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THE COUNTY ALMSHOUSES OF ILLINOIS.

Source: "Reports Made to the General Assembly of Illinois" - 1881

Submitted by Tina Easley
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Adams County.—Adams county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The county owns a farm, and maintains a poorhouse. The present keeper's name is William Elliott, and his post office address is Coatsburg. He is paid a salary of forty dollars per month. The keeper is appointed by a committee of the county board. The board audits and allows all bills of expenses after the same have been incurred, and a rule has been adopted requiring all paupers who are utterly dependent to go to the county farm. Notwithstanding the adoption of this rule, however, the amount of outdoor relief in this county is estimated at sixteen thousand dollars per annum. Each overseer is allowed to grant relief according to his discretion. The laws with respect to reports by overseers, and by the keeper of the poorhouse are not enforced by the board, but an almshouse register is kept. The number of inmates, March, 1880, was one hundred and seven. There have been received since that date nineteen, three born in the almshouse, and twenty-eight discharged and died, leaving one hundred and one pauper inmates on the day of visitation, of whom sixty-two were males and thirty-nine females. There have been no changes in the almshouse since the date of our last report. The rooms and bedding were found to be clean and in good condition, and the inmates appeared to be in good health and well cared for. When visited, there were thirty-six insane paupers upon the farm, of whom twenty-five were in seclusion, but none were wearing any restraining apparatus. The condition of the apartments in which the insane were kept was good, the rooms being clean and well ventilated. In our last report, mention was made of one female patient who occupies a large wooden box filled with straw. She will not wear clothing, but is covered with a canvass cloth, is in constant motion, has bruised herself from head to foot, and put out her own eyes. This patient is still an occupant of the box referred to, and now has for company, in the same room, another female patient, not in a box, but in an entirely nude condition. The number of insane inmates capable of farm labor is four, and of labor about the house, four. The estimated value of their labor during the year is six hundred dollars. The county employs a physician to the almshouse, who is paid for his services one hundred and twenty-four dollars per year, and furnishes medicine at his own cost. The total pauper expenses of this county are about twenty two thousand dollars a year. The cost of the almshouse is about four thousand dollars.

Alexander.—Alexander county is not under township organization. The almshouse is in the same condition as when last reported upon. It is in charge of Mr. Thomas A. Brown, who receives all paupers sent to him, and supplies them with everything except medicines and medical attendance, at the rate of seven dollars per month for each adult, and four dollars for each child under sixteen years of age. His contract extends to the first of December, 1884, when he will have held his position for nearly eleven years. The ' county requires all paupers to go to the county farm, but the amount of outdoor relief per annum is about twelve hundred dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since 1870. The county employs two physicians—one for the city of Cairo, who receives three hundred dollars per annum, and one who resides at Thebes, where the county farm is situated, and attends paupers in the poorhouse, and furnishes them with all needed medicines, for two hundred dollars a year. The situation of this farm is open to criticism. The land is sterile, and the site, winch is upon the bluffs of the Mississippi river, twenty miles above Cairo, very inaccessible. When visited, there was only one insane inmate, who was a woman, and appeared to be in comfortable condition. The paupers generally are very plainly fed, and but moderately clothed. The number of inmates was nine, of whom six were males and three females.

Bond.—Bond county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The appearance of the almshouse is attractive. It is a comfortable brick house, standing about fifty feet from the street, and only one-half mile south of the court house. The front yard has an abundance of shade trees and shrubbery, and the premises are in excellent condition. The almshouse keeper receives a salary of two hundred dollars a year. The number of inmates, when visited, was fourteen, of whom nine were idiotic, and two (both men) insane. One of the insane inmates was in seclusion, but his apartment was clean and comfortable; the other is at work upon the farm. The amount of outdoor relief extended by this county is eighteen hundred dollars per annum. The laws with respect to reports are strictly enforced by the county board, and an almshouse register has been kept since 1876. The number of inmates admitted during the last three years and a half has been ninety-two. The county physician is required to visit the almshouse, the jail, and outside paupers in the town of Greenville, and to furnish medicine at his own cost, for one hundred and twenty-five, dollars a year.

Boone.—Boone county is under township organization. It owns no poorhouse, but has a contract with C. C. Leach, who receives the poor sent to him, and supplies them with food and clothing, for which service the county pays him six hundred and fifty dollars a year. Mr. Leach's farm is six miles southeast of Belvidere. The number of paupers in his care, when visited, was only five. The county employs no county physician, and the total expense of medical attendance during the year ending September 1, 1879, was two hundred and fifty-eight dollars and twenty-five cents. The amount of outdoor relief extended,is small, and the total pauper expenses do not much exceed fifteen hundred dollars a year. The accounts and reports respecting pauper relief required by law are not kept; neither is there any pauper register.

Brown.—Brown county is under township organization, but the poor are a county charge. There is no change to report in the condition and appearance of the almshouse. Twenty-five inmates were present, of whom ten were children, and two insane. One of the insane paupers is kept in seclusion. The children attend the district school. The cost of the almshouse last year was twenty-one hundred and forty dollars, of which about four hundred and forty was expended for repairs and improvements. The amount of out-door relief is very small; last year it was seventy-eight dollars and fifty cents. The explanation of this lies in the rule adopted by the board, namely, that paupers who are not sent to the almshouse shall be maintained at the expense of the towns. The overseers, however, fail to keep the accounts and make the returns required by law. The almshouse keeper is paid a salary of three hundred and seventy dollars, and is required to furnish one team, two cows, and all farm implements. No regular almshouse register is kept. The county physician is paid ninety dollars a year. He visits the almshouse only, but furnishes his own medicines.

Bureau.—Bureau county is under township organization, but maintains, at county expense, a farm and an almshouse, which, in many respects, are worthy of the highest praise. The keeper, Mr. D. C. Cooper, has been in office since March, 1872, and is probably one of the best managers in similar position in the state. His salary is nine hundred dollars. The county audits all bills and pays all expenses. The number of inmates, on the day of visitation, was fifty-three, of whom thirty-three were males and twenty females, all adults. Thirteen of them were insane. The almshouse expenses for the year aggregated thirty-nine hundred dollars. The cost of out-door relief is much larger. It amounted, for the year, to about seventy-nine hundred and fifty dollars, and the total pauper expense of the county exceeded twelve thousand dollars. The county requires all paupers, who are supported entirely at the county expense, to go to the county farm. A pauper register has been kept since December, 1858, and the accounts and reports required by law are regularly filed with the county clerk. The county physician visits paupers in the almshouse only, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, for eighty-five dollars a year. The almshouse remains as described in our last report, without change. The insane department is very inadequate for the proper care of insane persons.

Calhoun.—Calhoun county is not under township organization. The almshouse is kept by a new contractor, who pays three dollars and seventy-five cents per acre for the use of one hundred and seven acres, and receives two dollars a week for each pauper committed to his charge. The county furnishes nothing except medical care. The county physician is paid one hundred and eighty dollars a year, and he visits the almshouse, the jail, and the paupers in Hardin, precinct, and furnishes medicine^ at his own cost. There were only five inmates, of whom one was a child attending school, and none were insane. The total pauper expense in this county is about two thousand dollars, of which a very small amount, estimated not to exceed two hundred dollars, is paid for outdoor relief. No almshouse register is kept, and the overseers, of whom seven have been appointed by the county court, do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Carroll.—Carroll county is under township organization, but the poor are supported at the expense of the county. There has been no change at the county farm since our last report, except that a hay-barn and hog-pen have been built, and a new keeper appointed, who took charge for one year from March 12, 1880, for a salary of five hundred dollars. The number of inmates, when visited, was twenty, of whom ten were males and ten females. There were three children under sixteen years of age, and three insane persons, of whom two were in seclusion. An almshouse register has been kept since 1860, and is apparently completely written up. The number of paupers received since that date is one hundred and nine. The county board have expressed a preference for outdoor relief. The total almshouse expenses are about three thousand dollars per year, and the cost of outdoor relief about twenty-eight hundred dollars. The total pauper expenses of the county are something over six thousand dollars. The accounts and reports required to be made by the overseers of the poor are neglected.

Cass.—Cass county is not under township organization. The number of inmates upon the county farm is only four, all adults, and none of them insane. The farm is leased to a contractor, who pays seven hundred and fifty dollars rent, and receives two dollars and fifty cents a week for each pauper. The county supplies clothing, furniture, and medical care. The county physician visits the almshouse and outdoor paupers in Beardstown precinct, furnishing his own medicines, for one hundred and sixty-five dollars a year. Two other physicians are employed by the county, one of whom is paid an annual salary of twenty-five dollars for visiting the county jail, and the other seventy-four dollars for attending paupers in Virginia precinct. This county appears to prefer the system of outdoor relief. The amount expended for such relief last year was thirty-eight hundred and sixty dollars, while the amount paid for board of paupers upon the farm was only one hundred and sixty dollars. This, however, is exclusive of the amount charged the keeper for the rent of the farm. No proper almshouse register has been provided, and there are no overseers of the poor.

Champaign.—Champaign county farm has been enlarged, since the date of our last report, by the purchase of eighty acres of land adjoining the farm on the east. The buildings remain as before, except that there is a farm-house, one and a half stories high, upon the new purchase. The premises are in excellent condition, and the furniture, beds and bedding are a credit to the county and the keeper. The present keeper, Mr. Samuel D. Jones, has retained his position since the first of March, 1877. His salary is five hundred dollars. The county pays all expenses, although under township organization. The county board makes an annual appropriation of two thousand dollars a year for the almshouse, and its affairs are managed by the committee on poor-farm. The chairman has authority to draw against the appropriation. The expense of outdoor relief is about six thousand dollars a year. The overseers of the poor fail to keep the accounts and make the reports required by law, but an almshouse register has been correctly kept since March 1, 1877. The county physician visits the poor farm and the jail, for one hundred and fifty dollars per annum, but does not furnish medicine. On the day of visitation, the number of inmates was twenty-eight, of whom twenty-two were males. There were six insane inmates, four men and two women. One of them was in seclusion, and one wearing restraining apparatus.

Christian.—Christian county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The almshouse remains as at the time of our last report, and is creditable to the county. There were eight inmates, of whom one was insane, a man capable of labor about the house, but to a very limited extent. The amount of outdoor relief granted is about nineteen hundred dollars a year. Each supervisor grants outdoor relief at his own discretion, subject only to the auditing of his accounts by the committee of the county board upon the poor. The.county physician is paid ninety dollars per year for attendance upon the paupers at the county farm, and furnishes medicine at his own expense. The laws with respect to reports by overseers of the poor to the county board are not enforced. An almshouse register, well kept, has been in use, and fully written up, since the year 1870.

Clark.—Clark county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The county owns no farm and maintains no poorhouse. The poor are let out by contract to Mr. William M. Connelly, at Westfield, sixteen miles northwest of Marshall, the county seat. He receives all paupers sent to him, and furnishes everything, including medical attendance and burial expenses, for one dollar and 1 forty cents per week for each pauper. The amount of outdoor relief granted by the county is about one thousand dollars per annum. The overseers of the poor in this count}' do not make the reports to the county board required by law. The county employs no physician. It will be observed that the contractor has been changed during the past year, and the number of inmates has increased from twenty-six, at the date of the last report, to forty on the day when this county was visited. In consequence of the distance of the farm from the county seat, it was not inspected, but papers on file in the county clerk's office, including the report of the pauper committee, indicate that the care given to paupers of all classes is entirely satisfactory.

