boats arrived and departed.

Mount Flat Head, on the west side of the Des Plaines, and two miles Mount Joliet, It extends two miles; the north end is rounded - the south end irregularly shaped - it contents sands, gravel, and coarse pebbles, worn smooth by water friction.

Mount Joliet, a mound situated on the west bank of the Des Plaines, about sixteen miles above its junction with the Kankakee. It is in the southwestern part of Cook county, township thirty-five north, in range ten east from the third principal meridian. It is in the midst of a large plain, covered in summer with short, thin grass, and which bears striking marks of having been once inundated. Its size is variously estimated. Beck, in his Gazeteer, states, "It is three or four hundred years in length, north and south, and two or three hundred in breadth, east and west. It is in the form of a pyramid, and is evidently the work of art." From the last position I entirely dissent. From all the facts I have gathered from those who have visited it, I have no doubt, but like similar eminences in every part of the globe, it is a natural production. Several gentlemen, who have passed this mound without stopping particularly to measure it, have estimated its length one mile, its breadth, at the base, half a mile, and its height one hundred and fifty feet. It appears to be an immense pile of sand and pebbles, similar to the sand ridges along the Illinois River. This name was given by the companions of Joliet, who visited the country in 1673.

Mount Pleasant, in St. Clair county, and four miles northeast of Belleville, the residence of William Kinney, a former lieutenant governor of the state, and now president of the "Board of Public Works."

Mount Pleasant, a post office in Union county, seat of Jonesboro', on the road to Vienna. (see Stoke's Settlement).

Mount Pulaski, a town site in Sangamon county, on an elevated prairie, in township eighteen north, range two west.

Mount Sterling, a post office and town site in Six's Prairie, Schuyler county, seventeen miles west of Rushville, on the mail road to Quincy. It has four stores, one minister and a small Presbyterian church, organized, various mechanics, and about 150 inhabitants.

Mount St. Charles, in Jo Daviess county, twelve miles east of Galena. The surrounding county becomes elevated to the height of seven or eight hundred feet above the mining country generally. This mount, like a pyramid, rises from the centre of this elevation one hundred and fifty feet. The base of the whole mount includes two or three square miles - the base of the pyramid is one fourth of a mile in length, and two hundred and fifty yards in breadth. Its top is long and quite narrow. The whole mound, as is the case with many smaller ones, is a natural formation.

Mount Vernon, the seat of justice for Jefferson county, situated on the stage road from St. Louis, by Carlyle, to Shawneetown, on section twenty-nine, township two south, in range three east of the third principal meridian, and near the centre of the county. It has six stores, three groceries, one tavern, two physicians, two ministers, a court house and jail, a Methodist Episcopal and a Baptist society, and various mechanics, and 140 inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated on the north side of Casey's prairie, and surrounded with a considerable settlement. It is in latitude thirty-eight degrees twenty miles north, forty-seven and a half miles a little east of south from Vandalia.

Mouth of Ohio. The importance of a good town site, at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, has, for many years, excited the attention of the enterprising. It is a feature in our western rivers, with few exceptions, that at and near their junction, the land is alluvion, of a recent formation, and at the high annual floods, usually inundated to the depth of several feet. This is the case, particularly at the mouth of the Ohio. For twelve miles along that river, above its mouth, and a farther distance along the Mississippi, and across the point to Cash River, the country is subject to annual inundations. Had the author of nature formed here an elevated situation, nothing could have prevented this spot from becoming the central commercial emporium of the great western valley. The immense trade of the Ohio and Mississippi, at some future day, will warrant the expense of forming a site here for a commercial town. The termination of the great central railroad will greatly facilitate this object, and with the commerce of these great rivers, build up a splendid city. In duty time, art, enterprise, and perseverance will triumph over nature at this place, and a large commercial city will exist where now the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi occasionally spread.

Mud Creek, a small stream in the southwestern part of Washington and southeast part of St. Clair counties. It rises in the northwestern part of Perry county, take a northwestern direction, and enters the Kaskaskia River opposite an island in township two south, six west. A smaller creek, in the same region, is called Little Mud creek.

Mud Creek, a branch of Vermilion River in Livingston county. It rises in the prairie, runs southwest, and enters Vermilion, twelve miles below Otter creek. Weed's settlement is on it near the head of the timber.

Muddy, a small stream and branch of the Embarras, in Lawrence county, ten miles west from Lawrenceville.

Muddy, a branch of the Little Wabash that flows into it on its eastern side, in Clay county, just below the Vincennes road. Between the two streams for some distance, is a swamp, which overflows in high water.

Muddy Creek, in Lawrence county, rises in the prairie, runs north of east, and enters the Embarras, five miles above Lawrenceville. Land, second rate; population forty or fifty families.

Muddy Fork, a branch of the Embarras River, in Coles county, that enters the Embarras, three miles below the national road.

Muddy Point, in the southwestern part of Coles county, and one of the heads of the Little Wabash. The timber is excellent, prairie adjoining is rolling and rich, and the settlement consists of eighty or one hundred families.

Mud Prairie is on Mud creek, a small branch of Big Beaucoup creek. It lies in Washington and Perry counties, fourteen miles northeast from Pinckneyville, and is level and rather wet.

Mud Prairie, in Wayne county, eight miles northwest from Fairfield, is a low, wet tract, rightly named.

Mulberry Grove, a small grove at the head of Apple creek, near the boundary line of Morgan and Sangamon counties.

Mulberry Grove Post Office, the eastern side of Bond county, on the road to Vandalia.

Muskeeto Creek, rises in the large prairie of Macon county, and enters the North fork of Sangamon, in Sangamon county.

Muscooten Bay, a large body of water in the northwest part of Morgan county, that unites with the Illinois River just above Beardstown. In high water it become connected with the Sangamon river.

Napierville, a town in Cook county, on the east side of the west fork of the Du Page, and has four stores, a saw and grist mill, a school, twenty-five families, and two hundred and fifty inhabitants. The country around is dry, undulating surface, and rich soil, with a tolerable supply of timber on the Du Page.

Naples, a commercial town in Morgan county, situated on the Illinois River, two miles above the mouth of the Mauvaiseterre, on section twelve, township fifteen north, in range fourteen west from the third principal meridian. It is laid off on a level prairie, at the foot of a sand ridge, and above ordinary high water. Very occasionally, extreme floods will come over a portion of the town site. Here are several stores, three taverns, a medical and drug shop, two physicians, a number of mechanics, three steam mills, and one hundred families. Its commerce is considerable. In 1835, the arrivals and departures of steamboats amounted to 302. Exports in produce, 1835, $965,000. Imports in merchandise and sold wholesale and retail $25,000. A railroad to Jacksonville is now in progress of construction; distance, via Bethel, 20 miles.

Narrows, or Little Detroit, a place so called, on Peoria Lake five miles above Peoria. The bluffs from the west side here touch the lake, and the Galena road runs at the foot.

Narrows. Two places in Morgan county bear this name. One is now Sweet's Settlement, five miles east of Jacksonville. The other is on the road from Springfield to Beardstown, ten miles from the latter place. Here is a fine settlement, good prairie, with points and groves of timber. The settlement receives its name from two points of timber approaching.

Nashville, the seat of justice for Washington county, is situated on a beautiful and elevated prairie, near the head of Little Crooked creek, and two and a half miles south of east from the centre of the county. It is situated on section twenty-four, township two south, range west of the third principal meridian. It contains three stores, several mechanics, a steam mill, and fifteen or twenty families. It is on the borders of an arm of the Grand prairie, elevated, rich and undulating.

Nettle Creek, a trifling stream in Morgan county, near Winchester. The settlement contains one hundred families.

Nettle Creek, in La Salle county. (see Mason).

Newbern, a post office in Greene county, seven miles northeast from Grafton.

New Boston, the seat of justice for Mercer county, situated on the Mississippi, two and a half miles above the mouth of Edwards River. It is a small but growing place.

New Castle, a town site in the southwest part of McLean county in township twenty-one north, range one east.

New Design is in Monroe county, four miles south of Waterloo. This is one of the oldest American settlements in Illinois. The land was originally a mixture of timber and prairie.

New Haven, a post town, two miles above the mouth of the Little Wabash, on the line between Gallatin and White counties. Here is a large saw and flouring mill, with several stores, and about fifteen or twenty families.

New Lexington, a town site and post office eight miles northwesterly from Jacksonville, in Morgan county. It has two stores, two groceries, and fifteen or twenty families.

Newlin's Settlement, in Crawford county, ten miles northwest from Palestine, on the borders of a prairie, with fifty or sixty families.

Newman's Branch, a trifling stream in Morgan county, that runs southwest, and enters the Mauvaiseterre north of Jacksonville.

Newport, a town site and landing at the mouth of Apple creek, in Green county. It contains two or three stores, and half a dozen families.

New Salem, a post office and town located in Sangamon county, on the southwest side of Sangamon River, on a bluff and surrounded with a large settlement. It has three or four stores, and thirty families. A grist and saw mill is here, erected on Sangamon River. It is on section twenty-five, eighteen north, seven west.

Newton, the seat of justice for Jasper county, situated on the west side of the Embarras, on the road from Palestine to Vandalia and about the centre of the county. It has one store, one grocery, a Baptist society, and 100 inhabitants.

New Virginia, a settlement and tract of country in Bond county, two miles east of Greenville, and on the head waters of Beaver creek. Here are several fine groves, and good prairie.

Nine Mile Creek, in Randolph county. It rises northeast of Kaskaskia, takes a western direction and enters the Kaskaskia River ten or twelve miles above the town. A branch of it is called Little Nine Mile creek.

Nine Mile Prairie, in Perry county, lies ten miles east of Pinckneyville, and a post office of the same name. It is about nine miles in diameter, tolerably level, and considerable population around it.

North Arm, a prairie and a settlement, in Edgar county, six miles east of Paris. The prairie is good land, about three miles wide. Its east end runs to the state line, and its west end unites with the grand prairie. The settlement is large and dense.

North Fork, a post office, in section twenty-five, township twenty-two north, twelve west in Vermilion county.

North Fork of the Embarras rises in the southwest part of Clark county, runs south near the line between Crawford and Jasper, and enters the Embarras at the southeast corner of the latter county. The country is level, timbered tract, in some places rather wet.

North Fork of the Macoupin. This stream is the same as Hodges's or Otter creek, but the settlement, which is extensive and flourishing, is known by the name North Fork.

North Fork of Salt Creek. It rises in McLean county, and, with Lake fork, forms the head of one of the principal branches of the Sangamon River.

North Grove, in Cass county, is at the head of Clear creek, twelve miles east of Beardstown. It has fine timber.

North Grove at the head of Leaf River in Ogle county.

North Prairie, in Morgan county, twelve miles north easterly from Jacksonville, is a delightful tract of rich, dry, undulating prairie. A large settlement surrounds it, and several families from Virginia have recently made locations in it.

North Prairie, on the south side of the Mauvaiseterre in Morgan county, and adjoining Walnut creek, It is level.

Norris's Settlement in Greene county, twelve miles northeasterly from Carrollton, with a proportion of timber and prairie, rather level, but good soil.

Norwegian Grove is on the east fork of the Kishwaukee in Boone county.

Oakland, a post office and settlement in Coles county, 14 miles northeast from Charleston, and on the road from Springfield to Paris and Terre Haute.

Ogle's Creek, a small stream in St. Clair county that rises in the west end of Ogle's prairie, runs a northeast course and enters Silver creek.

Ogle's Prairie, a beautiful, undulating prairie, in St. Clair county, five miles north of Belleville. It is five miles long, and from one to two miles wide, surrounded, and partly covered, with a flourishing settlement and fine farms.

Ohio Settlement, in Fork prairie, Bond county, five miles north of Greenville, is of considerable extent. The land is second rate.

Ohio Grove is in the east fork of the Kiswaukee four miles from its mouth, near the corners of Winnebago and Boone counties.

Okau, (Au Kas, Fr.), a name frequently given to the Kaskaskia River. It appears to have been originally a contraction, using the first syllable for the whole name, and prefixing the article - a practice common among the early settlers and explorers of Illinois.

Okau Post Office is in Washington county, section twenty-five, township one south, five west, on the road from Nashville by Middleton's Ferry to Lebanon.

Okau Settlement, in the southeastern part of Macon county, twenty miles from Decatur, lies on the West fork of the Kaskaskia, and contains twenty or thirty families.

Olmsted's Mound, an eminence in the prairie in Morgan county, eight miles south of west from Jacksonville. It was the temporary seat of justice for this county previous to 1825.

Oldham's Creek, a small stream in the country attached to La Salle county, that enters Rock River eighteen miles above Dixon's ferry.

Oliver's, sometimes called Allen's Prairie, in the corner of Hancock, Adams, and Schuyler counties. It is twelve miles long, and from two to four miles broad.

Old Town Timber. (see Dawson's Grove.)

O'Neal's Creek, is a branch of Crooked creek, in Schuyler county, ten miles from Rushville.

Ono, a post office in Edgar county, on section four, township fourteen north, eleven west, six miles north-northeast from Paris.

Orendorff's Mill and settlement is on Sugar creek, in the south part of Tazewell county. The settlement is large, and the land good.

Oregon City, is the temporary seat of justice for Ogle county, situated on the north side of Rock River on a handsome elevated bottom, ten miles above Grand Detour, and fifteen miles above Dixonville. It has two stores and eight or ten families.

Ottawa, the seat of justice for La Salle county, was laid off by the canal commissioners, in 1830, at the junction of Fox River with the Illinois, and is thought by many to be an important location for business. It is laid off on both sides of the Illinois river, on the entire section numbered eleven, and in township thirty-three north, in range three east of the third principal meridian. At the town site, the water of the Illinois is deep, and the landing convenient. Steamboats reach this place in the spring, and at other seasons when the water is high. Below, for the distance of eight or nine miles, are rapids and shoals, formed by barriers of sand and lime stone rock. Ottawa has 8 or 10 stores, 2 taverns, 3 physicians, 5 lawyers, and 75 or 80 families. Large additions have been made to the town plat by laying off additional lots on lands adjoining. It is expected a lateral canal from the Illinois and Michigan canal will pass through the town to the Illinois River. This, by means of a feeder to the rapids of Fox River will open a navigation into Kane county. Fox River is susceptible of improvement by slack water, at small expense, into the Wisconsin territory, and from thence by a short canal of fifteen miles may become connected with Milwaukee. Hence Ottawa may be regarded as one of the most important sites for commercial business in the state. Near it dams are already projected across the Illinois River and immense water power thus created. The Ottawa Republican a weekly paper is published here. The county around is pleasant, undulating, and well adapted to farming. The timber is in small quantities, chiefly in groves; the prairie land generally dry and rich soil. Lime, and coarse free stone, in great abundance.

Otter Creek, a small stream that rises in the prairies in the southwestern part of Greene county, runs a westerly course, and enters the Illinois River about fourteen miles above its junction with the Mississippi. Towards its head is find, undulating prairie, but lower down the surface is timbered and broken.

Otter Creek rises in the southwestern part of Fulton county, runs east, then south, and enters the Illinois in section twenty-two, three north, three east. Large bodies of timber and good coal are on this stream.

Otter Creek, in Livingston county, rises in La Salle county, runs southwest, and enters Vermilion River in the southwest corner of thirty north, four east. Here is a valuable body of timber, rolling and rich prairie and a large settlement.

Out House Settlement, on Sugar creek, in Clinton county, twenty-two miles southwest from Carlyle.

Ox Bow Prairie is in Putnam county, ten miles south of Hennepin. It is a rich prairie, five miles long, and from one to two miles wide shaped like an ox box, and surrounded with excellent timber. The prairie is overspread with fine farms.

Paddock's Settlement is in Madison county, on the Springfield road, seven miles north of Edwardsville. The prairie is undulating, fertile, and healthy.

Paine's Grove is in Ogle county on Kite creek.

Panky's Settlement is in the southeast corner of Pope county.

Panther Creek heads in McLean county, runs southeast, and enters the Mackinau near the county line.

Panther Creek, in Sangamon county, a trifling stream and branch of Sugar creek, in fifteen north, five west.

Panther Creek is in the northeastern part of Morgan county, and enters Sangamon River.

Panther Grove, a point of timber on Panther creek, in Morgan county. Another grove, called Little Panther, lies east of it.

Palestine, the seat of justice for Crawford county, situated three miles from the Wabash River, on the borders of Lamotte prairie, and in sections thirty-three and thirty-four, township seven north, in range eleven west of the second principal meridian. It is twenty-five miles north of Vincennes, in latitude thirty-eight degrees, fifty-eight minutes north, and eighty-two miles east is the Vandalia. It has 4 stores, 2 groceries, 3 taverns, 2 lawyers, 4 physicians, 2 ministers, about 450 inhabitants, 2 apothecaries' shops and a land office, and mechanics of various trades. The religious denominations are Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. The Methodist have a house of worship.

Palmer's Settlement, above the south fork of Spoon River, in the county of Knox, and near the line of Fulton county.

Pappoose Creek rises in the swampy land in the eastern part of Boone county, runs a southwestern course and enters the North Fork of the Kishwaukee. Timber oak barrens, chiefly burr oak; soil sandy and gravelly.

Paradise, a post office at the head of the Little Wabash, in Coles county, on the road from Shelbyville to Charleston.

Paris, the county seat for Edgar county, on section one, thirteen north, twelve west of the second principal meridian. It is a pleasant village, on the borders of a rich prairie, surrounded with good farms, and has a court house of brick, 7 stores, 2 groceries, 1 tavern, 4 physicians, 3 lawyers, and about 55 families, or 275 inhabitants.

Parker's Prairie is a large, level prairie, on the western side of Clark county, somewhat wet, soil second rate. A considerable settlement.

Parker's Settlement is ten miles southwest from Palestine, in Crawford county. A mixture of timber and prairie, and bout forty families.

Parr's Settlement is in Bond county, seven miles north of Greenville, adjoining, and within the timbered tract, on the East fork of Shoal creek.

Paupau Grove is at the head of Indian creek, Kane county. It is a rich tract of country.

Peek-a-ton-o-kee, a large, navigable stream that enters Rock River, in Jo Davies county, about six miles below the boundary line. It rises in two principal branches, near the Blue Mounds, in Wisconsin territory, called the East and West forks, which unite before they enter the state of Illinois. The East fork rises north of the Blue Mounds, near the head of Grant River. The West fork runs the Blue Mounds. After their junction, the Peek-a-ton-o-kee runs first a south course into Illinois, thence a southeast course, and finally winds round north or east, and enters Rock River. It is one hundred yards wide at the mouth, eighty yards wide at the boundary line, and is navigable for flat boats to Mineral Point, in the Wisconsin territory. I have had no little trouble in determining the orthography of this name. Its aboriginal meaning is said to be "Swift water." By many persons it is written and pronounced Pik-e-tol-e-ka. I have adopted the orthography and pronunciation of gentlemen from its vicinity.

Pekin is situated on the east side of the Illinois River, twelve miles below Peoria, on fractional section thirty-three, twenty-five north, five west of the third principal meridian, on a sandy bluff, elevated and pleasant. The landing is tolerably good at a moderate state of the river, but too shoal at the low stage. Pekin contains twelve stores, three groceries, two taverns, (and a splendid hotel building by a company), seven lawyers, four physicians, four ministers of the gospel, one drug store, three forwarding and commission houses, two houses for slaughtering and packing pork, one auction house, a printing office which issues the Tazewell Telegraph, and about eight-hundred inhabitants. There is also one steam flouring mill that manufactures two hundred barrels of flour per day, a steam saw mill and two steam distilleries, an academy and a common school. The religious denominations are Presbyterian, Methodist and Unitarian, which have houses of worship.

Peoria, the seat of justice for Peoria county, situated on the west bank of the Illinois River, on section nine, eight north, eight east, and formerly called Fort Clark. From a report made by Edward Coles, Esq. formerly governor of Illinois, to the Secretary of the treasure, it may be learned, "The old village of Peoria was situated one mile and a half above the lower extremity or outlet of the Peoria Lake. This village has been inhabited by the French previous to the recollection of the present generation. About the year 1778 or 1779, the first house was built in what was then called La Ville de Maillet, afterwards the new village of Peoria, and which has recently been known by the name of Fort Clark, situated about one miles and a half below the old village, immediately at the lower point, or outlet of the lake. The situation being preferred on account of the water being better and its being though more healthy, the inhabitants gradually deserted the old village, and by the year 1796 or 1797, had entirely abandoned it, and removed to the new one. "The inhabitants of Peoria consisted generally of Indian traders, hunters, and voyagers, and has long formed a link of connection, between the French residing on the great lakes and the Mississippi River. From that happy felicity of adapting themselves to their situation and associates, for which the French are so remarkable, the inhabitants of Peoria lived generally in harmony with their savage neighbours. It appears, however, that about the year 1781, they were induced to abandon the village from an apprehension of Indian hostility; but soon after the peace of 1783, they again returned, and continued to reside there until the autumn of 1812, when they were forcibly removed from it, and the place destroyed by a captain Craig, of the Illinois militia, on the ground, it was said, that his company of militia was fired on in the night, while at anchor in their boats before the village, by Indians, with whom the inhabitants were suspected by Craig to be too intimate and friendly." The inhabitants being thus driven from the place, fled to the French settlements on the Mississippi for shelter. In 1813, Peoria was occupied by the United States troops, and a block house erected and called Fort Clark. The timber was cut on the opposite side of the lake, and with considerable labor transported across, and hauled on truck wheels by the men. After the termination of the war, Fort Clark was abandoned, and the buildings soon after burnt by the Indians. The present town is near its ruins. Without intending to do injustice to several other beautiful town sites along the upper parts of the Illinois River, amongst which is Pekin, Hennepin, the foot of the rapids, Ottawa, etc. I shall copy from Beck's Gazetteer the following description of Peoria. "The situation of this place is beautiful beyond description. From the mouth of the Kickapoo, or Redbud creek, which empties into the Illinois two miles below the old fort, the alluvion is a prairie which stretches itself along the river three or four miles. "The shore is chiefly made up of rounded pebbles, and is filled with springs of the finest water. The first bank, which is from six to twelve feet above high water mark, extends west about a quarter of a mile from the river, gradually ascending when it rises five or six feet to the second bank. This extends nearly on a level to the bluffs, which are from sixty to one hundred feet in height. These bluffs consist of rounded pebbles, overlaying strata of lime stone and sand stone, rounded at the top, and corresponding in their course with the meanders of the river and lake. The ascent, although steep, is not perpendicular. On the bluffs, the surface again becomes level, and is beautifully interspersed with prairie and woodland. "From the bluffs the prospect is uncommonly fine. Looking towards the east you first behold an extensive prairie, which, in spring and summer, is covered with grass, with whose green the hues of a thousand flowers form the most lively contract. Beyond this, the lake, clear and calm, may be seen emptying itself into, or by its contraction forming the river, whose meanders, only hid from the view by the beautiful groves of timber which here and there arise, can be traced to the utmost extent of vision." Peoria is now rapids advancing in population and improvements. In the summer of 1833, it consisted of about twenty-five families. These more than doubled in a few weeks from emigration. Peoria now has twenty-five stores, two wholesale and five retail groceries, two drug stores, two hotels and several boarding houses, two free schools and an incorporated academy, two Presbyterian houses of worship and congregations, one Methodist, one Baptist, one Unitarian and one Episcopal congregation, six lawyers, eight or ten physicians, one brewery, two steam sawmills, the usual proportion of mechanics, a court house and jail and a population from fifteen to eighteen hundred and rapidly increasing. The "Peoria Register and Northwestern Gazetteer" is issued weekly, by S. M. Davis, Esq. The religious people of his place appears to have uncommonly liberal, by contributing about twenty-three thousand dollars the past year for philanthropic purposes.