Clay.—Clay county, although under township organization, maintains its paupers at county expense. The county owns an almshouse and farm, thirteen miles southwest of the county seat. There have been no changes since our last report. The premises were found in good order, but the inmates, of whom there were fifteen, were only moderately well clothed. The number of children under sixteen years of age was three; and there was an insane woman on the farm, who was said to require no personal care. The keeper is not paid a salary, but receives all paupers sent him at a stipulated price for board, namely: one dollar and thirty cents per week for each inmate. The amount paid under this contract, last year, was eleven hundred and twenty-nine dollars and ninety-five cents. The cost of outdoor relief was something over twenty-five hundred dollars, and the total pauper expense slightly exceeded four thousand dollars. The county employs no county physician. The records and reports required by law.of the overseers of the poor are not kept and placed on file in the office of the county clerk. The keeper of the poorhouse has a register for keeping the statistical record of paupers, but the book was not at the house when visited.

Clinton.—Clinton county is under township organization, but the poor are maintained by the county. No changes are reported in the condition of the almshouse, which needs material improvements and repairs. The plastering is badly broken, the rooms occupied by male paupers poorly ventilated, and a disagreeable odor was perceptible. This almshouse was inspected at two o'clock in the afternoon, and nearly all of the older inmates were found in bed. The number of inmates has increased from eighteen to twenty-three, of whom five were insane and-two were idiots. None of the insane were in seclusion or restrained in any way of their liberty. Most of them were employed at mild labor about the house, all of them being women. The almshouse keeper receives all paupers sent her and supplies everything, except furniture and medical attendance, at the rate of one dollar and ten cents per week for each inmate. The board refuses outdoor relief, except in those cases where the person receiving it is too sick to be removed, or where such relief is cheaper than it would be if he were sent to the county farm. The amount of outdoor relief granted is thirteen hundred dollars per annum. The county employs a physician, who visits the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes his own medicines, for seventy-five dollars a year. The overseers of the poor do not make the reports to the county board required by law. The board has provided the keeper of the poorhouse with a register of paupers, but it has never been written up.

Coles.—Coles county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. Since our last report, there has been a change of almshouse keepers, which does not appear to have been an improvement. The rooms, bedding and inmates, when inspected, were in a filthy condition. The furniture is inadequate, and the bedding ragged and too old for use. The keeper in charge receives the paupers under contract. He is allowed one dollar and forty cents a week for each inmate, and supplies everything except furniture. He also pays five hundred dollars a year for the use of the farm. In this county, each township employs a physician. The amount of outdoor relief is a little over three thousand dollars a year. The reports required of the overseers and of the keeper of the county farm are regularly made. An almshouse register has been kept, in proper form, since the year 1877, and the number of paupers admitted since that date has been one hundred and sixty-. nine. The number of inmates on the day of inspection was thirty-five, of whom six were insane, and fourteen* were children. A school is maintained on the farm for the benefit of pauper children, the general appearance of whom was ragged and dirty. The insane inmates are allowed their freedom, and roam about the farm. Three of them are capable of a very moderate amount of labor, the value of which is estimated not to exceed fifty dollars a year; three of them are uncleanly in their persons and habits.

Cook.—Such a full and minute account of the Cook county poorhouse was given in our last report that it does not seem necessary to add anything to it at the present time, except to note the fact that there are indications of a spirit of improvement in the management, partly due, no doubt, to the criticisms made by us two years ago. The county board have begun the work of repairing the insane hospital, which is in a very dilapidated condition. The buildings devoted to the use of the paupers remain as they were, but a system of records and accounts has been introduced which must result in time in a thorough overhauling of the present system of administration, and its reformation in many particulars. The association of an insane department of such magnitude with the poorhouse proper is the cause of part of the evils complained of in our last report, and it is very desirable that a separation of the two departments should be made as soon as it can be effected.

Crawford.—Crawford county is under township organization, but the county maintains all paupers. The paupers have been removed from the farm of the former contractor, and are now kept by Mr. Clark Boyd, six miles north-east of the county seat. He is paid one dollar and a half per week for each pauper, and furnishes everything, including furniture and clothing, except medical care. The county physician is paid seventy-five dollars a year for visiting the almshouse only, and supplies medicines. The number of inmates, when visited, was fourteen, of whom one, a woman, was insane. She is capable of labor about the house. There were four children, who attend public school at a distance of three miles. No almshouse register is kept, and the overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law. The amount paid the contractor for the board of paupers last year was something less than seventeen hundred dollars, and the amount paid for outdoor relief was about one thousand.

Cumberland.—Cumberland county supports its own poor, although the county is under township organization. The poorhouse remains as at the date of our last report. It is under charge of the same keeper, and is reasonably clean, and the inmates well cared for. The poor are let out by contract. The contractor supplies everything except furniture, farm stock and implements, and medicines and medical attendance. He pays five hundred dollars a year for the use of the farm, and is allowed one dollar and forty cents a week for each pauper sent him. The number of inmates, when visited, was sixteen, of whom nine were children under sixteen years of age, who attend the school of the district in which the county farm is situated. Three of the inmates are insane, none of them in seclusion, and none of them wear restraining apparatus of any sort. The amount of outdoor relief is about a thousand dollars a year. The overseers of the poor make no reports to the county board, and the keeper of the poorhouse is not supplied with any register for recording the reception and discharge of paupers. The county physician visits paupers in the almshouse only, and furnishes all needed medicines, for sixty-four dollars a year.

Dekalb.—DeKalb county is under township organization, but maintains its own poorhouse. There are no changes to report in the condition of the almshouse, which is well kept and a credit to the county. The inmates were well fed, well clothed, and apparently contented. There were twenty-four paupers present, when visited, of whom one only was under sixteen years of age, but eight were insane, namely, three men and five women. Four of them are said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits, two of them capable of farm labor, and two capable of labor about the house. The present keeper was appointed in March, 1878, and receives a salary of six hundred dollars. The total almshouse expense, per year, is about two thousand dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief about five thousand dollars. The almshouse is supported by an annual appropriation made by the county board, which is placed in charge, of a county agent, who has authority to draw against it. The county physician furnishes medicine at his own cost, and is paid only thirty dollars a year for his services. He does not visit the county jail, nor paupers outside of the almshouse. An almshouse register has been kept since April 1, 1867, since which time one hundred and fifty paupers have been admitted. The overseers of the poor keep the accounts and make the reports required by law, which are filed with the county clerk.

Dewitt.—DeWitt county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The amount of outdoor relief is over two thousand dollars a year. The cost of the almshouse is less than five hundred dollars a year, although the almshouse keeper receives a salary of one thousand dollars a year for his services, which is met, together with the other expenses of maintenance, from the earnings of the farm. The number of inmates, when visited, was twenty-three, of whom five were children, and three insane. The insane were none of them in seclusion, and none under restraint. No regular almshouse register is kept, and the reports to the county board required to be made by the overseers and by the almshouse keeper are not filed with the county clerk. The county employs no physician; each township employs its own. The buildings are scattered, very poorly arranged, and inconvenient.

Douglas.—Douglas county supports its own poor, although under township organization. The number of inmates upon the county farm was thirteen, of whom, strange to say, none were insane, but nine were idiotic or imbecile. No change is reported in the condition of the premises, and the almshouse keeper remains as at the date of the last report. He takes all the paupers sent him, under a contract with the county, by which he pays one dollar and fifty cents an acre for the use of the county farm, and furnishes the pauper inmates with everything except clothing and medical care, for two dollars per week for each inmate. The county board requires all paupers without family to go to the county farm. The amount of outdoor relief is about fifteen hundred dollars a year. No almshouse register is kept, and no reports made by the overseers to the county board.

Dupage.—DuPage county owns no county farm. The towns take care of their own poor. The overseers do not make the reports required by law, and no account of pauper expenses can therefore be made.

Edgar.—Edgar county is under township organization, but the poor are maintained at the expense of the county. The county farm and almshouse are exceptionally good, and under competent management. The only change since our last report consists in the erection of a brick wash-house, sixteen by twenty feet. The number of inmates was twenty-four, of whom five were insane, and three of these were in seclusion. One of the insane inmates is a woman capable of housework, and her services are estimated to be worth about two dollars a week. The keeper's salary has been increased to eight hundred dollars a year. The county furnishes everything. The almshouse expenses are about thirty-five hundred dollars a year, and the allowance for outdoor relief exceeds forty-five hundred dollars. An almshouse register has been kept, in good shape, since 1874, and contains a record of two hundred and eighty-three paupers received since that date. The overseers of the poor make the reports required by law to the county board. The county physician, who resides at Paris, visits the county farm, the jail, and outside paupers. He furnishes medicine at his own cost, and receives for is services an allowance of four hundred and seventy dollars a year. The management of its pauper affairs is creditable to this county.

Edwards.—Edwards county is not under township organization, but the county has no farm or almshouse, neither does it employ any county physician. The overseers make the reports and return the lists required by law, but do not keep and file the prescribed accounts. The amount expended for the support of paupers, by contracts made with various persons in the county, last year, was six hundred and fifty dollars; the amount granted in outdoor relief was nearly twelve hundred.

Effingham.—Effingham county, although under township organization, supports its own poor, but owns no county farm. The paupers are kept in the old court-house at Ewington, the former county-seat, where there were found to be seventeen inmates, of whom five were insane. This bedding is so dilapidated that it would fall to pieces if it were not tied together by iron rods crossing in every direction. The furniture is poor in quality and meagre in quantity. The bedding is dirty, worn out, and some of it almost rotten. The county does not furnish bedding, and the result is that each new contractor buys of his predecessor the bedding already on hand, which accounts for its shameful condition. The poor are let out by contract to Mr. Ira Pendlay. He furnishes everything, except furniture and medical treatment, and receives one dollar and sixteen cents a week for each pauper inmate. All paupers are required by a rule of the board to go to Ewington, but the amount of outdoor relief granted, nevertheless, is about thirteen hundred dollars a year- The almshouse register is kept very imperfectly, and the overseers do not make the reports to the board required by law. The county employs a physician to visit the almshouse, who furnishes medicine at his own cost, for one hundred and fifty dollars a year.

Fayette.—Fayette county is under township organization. The county farm has been enlarged by the purchase of forty acres of timber land immediately north of the buildings, and a new building has been erected, to serve as a pest-house, in which one room has been fitted up for the confinement of any insane inmate when violent. Iron bars have been placed across the window and a padlock upon the door. Otherwise, the condition of the establishment is unchanged. A new keeper has, however, been employed, who receives a salary of three hundred and sixty dollars a year. The county supplies everything and pays all expenses. The amount of outdoor relief in this county exceeds three thousand dollars a year. The county physician visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers outside, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, for two hundred and seventy-five dollars a year. The overseers of the poor make the reports required by law, and a register is kept at the almshouse, which was opened in 1875, and now contains one hundred and eighty-six names. The number of inmates upon the county farm when visited was twenty-four, of whom five were children and two insane. The insane are allowed to roam over the farm at their own will. One of them is capable of a certain amount of farm labor; the other is uncleanly and incompetent. Of ten women found at this establishment, two were blind, four partially blind, and three imbecile. There were eight men, all of whom were old and infirm.

Ford.—Ford county is under township organization, but the paupers are cared for by the county. The county does not own any farm nor maintain a poorhouse. Each supervisor provides for the poor in his own town, and the cost is met from the county treasury. The county paid, last year, for board of paupers, one hundred and seventy dollars, and for outdoor relief thirteen hundred. The total pauper expenses are two thousand dollars. No county physician is employed. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the returns required by law. Twelve paupers are permanently supported, of whom six are males and six females. Four of them are children.

Franklin.—Franklin county is not under township organization. The account given of the almshouse and farm, in our last report, is true at the present time, except that the premises are still more dilapidated than they were then. The establishment is very dirty, and not creditable to the county authorities or the keeper. The present keeper took charge February 20, 1878. He is not paid a salary, but receives one dollar and fifty cents per week for each pauper sent him. The number of inmates, when visited, was twenty, of whom five were males and fifteen females. There were four children present, under sixteen years of age, of whom two—both illegitimate —were born in the poorhouse. There were no insane inmates, but five feeble-minded. The county expends nothing for outdoor relief. An almshouse register has been kept since January, 1873. Sixty-three inmates have been admitted since that date. The overseers of the poor do not make the reports nor keep the accounts required by law.

Fulton.—In our last report respecting Fulton county, we said: "This farm occupies a beautiful site; the main building is good ; the inmates are well fed and tolerably well clothed; but there is a general lack of neatness and cleanliness, both in the premises and in the paupers themselves, which has been noticeable at every visit made by us for ten years. The filth around the house is offensive; the portion of the house occupied by male paupers has a bad smell; and the insane department is so neglected that it is one of the most forlorn in the state; the cells are very dirty. The male and female insane are confined in cells opening in a common hall." We are happy to say that a new keeper has been appointed, who took charge in October, 1879, and there is a> marked improvement in the condition of the almshouse, in every respect. The grounds around the building are clean, and the back yard is being graded. The house has been calcimined throughout, the rooms are clean, and a pure atmosphere pervades the whole institution. The inmates are well cared for; but the furniture is insufficient, and there is great need of a new supply of beds and bedding. The windows to the insane department have been enlarged, thereby securing better ventilation; but our criticism as to the association of the sexes is still true. This building should be partitioned off, so that the sexes might have separate apartments. The number of insane inmates, the day when visited, was four, of whom one was a man and three were women. Two of them were said to be" uncleanly in their habits; two of them were in seclusion, and one was mechanically restrained. The total number of inmates was forty-eight, of whom seven were children under sixteen years of age. The children attend school at the district schoolhouse, one-half mile south of the county farm. The county board makes an annual appropriation of four thousand dollars for the support of the county farm, and places it in the hands of the pauper committee. The county has also expended two thousand dollars during the past year in improvements and repairs. The amount of outdoor relief granted during the year was something over fifty-six hundred dollars, and the total amount expended by the county on pauper account was nearly twelve thousand dollars. The county physician receives a-salary of two hundred dollars a year. The county is under township organization, but all pauper expenses are paid from the county treasury. We are much gratified to note the improvement in the pauper management, in this county, and hope that the present spirit will hereafter prevail. An almshouse register has been kept since September, 1877, but the overseers of the poor do not keep the accounts nor make the reports concerning outdoor relief which are required by law.

Gallatin - Gallatin county is not under township organization. The county owns no farm and maintains no poorhouse, but leases all its paupers to a single contractor, upon a farm two miles northwest of Ridgway, and fourteen miles from Shawneetown, the county seat. The contractor furnishes food and clothing, and the county medicines and medical attendance. The amount paid by the county is one dollar and eighty cents a week for each pauper. The amount of outdoor relief extended is about five hundred dollars per annum. The county has furnished the contractor a register for keeping the statistical record of paupers, but it is not in use. The county physician receives ninety-nine dollars and ninety-live cents a year for his services, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, and visits paupers upon the poor-farm, and prisoners at the jail. The buildings occupied by the paupers in this county are shanties, made with upright weather-boarding, not plastered on the inside, and many of the cracks are not covered with strips to keep out the cold air. The inmates are very poorly clad. A little girl, about seven years of age, was going around bare-foot, who had not had on a shoe or stocking for over a year. The sleeping apartments for male paupers contain no bedsteads; bunks are used instead. The beds are of straw, in ticks worn out with age, and the bedding tattered, torn and dirty. The same is true of the appearance of the inmates. The impression made by an inspection of this establishment is painful in the extreme, and suggests the propriety of changing the contractor. It is to be hoped that the county board will inspect the premises and satisfy themselves as to the justice of this criticism.

Greene.—Greene county is not under township organization. The county owns a farm and maintains a poorhouse, concerning which there is nothing new to report. The premises are in excellent condition, the rooms, beds and bedding in good order, and the rules and regulations adopted by the county board are strictly enforced. The keeper has been in the office since 1873. He takes the county farm under contract, and receives all paupers sent to him, for whose board he is paid one dollar and fifty cents each per week. The county physician furnishes medicine at his own cost, and visits both the almshouse and the jail, for one hundred and forty-five dollars a year. The number of inmates in the poorhouse, when visited, was twenty-eight, of whom three were children, who attend the district school. There were six insane inmates present, who seem to require but little care. None of them were in seclusion, and but little restraint is used. Two of them perform labor about the house, and one of them is capable of farm labor. Two are said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits. The total almshouse expense for the year was about thirty-two hundred dollars, and the county paid for outdoor relief nine hundred dollars. The total pauper expense, on all accounts, was hardly in excess of forty-four hundred dollars.

Grundy.—Grundy county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. Since our last report, the county board has sold the old farm, and bought a new one, five miles south of Morris, upon which it has erected a new building. This building is of brick, two stories in height, and contains sixteen rooms. The premises were found in good condition, and the insane inmates well cared for. The apartments occupied by the insane are clean and well ventilated. There were but three insane, of whom two were men and one a woman. None of them were in seclusion, and none restrained. The total number of paupers was eleven, all of them adults. The new keeper took charge of the almshouse in March, 1878. , He pays two hundred dollars a year for the use of the county farm, and feeds the paupers for one dollar and seventy-five cents each, per week. The county supplies clothing, furniture and medical attendance. The keeper provides the stock and implements used upon the farm. The amount paid, under the contract, during the year, is fifteen hundred dollars. The cost of outdoor relief exceeds five thousand dollars. The county physician visits both the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, for one hundred and eighty-nine dollars a year. An almshouse register has been kept since December, 1869, but the overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Hamilton.—Hamilton county is not under township organization. The condition of the paupers has been improved since our last report. A new farm-house has been built. The log houses have been torn down, and the old farm cottage repaired and put in order. A new keeper has been appointed, who took charge in January, 1880. The terms of his contract with the county require him to receive all paupers sent to him, and furnish them with both food and clothing, at the rate of sixty-five dollars each per year. He, has the use of the county farm without charge, and provides his own farm stock and implements. The county provides furniture, and assumes the responsibility of medical attendance. The county physician receives sixty-five dollars a year for visiting paupers in the almshouse and at the jail, or residing in McLeansborough township, and furnishes medicine at his own cost. The county pays the contractor, for the board of paupers on the county farm, about one thousand dollars a year, and the cost of outdoor relief does not exceed two hundred and fifty dollars. Including the improvements made during the past year, the total pauper expense was about nineteen hundred dollars.

Hancock.—Hancock county is under township organization, but the poor are supported at the expense of the county. The present keeper was appointed in 1877, and there is no change in the condition of the almshouse since our last report. The management is creditable, but the buildings very imperfectly adapted to their use. The salary of the keeper is seven hundred dollars; that of the physician is eighty-five dollars. The total almshouse expense is thirteen hundred and fifty dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief nearly thirty-two hundred and fifty dollars. The number of inmates, when visited, was twenty-nine, of whom two were children, who attend school in Carthage. There were eighteen insane inmates. Eight of them are kept in seclusion, and taken out of their cells only upon Sunday. An almshouse register has been kept since January, 1871. The accounts and lists required to be kept and returned by the overseers of the poor receive no attention in this county.

Hardin.—Hardin county is not under township organization. The county owns a county farm, and maintains a poorhouse, which is managed by a contractor. The contractor pays one hundred and ninety dollars a year for the use of the farm, and receives twelve dollars a month for each pauper sent him. He supplies everything, except medicines and medical attendance. The county employs no county physician. There is only one inmate, who is a blind woman. There is no change in the almshouse, except that the buildings are becoming more dilapidated, especially the cabin occupied during the day by the blind woman. The county board requires all paupers to go to the county farm, and expends nothing for outdoor relief. No almshouse register is kept, and the county court appoints no overseers of the poor.

Henderson.—Henderson county is not under township organization. The farm and poorhouse remain the same as at the date of our last report. The appearance of the premises is rather dirty; the buildings are in poor condition and badly adapted for their purpose. The furniture, beds and bedding are old and worn out, and the house is not very neatly kept. The almshouse register is kept upon unbound sheets of paper. The number of inmates, on the day when visited, was twelve, of whom one was a child and two were insane. The pauper expenses of this county are about twenty-eight hundred dollars a' year, of which thirteen hundred and fifty dollars is on account of the almshouse, and fourteen hundred dollars is paid for outdoor and temporary relief. This statement, however, includes the expense of keeping prisoners, the jail in this county being in the basement of the almshouse, and the expenses are not kept separately. The county employs no county physician. The salary of the almshouse keeper is eight hundred and fifty dollars a year.

Henry.—Henry county is under township organization, but the county supports all paupers. For a description of the almshouse, which probably has no superior in the state, see our last report. Since that time the walls and floors have been painted. The condition of the premises is in every respect admirable. The inmates are well fed and cared for, but the furniture is rather scanty. There were forty-eight pauper inmates when visited, of whom six were children, who attend the district school, and eight were insane. None of the insane are in seclusion, or in any way restrained of their liberty, and their condition is one of personal comfort. Two of them.are said to be capable of farm labor, and two of labor about the house. An almshouse register has been kept since March, 1872, but the supervisors do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law. The county physician is paid one hundred and twenty-five dollars for visiting the almshouse only, and furnishes his own medicines. The almshouse keeper's salary is twelve hundred dollars, which includes the services of himself and wife. He has held his position for ten years, and his management is a source of pride to the people of the county. This establishment cost, last year, about sixty-six hundred and fifty dollars, and the amount of outdoor relief was in excess of six thousand dollars. The total pauper expenses are about thirteen thousand dollars. A committee of three audits all bills on account of county farm, and draws orders for their payment, -on the first of every month. A detailed report is made to the board in April of each year. The board requires all paupers receiving full support to go to the county farm, and is not favorable to the system of outdoor relief.