Peoria Lake, an expansion of the Illinois River, commencing at Peoria, and extending about twenty miles in a northeasterly direction. It is much wider than the river, and has very little current. The water is clear, and its bottom gravelly. It may be considered as two lakes, divided by the Narrows. It abounds with various kinds of fish, such as sturgeon, buffalo, bass of several species, perch, white fish, pickerel, etc., which can be caught with the seine in great abundance. The Indian name for this lake is Pin-a-ta-wee. Some authors call it Illinois Lake.

Perkin's Settlement is in the northeast part of Hancock county, on the head waters of Crooked creek. The name of the post office is Fountain Green.

Peru, a post office, landing and town site, on the north side of the Illinois River, on section sixteen township thirty-three north, one east, and one mile below the termination of the Illinois and Michigan canal. It has one warehouse and two or three families.

Perry, a town site in Pike county, on section twenty-one, township three south, three west. It has two or three stores, several families, and is a pleasant village, surrounded with a fine country, diversified with timber and prairie.

Petersburg, a town and post office, on the west side of Sangamon River, in Sangamon county, on fractional section fourteen, township eighteen north, seven west, and about seventeen miles northeast from Springfield. It has six stores, a steam saw and grist mill, and twenty families.

Phelp's Grove is on a small stream in Ogle county, that enters Rock River three miles above Oregon city.

Phelp's Prairie, in Franklin county on the waters of Crab Orchard creek, twelve miles south of Frankfort, is good land, and somewhat rolling. In its neighbourhood is Poor Prairie, a wet, level tract; and Wright's Prairie, an undulating tract, with considerable settlement.

Phigley's Settlement lies between the head waters of McKee's creek and Bear creek, in Adams county. It has about twenty-five families. The land is rather flat, but good - about twenty miles east from Quincy.

Phil's Creek enters the Macoupin on the south side, about the middle of township nine north, eleven west. It heads in the prairies near the sources of the Piasau. There is considerable timber, with excellent prairie on the borders of this stream.

Phillips's Settlement, in the northwestern part of Alexander county, on Sexton's creek, twenty-five miles from America, consists of eight or ten families.

Piankeshau Bend, on the Wabash River, in Wabash county, eighteen miles north from Mount Carmel. It is a fertile tract, timber rather scarce, with a mixture of prairie and barrens.

Piasau, a small stream that rises in a beautiful tract of country near the line of Greene and Macoupin counties, and enters the Mississippi about ten miles above Lower Alton.

Pigeon Creek is a stream that rises in Adams county, and runs westward near that and Pike county, which it enters, and passes into the Syncartee slough three miles below the county line. In the bottom, the land is level, dry, and excellent - on the fluffs, somewhat broken.

Pilot Knob, in the western part of Washington county, a singular eminence and point of observation on the old Vincennes and Kaskaskia trace.

Pinckneyville, a small village, and the seat of justice for Perry county. It is situated on the west side of Big Beaucoup creek, at the head of the four mile prairie, and on section twenty-four, five south, three west. It has four stores, one tavern, one grocery, and fifteen or twenty families, and is surrounded with a large settlement of industrious farmers.

Pine Creek, in Ogle county. It rises in the prairie between Rock River and White Oak grove, runs a southeast course and enters Rock River at Grand Detour, and is a good mill stream. Its timber is shrubby pine, white, black, red and bur oaks, hickory, linden, sugar maple, elm, &c. One sixth-part of the land on its borders is timbered. The prairie adjoining is elevated, rolling and rich, and the country abounds with fine springs.

Pinus, a post office in Jackson county, on section thirty-four township ten south, two west, twelve miles south-southeast from Brownsville.

Piper's Point, a settlement in Greene county, sixteen miles northeast from Carrollton, adjoining String prairie, and the timber of Apple creek. The land is tolerably level, rich, and proportionally divided into timber and prairie. There are sixty or seventy families in this settlement.

Piskasau, a branch of Kishwaukee. It rises in Boone county, and some of its head branches probably over the boundary line, runs a southwestern course, and enters the north branch of the Kishwaukee, in section twenty-five, township forty-four north, range four east. Near its head the soil is wet, but further down, dry and undulating.

Pittsfield, the new seat of justice for Pike county, was laid off in April, 1833, on the southwest quarter of section twenty-four, five south, four west. It is a high and healthy situation, in an undulating prairie, and on the dividing range nearly equidistant from the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. The country around is fertile, and proportionally distributed into timber and prairie, and is rapidly settling.

Pittsfield has three stores, two groceries, two taverns, three lawyers, one physician, several mechanics, and from 150 to 200 families.

Plainfield, a village and post town in Will county, on section nine, township thirty-six north, nine east, and nine miles north-northwest from Juliet. It has two stores, two taverns, several mechanical trades, a Methodist and a Baptist congregation with houses of worship, and between four and five hundred inhabitants.

Plainfield is beautifully situated on an undulating prairie, east side of the Du Page, and adjoining Walker's grove.

Plato, a town site laid off on Iroquois River, four miles from the mouth of Spring creek, in Iroquois county. A steam mill is to be erected here.

Pleasant Grove, in Boone county, on the stage road from Chicago to Galena, on the southeast side of the Kishwaukee, and twelve miles east of Belvidere. It is about four miles long and one mile wide, surrounded with a rich, undulating prairie. A considerable settlement around.

Pleasant Grove, three miles long and one wide, and a settlement of twenty-five or thirty families. in Tazewell county, eight miles east of Pekin, on the waters of Dillon's creek. The land is rich, and the timber consists of walnut, sugar maple, linden, oak, etc.

Pleasant Grove, in Morgan county, a settlement on the borders of Sweet's prairie, between Manchester and Winchester. The land in this quarter is good, with a due mixture of timber and prairie.

Pleasant Vale, a town site and post office in Pike county, on section nine, township five south, six west, seventeen miles northwest from Pittsfield. It is pleasantly situated under the bluffs, and surrounded with rich land, both timber and prairie.

Plum Creek, in Randolph county, enters the Kaskaskia River from the east side, eighteen miles above Kaskaskia.

Plum Creek rises in the prairie of Morgan county, west of Jacksonville, runs west, and enters the Illinois River below Phillip's ferry.

Plum Creek Prairie is near the boundary line of St. Clair and Randolph counties, ten miles long, and three broad; good soil, and scattering settlements along its borders.

Plum River, in Jo Daviess county, rises near Kellogg's grove, runs southwest, and enters the Mississippi ten miles below Rush creek. It is a good mill stream. Above its mouth are rapids. The country along its borders is a mixture of timber and prairie. It is divided into South, North, and Middle forks, and here is some of the finest farming land in the country.

Point Republic, a post office and settlement, near the Vermilion River, in La Salle county, and on the road from Hennepin to Ottawa.

Polecat Creek, a stream in Coles county, that rises in the prairies towards Edgar county runs southwest and enters the Embarras east of Charleston. Near its head is a very fertile region, well timbered; further down the surface is broken. The settlement has thirty families.

Pond Slough, the name given to the outlet of a line of ponds in Johnson county, between Big Bay creek and Cash River. It is a deep, muddy channel. [see Cash River.]

Pope's River rises in the great prairies in the south part of Henry county, between Henderson's and Edward's Rivers, runs a west course through Mercer county, and enters the Mississippi, a few miles below Edward's River. In Mercer county there are some fine tracts of timber on this stream, further up it passes through a prairie country. The land generally of Pope's and Edward's Rivers is abundantly rich, but there is a deficiency of timber.

Postville, in the northeastern part of Sangamon county, on section twenty-five, township twenty-five, township twenty north, range three east, and on the north side of Salt creek. It has 2 stores, 1 grocery, and 3 or 4 families.

Potatoe Creek rises on the west side of Fulton county, near Table grove, runs a southeastern course, and enters Spoon River about four miles west of Lewistown. Excellent land, both prairie and timbered, adjoins it.

Prairie Creek in Sangamon county, a trifling stream that rises in the prairie between Spring and Richland creeks; makes a circuit in sixteen north, six west, and enters the latter before its junction with Sangamon River.

Prairie de Long Creek rises north of Waterloo, near the dividing line of St. Clair and Monroe counties, runs southeasterly through the eastern part of Monroe, receives Richland creek, and enters the Kaskaskia River in the southwestern part of township three south, range seven west. Along its borders is a considerable settlement, and the soil in some parts is good, in others inferior.

Prairie du Pont, [pronounced Prairie du Po, Fr.] a small stream in St. Clair county. It rises in the bluffs southwest of Belleville, passes through the American bottom, and enters the Mississippi in the southwestern part of the county.

___ ____ (sic) An old French village, with the appendage of commons and common fields to the same. located a short distance south of Cahokia.

Prairie du Rocher, an ancient French village, in Randolph county, on the American bottom, near the Rocky bluffs, from which it derives its name, fourteen miles northwest of Kaskaskia. It is a low, unhealthy situation, along a small creek of the same name, which rises in the bluffs, passes across the American Bottom, and enters the Mississippi. The houses are build in the French style, the streets very narrow, and the inhabitants preserve more of the simplicity of character and habits peculiar to early time, than any village in Illinois. It has its village lots, common fields, and commons, the peculiarities of which are noticed under the article "Cahokia." Prairie du Rocher, in 1766, contained fourteen families; the population at present is estimated at thirty-five families.

Pratt's Prairie, in the northeastern part of Greene county, fifteen miles northwesterly from Carrollton.

Prather's Settlement, on Apple creek, in the northeastern part of Greene county, sixteen miles from Carrollton.

Preston, a town site in Randolph county, east of the Kaskaskia River.

Prophet's village, a post office and town site on Rock River, in Henry county, and on the road from Rushville and Warren county to Galena. On the south side of the river is a handsome town site, on a high, undulating bottom. The opposite side of the river is inundated at high floods.

Rock River can be forded at this place for two-thirds of the year. It is about two hundred yards wide. The country around will admit of considerable settlements.

Prospect Hill, in St. Clair county, one miles south of Belleville, and the residence of Major Washington West. Spread out before this delightful situation is one of the most beautiful prairies in the state, about five miles in extent, and partially covered with well cultivated farms.

Prince's Settlement is on a branch of Spoon River, twenty miles northwest from Peoria, in ten and eleven north, ranges six and seven east. Here are three groves of timber, from which at least one hundred farms might be supplied. The soil is a rich clay, and undulating. The present population does not exceed fifteen families.

Princeton, a town site on the borders of Jersey prairie, in Morgan county, ten miles north from Jacksonville, in township seventeen north, in range ten west. The surface is undulating, and the surrounding country one of the finest tracts of land in the state, and the settlement is large. The post office is called Workman.

Princeton, a town site in Putnam county, in Bureau settlement, ten miles north of west from Hennepin. It was laid off by colonists from Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1833, contains a post office of the same name, and is in the heart of a flourishing settlement and a rich body of land.

Puncheon Camp, a creek near the north side of Morgan county, that enters the Sangamon. It is divided into two branches. A grove of the same name is on this stream.