Iroquois.—Iroquois county is under township organization, but the poor are a county charge. There is no change to report in the condition of the almshouse, which is creditable to the keeper and to the county. His salary is six hundred dollars, and he was employed in March, 1875. The county physician's salary is one hundred and fifty dollars. He visits the almshouse, the jail, and all paupers within six miles of Watseka. He furnishes his own medicines. The number of inmates of the poorhouse, when visited, was thirty-seven, of whom eight were children, who attend the district school, and five were insane; none of them were in anywise restrained of their personal freedom, although three were said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits. None of them are capable of any labor. There is upon this farm a pauper (Irish) who is said have been born in November, 1778, and therefore to be nearly one hundred and two years of age; but all these statements must be taken with several grains of allowance for unintentional error. This man is healthy and strong, and looks as if he might live for many years to come. The cost of maintaining the almshouse is twenty-four hundred dollars a year, and the amount of outdoor relief two thousand; but the total pauper expenses are very nearly five thousand. An almshouse register has been provided by the county, but the overseers only partially comply with the law respecting the accounts and reports to be returned to the county board.

Jackson.—Jackson county supports its own poor, although under township organization. The county owns a county farm, and a poorhouse, but they are no credit to it. The walls and ceilings are black with smoke and dirt, and appear never to have been whitewashed; the plastering is falling off, and the appearance of the unfortunate inmates corresponds to that of the premises. The number of inmates, when visited, was seventeen, of whom seven were children and one was an insane woman. The present keeper is paid a salary of five hundred dollars a year, and the county supplies everything, but employs no county physician. This almshouse costs the county about eleven hundred and fifty dollars a year, and the cost of out-door relief is nearly four thousand. Overseers are not allowed to grant relief to an amount exceeding ten dollars. They do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law; but an almshouse register has been kept since March, 1877. One hundred and thirty-six paupers have been admitted since that date.

Jasper.—Jasper county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The county owns no county farm. The paupers are kept by a contractor, on his own farm, twelve miles northwest of Newton, the county seat. He supplies everything, including medicines and medical attendance, at the rate of one dollar and seventy-five cents a week for each pauper. The county employs no county physician. The contractor, who has filled this position for nearly a quarter of a century, continues to give entire satisfaction to the county authorities in every respect. The number of paupers present, when visited, was fourteen, of whom two were children, who attend school at the district school house; and there were no insane inmates. The amount paid for board of paupers is thirteen hundred and seventy dollars, and for outdoor relief about six hundred dollars. The county board contemplates purchasing a farm, and is at the present time receiving proposals for one. The overseers do not make the reports nor keep the accounts required by law; neither is there any almshouse register kept by the contractor.

Jefferson.—Jefferson county is under township organization, but the county supports all paupers. The county farm is leased to a contractor, who pays two hundred dollars a year for its use, and receives one dollar and fifty cents a week for each pauper inmate. The county furnishes the material for clothing, but the contractor makes it and keeps it in repair. The county also employs a county physician, who receives one hundred dollars a year, for which he visits the almshouse and jail and furnishes all needed medicines. The almshouse register is imperfect, being kept in an ordinary blank book. The amount paid for board of paupers is about thirteen hundred dollars a year, and the cost of outdoor relief is about the same. The overseers of the poor do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law. There were fourteen inmates on the day of visitation, of whom two were children, one of them blind and scrofulous, the other idiotic. There were no insane. The building occupied by the paupers is a log house very much dilapidated. The floors, ceiling, roof and the walls are all in bad condition, and the county should erect a new building. The premises are kept as clean as possible under the circumstances.

Jersey.—Jersey county supports its own poor, although under township organization. The county farm and almshouse, owned by the county, are leased to a contractor, who has occupied his present position since March, 1875. He has the use of the county farm free of charge, but furnishes his own farm stock and implements and hired help. The county supplies furniture, clothing and medical attendance, and pays-one dollar and a half per week for each pauper kept. The county physician visits the almshouse and jail and outdoor paupers in the city of Jerseyville, for two hundred and seventy-five dollars a year, but does not furnish medicines. The condition of the almshouse remains as last reported. The premises are in excellent order, both on the outside and the inside. The number of inmates, when visited, was thirty-three, of whom eight were children and two were insane, both of whom are in seclusion. An almshouse register has been kept since September, 1872, and the number of paupers admitted since that date is three hundred and seventy-seven. The overseers fail to keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The board has adopted a rule requiring all paupers to go to the county farm, but the amount expended for outdoor relief is twenty-three hundred dollars a year. The cost of maintaining the almshouse is about four thousand dollars.

JoDaviess.—JoDaviess county is under township organization, but owns a county farm and takes care of its poor at the county expense. Since our last report, the county has erected a new insane department of which the following is a description, taken from a Galena paper: "The new insane hospital, now in course of erection, is to be a brick building, two stories high, thirty-two feet front, and running back fifty feet, with a wing on the west side, eighteen by fourteen. The main door is at the south end, leading into a stairway hall, and connected by a doorway with the main hall in the male ward on the first floor, and by a stairway with the female ward on the second floor. The halls in each ward will be forty-two feet long and eight feet wide, extending into the wing eleven by eighteen feet. They will be lighted from both ends by four large windows, and heated by a furnace in the basement. There will be nine rooms in each ward, including bath-rooms and clothes-closets. On one side will be five rooms on each floor, eight by nine feet, and on the opposite side four rooms on each floor, .similar in size to those above described, together with roomy closets. The partition on each side of the hall will be of brick, and the cross-partitions and doors of wood. An aperture for passing in food is to be cut in each door. The rooms are to be heated and ventilated by means of transoms, which are to be covered with heavy wire screens. The arrangements for the comfort of the unfortunate inmates to be confined therein are to be most complete. The water supply will be from a tank in the attic, so arranged as to be under the control of the keeper alone, for use in every part of the building, and can be turned on at pleasure. The floor is to be made of hard-wood strips, and all the inside work will be finished in oil, and the outside painted white. The architectural features of the outside of the building will not be striking. Plainness and comfort have been taken into consideration by the committee, rather than show." The walls of the above-described building were up and the roof nearly on, when visited in August, 1880. The county deserves great credit for making this improvement, as the old insane department was badly planned and very inadequate. In other respects, the county farm remains as at the date of our last report. The same keeper is in charge. He has held his place for twelve or thirteen years. There were forty-six inmates present, all of them adults. Seven of the inmates were insane, all of whom are kept constantly in their cells, except while the cells are being cleaned. This constant seclusion is undoubtedly a great wrong to the helpless victims. The amount of outdoor relief in this county is very small, not equalling six hundred dollars a year. The almshouse expenses are something over three thousand dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since August, 1872. The number of paupers admitted since that date is two hundred and thirty-seven. The overseers of the poor fail to keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Johnson.—Johnson county is not under township organization. The county farm is leased to a contractor for one hundred and fifty dollars a year, and the county pays one dollar and a quarter a week for each pauper. The county supplies nothing except medical attendance. The county physician is paid two dollars and fifty cents for each visit to the almshouse. A rule of the board requires all paupers to go to the county farm, and the amount of outdoor relief is very small, being less than three hundred and fifty dollars. The almshouse expenses, during the year ending June 1, 1880, were nearly nineteen hundred dollars. One room has been added to the east end of the almshouse, since our last report; otherwise there is no change. The epileptic idiot before mentioned by us is. still kept in the same pen, four by six feet, built up with wooden slats, and is taken out only when he requires to be cleaned. There were twenty inmates on the day of visitation, of whom eight were children, none of whom attend school. Our former criticism upon the beds, bedding and clothing of the inmates, remains true at the present time. No almshouse register is kept, and the overseers keep no accounts and make no reports to the county board.

Kane.—Kane county supports its own poor, although the county is under township organization. The county farm and poorhouse are two miles southeast of Geneva, on the road from Batavia to Turner Junction, and the present keeper has occupied his position for ten years. His salary is three dollars and a-half a day, or twelve hundred and seventy-seven dollars a year. The record of paupers has been correctly kept since July 1, 1872, and at the time of inspection contained four hundred and twenty-five entries. The overseers of the poor make the reports and return the lists and keep the accounts required by law. Copies of their accounts are on file with the county clerk, and the accounts of the keeper of the poorhouse are filed in like manner, which is as it should be. The affairs of the poorhouse are managed by a committee of the county board. The board makes an appropriation from time to time for the expenses of the poorhouse, against which the committee has authority to draw. The annual statement of the county clerk, for the year ending September 80, 1880, shows a total pauper expense of fifteen thousand three hundred and seventy-one dollars and thirty-two cents, of which ten thousand three hundred and thirty-seven dollars and forty-nine cents is for outdoor relief. This does not include the amount paid to the state institutions. The building upon the poor farm contains fifty-two rooms, and the maintenance of the inmates costs the county about four thousand dollars a year. The capacity of the house is about twice as great as the present needs of the county require. The premises are in very good condition, and to be commended for their cleanliness. The keeper objects to the statement made in the last report of the board of charities that the county has never treated its insane well. This remark is based partly upon the fact that one of its insane has been kept in chains for many years, except when in seclusion. The keeper states that the man is so violent that it is absolutely dangerous to enter his cell, and that he (the keeper) has often been knocked down, by him. This, however, does not obviate the force of a further remark which might be made, namely, that such a patient should not be kept upon the county farm at all, but sent to the hospital at Elgin, and if necessary some other patient should be withdrawn from that institution in order to make room for him. The number of insane inmates in the almshouse, when visited, was fifteen, of whom two were in seclusion, but none under restraint. Six of them were said to be capable of farm labor, and five of labor about the house, and the estimated value of their labor is sixteen hundred dollars a year. The county physician receives one hundred dollars per year, but furnishes no medicine. He visits the paupers in the almshouse only.

Kankakee.—In Kankakee county the poor are supported by the towns. The county owns no farm, but there is an almshouse in Kankakee township, to which insane paupers are sent from all parts of the county. The number of inmates, when visited, was eighteen, of whom thirteen were insane. There are four studding cells for insane inmates, which were neat, clean, and in good condition. Eleven of the insane inmates were in seclusion. The almshouse is a two-story frame building, with nineteen rooms, of which six are occupied by the keeper's family, and thirteen by the paupers. There is also an outhouse, of one room. The financial records of the county show about thirty-four hundred dollars paid for board of paupers by contract. The amount expended for outdoor relief is trifling, being little in excess of one hundred dollars. The law requiring overseers of the poor to keep accounts and make reports receives no attention.

Kendall.—Kendall county has no county farm. The poor are supported by the towns. It was impossible to obtain any information, with respect to paupers, from the county authorities. The overseers of the poor do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Knox.—The Knox county almshouse maintains the high character given it in our former reports. It is decidedly one of the best institutions of its class in the state. The only change worthy of mention is the construction of a new coal-house, and the finishing off of the west end of the basement story. The cost of maintaining paupers in this almshouse is eight thousand two hundred and fifty dollars, and the county pays twenty-three hundred and sixty dollars, in addition, for outdoor relief. The number of inmates, when it was visited, was one hundred and five, of whom seventeen were children, who attend school at Knoxville. There were twenty-eight insane inmates, thirteen men and fifteen women; none of them in seclusion and none of them under restraint. Two of them are said to be uncleanly in their person and habits, five of them are capable of farm labor, and four of them of labor about the house. This almshouse is supplied with- all the modern improvements, and all the rooms are well if not elegantly furnished. Carpets are found on the floors of nearly all the rooms, and the walls are generally adorned with pictures. The establishment is first-class in every respect, and great credit is due Mrs. Cleaveland, the superintendent, who rules thoroughly, while not seeming to rule at all. She has held her position since the year 1867, and is paid a salary of eight hundred dollars. The county board makes an appropriation from time to time for the support of the almshouse, against which the superintendent is given authority to draw according to her necessities. The board requires all paupers who are able to be taken to the county farm to go there. The almshouse register has been well kept since January 28, 1866, since which time there have been admitted eleven hundred and sixty-nine paupers; and the accounts and reports required of the officers are fully made. The county employs a county physician, and pays him two hundred dollars per annum for attendance at the almshouse only.