Putnam Creek rises towards Canton, in Fulton county, and taking a southwestern course, enters Spoon River.

Quincy, the seat of justice of Adams county, is situated on the bluff of the Mississippi on section two, two south, nine west. It has seven stores, four groceries, one carding machine, one large flouring and saw mill by steam power, with four run of burr stones, two schools, seven lawyers for physicians, several mechanics, about one hundred families and six hundred inhabitants. The land office for the sale of Congress lands north and east of the Illinois River, is located at this place. The land in the vicinity is excellent. A low alluvion lies on the opposite side of the Mississippi River, which is over-flowed in high waters. Quincy must become a place of considerable business.

Quaker Settlement, near the Wabash, in the northeastern part of Crawford county, on Raccoon creek. Here is a society of Friends who keep up regular meetings.

Raccoon, a small stream in Greene county, that enters the Illinois River twelve miles above its mouth. The bottoms of this creek, and on the Illinois River at this point, are narrow, and the surface adjoining is much broken into bluffs and ravines.

Raccoon Creek, a small stream that runs across the north end of Crawford county, and enters the Wabash.

Raccoon Creek, in the northeastern part of Morgan county, and runs into Dickerson's Lake.

Radcliff's Point, in Washington county, five miles west of Nashville, and a small settlement.

Rumsey's Creek rises near the line of Montgomery and Shelby counties, runs a southeastern course, and enters the Kaskaskia ten miles north of Vandalia. A considerable settlement lies along this creek. This is sometimes called Booz Creek.

Ramsey's Settlement, in the southwestern part of Madison county, on Sugar creek, twenty miles from Edwardsville.

Randleman's Settlement, in St. Clair county, twelve miles southwest of Belleville, and near the boarders of Monroe county.

Randolph, a town site at the mouth of the Paisa on the Mississippi, on fractional sections twenty-five and twenty-six, township two north, eleven west and about equidistant between Alton and Grafton. It is laid out above the Piasau and betwixt that stream and the Mississippi, on table land, above the highest floods. Abundance of lime stone and good timber, water privileges and never failing springs, a good landing for steamboats and other advantages are found here.

Lots to the value of $20,000 have been sold this spring and buildings are in process of erection, especially a large hotel.

Randolph's Grove, on Kickapoo creek above Big grove, above twelve miles south from Bloomington, in McLean county. In shape, it is almost circular, and is a valuable tract of land, containing lime stone, and a population of about forty families. The grove comprises about twelve sections of timbered land. A post office.

Rapids of Illinois. There is a succession of rapids in the Illinois, both above and below the mouth of Fox River, with intervals of deep and smooth water. From the mouth of Fox River to the foot of the rapids is none miles - the descent in all eight feet. The rock soft sand stone mixed with gravel shelly lime stone. Nine miles above Fox River the grand rapids commence, and extend ten or twelve miles. They are formed by ledges of rock in the river, and rocky islands.

The whole descent from the surface of Lake Michigan, at Chicago, to the foot of the rapids, a distance of ninety-four and one-fourth miles, is 141 87-100 feet.

Rapids of the Mississippi. These are distinguished as the Lower and Upper rapids.

The Lower, or, as frequently called the Des Moines, because opposite the mouth of that river, are twelve miles long, and formed by beds of rock. They injure the navigation in low water, and sometimes entirely prevent the passage of large boats.

The Upper Rapids commence at Rock Island, and extend eighteen miles up the river. The navigation of these rapids is about to be improved by the general government for which purpose an appropriation was made last congress.

Rattan's Prairie is in Madison county, seven miles northwest from Edwardsville. It is level, some portions rather wet, and surrounded with fine farms.

Ray's Settlement is on the east side of Hancock county, in five north, five west - a tract on the waters on Crooked creek.

Readfield, a town site in Pike county on section thirty, four south, five west.

Rector's Fork, in Gallatin county, is a branch of the North fork of Saline creek, which it enters fifteen miles above Equality.

Rhoade's Settlement, in Greene county, south of the Macoupin, and fifteen miles southeast of Carrollton. A mixture of timber and prairie.

Richland Creek, a small stream and branch of Sangamon River. It rises in the prairies near the borders of Morgan county, runs a northerly course, and enters Sangamon River below Spring creek. The land its borders if first rate.

Richland, a tributary of the Kaskaskia, in Shelby county, rises on the east side of the county, runs southwest, and enters the Kaskaskia River near the line of Fayette. A large settlement in the southeastern part of the county.

Richland, a small creek in St. Clair county, that rises in Ogle's prairie, runs south past Belleville, and unites with Prairie du Long creek, in the east part of Monroe county. The land upon its borders is proportioned into timber and prairie, and of excellent quality.

Richland Grove, on Camp creek in the eastern part of Mercer and western part of Henry county, is a valuable body of timber, five miles long, and an average width of two miles. It is principally in fifteen and six north and one east.

Richwoods. Three tracts of timbered land in Greene county are known by this name, one of which is also called Linden bottom. All timbered tract north of Apple creek, and between Apple creek prairie and the Illinois bluffs, bears this name. A tract of timber lying between Carrollton and Bluffdale, several miles in extent, has also received this name. The land is undulating, rich, well timbered, and is occupied by a large settlement. See Linden Bottom.

Ridge Prairie is situated in Madison county, commencing near Edwardsville, and extending south to St. Clair county. It is on the driving range between the waters that fall into the Mississippi west, and those that flow to the Kaskaskia east. Originally this prairie extended into St. Clair county as far south as Belleville, but long since, where farms have not been made, it has been intersected by a luxuriant growth of timber. Its surface is gently undulating, the soil rich, and is surrounded and indented with many fine farms.

Ridge Prairie post office is at Troy, Madison county, seven miles southeast from Edwardsville, on the road to Carlyle.

Ridge Settlement, in Clinton county, from three to six miles south of Carlyle, is a large settlement and in a good tract of land.

Ridge Settlement lies in Union county, on the road to Brownsville, and extends into Jackson county. It is a high, hilly, timbered tract of good land, well watered, and has been from one hundred to one hundred and fifty families.

River Precinct is the settlement with extends along the Wabash River opposite Vincennes, in Lawrence county. It is a rich bottom, heavily timbered, and contains sixty or seventy families.

Robinson's Creek rises in the northwestern part of Shelbyville. The country on its borders is proportioned into timber and prairie, and has a large settlement.

Rochester, a town site in Sangamon county, at the junction of the North and South forks of the Sangamon River, ten miles east of Springfield, on the principal road to Decatur. It has a steam and other mills, and twenty-five or thirty families, and a post office.

Rock Creek rises in Adams county, in one north, seven west, runs west, and enters the south prong of Bear creek. The land is timber and prairie, and excellent.

Rock Creek, a branch of the Mackinau, in Tazewell county.

Rock Creek, in Sangamon county, rises near Clary's grove, runs north and enters the Sangamon River, a few miles below Richland creek. The land adjoining is excellent.

Rockford, a town in Winnebago county at the rapids of Rock River in township forty-four north, and on the stage road from Chicago to Galena. Here is immense power for hydraulic purposes, and mills are erecting.

Rock Island is in the Mississippi, three miles above the mouth of Rock River. It is three miles long, and from one half to one miles wide, with lime stone rock for its base. Fort Armstrong is on its south end. On two sides the rock is twenty feet perpendicular above the river, and forms the foundation wall of the fort. A portion of the island is cultivated.

Rock Island City is laid out on a magnificent scale, at the junction and in the forks between Rock River and the Mississippi. In connection a company has been chartered to cut a canal from the Mississippi, near the head of the upper rapids, across to Rock River, by which it is said, an immense hydraulic power will be gained. The town site as surveyed, extends over a large area and includes Stephenson the seat of justice.

Rock Port, a town site in Pike county, on the Syncartee Slough, and where it strikes the fluff and high grounds. Here the Atlas mills are in operation for sawing and manufacturing flour on an extensive scale. A charter has been granted and a company formed to open a steamboat canal from the Syncartee to the Mississippi Rivers, at a point three miles above Rockport, where the Syncartee approaches within half a miles of the Mississippi, and thus furnish steamboat navigation direct to the town.

Rock River a large, navigable stream in the northern part of the state, that enters the Mississippi three miles below Rock Island. Its principal head is in a region of lakes and swamps, towards Fox River of Green Bay, its course south, and then southwesterly. Another head is Catfish, a stream in Wisconsin territory, that connects together the "Four Lakes," the head waters of which commence in a swamp a few miles south of Fort Winnebago. The country towards the head of Rock River is made up alternately of swamps and quag mires, ridges, of sand and shrubby oaks, with tracts of rich, dry, undulating land. The Terre Tremblant, or trembling land, is in this region, so called from the shaking of the surface while passing over it. The militia of Illinois suffered much in passing their horses through this country in 1832 while pursuing the army of Black Hawk. After Rock River enters the state of Illinois it receives the Peek-a-ton-o-kee, and several small streams, from the right; and from the left, Turtle River, Sycamore, Green River and several smaller streams. Much of the country through which it passes in Illinois is prairie. About the mouths of Turtle River and Sycamore creek are large bodies of timber. It generally passes along a channel of lime and sand stone rock, and has several rapids of some extent that injure the navigation at low water. The first are three or four miles above its mouth. The second are twelve or fifteen miles below Dixon's ferry. The next are below the Peek-a-ton-o-kee. The country generally along Rock River to the boundary line is beautifully undulating, the soil rich, and the timber deficient. This, however, will not prevent it from becoming an extensive agricultural region.

Rock Spring is situated in St. Clair county, on the Vincennes and St. Louis stage road, eighteen miles east of the latter place, and eight and a half miles northeast of Belleville. It is an elevated, and a healthy, and pleasant situation, in a tract of barrens, selected by the author of this work as a permanent residence in 1820. Its name is derived from a serious of springs that issue from ledges of rock a few rods from the public road. Here is a post office, and daily mail.

Rockwell, a town site on the north side of the Illinois River above the mouth of Little Vermilion River, on the line of the canal.

Rodger's Creek, called also Turkey Fork, a branch of Crooked creek, in McDonough county. [see Vance's Settlement.]

Rollin's Prairie, in Franklin county, north of Frankfort, is six miles long and four miles wide. The land is level and good, the settlement small.

Rome, a town laid off on section five, ten north, nine east on the west side of Peoria Lake, in Peoria county. Here the lake is one mile wide. Population about 150.

Round Grove is a small tract of timber described by its name in Warren county, in ten north, three west.

Round Prairie, in the northeastern part of Schuyler county, on William's creek twenty miles from Rushville. It is a rich, dry, undulating prairie, four miles in diameter, and surrounded with timber.

Round Prairie, in Wabash county, twelve miles northeast from Mount Carmel, four miles in diameter, very fertile, and has eighteen or twenty fine farms on it.

Round Prairie, in Bond county, six miles west of north from Greenville, is from one to two miles in diameter. It is undulating and rich, surround with a large body of good timber, and has a considerable settlement

Round Prairie, in Perry county, on the east side of Beaucoup, eight or nine miles from Pinckneyville. It is one mile wide, and from one to two miles long, and has a good settlement.

Round Prairie, the forks of Sugar creek and the south fork of Sangamon River, in Sangamon county, a fine tract of country, seven miles southeast of Springfield.

Rush Creek, a small stream in Jo Daviess county, that rises between Plum and Apple Rivers, runs a southwestern course, and enters the Mississippi six or eight miles below Apple River. The first six miles from the mouth is low, wet, bottom land; above are alternate bottoms and precipitous bluffs. At the head is a fine farming country, with considerable timber.

Rushville, the seat of justice for Schuyler county, is situated in the central part of the county, at the south end of a beautiful prairie, on section thirty, two north, one west, ten miles from the Illinois River at the nearest point, and twelve from Beardstown. It has eight or ten stores, various mechanics and professional men, Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopalian and Campbellite churches, and 1,000 inhabitants. A charter for a railroad to the Illinois River opposite Beardstown has been granted. The court house is of brick, two stories, and the people have erected a brick school house. Good building stone and plenty of coal are found in the vicinity. The settlements around Rushville are large, and the village itself exhibits a quietness and neatness in its external appearance that is pleasing to the traveller.

Russell's Grove, in McDonough county, north of west from Macomb, is a fine tract of timbered land surrounded with rich prairie, and a considerable settlement.

Russelville, a town site and post office on the Wabash River in the northeast corner of Lawrence county.

Sadorus, a small grove and settlement at the head timber of the Kaskaskia, on the road from Springfield to Danville.

Salem, the seat of justice for Marion county, is situated on the eastern border of the grand prairie, on the Vincennes and St. Louis stage road, on section eleven, two north, range two east of the principal meridian. It is a pleasant village of about thirty families.

Saline, a navigable stream in Gallatin county, that enters the Ohio River twelve miles below Shawneetown, on section five, eleven south, ten east. It is made by three principal branches distinguished as the North, South, and Middle forks, which unite near Equality. The North fork rises near McLeansboro' in Hamilton county, and runs a southerly course. The South fork rises on the borders of Johnson and Franklin counties, takes an easterly course, and unites with North fork. The Middle fork rises on the east side of Franklin county, takes a southeasterly course, and unites with the South fork a few miles above Equality. Saline creek is navigable for steamboats to Equality, fourteen miles.

Salisbury, a village just commenced in the border of the timber of Richland creek, ten miles northwest from Springfield, in Sangamon county.

Salt Creek, in Effingham county, five miles east of Ewington, and on the west side of the Fourteen Miles prairie. It is large enough for a mill stream, and enters the Little Wabash River ten or twelve miles below Ewington,

Salt Creek rises in the prairies north of Du Page, runs an easterly course and enters the Des Plaines near the Chicago road. The timber is good and the prairie land dry, undulating, and rich soil. The settlement contains fifteen or twenty families; the land is tolerably good and the surface rolling.

Salt Creek Settlement, on the north side of Macon county, twenty miles from Decatur, of about one hundred families. The land is good, with plenty of prairie.

Salt Creek post office is in the above settlement.

Salt Prairie, in Calhoun county, lying between the bluffs and Salt Prairie slough. It is a dry, rich prairie, six miles long, and half a mile wide, densely settled with about sixty families. Fine springs break out from the foot of the bluffs, and a large saline rises at the head of the prairie, which furnishes abundant salt water for stock.

Salt Prairie Slough, a small arm of the Mississippi, in Calhoun county, six miles long, near the foot of which is Gilead. It is navigable for small boats, and affords an excellent harbor.

Sangamon River, a prominent branch of the Illinois. It rises in Champaign county, in the most elevated region of that portion of the state, and near the head waters of the two Vermilions and the Kaskaskia Rivers. It waters Sangamon and Macon counties, and parts of Tazewell, McLean, Montgomery, Shelby, and Champaign counties. Its general course is northwesterly. Besides a number of smaller streams, noticed in their alphabetical order as Clary's, Rock, Richland, Prairie, Spring, Lick, Sugar, Horse, and Brush creeks, on the south side, and Crane, Cantrill's, Fancy, Wolf creeks, and other streams on the north side, its three principal heads are Salt creek, North fork, and South fork. Salt creek rises in McLean county, twenty-two north, ranges four and five east, and runs a westerly course through the northwest corner of Macon into Sangamon county, where, after receiving Kickapoo and Sugar creeks, and several smaller ones, it enters the Sangamon River in the northwest part of township nineteen north, range six west. Its two principal heads are called the North fork of Salt creek, and Lake fork of Salt creek. North fork, which may be regarded as the main stream, rises in Champaign county, near the heads of the Vermilion River of the Illinois, the Vermilion of the Wabash, and the Kaskaskia, in twenty-four north, seven east, in a small lake. It runs southwesterly through Macon, then south, then west into Sangamon county, where it receives South fork and Salt creek. The South fork of Sangamon rises by several branches, in the northwestern part of Shelby, and the northeastern part of Montgomery counties, runs a southeastern course, and forms a junction with the North fork in sixteen north, four west, seven miles east from Springfield. Sangamon River and its branches flow through one of the richest and most delightful portions of the Great West. Complaints are made of the extent of the prairie, but this offers no serious inconvenience for the present. These prairies for many years will afford range for thousands of cattle. The general aspect of the country on the Sangamon is level, yet it is sufficiently undulating to permit the water to escape to the creeks. It will soon constitute one of the richest agricultural districts in the United States, the soil being of such a nature that immense crops can be raised with little agricultural labor. The Sangamon is navigable for steamboats of the smaller class to the junction of the North and South forks, and, with a little labor in clearing out the drift wood, each principal fork may be navigated with flat boats for a long distance. In the spring of 1832 a steamboat of the larger class arrived within five miles of Springfield, and discharged its cargo. At a small expense in clearing out the logs, and cutting the stooping trees, this river would be navigable for steamboats half the year. From a bend near the mouth of Clary's creek, fifty miles above the mouth of the Sangamon, the waters find a channel through the low grounds and sloughs to the vicinity of Beardstown, so that keel-boats can pass in this direction into the Sangamon. It is thought that with small expense, a communication might be opened in this direction. The improvement of the navigation of this river by slack water, the connection with Beardstown by a canal, and the opening a navigable water communication across the state by this route having already been suggested.

Sangamon, a village and post office on the left bank of Sangamon River, 7 miles northwest from Springfield. It has a steam saw and flour mill and 10 or 12 families.

Sand Creek is a small stream in Shelby county, ten miles northeast of Shelbyville, and enters the Kaskaskia River.

Sand Creek Settlement, in Shelby county, eight miles northeast of Shelbyville. The land is good, and the settlement large.

Sandy, a small mill stream that rises on the west side of La Salle county, runs southwest, and enters the Illinois in Putnam county.

Sandy Creek post office is in La Salle county, on section ten, township thirty north, one west.

Sandy¸ a small mill stream in Morgan county. It rises near the South fork of the Mauvaiseterre, runs a southwesterly course past Winchester, and enters the Illinois River above Apple Creek.

Sandy, an insignificant stream, and branch of Cash River, in Alexander county. The land near it is rolling surface and rather thin soil.

Sandy Prairie, a prairie of some extent, and a settlement of eighty or a hundred families, in Tazewell county, four miles south of Pekin. A rich sandy soil.

Sau-ga-nas-kee Swamp, is a sloughed tract of inundated land in Cook county, about twenty miles southwest of Chicago. After perforating through a few feet of mud, the base is found to be lime stone. The canal commissioners are authorized to cause a survey of this route from the Illinois and Michigan Canal to the Calumet, for a lateral canal.

Sauk Village, in Rock Island county, was three miles above Rock River, and four miles east of Rock Island. This was formerly the chief village of the Sauk nation. Here were Indian fields fenced with poles, bark cabins, plats of blue grass pasture, and a large body of rich prairie land. The white settlement here is large, with fine farms.

Savanna, a town and post office on the Mississippi, in Jo Daviess county, above the mouth of Plum creek, and a point for the central railroad from the mouth of Ohio to Galena.

Scatters of Cash. This name is given by the people of Johnson county to a succession of ponds in which Cash River "scatters" itself. They are in township thirteen south, two east.

Seminary Township, a settlement in the southwest corner of Fayette county, being five north and one west of the third principal meridian. It is a township of land, thirty-six miles square, granted by congress to Illinois for purposes of education. It has since been relinquished to the general government, and in place thereof, an equal quantity is to be selected from unsold lands within the state. The Kaskaskia River crosses its southeastern part, and the Hurricane fork runs through it near its western boundary. It is proportioned into timber and prairie, contains much good land, and about thirty-five families.

Senatchwine, a stream in Peoria county, rises in thirteen north, eight east, and runs a devious course, nearly parallel with the Illinois, which it enters in section eighteen, eleven north, nine east, twenty miles above Peoria. There is much good land, both timbered and prairie, on this creek, and a settlement of twenty or thirty families. It derives its name from a well known Indian chief who formerly resided at its mouth.

Senex, a post office in McLean county, fifteen miles east of Bloomington, on section twenty-seven, township twenty-three north, four east.

Seven Mile Creek, in Ogle county, rises near the Buffalo grove, runs an east course, and enters Rock River six miles above Dixon's ferry. The country for twenty or thirty miles above Dixon's ferry is generally prairie, interspersed with small groves of three and four hundred acres each, gently undulating, soil dry and very rich. From thence on the Galena the surface is hilly and broken.

Seven Mile Prairie, in White county, seven miles west of Carmi, contains a large and flourishing settlement and post office.

Sexton's Creek, a small stream in Alexander county, running westward, and emptying into the Mississippi a short distance below Cane Girardeau.

Shannon's Store, a post office and settlement, in Randolph county, eighteen miles northeast of Kaskaskia, on the road to Vandalia. Here is a town site called Columbus.

Shawneetown is the principal commercial town in the southern part of the state. It is situated on the Ohio river, about ten miles below the mouth of the Wabash, in section six, of township ten south, in range ten east of the third principal meridian, in latitude thirty-seven degrees forty minutes north. The bank of the Ohio at this place has a gradual ascent, but is subject to inundation at the extreme floods. Between the town and the bluffs the surface is still lower, and more frequently submerged. Though no considerable sickness has prevailed in this town for some years past, it cannot be regarded as less healthy than the more elevated portions of the state. Considerable commercial business is transacted at this place, both in the wholesale and retail line. It has eight or ten stores, several groceries, two public houses, and six or seven hundred inhabitants. The land office for the district is in Shawneetown. A printing office is here which publishes a weekly paper called the "Illinois Advertiser," There is also a bank here which was chartered by the territorial legislature, and which has lately recommenced doing business, after a suspension of several years.

Shelbyville, the seat of justice for Shelby county, is situated on the west bank of the Kaskaskia River, on elevated and timbered land, on section seven, eleven north, four east. It has six stores - three groceries - a brick court house, forty feet square, two stories, with a cupola - and forty-five or fifty families. The country around it is excellent land, a mixture of timber and prairie, and the settlements are extensive. There is a large sulphur spring in the town.

Shiloh, a settlement in St. Clair county, six miles northeast from Belleville. Here is a Methodist meeting house and camp ground.

Shipley's Prairie, a small prairie in Wayne county, five miles southeast of Fairfield, and has fifteen or twenty families.

Shoal Creek, a fine stream that rises in Montgomery county, runs southwesterly through Bond and Clinton, and enters the Kaskaskia River in section six, one south, four west. It is formed by the union of the East, West, and Middle forks, and might be made navigable for small craft to a considerable distance. Its branches are Beaver, East, and West forks. The timber on its banks is of various kinds, and from two to six miles in width, with prairies between each fork. The soil is second rate, and the surface in some places is rolling, in others level.

Shoal Creek Bridge and post office, in Clinton county, on the Vincennes and St. Louis road, nine miles west of Carlyle.

Shoal Creek Prairie, an extensive prairie lying to the west of Shoal creek, in Clinton, Bond, and Montgomery counties. Its average width is eight miles. It is slightly rolling, and contains much good land.

Shoal Creek Settlement, in Clinton county, twelve miles southwest from Carlyle.

Shockokon, a post office in Warren county, on section twelve, township eight north, range six east, and on the road from Commerce to Monmouth.

Shont's Settlement, in Mercer county, between Edwards River and the Mississippi, and seven miles above New Boston. Timber and prairie interspersed; rich, dry land, and uneven.