Lake.—Lake county is under township organization, but the poor are a county charge. The buildings upon the county farm were sufficiently described in our last report. The condition of the premises is neat and clean, and the inmates appear to be tolerably comfortable, although the building is old and badly adapted to its purpose. The insane department especially deserves condemnation. It is very, imperfectly heated. The rooms for the inmates are only eight feet square, and in one of the rooms three women were sleeping together upon straw, on the floor. Two of them wear clothes but a small portion of the time, and must suffer from cold in the winter, as the door is boarded up to prevent observation from the outside. The number of inmates, when inspected, was thirty-seven, of whom two were children, one of whom will probably be placed out in the family of a farmer. The number of insane was twelve, of whom nine were women. *One insane man, very stout, and at times violent, sleeps in a bunk, at night, with manacles on his wrists and on his ankles. During the day time, he is employed upon the farm. It is rather remarkable, that the county fair-ground is upon the county farm, and visitors to the fair appear to regard the "crazy house," as it is called, as the greatest attraction of the occasion. A German boy, who resides in the neighborhood, was so upset by an insane woman spitting at him through the grated door as to require medical care, at times, for three or four years afterward.

La Salle.—La Salle county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The county owns a county farm and maintains the largest poorhouse in the state. The poorhouse is maintained by regular appropriations made by the county board, and an agent is appointed by the board, who is given authority to draw against the appropriation in sums not exceeding five hundred dollars at one time. The county has adopted a rule requiring all paupers to go to the county farm, but notwithstanding this rule the amount of outdoor relief annually is about six thousand seven hundred dollars. The annual cost of the almshouse is about nine thousand dollars. No change has been made in the building since our last report, but a large cistern has been added and fifty feet of hose pipe have been placed in each ward for , extinguishing fire. The number of inmates present when inspected was one hundred and eight, of whom only two were children. One of these children is illegitimate, and the daughter of a girl aged fourteen years'. The number of insane inmates was sixty-one, namely, twenty-two men and thirty-nine women, of whom twenty are said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits. Eight were found in seclusion, but none wearing restraining apparatus of any sort. The condition of the building for the care of the insane is horrible. The impression upon a spectator is inexpressibly disgusting. Six of them, most of whom are entirely naked, are confined in an out-house, where they lie upon the floor in their own filth, without care or attention other than that which an aged pauper is able to give them. Their appearance reminds one of hogs upon the floor of a pig-sty. At the time of our former visit, two years ago. the officer representing this board was prevented from going to this house by the county agent, who falsely informed him that all the insane inmates had been seen by him. Since that time the agent has been changed. The county employs two county physicians, both residents of Ottawa. The salary paid the keeper of the almshouse is eight hundred dollars. The overseers of the poor make the reports and return the lists required by law, but do not keep the accounts required by section twenty-nine of chapter one hundred and seven of the Revised Statutes. The account required of the keeper is on file in the office of the county clerk. The county has provided the keeper with a register.

Lawrence.—Lawrence county maintains its own poor, although the county is under township organization. The county has provided no new buildings upon the county farm since our last report, but has changed the keeper, and some improvement in the condition of the pauper inmates is perceptible. There were thirteen inmates, of whom five were children. None of the inmates are insane. The keeper takes the farm under contract, and instead of receiving a salary, he is paid fourteen and one-half cents per day for each pauper received by him. He supplies nothing but food, farm stock and implements. The system of letting county poorhouses to the lowest bidder has been frequently referred to in our reports, and we believe it to be wrong in practice and in principle. The county employs a physician, for one hundred dollars per year, to visit the almshouse only, and furnish medicines at his own cost. The amount paid for the board of paupers, by contract, is about eight hundred dollars a year, and the cost of outdoor relief about seven hundred and fifty dollars. The total pauper expenses of the county during the year ending September 1, 1880, were two thousand and fifty dollars. No almshouse register is kept, but the accounts and reports required of the overseers are kept and filed with the county clerk.

Lee.—Lee county is under township organization, but maintains all its paupers at county expense. There has been no improvement in the condition of the county almshouse since our last report. For a county of the population and wealth of Lee, the character of its provision for the poor is not creditable. The number of inmates, when visited, was twenty-six, of whom seven were insane. None of them were restrained in any way, and the apartments in which they live were clean and comfortable. None of them are capable of any labor. An almshouse register has been kept since January 1, 1873. The number of paupers admitted since that, date is one hundred and Dine. The overseers make and file the accounts and reports required by law. The total pauper expenses for the last fiscal year were nearly nineteen thousand dollars, of which amount nearly three thousand was the cost of the almshouse, and the amount expended for outdoor relief exceeded fifteen thousand and five hundred dollars. The proportion of outdoor relief granted is excessive; and if a reform were instituted in this particular, the county would find itself amply able to make suitable almshouse provision for its poor. The county is divided into seven districts, and a county physician is employed in each. The amount paid to these physicians averages seventy-five dollars each per year.

Livingston - Livingston county is under township organization, but the poor are maintained at the expense of the county. We have no change to report in the condition of the county almshouse and farm. There were twenty-one inmates, when inspected, of whom seven were insane. Six of them were in seclusion, but none of them otherwise restrained. The apartments in which they are kept are clean, but are ceiled with pine lumber, and swarm with vermin. The almshouse keeper in this county is appointed by a committee of the board of supervisors, and has held his position since March, 1875. His salary is six hundred dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since September, 1873. One hundred and fifty-two inmates have been admitted since that date. The record referred to appears to be fully written up, but not kept in sufficient detail. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law. The expense of maintaining the almshouse is about thirty-two hundred dollars a year, and the amount expended for outdoor relief exceeds four thousand dollars. The total pauper expenses of the county for the year ending February 1, 1880, were seventy-six hundred and forty dollars. The amount paid to the county physician is only fifty dollars a year, for which he visits paupers in the almshouse and prisoners in the jail, and paupers in Pontiac township, but does not furnish medicines.

Logan.—Logan county is under township organization, but the poor are supported at the expense of the county. The county almshouse has been enlarged by the erection of a two-story brick building, which contains nine rooms upon each floor. Six of the rooms in the lower story are for the use of the insane, namely, three rooms on each side of a corridor, with a door leading from the corridor into an airing-court. This building has been placed at a short distance west of the main building. The premises are neatly kept, and the rooms, beds and bedding are all in fair condition. The inmates are well cared for, and seem contented. The number of inmates, when inspected, was twenty-seven, of whom three were children, all of them illegitimate. There were seven insane paupers, all of them of the male sex; five of them were in seclusion, and one under restraint; two were capable of farm labor. An almshouse register has been kept since April 11, 1870, but the form of it is incomplete. The number of inmates admitted since the first entry is two hundred and seventy. A new keeper was appointed by the pauper committee of the board in March, 1880, whose salary is seven hundred dollars. The cost of maintaining the almshouse is a little over sixty-six hundred dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief about thirty-five hundred dollars. The total pauper expense is very nearly eleven thousand dollars. The county physician visits the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines, for two hundred dollars a year. The accounts and reports due from the overseers are kept, but not filed with the county clerk; neither do the overseers return the lists of the poor, specified in the statutes.

Macon.—Macon county is under township organization, but maintains its own poor We are happy to report a decided improvement in the management of the almshouse since our last report, although there has been no change in the construction of the buildings. At the present time the premises are in excellent condition, except the insane department, which has an offensive odor, but is as clean as it can be made. The house is overcrowded, and the sewer is defective and hard to keep in order. The number of inmates, when inspected, was twenty-five, of whom twenty were males. There were four children, who attend the district school. There were also seven insane, of whom four were in seclusion, but none were restrained. The insane are locked up in cells and rarely permitted to go out; but their treatment is much better than it was two years ago; two of them are capable of farm labor. An almshouse register has been kept since September 1, 1872, and the number of paupers admitted since that date is five hundred and ninety. The present keeper was appointed by a committee of the board, in March, 1879, and receives a salary of five hundred and fifty dollars. The total almshouse expense for the last fiscal year was over twenty-five hundred dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief nearly seventy-eight hundred dollars. The proportion between indoor and outdoor relief in this county deserves attention, and appears to indicate the necessity of a new almshouse, if the outdoor relief granted is not excessive. The county physician receives five hundred dollars a year, and visits the almshouse and jail, and paupers in Decatur township. He furnishes medicines at his own cost. The overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by Jaw. The county board has adopted a rule requiring all permanent paupers to go to the county farm, and has also adopted a rule expressing a preference for outdoor relief.

Macoupin.—Macoupin county is under township organization, but all pauper expenses are paid by the county. We regret to be under the necessity of repeating the criticism upon the condition and management of the county almshouse in our last report, in which we said that "the insane department is simply disgraceful; the insane are treated as if they were animals, and not men." The description of the department then given by us fully bears out the truth of this assertion. There has been no change for the better. The number of inmates, when inspected, was twenty-two, of whom six were insane; three of them were in seclusion, in brick cells with iron grated doors. The almshouse keeper receives a salary of five hundred and fifty dollars, and the county physician one hundred and fifty dollars. The physician visits the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost. The cost of the almshouse for the last fiscal year was twenty-one hundred dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief about fourteen hundred. An almshouse register has been kept since January, 1866, and the accounts and reports required of the overseers are regularly filed with the county clerk. We express the earnest hope that the condition of this almshouse will receive early attention at the hands of the county board.

Madison.—Madison county is under township organization, but the county is at the expense of maintaining all paupers. There has been a change of keepers since our last report, and although the buildings remain as then described, the condition of the inmates is greatly improved. A good baker has been employed; meat is purchased on the hoof and slaughtered on the premises; the floors are clean, and the walls and ceilings have been whitewashed; the large associated dormitory which formerly contained twenty-seven beds has been partitioned off, and the sick are now in a hospital department by themselves. All this is creditable to the county authorities. There is, however, still room for improvement, especially in the amount and quality of bedding. The number of inmates, when visited, was sixty-seven, of whom twenty-five were insane. None of them were in seclusion or restrained; four are reported to be uncleanly in their persons and habits; two of them are capable of farm labor, and one of labor about the house. The cost of maintaining this almshouse is about seventy-five hundred dollars a year. The amount of outdoor relief extended is nearly eleven thousand dollars. The almshouse register was taken away by the former keeper, and the one now kept is very imperfect in form. A new one should be provided, corresponding with those generally in use throughout the state. The overseers of the poor keep the accounts and make the reports required by law, with the exception that the list of the poor, specified in the act, is not returned from any township in the county except that of Alton. The county physician receives four hundred dollars a year, and visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Edwardsville. He furnishes medicines at his own cost. The almshouse keeper is not paid a salary, but takes the farm under contract. He receives eighteen cents a day for each pauper inmate, and furnishes food and hired help. The county furnishes clothing and medical care. The county board makes an annual appropriation for the support of the almshouse.