Shook's Settlement, in the American Bottom, in Monroe county, The land around is rich prairie.

Shuey's Settlement is in the eastern part of Adams county, near the heads of Bear and McKee's creeks, and the land is less rolling than other portions of the same county.

Silvan Grove, a settlement and post office in Cass county, sixteen miles south-southwest from Beardstown. It is at the head of Job's creek, and both the timber and prairie are excellent land.

Sidney, a town site in Champaign county, on Salt Fork of the Vermilion River, on the south side of section nine, township eighteen north, range ten west, on the northern cross railroad from Springfield by Decatur to Danville.

Silver Creek rises in the northern part of Madison county, runs south into St. Clair, and enters the Kaskaskia in section twenty-eight, two south, seven west. It is about fifty miles in length, has several branches, and passes through a fertile and well populated country, diversified with timer and prairie. Its name was given from the supposed existence of Silver mines, no far from Rock Spring, where the early French explorers made considerable excavations.

Sinsinaway, a stream in the northwest corner of the state. It rises in the prairies of Wisconsin territory, runs a southwest course, and enters the Mississippi six miles above Fever River, and nearly west from Galena.

Timbers scattering, some cedar and a few pines.

Sitgreave's Settlement, in Clinton county, twelve miles south of Carlyle.

Six's Prairie lies in the southern part of Schuyler county, seventeen miles west of south from Rushville, and seventeen miles northwest from Naples. It is a rich, undulating, dry tract, ten miles long, and three miles broad, and surrounded with excellent timber. The settlement commenced in 1829, and now contains seventy-five or eighty families. The post office is called Mount Sterling.

Six Mile is the name of a creek, and a settlement, in Pike county. The creek heads in the interior and enters Snycartee near the county line of Calhoun. The settlement on it is large.

Six Mile Prairie, in the American Bottom, southwestern part of Madison county - a rich tract of alluvion, with fine farms, and surrounded with a heavy body of timber - rather unhealthy.

Six Mile Prairie, in Perry County, nine miles southwest of Pinckneyville, is nine miles long and six miles wide. It is level, tolerably good soil, and settled along its eastern border.

Skillet Fork, a large branch of the Little Wabash. It rises in the prairies east of Vandalia, and running a southern course, enters that river in the northern part of White county. Its banks are subject to inundation. The landing adjoining it is fertile, but too level for convenience.

Skillet Fork Settlement, in the northeast corner of Hamilton county.

Skillet Fork, a settlement in White county, six miles northeast of Carmi, in a timbered region, between the Skillet Fork and Little Wabash.

Slab Point, a point of timber and a small stream in the border of Montgomery county, a few miles west of south from Macoupin point, on the road from Springfield to Edwardsville.

Small Pox River, in Jo Daviess county, rises southeast of Galena, runs west, and enters the Mississippi at the mouth of Fever River, in an acute angle with that stream. It is fifteen miles long, the county on its borders very broken, has some fertile and level bottom land, and considerable timber towards its mouth.

Smallsburg, a town site with mills, etc., on the Embarras, six miles below Lawrenceville.

Small's Settlement, in St. Clair county, six miles southwest from Belleville. The land chiefly timbered and barrens.

Smith's Lake, in the Illinois bottom, Morgan county. It is below Meredosia, and unites with the river.

Smith's Settlement is near Shoal creek timber in Bond county, four miles south of Greenville.

Smooth Prairie is in Madison county, in the forks of Wood River, eight miles east from Alton. It is three miles long and about two wide, level and rather wet.

Snake Creek, a branch of Indian creek, in Morgan county.

Snycartee, (in French, Chenail-ccarte, said to mean the "cut-off," or "lost channel"), an arm of the Mississippi, in Pike county, commonly called a "slough," in the dialect of the country. It is a running water at all stages of the river, and for several months furnishes steamboat navigation to Atlas. It leaves the Mississippi in section nineteen, three south, eight west, in Adams county, enters it again in Calhoun county, section seven, eight south, four west, and runs from one to five miles from the main river. It is about fifty miles in length. the land on the island is of first rate alluvion, proportioned into timber and prairie, but subject to annual inundations.

Snider's Settlement is on the south side of Macon county.

Somonauk Creek rises in Kane county, runs a southern course, and enters Fox River in La Salle county. It is a mill stream.

South America is a settlement in Gallatin county, fifteen miles southwest from Equality, and near the corner of Pope and Franklin counties.

South Fork of Spoon River rises in Warren county, near the head of Ellison creek, runs a southeasterly course, and unites with the main stream in section four, township eight north, range two east. Some of the best land in the state lies on this stream. This is frequently called West Fork.

South Prairie, in Morgan county, is on the south side of Walnut creek.

Spanish Needle, a trifling stream in Macoupin county that enters Macoupin creek, above Dry fork.

Spoon River, a large and beautiful river on the military tract. A description of its principal heads may be seen by reference to the articles, "Forks of Spoon River," and "South Fork of Spoon River." After the union of these forks, the general course of this river is south till within a few miles of its mouth, when it takes a southeasterly course and enters the Illinois in section thirty-three, four north, four east, directly opposite Havanna. This stream is navigated for several miles, and, at a trifling expense, in clearing out the trees and rafts of timber, it might be made navigable for one half of the year to the forks. Large bodies of timber of the best quality line the banks of this stream, and the soil in general is inferior to none. The main river and several of its tributaries furnish excellent mill seats. The prairies adjacent are generally undulating, dry and fertile. Above the mouth of Spoon River is a large lake on the west side of the Illinois.

Spring Bay, a singular basin, about seventy-five rods in diameter, adjoining the Illinois River, in the upper part of Tazewell county. In front it opens to the river, the waters of which enter and fill in at flood stage. When low, they retire and leave the basin dry, excepting a stream made by a number of springs which burst forth from the sand ridge on three sides of it. On this ridge are signs of an old settlement or fortification. A short distance below is the mouth of Blue creek, over which is a bridge of earth. Below this is a mound, forty-five yards in circumference at the base, and twenty feet in height. It is said to have been opened, and human skeletons found twenty feet from the top.

Spring Creek enters Sangamon River four miles from Springfield. The country bordering is rather level, very rich and densely populated. The timber is from two to five miles wide, and of excellent quality.

Spring Creek, in Putnam county, enters the Illinois four miles below the Little Vermilion.

Spring Creek, a branch of the Iroquois River, in Iroquois county, excellent timber, and level, rich prairie.

Springfield one of the largest towns in Illinois, and the seat of justice of Sangamon county. It is situated on the border of a beautiful prairie on the south side of the timber of Spring creek, on sections twenty-seven and thirty-four, in township sixteen north, in range five west of the third principal meridian. This town was laid off in February, 1822, before the lands in this region were sold. At the land sales of November, 1822, before the lands in this region were sold. At the land sales of November, 1823, the tract on which the older portion of the town is located, was purchased and duly recorded as a town. It then contained a out thirty families, living in small log cabins. The surface is rather too level for a large town, into which it is destined to grow; but it is a dry and healthy location. Springfield has nineteen dry goods stores, one wholesale and six retail groceries, four public houses, four drug stores, one book store, two clothing stores, eleven lawyers, eighteen physicians including steam doctors, one foundry for castings, four carding machines, mechanics and trades of various descriptions, and two printing offices from which are issued weekly the "Illinois Republican," and the "Sangamon Journal." The public buildings are a court house, jail, a market house, and houses of worship for two Presbyterian churches, one Methodist, one Baptist Reformer, one Episcopalian, one Methodist, one Baptist society, each of which have ministers, and respectable congregations. The first house built in Springfield was erected fifteen years since. The town has increased more than half within the last three years. It has excellent schools for both sexes, and an academy. By a recent act of the legislature Springfield is to be the permanent seat of government after 1840, and an appropriation has been made of $50,000 and commissioners appointed to build a state house.

Spring Island Grove, in Sangamon county, from fourteen to twenty miles west of Springfield, on the road to Jacksonville. It lies at the head of Spring creek, and is an excellent timbered tract, surrounded with rich prairie, from six to ten miles long, and from two to three miles wide, and has a flourishing settlement. Many excellent springs are found in this tract of country.

Spring Grove post office, in Washington county, seven miles north of Monmouth.

Spring Point, in Jasper county, on the national road.

Squaw Prairie, in Boone county, lies between the Beaver and Piskasau creeks. It is round, rich, level, and contains about ten sections of land.

Starved Rock, near the foot of the rapids, and on the right bank of the Illinois, is a perpendicular mass of lime and sand stone washed by the current at its base, and elevated 150 feet. The diameter of its surface is about 100 feet, with a slope extending to the adjoining bluff from which along it is accessible. Tradition says that after the Illinois Indians had killed Pontiac, the French governor at Detroit, the northern Indians made war upon them. A band of the Illinois, in attempting to escape, took shelter on this rock, which they soon made inaccessible to their enemies, and where they were closely besieged. They had secured provisions, but their only resource for water was by letting down vessels with bark ropes to the river. The wily besiegers contrived to come in canoes under the rock and cut off their buckets, by which means the unfortunate Illinois were starved to death. Many years after, their bones were whitening on this summit.

Steam Point, a point of timber running into the prairie that adjoins Brulette's creek, in Edgar county.

Steel's Mill, a post office and settlement in Randolph county sixteen miles east of Kaskaskia, on the Shawneetown road. The soil is of a middling quality.

Steven's Creek rises in Macon county, and enters the North fork of Sangamon three miles below Decatur.

Stephenson, the seat of justice of Rock Island county, is situated on the Mississippi opposite the lower end of Rock Island. It has twenty or thirty families and is increasing.

Stillman's Run, in Ogle county, formerly called Mud Creek, a small stream that runs northwest and enters Rock River a few miles below Kishwaukee, where, on the 14th of May, 1832, a battalion of militia, consisting of about 275 men, under the command of Major Isaiah Stillman, of Fulton county, were attacked, defeated, and eleven men killed, by a portion of the Indian army under the celebrated Black Hawk.

Stinking Creek, see Beaver Creek.

St. Marion, a town site in Ogle county, at Buffaloe Grove.

St. Mary's River rises in Perry county, and enters the Mississippi six miles below the mouth of the Kaskaskia.

St. Mary's, a town and post office on the west side of crooked creek in Schuyler county, in four north, five west, on the mail route from Rushville to Carthage. It commenced in 1836, and has two stores, one grocery, and a dozen families.

Stoke's Settlement, in the eastern part of Union county, near the head, and on the south side of Cash River, contains one hundred families. The surface of the land is rolling, and the soil good.

Stone's Settlement is fifteen miles below Quincy, in three south, seven west.

Stout's Grove, a settlement in McLean county, on the Mackinau, in twenty-four and twenty-five north, one west, and twelve miles northwest of Bloomington. The north part is a large and heavily timbered bottom principally oak, with some barrens. The south part is first rate timbered land.

Strawn's Settlement, in Putnam county, about twenty miles below Hennepin, was commenced 1831.

String Prairie, in Green county, lies between Macoupin and Apple creeks, commencing four miles west of Carrollton, and extending fifteen miles east, and from half a mile to three miles in width. It is a rich, level tract, and much of it in a state of cultivation.

String Town, on the Embarras, in Lawrence county, sixteen miles north of Lawrenceville, has 100 families.

Stubblefield's Branch is a trifling stream that rises in the north part of Bond county, runs southwest, and enters the East fork of Shoal creek, two miles above Greenville. A considerable settlement is near it.

Sugar Creek, in Sangamon county, rises in the prairies towards the southwestern part of the county, where its waters interlock with the heads of the Macoupin and Apple creeks, runs a northeasterly course, and enters the Sangamon River a short distance below the forks. Its main branch is Lick creek. The land is good, surface rather level, and the timber of various kinds, from one to two miles in width. The settlements are large, and extend from the mouth to the head of the timber. The lands situated between Lick and Sugar creeks, are said to be of a superior quality for grazing, etc.

Sugar Creek, in the northeastern part of Schuyler county. It rises in the southeast corner of McDonough county, takes a southeaster course, near the boundary line of Fulton, and enters the Illinois above Beardstown, on section four, two north, one east. A large body of excellent timber lies on this stream. Red and yellow ochre are found on its banks.

Sugar Creek, a small stream that rises in the interior of Edgar county, takes an eastern course and passes through a corner of Indiana into the Wabash.

Sugar Creek, a small stream in Clark county, that passes near Palestine and enters the Wabash.

Sugar Creek, in Iroquois county, a branch of the Iroquois River. There is considerable timber along its borders.

Sugar Creek, a small stream rising in township four north, in range five west of the third principal meridian, and running a southerly course through the eastern borders of Madison into Clinton county, enters the Kaskaskia near the base line, in five west. It passes through a fine country of land.

Sugar Creek, in McLean county, rises in twenty-four north, two east, and runs through Blooming grove in a southwestern direction. It is a good mill stream, has firm banks, and gravelly bottom. It passes across the southeast part of Tazewell into Sangamon county, and enters Salt creek in township twenty north, range five west. It waters a rich body of land, and has an extensive line of settlements.

Sugar Creek Settlement, in the southeastern part of Tazewell county, on Sugar creek. It has seventy or eighty families, and is increasing.

Sugar Grove, in the north part of Sangamon county, twenty miles north of Springfield. It is a fine tract of timber surrounded with fertile prairie, about three miles long, and one mile wide, with a respectable settlement.

Sugar Grove, in Putnam county, in fifteen north, six east; a beautiful grove of timber with good prairie and barrens around it.

Sugar River, in Winnebago county. It rises in the Wisconsin territory, runs south across the boundary line about eleven miles west of Rock River, and enters the Peek-a-ton-o-kee. The country between it and Rock River is rather swampy, with ridges of bur oak timber. Along its course the land and timber are good.

Sugar Tree Grove, in Henry county, north of Edwards River, in fifteen north, three east. Timber, various; prairie, undulating and rich.

Summit, a town site in Cook county, at the "Point of Oaks," on the canal, thirteen miles from Chicago.

Swanwick's Creek rises near the Grand Cote, and enters Beaucoup creek, in Perry county.

Sweet's Prairie is in the south part of Morgan county, three miles west of Manchester. It is level and wet.

Swett's Prairie is in Madison county, four miles northeast from Edwardsville.

Swigart's Settlement, in St. Clair county, is under the bluffs seven miles east of St. Louis.

Swinnington's Point, a settlement in Morgan county.

Sycamore Creek, rises in the prairies near Fox River, and enters Rock River, thirty-five miles above Dixon's ferry. It is fifty yards wide at its mouth. The Indian name is Kish-wau-ke.

Table Grove is a beautiful and elevated tract of 150 or 200 acres of timber, on the west side of Fulton county, and has a delightful prospect.

Tamarawa, a town site on the right bank of the Kaskaskia River, and near the line of St. Clair and Monroe counties, and at the lower end of Twelve Mile prairie. It is an elevated and pleasant situation.

Tarapin Ridge, a settlement four miles north of Lebanon, in St. Clair county.

Taylor's Creek rises in Macoupin county, and enters Macoupin creek, in Greene county.

Tecumseh, a town site on the Great Wabash River, in White county, at the Little Chain (rapids), on high ground, and well situated for business. It is on fractional section thirty-one, township six south, eleven east.

Teagarden's Mill, on Taylor's creek, in Greene county.

Ten Mile Creek rises in the Great prairie near Putnam county, runs through a broken but well timbered country, and enters Peoria Lake five miles above Peoria.

Ten Mile Creek, in Hamilton county, is a branch of Muddy River, and runs through an undulating tract. Here is a settlement of forty or fifty families.

Thorn Creek rises in three forks in the northeast part of Will county, runs north and enters the Calumet in Cook county.

Thornton, a town site on Thorn creek, near the southeastern part of Cook county.

Three Mile Prairie, in Washington county, has an undulating surface. It is eight miles south of Nashville.

Timbered Settlement includes the northeast quarter of Wabash county, and is ten miles from Mount Carmel, it contains sixty or seventy families. The timber is excellent.

Tom's Prairie, in Wayne county, is six miles northeast of Fairfield, on Elm River, and has twenty or twenty-five families. The soil is second rate.

Totten's Prairie, in Fulton county, seven miles northwest of Lewiston, is from one to three miles wide and ten long. It is good land and has a large settlement.

Town Fork is a branch of Troublesome creek, in McDonough county.

Tremont, the seat of justice of Tazewell county, is situated in a delightful prairie, between Pleasant Grove and Mackinau, on section eighteen, township twenty-four north, three west, and was laid off by a company in the spring of 1835. It now contains six stores, four groceries, two taverns, two lawyers, two physicians, two ministers, one apothecary's shop, sixty-eight buildings, and about three-hundred inhabitants. The religious denominations are Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians, and Unitarians, all of whom, at present, worship in one house. It is contemplated to erect one or more houses of worship this year. It lies in the heart of a beautiful country of prairie and timber.

Trinity is on the Ohio six miles above its junction with the Mississippi, and at the mouth of Cash River, on sections one and two, seventeen south, one west. Steamboats from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers exchange cargoes here, repair, etc. It has one tavern and one store, and is inundated six feet at extreme high water.

Troublesome Creek, a branch of Crooked creek, in McDonough county.

Troy, a town site in Madison county, seven miles southeast from Edwardsville.

Troy Grove is in La Salle county, at the head of Little Vermilion, twelve miles above its mouth, through which the stage road passes from Ottawa to Dixonville and Galena.

Turkey Creek enters the Illinois River, in Morgan county, between Walnut and Sandy creeks.

Turkey Hill, in St. Clair county, four miles southeast of Belleville, the oldest American settlement in the county was commenced by William Scott, Samuel Shook, and Franklin Jarvis, in 1798. It is now populous. Formerly this name was used to designate a large tract.

Turney's Prairie, in Wayne county, eight miles south of Fairfield, is from one to two miles in extent. The soil is good, and the settlement contains about twenty-five families.

Turtle River rises in Wisconsin territory, and enters Rock River, forty rods below the boundary line.

Twelve Mile Grove is between Kankakee and Hickory creek, in Cook county, and contains 600 acres.

Twelve Mile Prairie, in Effington county, west of the Little Wabash, is level, and in many places wet. It extends through Effingham and Clay counties. The national road crosses it in the former, and the Vincennes in the latter county.

Twelve Mile Prairie, in St. Clair county, is moderately undulating, and good soil. Indian name Tau-mar-waus.

Twitchell's Mill, a post office on Big creek, Pope county.

Tyrer's Creek, a branch of Mississippi, in Adams county, rises in two south, eight west.

Union Prairie, in the southeast part of Clark county, is five miles long and three broad. The settlement is large.

Union Prairie, in Schuyler county, four miles west of Rushville.

Union, a post office in Champaign county, twenty miles west of Danville.

Union Grove, in St. Clair county, is on the borders of Looking Glass prairie and on the east side of Silver creek. The land is excellent, and the settlement extensive. It is sometimes called Padfield's Settlement.

Unity, the seat of justice of Alexander county, recently located in the corners of townships fifteen and sixteen south, in ranges one and two west of the third principal meridian. It is on the east side of Cash River.

Upper Alton, a delightfully situated town, on elevated ground, two and a half miles back from the river and east from Alton, on section seven, township five north, range nine west. The situations of the town is high and healthy. The country around was originally timbered land, and is undulating; the prevailing growth consists of oaks of various species, hickory, walnut, etc. There are eight stores, five groceries, two lawyers, five physicians, mechanics of various descriptions, a steam saw and flour mill, and about 300 families, or 1,500 inhabitants. The Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians, each have houses of worship. The Baptist and Presbyterian houses are handsome stone edifices, with spires, bells, &c. and provided with ministers. There are seven or eight ministers of the gospel residents of this place some of whom are connected with the college and the Theological seminary - others are agents for some of the public benevolent institutions, whose families reside here. Good morals, religious privileges, the advantages for education in the college, and in three respectable common schools, with an intelligent and agreeable society make this town a desirable residence. Upper Alton was laid off by the proprietor in 1816, and in 1821, it contains fifty or sixty families. In 1827, it had dwindled down to a few from several causes. But since the commencement of Alton, the flourishing mercantile town on the river, it has experienced a rapid growth and will doubtless continue to advance, proportionate to the progress of the town and country around.

Upper Mackinau Settlements, a string of settlements towards the head of the Mackinau, in McLean county, about fourteen miles north of Bloomington. The timber is divided into several groves, and is about twenty-four miles in length from east to west, and from one to three miles in width. The old Kickapoo and Potawatomie towns were on the north side of this timber, where the blue grass grows in luxuriance. Here are over 100 families, and the land is excellent.

Urbanna, the seat of justice for Champaign county, named by the last legislature.

Ursu, a post office in Bear creek settlement, Adams county, on section eighteen, township one north, eight west and ten miles north of Quincy.

Utica, a town site in Fulton county, two and a half miles from the Illinois River, on Copperas creek. It has one stream mill, one store, one distillery and ten or twelve families.

Utica, a town site and post office on the north side of the Illinois River at the Lower Rapids, on the canal line, and 10 miles below Ottawa, on section seventeen, township thirty-three north, two east. It is four miles from the termination of the canal, and has two or three stores, and families.

Valentine's Settlement is in Bond county, on the west side of Shoal creek. The land is good.

Vandewenter's Settlement is on the Illinois River, in the south part of Schuyler county, twenty miles from Rushville.

Vancil's Settlement, in Union county, on a branch of Clear creek. The land is rolling.

Van Buren, a town site on the Mississippi in Whiteside county, 42 miles above Rock Island, and 50 miles below Galena. It has two steam saw mills, a post office (name unknown), and ten or twelve houses building.

Van Buren, a post office in Big Grove, in Champaign county, four miles north or Urbanna.

Vance's Settlement, in McDonough county, is in five north, two and three west, six or eight miles southwest, from Macomb, and on the waters of Crooked creek. The land is excellent.

Vandalia is the present seat of government for the state, the seat of justice for Fayette county, and was laid out in 1818, by commissioners appointed for that purpose, under the authority of the state. It is situated on the west bank of the Kaskaskia River, on sections eight, nine, sixteen and seventeen, of township six north, in range one east of the third principal meridian. The site is high, undulating, and was originally a timbered tract. The streets cross at right angles and are eight feet in width. The public square is on elevated ground. The public buildings are, a state house of brick and sufficiently commodious for legislative purposes, unfinished, a neat framed house of worship for the Presbyterian society, with a cupola and bell, a framed meeting house for the Methodist society, another small public building open for all denominations, and for schools, and other public purposes. There are in the town two printing offices that issue weekly papers, the "State Register," and the "Free Press" - four taverns, eight stores, two groceries, one clothing store, two schools, four lawyers, four physicians one steam and one water saw mill, one minister of the gospel, and about 850 inhabitants. Near the river the country generally is heavily timbered, but a few miles back are extensive prairies. the "national road" has been permanently located and partially constructed to this place.