Marion.—Marion county maintains a county farm and almshouse for all its paupers, although the county is under township organization. The condition of the almshouse is bad. We have no change to report. The part occupied by the male paupers is especially open to criticism; the furniture throughout is scanty, the bedding worn out, and the bedsteads, which have been in use for forty years or more, are alive with vermin. The number of pauper inmates, when inspected, was seventeen, of whom one was insane and six feeble-minded. The almshouse keeper receives a salary of three hundred and fifty dollars, and the county physician is paid one hundred and fifty dollars for visiting the almshouse and jail, and furnishing medicines. The almshouse costs the county seven hundred and twenty dollars a year. The amount expended for outdoor relief is about sixteen hundred and seventy-five dollars. The total pauper expenses are less than twenty-six hundred dollars. No almshouse register, in proper form, is kept, though the keeper has a private memorandum of the names of inmates admitted since he took charge, in March, 1879. The overseers do not, keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Marshall.—Marshall county is under township organization, but the paupers are maintained at the expense of the county. There is no change to report in the condition of 'the almshouse and farm. The rooms, beds and bedding are clean and in good condition. The greatest objection to this poorhouse is the insane department, which resembles a cage for wild beasts, and is in the same building with that occupied by male paupers. The male paupers occupy the corridor of the apartment devoted to the insane as a sitting-room, and pass through it to their own quarters in the story above. This arrangement is highly objectionable for many reasons, which need scarcely be stated. There were nineteen pauper inmates, when inspected, of whom three were children, who attend school on the farm. Seven are insane—four men and three women. Four of the insane are said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits, and two of them were in seclusion and were wearing restraining apparatus. One is capable of farm labor, and three of labor about the house. The cost of maintaining the almshouse is something over twenty-one hundred dollars a year, and the amount expended for outdoor relief about thirteen hundred dollars. The salary paid to the keeper is five hundred and twenty-five dollars. He took charge in 1877. The county physician receives two dollars and fifty cents for each visit. He visits the almshouse only. An almshouse register has been kept since January, 1880, but the overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Mason.—Mason county maintains its own poor, although the county is under township organization. A new farm building has been erected, since our last report, with eleven rooms and a corridor. This building is specially intended for the insane, but when inspected, there were only two insane inmates present, one man and one woman, of whom one was in seclusion. The upper story is occupied by paupers. The total number of pauper inmates was twenty-three, of whom five are children, who attend the district school in the vicinity. The general appearance of the apartments and of the inmates is satisfactory, although the buildings are inconveniently arranged. The beds and bedding are clean and in good order, the inmates contented, and the property well cared for. The keeper's salary is five hundred and seventy-five dollars. The total almshouse expense is about fifteen hundred dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief is nearly three thousand dollars. The overseers of the poor make the reports required by law, but do not keep or file the accounts nor return the lists of the poor specified in the same chapter of the statutes. An almshouse register has been kept since October, 1872, and the number of inmates admitted since that date is two hundred and twenty-six. The county physician receives one hundred and seventy dollars per year; he visits the almshouse and furnishes medicines at his own cost.

Massac.—Massac county is not under township organization. We have nothing new to report respecting the county almshouse, except that the authorities intend to build a new one. The number of inmates is small. There were only six, when visited, of whom none were insane. The farm is leased to a contractor, who pays no rent for the use of the same, but supplies food and receives seventy-five cents per week for each pauper. The county supplies clothing and medical care. The amount paid the county physician is one hundred and fifty dollars. The amount of outdoor relief is small, and does not equal one hundred and fifty dollars a year. The total pauper expense is less than nine hundred dollars.

Mcdonough.
—McDonough county maintains its own poor, although the county is under township organization. We made a very unfavorable report with regard to the county almshouse two years ago, and are sorry to say there has been no improvement in its condition since that time. A new farm building, two stories in height, twenty-two by forty-two feet, with an "L," has been erected for the use of the keeper; but the building occupied by the paupers is old and out of repair. It needs painting, whitewashing, scrubbing and ventilating. The walls are black with age and dirt, the doors dirty, and when inspected they were sloppy, and the appearance of the inmates was in harmony with the surroundings. The establishment is a disgrace to the county. The keeper has been in office since August, 1872, and is paid a salary of nine hundred dollars. The number of inmates was thirty-three, of whom three were children and nine were insane. Eight of the insane were said to be uncleanly in their persons and habits. The care taken of them is inadequate,- and the apartments in which they are kept are dirty and odoriferous. The cost of maintaining the almshouse is about fifty-five hundred dollars, and the amount of outdoor relief granted nearly thirty-seven hundred. The total pauper expense is nearly ten thousand five hundred dollars. The county physician receives one hundred and forty dollars a year. He furnishes medicines at his own cost, and visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers outside. The overseers of the poor keep the accounts and make the reports required by law; but the almshouse register, so-called, is not in proper form and not well kept.

McHenry.—McHenry county has no county almshouse or farm, and employs no county physician. The poor are cared for by the towns, and the overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports to the county board required by law. The county paid, during the last fiscal year, about one hundred and seventy dollars for outdoor relief, most of which was for medical attendance, and the balance for supplies to insane paupers.

McLean. - McLean county is under township organization, but the poor are a county charge. There is nothing new to report concerning the almshouse and farm. The additional buildings contemplated have not yet been erected. The premises are in good condition; everything about the place is clean and orderly, and the establishment is as well managed as any of its class in the state. The number of inmates, when visited, was forty-nine, of whom twenty-seven (or five more than the majority) were insane. Eight of them were in seclusion, but none were otherwise restrained; six are reported capable of farm labor, and four of labor about the house. The number of children was four, who attend the district school. The amount paid the keeper is one thousand dollars a year, and the county physician receives a salary of three hundred dollars, for which he visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Bloomington. He furnishes medicines at his own cost. The total cost of the almshouse, last year, was sixty-five hundred dollars, and the amount of outdoor relief granted, sixty-seven hundred. Other pauper expenses brought the total cost on pauper account up to fourteen thousand five hundred dollars. The almshouse register in this county is not in proper form, but has been kept continuously from March, 18U0, since when there have been admitted ten hundred and ninety-three inmates. The overseers, as in most of the counties of the state, fail to keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Menard.—Menard county is not under township organization. The county almshouse is, as we said two years ago, very inferior, in respect of plan and construction, but the general condition of the premises is good, and the inmates seem to be well cared for. When inspected, there were fourteen paupers, of whom nine were insane, two of them in seclusion. Three were said to be uncleanly. The apartments in which they were kept were clean, but bare of furniture, except that a straw bed is placed hi each at night. All the insane inmates, except the two referred to, are capable of labor on the farm or about the house. The keeper takes the farm under contract, and pays four hundred and forty-two dollars and fifty cents per annum for its use. He furnishes everything, except medical care, including hired help, furniture, farm stock and implements, and the county pays him two dollars a week for each pauper. He has held the position since 1876. The total pauper expenses of this county are nearly thirty-eight hundred dollars a year, of which about seventeen hundred dollars is for the maintenance of the almshouse, and about seventeen hundred is for outdoor relief. The county physician receives seventy-five dollars a year. He visits the almshouse only, and furnishes medicine at his own cost. An almshouse register has been kept since October, 1879. The number of paupers admitted since that date appears to be only eighteen. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Mercer—Mercer county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. The county almshouse , which is of stone, was described in our last report. The buildings are in good condition and neatly kept, but the furniture, beds, bedding, and clothing of the inmates are insufficient. They are well fed. There were thirty-two paupers when inspected, of whom four were children, who attend the district school, and seven were insane, namely five men and two women. Two of them are reported to be uncleanly; none were in seclusion or otherwise restrained; three of them are capable of farm labor. The almshouse keeper took charge in February, 1880, and his salary is five hundred dollars. The county board makes an appropriation for the support of the almshouse, which is disbursed by the pauper committee. The annual expense is about twenty-three hundred dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief about twenty-eight hundred. We always question the wisdom shown in the management of pauper affairs when the amount of outdoor relief exceeds the amount expended upon the county farm. An almshouse register has been kept since April, 1859, completely written up, and shows one hundred and seventy-nine inmates admitted since that date, that is, in something over twenty years. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Monroe.—Monroe county is not under township organization. There is nothing new to report respecting the almshouse, winch, unlike most almshouses in the state, is situated in town. There were only six inmates when visited, the youngest of whom was fifty-five years old. They were all sane, but infirm. The almshouse keeper receives a salary of two hundred and forty dollars a year, and twenty-five cents per day in addition for feeding and clothing each pauper sent him. The register of paupers is kept by the county physician, who also keeps the account and makes the report required by law. The county board does not appoint any overseers of the poor. The physician's salary is four hundred dollars; he attends the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost.

Montgomery.—Montgomery county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. The almshouse was described in our last report. The number of inmates when inspected was thirty, of whom seven were children. One of these children, illegitimate, is born of an insane or idiotic mother, and the same woman has had three illegitimate children. There were five insane inmates, four of them women; none of them in seclusion or otherwise restrained. The department for the insane was clean: the cells are rarely used, and these unfortunates seem to be well cared for. They are attended by a feeble-minded young man. Everything about the almshouse is clean. The keeper receives forty dollars a month, and has been in office since March, 1878. The almshouse keeper is maintained at a cost of about thirty-two hundred dollars a year. The amount of outdoor relief exceeds this, and is about forty-four hundred. The county physician receives one hundred and sixty dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since August, 1874, and the number of paupers admitted since that date is three hundred and thirty-eight. The overseers keep the accounts and return the lists of the poor required by law, but do not make the reports mentioned in section 25, chapter 107, of the Revised Statutes.

Morgan.—Morgan county is not under township organization. The county almshouse has been under the charge of Mr. Louis Fredlander since the year 1871, whose general management is worthy of the highest praise for efficiency, humanity and economy. The county board pays him a salary of nine hundred dollars, and three hundred dollars additional for the services of his wife. There were sixty inmates when visited, of whom four were children and twenty-eight were insane. The rooms in which the insane are kept are clean and well ventilated, and the bedding clean and comfortable. This department is a model of neatness: no dirt is perceptible, even in the cells of those who are most uncleanly in their habits. The inmates are kindly treated, and prompt attention given to all their wants. Three of them are in seclusion; four are capable of farm labor, and nine of labor about the house. An almshouse register has been kept since 1870. The county physician is paid three hundred dollars a year. He visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Jacksonville precinct. The cost of this almshouse is about six thousand dollars a year, and a nearly equal amount is paid by the county for outdoor relief.

Moultrie.—Moultrie county maintains its paupers at county expense, although under township organization. In our last report we attempted to arouse the sense of shame in the county board by stating that there is no almshouse in Illinois, the condition of which in respect to repairs and cleanliness is less creditable than it is in Moultrie county, and begged the board to furnish the keeper with scrubbing and whitewash brushes, lime and soap, even if it could do nothing more. At the present time the buildings are still more dilapidated than they were two years ago. The rooms are dirty, as are the inmates, and the house is pervaded with bad smells. The supervisor of the township in which the county farm is situated freely admitted that the condition of the institution could scarcely be worse, and that he was ashamed to show it to anybody. When the matter is brought to the attention of the county board, action is always postponed until the next meeting. We respectfully submit that further postponement is discreditable to the efficiency and humanity of the county authorities. The present keeper has been in charge since 1878. He holds the farm under contract, and pays five hundred dollars a year for the use of it. The county supplies nothing but medical attendance, and pays ninety dollars a year for the support of each pauper. The system pursued is radically wrong, and any change would be an improvement. The county physician's salary is two hundred and thirty dollars a year. He supplies medicines, and visits paupers in the almshouse, prisoners in the jail, and attends paupers in Sullivan township. The amount expended for outdoor relief is nearly sixteen hundred dollars a year. The amount paid to the keeper, under his contract, during the last fiscal year, was ten hundred, and seventy-six dollars and twenty-five cents. from which is to be deducted the amount received from him for rent. An almshouse register has been kept since February, 187t>. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Ogle.—Ogle county is under township organization. The county supports none but insane paupers, but has provided an almshouse and county farm, to which towns may send their poor if so disposed. The building which was in process of erection two years ago has since been completed. It is a frame house, and its general plan is intermediate between a Greek cross and the capital letter "T"— that is, the "L" in the rear projects farther than the front; or, it may be described as a centre building, projecting sixteen feet in front. The greatest length in one direction is one hundred and twenty-five feet, and in the other eighty-four. The number of rooms on each of the two floors is twenty-nine, or fifty-eight in all; there is an attic over the entire building, and a cellar underneath. Special provision has been made for insane inmates in the rear part of the centre building. This building, being new, presents a very neat and attractive appearance. The number of inmates was twenty-two, all adults except one, of whom twelve were insane, four of them in seclusion, but none of them otherwise restrained. Their condition appeared to be comfortable. The keeper, who took charge in February, 1879, receives a salary of one thousand dollars. The amount expended by the county on almshouse account, last year, was twenty-two thousand dollars. Over twenty thousand dollars was for building and other improvements. The cost of maintenance of inmates is borne chiefly by the towns. The county also expended eighteen hundred and fifty dollars for outdoor relief. The county physician receives a salary of one hundred and ninety dollars. He visits the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost. An almshouse register has been provided, and the first entry was made November 12, 1878, since when fifty-nine paupers have been admitted; but the overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Peoria.—Peoria county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. The almshouse, which is one of the best in the state, remains as at the date of our last report. The number of inmates, when visited, was one hundred and thirteen, of whom sixteen were children. One of these children, a feeble-minded girl, said to be under fifteen years old, is a mother, and her child when seen was only three weeks old. The children attend school in the almshouse. There were also fifty-two insane inmates; twenty-two of them are reported to be uncleanly in their persons and habits; five were found in seclusion. One of the patients in seclusion is said to have killed two men and one woman. There is also an insane woman in this institution, who is said to have killed a child. The county has contemplated the erection of a county insane asylum, but has not taken final action upon that question. It would appear desirable to provide for the insane inmates of our county almshouses in state institutions, if possible ;but if this is not done, it is evident that Peoria county will have to do something on her own account before long. The management of this almshouse is creditable to the keeper, who has been in charge since 1871, and is paid a salary of fifteen hundred dollars a year. The cost of the almshouse is about fifty-five hundred dollars, including his salary, a very small amount, apparently; but a large portion of the supplies needed is raised upon the farm. The amount of outdoor relief appears to be excessive. It exceeds nineteen thousand dollars. The accounts and reports required of the overseer by law are regularly filed with the county clerk, and an almshouse register has been kept since March, 1848. The number of inmates recorded since that date is eighteen hundred and twelve. The county physician visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Peoria, but does not furnish medicines. He receives a salary of one thousand dollars a year.

Perry.—Perry county is not under township organization. The report made concerning the almshouse two years ago remains true at the present time, in every particular, except that the number of inmates has increased from twelve to twenty, of whom ten are children, who do not attend school anywhere. There was only one insane inmate. An almshouse register has been kept since December 21, 1875. The cost of this almshouse, annually, is about eight hundred dollars, and the county expense about four hundred dollars for outdoor relief. The total pauper expenses aggregate about eighteen hundred dollars. The condition of the almshouse is creditable to the county.

Piatt.—Piatt county is under township organization, but the Paupers are a county charge. Since our last report the authorities have built a new barn upon the county farm, and have fenced in a graveyard; otherwise there is no change to report. The number of inmates were nine, of whom six were feeble-minded and two insane. One of the insane inmates, a woman, who has now been in seclusion for nine years, is allowed the privilege of an airing court, built for her Accommodation. She goes about in a state of nudity, and the fence is so open that any one on the outside has a full view of her person, which is disgraceful. All such inmates should be removed at once to a state institution, and, if necessary, some patient now in the hospital should be withdrawn in order to make room for her. The almshouse cost, last year, about nine hundred dollars, including three hundred and seventy-five dollars paid for the new barn, and the amount of out-door relief was over twelve hundred. The keeper receives a salary of five hundred dollars per annum. The county employs a county physician for seventy-five dollars to attend to the pauper inmates and furnish medicines at his own cost. No proper almshouse register is kept, and the overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Pike—Pike county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. No building has been added during the last two years. The premises are in good order and the inmates well cared for, although the quality of the clothing would bear some improvement; but the buildings seem to have been badly erected, they are tied together with rods in some places to keep them from falling down. The number of pauper inmates, when visited, was thirty-four, of whom three were children, and five insane. One insane inmate was in seclusion, but none of them otherwise restrained. The rooms devoted to their use are clean, but very small, and the inmates crowded. An almshouse register has been kept since January 1, 1874, and two hundred and eighty-five paupers have been admitted since that time. The keeper is not paid a salary, but has the use of the county farm and furnishes everything except clothing, furniture and medical care, at the rate of one dollar and a quarter a week for each pauper sent him. The county physician is paid one hundred and fifty dollars a year; he visits both the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes his own medicines. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Pope —Pope county is not under township organization and maintains no county farm. The paupers are let out, under contract, to different individuals in different parts of the county, hut the greater part of them are kept on the farm of H. M. Craig, for one hundred dollars each per year.. The amount paid for the board of paupers last year was two thousand dollars, and the cost of outdoor relief was three hundred. The county employs no county physician. Of the seventeen paupers on Mr. Craig's farm, when visited, six were children; one of them was illegitimate, and a child of an idiotic mother, who has given birth to such children more than once.

Pulaski. — Pulaski county is not under township organization. There is no change to report in the condition of the almshouse, which needs repairs and painting. From appearance, some of the rooms must be very cold in severe winter weather. The keeper, who took charge in September, 1877, is paid twelve hundred dollars a year in money, and has the use of the county farm. He supplies everything, and receives all paupers sent to him. The county does not employ a county physician. This county is erecting a frame building, twelve by sixteen feet, and one story in height, for the use of insane inmates. When visited, there were seven pauper inmates, of whom the following is a description: There were four men, of whom one was blind, one a chronic syphilitic, one eighty years of age and infirm, and one had chronic diarrhoea. There were three women, of whom one was an idiot and two insane. The cost of the almshouse, including repairs and improvements, last year, was thirteen hundred and twenty dollars; and the county paid two hundred dollars for the burial of paupers, which is the only form in which outdoor relief is extended.

Putnam.—Putnam county is under township organization, but can hardly be said to maintain its paupers at county expense, as there is only one upon the county farm. The almshouse keeper pays one hundred and seventy-five dollars for the use of the farm, and receives two dollars and a half a week for the boarding of each inmate sent him. The county employs no county physician. The cost of the almshouse during the last year was two hundred and sixty dollars, but the amount expended for outdoor relief was nearly twenty-five hundred. The number of paupers admitted to the almshouse since June 11, 1872, at which time the register was opened, is twenty-three. The overseers of the poor keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The county appears to have little use for a county farm.

Randolph.—Randolph county is not under township organization. Since our last report, the county has erected an additional frame building, two stories in height, with eight rooms, south of the buildings described by us two years ago. The number of inmates, when visited, was thirty-six, of whom four were insane. The cost of the almshouse, last year, including fifteen hundred dollars for the building referred to, was forty-five hundred dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief about nineteen hundred dollars. To this add five hundred dollars for the salary of county physician, and five hundred dollars for the expenses of insane paupers at state institutions, and the total pauper expenses appear to have been about seventy-five hundred dollars. The county physician visits both the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost. An almshouse register has been kept since April, 1866. The county board appoints no overseers of the poor.

Richland.—Richland county supports its own poor, although under township organization. The county almshouse is not in a creditable condition; the buildings are out of repair, some of the rooms are not very clean, and the inmates are in the same condition. There were eight paupers present, when inspected, of whom four were children, and one an insane woman. The farm is leased to a contractor, who pays no rent, and receives all paupers sent him, for a stipulated sum per annum, namely, seven hundred dollars, which is five hundred dollars less than the amount paid two years ago. An almshouse register has been kept since December, 1875, but the overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The cost of the almshouse, last year, was something over twelve hundred dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief, three hundred. The total pauper expense was nineteen hundred. The county physician visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Olney township, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, for one hundred and twenty-five dollars a year.

Rock Island.—Rock Island county is under township organization, but maintains its paupers at county expense. We fully described this almshouse two years ago, and there has been no improvement since. The establishment is overcrowded, badly arranged, and badly managed. The discipline is not good,—and there is little, if anything about the place, which deserves commendation. The insane department is a nuisance, and should be abated. There were ninety-three inmates, when inspected, of whom thirty-six were insane— twenty men and sixteen women. None of them were in seclusion, but six wore restraining apparatus when out of doors; none of them are reported to be capable of farm labor, but three can do work about the house. One inmate of this establishment, a man about thirty years of age, cannot walk erect, but travels on all-fours, and succeeds in making very good time. What is strange to report, he is said to be quite an expert player upon the violin, but he cannot dance to his own music. There were in this almshouse ten children, who attend the district school; all of them are said to have been born in the almshouse. The keeper has been in charge since 1861, and is paid one thousand dollars a year for his services, but is tired of the position. An almshouse register has been kept since September 27, 1861, since which date fifteen hundred and fifteen paupers have been admitted. The overseers also keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The cost of the almshouse, last year, was nearly seven thousand dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief, twelve thousand five hundred. Wherever this disproportion exists between the cost of indoor and outdoor relief, it may be assumed as certain that there is some mismanagement of the pauper affairs of the county; either the relief granted outside is excessive, or the accommodations upon the county farm are inadequate. The total pauper expense in this county exceeds twenty thousand dollars a year.

Saline.—Saline county is not under township organization. Since our last report, the county paupers have been removed from the farm owned by the county, to the farm of Josiah Gold, one quarter of a mile south of the county poorhouse. Mr. Gold made a contract with the county, which took effect October, 1879, by which he receives and cares for all paupers sent him, at the rate of ninety dollars each per year. The county furnishes nothing. It does not even employ a county physician. The appearance of the paupers under his care is comfortable. None of them were insane, but six of them were children. The amount paid for board of paupers during the fiscal year was about fourteen hundred dollars, and for outdoor relief about one hundred and forty.