Vermilion River, of the Wabash, rises in the great prairies of Champaign and Iroquois counties and enters the Wabash in the state of Indiana. Its branches are, North, Middle and Salt forks. North Fork, rises in Iroquois county, an unites with the main stream below Danville. Salt Fork, rises in Champaign county, near the head of Sangamon River, runs a south course till it enters township eighteen north, in range ten east, when it makes a sudden bend and runs north of east to Danville. The Salt works are on this stream, six miles above Danville. Middle Fork rises in the prairie, forty miles northwest of Danville, and enters Salt Fork. The timber of these forks is from one to two miles wide and of a good quality. The adjoining prairies are dry, undulating and rich.

Vermilion (Little) rises in the south part of Vermillion county, and enters the Wabash River in Indiana. It is a mill stream, with a gravelly and rocky bottom, and has a fine body of timber on its banks. Large and flourishing settlements have been made on both sides of the timber to its head.

Vermilion River of the Illinois, rises in Livingston county, through which it passes into La Salle county, and enters the Illinois near the foot of the rapids. Towards its head the surface is tolerably level, with a rich soil, large prairies, and but small quantities of timber. Towards the Illinois its bluffs become abrupt, often 100 feet high, with rocky banks and frequently rapids and falls. It is an excellent mill stream, about fifty yards wide, and runs through extensive beds of bituminous coal. Its bluff contains immense quarries of lime, and sand and some free stone excellent for grind stones. The timber upon its banks are oaks of various kinds, walnut, ash, sugar maple, hickory, etc.

Vermilionville, a town site and post office north of the Vermilion River in La Salle county, on section nine, township thirty-two north, two east. It is a pleasant situation, a thriving village, and surrounded with an excellent country. Near it on the Vermilion River, is Lowel, a manufacturing town in embryo, with abundance of water power. Great quantities of bituminous coal exist in this vicinity.

Versailles a village of twelve of fifteen families on the west of McLean county, 20 miles northwest of Bloomington.

Vienna, the county seat of Johnson county, contains twenty-five or thirty families, and three stores. It is situated on the east fork of Cash River, in sections five and six, thirteen south, three east. The main road from Golconda to Jonesboro', and Jackson, Mo., passes through this place. It is in latitude 37 deg. 25 minutes north.

Village Prairie, in Edwards county, two miles north of Albion, about three miles wide. A small stream called "The Village" runs through it to the Little Wabash.

Vincennes Road passes from Vincennes to St. Louis, through Lawrence, Clay, Marion, Clinton, and St. Clair counties, 154 miles. A daily mail in post coaches passes this road.

Vinegar Hill, in Jo Daviess county, six miles north of Galena is a prairie country and contains one of the richest lead mines in this region.

Virginia Settlement, in McHenry county on the west side of Fox River, seven miles from it. It is on the old Indian trail from Chicago to the Wisconsin. The prairie and timber about equally interspersed, surface rolling, soil a black sandy loam and very rich.

Wabash Grove, in the east part of Shelby county, is on one of the heads of the Little Wabash. The timber and prairie and excellent and the settlement is large.

Wabash Point, in the southwestern part of Coles county is the principal head of the Little Wabash. The timber and adjoining prairie are good and the settlement is large.

Wabonsie, a tributary of Fox River in Kane county. It rises in a large spring, runs southwest, and enters Fox River, 8 miles below the Big Woods. It is a fine mill stream.

Wait's Settlement, is in Bond county, nine miles west of Greenville and on the west side of Shoal creek. The prairie is good, and the timber abundant.

Wakefield's Settlement, in the south part of Shelby county, is a fertile tract well timbered. The settlement is large.

Walker's Grove, a post office in McDonough county, seven miles south of Macomb.

Walker's Grove, on the De Page, in Will county, forty miles from Chicago, is a beautiful tract surrounded by a rich prairie and a large settlement. It is about three miles long and one wide.

Walnut Creek, in Morgan county, enters the Illinois above Plum creek.

Walnut Creek heads in the northwestern part of Tazewell county, and enters the Mackinau in section sixteen, twenty-five north, one west. It has a free current, gravelly bottom, and runs through rich land.

Walnut, a branch of Beaucoup creek, in Perry county.

Walnut Grove, a rich tract on Walnut creek, in Tazewell county, about one mile wide and nine long.

Walnut Grove, a settlement in the southwest corner of Edgar county.

Walnut Hill Prairie, on the line between Jefferson and Marion counties. Some parts are tolerably good, others rather flat and wet. It is four miles long and three broad and contains seventy-five families.

Walnut Hill post office is in the southwest corner of Marion county, on the road from Carlyle to Mount Vernon.

Walnut Prairie, in Clark county, near the Wabash about five miles long and two broad. It is tolerably level, has a rich, sandy soil, and a fine settlement.

Walnut Point, post office, is in Adams county, on section thirty-two, township one north, six west, eighteen miles northeast from Quincy.

Wapelo, a town site at the falls of Apple River, in Jo Daviess county. Here are a saw and grist mill, several families, stores, etc.

Ward's Settlement is the oldest in Macon county, and is eight miles south of Decatur.

Warrenton, a town site in Cook county on the west fork of the Du Page, four miles above Napierville.

Warsaw is an important commercial position, on the Mississippi River, at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, 16 miles west-southwest from Carthage. It has a steam mill, several stores, and 200 or 300 inhabitants, and is to be terminated of the railroad from Peoria. It is near the site of old Fort Edwards.

Washington, a new village in the western part of Fulton county, twenty miles from Lewistown.

Washington, a town site and handsome village in Tazewell county, on section twenty-three, township twenty-six north, three west, and 14 miles north of Tremont. It is situated on the south side of Holland's Grove, on the border of a delightful prairie, and contains 5 stores, 2 groceries, 4 physicians, various mechanics, a stream saw mill, and about 400 inhabitants. The post office is Holland's Grove.

Washington Grove is in the interior of Ogle county, and contains two or three sections of timber, surrounded with an excellent rolling prairie.

Waterloo, the seat of justice for Monroe county, is situated on high ground, in township two south, ten west. It has a court house of brick, two stores, two taverns, and about twenty families.

Watt's Settlement, in Crawford county, is sixteen miles west from Palestine, and has about twenty families.

Waynesville, a town in the southwest corner of McLean county, on the road from Springfield to Bloomington, and on the south side of the timber of Kickapoo creek. It has 6 stores, 2 groceries, 2 physicians, a Methodist and a Presbyterian society, a good school, and a charter for a Seminary of learning. It has a fine body of timber on the north, and a rich, undulating and beautiful prairie south. Population in the village is about 150.

Webb's Prairie, and settlement, in Franklin county, fifteen miles east of north from Frankfort. The land is good.

Weed's Settlement is on a branch of the Vermilion in Livingston county. Here is fine, rolling, rich prairie, lime and free stone, coal, and will probably be the location of the county seat.

Webster, a town site in the northwest corner of Livingston county on section ten, township thirty north, three east, on the south side of the Vermilion River, surrounded with great bodies of lime and free stone coal, and extensive tracts of rich, undulating prairie.

Weigle's Settlement, in Adams county, has 600 or 700 industrious Germans, of the society of Dunkards, and is watered by the West fork of McKee's creek.

West Fort of Kaskaskia River rises in Macon county, in township sixteen north, four east, and enters the main stream, ten miles above Shelbyville. The land on its borders, in general, is excellent, and the timber good.

West Fork of Muddy Settlement, in the northwestern part of Jefferson county, is a well timbered tract.

West Fork of Shoal Creek rises in the north part of Montgomery county, in nine north, three west, runs south, and forms the main creek. The average width of the timber is two miles.

West Grove is a body of timber on Pine creek in Ogle county.

West's Settlement, in Johnson county, on the east side of Cash River, is a fine, fertile tract, and has thirty families.

Wet Grove, is a small body of timber in Ogle county near the head of Kite creek.

Whitaker's Creek, in Greene county, a branch of Apple creek on the south side.

White Hall, a village and post office in Greene county, 10 miles above Carrollton, on the road to Jacksonville. It has 9 stores, 2 groceries, 2 taverns, 3 physicians, one school, and an incorporation for a Seminary, a steam mill in the vicinity, framed houses of worship for Methodists and Baptists, and 600 inhabitants.

Whitley's Point is the head of Whitley's creek; in Shelby county, east of Kaskaskia River, and fifteen miles northeast from Shelbyville. The timber and prairie and good.

Whitley's Settlement, on Whitley's creek, Shelby county, fifteen miles northeast from Shelbyville is a mixture of timber and prairie.

White Oak Grove, in Henry county, is a fine body of timber. Adjoining it is Andover Settlement.

Whiteside's Settlement, in Pope county, is twelve miles west of Golconda on Big Bay creek and the state road, and has 100 families.

Whiteside's Station, in Monroe county, five miles north of Waterloo, is one of the oldest American settlements in Illinois.

Wiggin's Ferry, on the Mississippi opposite St. Louis and the property adjoining, are owned by a company. Here are two good steamboats, a public house, livery stable, store, and post office.

Wilcoxen's Settlement, in Fulton county - good soil.

William's Creek rises in Hancock and enters Crooked creek in Schuyler county.

Willis's Settlement, in Putnam county, five miles east of Hennepin, was begun in 1827, in a rich tract of land.

Wilson's Grove is a beautiful eminence, one mile west of Jacksonville, and now called College Hill. The Illinois college stands on its eastern slope.

Winchester, in Morgan county, sixteen miles southwest of Jackson, on section twenty-nine, township fourteen north, in range twelve west of the third principal meridian, was laid off in 1831, on elevated ground, and is a thriving village, increasing rapidly, has several stores, mechanics of various descriptions, and a population of three or four hundred. The Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists have societies here. It has excellent lime and free stone quarries in the vicinity and several mills.

Winchester, a town site on the Kankakee, 9 miles above its mouth, and containing half a dozen houses, one store, one tavern, two saw mills, etc.

Windsor, a town, in fifteen north, nine east on the Bureau, and on the stage road from Peoria by Princeton to Galena. It has 2 stores, 2 groceries, one tavern, one lawyer, one physician, one minister and about 100 inhabitants. A grist and saw mill are near.

Winnebago Inlet, in Putnam county, passes through several ponds into the Winnebago Swamp, in Ogle county.

Winnebago Swamp is in Henry and Ogle counties, thirty miles long, and from one-half to three miles wide.

Wolf Creek is a branch of the Sangamon River, in Sangamon county. The land is level but well settled.

Wolf Creek, in Effingham, enters the Kaskaskia River.

Wolf Run¸ in Morgan county, enters Dickerson's Lake.

Wood River, in Madison county, enters the Mississippi nearly opposite the mouth of the Missouri. It rises in Macoupin and runs through a fine country.

Woodbury is a town site and post office on the national road, situated in Coles county, containing half a dozen families.

Wood's Prairie is a small tract of good land in Wabash county, ten miles from Mount Carmel.

Worcester post office is in McDonough county on the western side.

Workman Post Office is in McDonough county on the western side.

Worley's Creek, in Adams county, enters Bear creek.

Wyoming, a town site and post office on the east side of Spoon River, on section two, township twelve north, six east, on the mail road from Hennepin to Knoxville.

Yankee Settlement, in the southwestern part of Cook and corner of Will county, a large settlement in a rich undulating prairie, between Hickory creek, and the Sauganaskee.

Yellow Banks are sand bluffs of the Mississippi, in Warren and Mercer counties, distinguished as Lower, Middle, and Upper, at the mouths of Henderson, Pope and Edwards Rivers - the first five miles long. They furnish convenient landings for steamboats.

Yellow Creek, in Winnebago county, enters the Peek-a-ton-o-kee near its junction with Rock River. It rises near Kellogg's Grove.

York, a village in Clark county, on the Wabash, contains one steam saw and flouring mill, four stores, and about 300 inhabitants. It exports amount to $40,000.


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