Sangamon.— Sangamon county supports its own poor, although the county is under township organization. The county farm and poorhouse are at Buffalo, about eighteen miles east of Springfield. The removal of the county farm to such a distance from the county seat is a great evil on many accounts. The farm is unnecessarily large, and the building unnecessarily expensive; but in spite of the money which it costs, it is poorly planned and badly adapted to its purpose. The number of inmates, when visited, was sixty-three, of whom seventeen were insane, and only three employed in labor about the house. Three of them were in seclusion, and one under restraint. Of the inmates, only two were children, one boy and one girl. The present keeper has been in office since June, 1878. The county has not provided him with a proper register for keeping the statistical record of paupers, but an imperfect list has been kept since March, 1805. The number admitted is about one hundred and fifty a year. The keeper keeps and files the account required by law, but the overseers of the poor do not. The annual cost of this poorhouse is about six thousand dollars, and the county pays out more than ten thousand dollars a year for outdoor relief. The county Physician receives a salary of three hundred dollars, and furnishes is own medicines. He visits paupers in the almshouse only.

Schuyler.—Schuyler county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. We have nothing to add to what was said about this almshouse in our last report, and nothing to take back. The keeper has occupied his present position since March 1, 1877. His salary is seven hundred dollars, and the expenses, which amounted last year to twenty-seven hundred dollars, are met by the county. The amount expended for outdoor relief was something over a thousand dollars. When visited, this almshouse contained twenty-seven inmates, of whom eight were children and six insane, none of whom were in seclusion or otherwise restrained ; five of them were men capable of farm labor. The county physician receives seventy-five dollars a year, and furnishes medicines, but visits the almshouse only. An almshouse register is kept, but the overseers of the poor do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Scott.—Scott county is not under township organization. The county farm is leased to a contractor, who pays four hundred dollars annual rent, and receives compensation for keeping paupers as follows: For young children, sick persons, insane and idiots, he is allowed thirty-five cents a day; for children over two years of age and under ten, thirteen cents; and for all other paupers, ten cents. The county furnishes clothing, furniture and medical care. Everything else is furnished at the cost of the contractor. The amount realized by him under this contract for the board of paupers during the last fiscal year was nine hundred and twenty-five dollars. The total pauper expenses of the county are about seventeen hundred, of which two hundred and forty is for outdoor relief. There has been no change in the buildings and furniture since our last report, but the appearance of the house has improved. The number of inmates present was seventeen, of whom three were insane, all of them men and none of them capable of labor. All three were in seclusion. The number of children was two, both born in the poorhouse and illegitimate. The salary of the county physician, who furnishes medicines, and visits the almshouse only, is one hundred and fifty dollars.

Shelby.—Shelby county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. There has been some improvement in the condition of the almshouse since our last report, but not much. A large yard has been provided, with a high board fence, for the use of such insane inmates as are uncleanly in their persons ; but the old building for the insane, with all its abominations, remains. The number of pauper inmates, when visited, was forty-one, of whom nine were insane. Only one of them was in seclusion; two of them are said to be capable of farm labor. There were also eight children, who attend the district school. The present keeper took charge in March, 1879. for a salary of five hundred dollars a year. The county physician's salary is seventy dollars ; he furnishes medicines, but visits the almshouse only. The almshouse cost the county last year thirty-eight hundred dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief was nearly thirteen hundred dollars. Other pauper expenses amounted to nineteen hundred dollars, of which the large sum of ten hundred and forty-four dollars and fifty cents was paid for the transportation of paupers. An almshouse register has been kept since March, 1870, and the number of inmates admitted since that date is one hundred and ninety-seven. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Stark.—Stark county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. This county has a very good building and a superior farm. The grounds in front of the building are very neatly kept, but the house itself needs paint, whitewash, more furniture, and additional beds and bedding. The inmates appear to be only moderately well clothed. There were fifteen paupers present, when inspected, of whom none were insane, but seven of them were children. The children do not attend the district school. An almshouse register has been kept since the year 1858, and the number of inmates admitted since then has been one hundred and sixty-two. The overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The salary of the almshouse keeper is six hundred dollars. No county physician is employed. The cost of the almshouse last year, for maintenance, was fourteen hundred and thirty dollars, and the amount paid for outdoor and temporary relief nine hundred and eighty dollars.

St. Clair.—St. Clair county is not under township organization. The condition of the poorhouse and farm remain as at the time of our last report. We always inspect this institution with satisfaction. The allowance made by the county to the keeper and his assistants is fifteen hundred dollars a year, and the total expense of maintenance is a little over ten thousand dollars. The number of inmates, when inspected, was one hundred and thirty, of whom nineteen were children. Twenty-one of the inmates were insane, and twenty-six feeble-minded. The number of paupers admitted since the twenty-seventh of December, 1857, is eleven thousand six hundred and twenty-five. The reports, lists and accounts required by law are kept and filed by the overseers of the poor and by the keeper of the almshouse. The county employs only one overseer, or agent, at the city of East St. Louis, who receives a salary of two hundred dollars. Three physicians are employed, two in Belleville and one in East St. Louis. The county furnishes medicines, and the amount paid for medical attendance is twelve hundred dollars a year. The administration of the pauper business of this county is at once economical and efficient. In all respects the county is exceptionally well governed. The principal criticism to make upon this poorhouse is the crowded condition of the buildings devoted to the care of female paupers, which were erected many years ago and may be said to be without plan. They are not at all in accordance with the modem idea of the needs of such an establishment, and the county might well afford to replace them with a more modern and convenient structure. There is a woman in the insane department, whose condition is not creditable to the county authorities. She is crippled and bed-ridden, and sits, in an absolutely nude condition, on a pile of straw, where she is exposed to observation on the part of all visitors and other persons who pass through the corridor. The county has introduced a system of compulsory labor for persons convicted of petty larceny, in accordance with the provisions of an act approved May 28, 1879, and such prisoners are confined in the insane department of the poorhouse, and taken out every day to break stone to be used in macadamizing the road from the poorhouse to the county seat. Able-bodied paupers are employed in the same way.

Stephenson.—Stephenson county is under township organization, and the poor are supported by the towns. The county, however, owns a farm and maintains a poorhouse, and insane paupers are a county charge. Since our last report, the almshouse has been put in thorough repair, and is now as good as new. The insane department has also been provided with additional means of ventilation. The number of pauper inmates, when visited, was twenty-eight, of whom all were adults. Nine of them were insane—seven men and two women. Three of them were uncleanly in their persons and habits, and three in seclusion. The insane department is much better than the average. The rooms occupied by this class of unfortunates are in excellent order. One room has a zinc floor, so connected with a gutter running into a drain, that it can be used as a bath-room. In this room, baths are given to inmates, either in the bath-tub or by means of a hose-pipe, so that inmates who will not enter the tub may be drenched with water through the door.
This arrangement was specially devised for the benefit of the wretchedly disgusting lunatic mentioned in our last report, who has been relieved from all his suffering by the merciful hand of death. This same arrangement is common enough in the French hospitals, for the insane, and may in some cases serve a good purpose, although it is obviously liable to abuse in improper hands. The present keeper took charge in 1876, and receives a salary of seven hundred dollars. The county physician's salary is one hundred and forty dollars, and he visits the jail as well as the almshouse. The annual cost of the almshouse is nearly four thousand dollars. The amount expended for outdoor relief last year was eleven hundred and sixty dollars. Nearly one-half of the expense of maintaining the county farm is paid by the towns, who send their paupers there. The total pauper expense paid from the county treasury is thirty-four hundred dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since November, 27, 1876, and the number of admissions since that date is one hundred and one. The overseers do not keep the accounts nor make the reports required by law.

Tazewell.—Tazewell county is under township organization, but the county maintains all the poor. There is no change to report in the almshouse. The number of inmates was sixty-six, of whom ten were insane, two of them in seclusion, one is capable of farm labor, and three of labor about the house. The apartments allotted to the insane are clean and neat, and the beds in good condition. There were eight children, who attend the district school. Eleven of the female paupers are feeble-minded. An almshouse register has been kept since April 1, 1873, and four hundred and seventy-five paupers have been admitted since that date. The overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The keeper of the almshouse, has held office since 1873. The total cost of the almshouse, during the last fiscal year, was forty-three hundred dollars. The county physician receives a salary of two hundred and seventy dollars. He visits the almshouse only, and furnishes medicines at his own cost.

Union.—Union county is not under township organization. The Union county almshouse has been very much improved since our last report. The old log house, formerly occupied by the keeper, has been abandoned, and a new building erected. This building is a one-story frame house, with five rooms and a covered porch. The pond referred to in our last report, is still there. The number of pauper inmates was fifteen, none of whom were insane, but four were children. The keeper's salary is two hundred and fifty-four dollars. The county supplies everything, and the county physician is paid two dollars for each visit. An almshouse register has been kept since September 14, 1872. The county court appoints no overseers of the poor. The almshouse expenses for the last year are estimated at thirteen hundred and forty dollars, and no outdoor relief is granted.

Vermilion.—Vermilion county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. All the efforts made to secure a new almshouse in this county have thus far failed, which is certainly a matter of regret. The number of pauper inmates, when inspected, was twenty-six, of whom four were children, and five were insane. Only one of the insane inmates is capable of any labor; none of them are in seclusion or otherwise restrained. The cost of the almshouse, last year, was two thousand and sixty dollars, and the amount paid for outdoor relief was twelve thousand six hundred and sixty. This disproportion between the amount of indoor and outdoor relief merits attention, and implies the necessity of additional almshouse accommodation. It is certainly one of the strongest arguments that can be used for immediate action in this direction on the part of the county officials. The present keeper was appointed in March, 1879, and receives a salary of five hundred dollars. The amount paid to the county physician is two dollars for each visit. An almshouse register has been kept since March, 1879, and the number of paupers since admitted is forty-nine. The overseers of the poor keep the accounts required by law, but do not file them in all cases with the county clerk, neither do they make special reports, nor return the lists of the poor directed by the statutes. The almshouse register, too, appears to be imperfect.

Wabash.—Wabash county is not under township organization. The number of inmates on the county farm was only three, of whom one was a child. None were insane. The child spoken of is a little girl, bright and attractive in appearance, who was abandoned by her parents in passing through the county, and it appears as if a home might be found for her with some respectable family. The keeper of the almshouse takes the farm under contract. He pays no rent, and receives one dollar and a quarter per week for each pauper sent him. The amount paid for board of paupers, last year, was three hundred and sixty-seven dollars, and the amount of outdoor relief granted, nine hundred and twenty-two. The total pauper expenses were something over seventeen hundred dollars. No regular almshouse register is kept. The county board has appointed seven overseers of the poor for the different precincts, and they keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The rule of this county is, to require all paupers to go to the county farm, unless they can be maintained elsewhere at lower rates.

Warren.—Warren county is under township organization, but the paupers are supported at county expense. The buildings upon the county farm are badly planned and overcrowded. The number of inmates, when visited, was thirty-nine, of whom eleven were insane, but only one of the insane inmates was in seclusion, and one was mechanically restrained. Another insane man, formerly kept in seclusion, has been released, and is now employed upon the farm, where he renders most efficient service, and appears to take as much interest in all the affairs of the institution as if he were the proprietor. Cases like this, of which a number might be mentioned in the state, illustrate the general principle that exercise is often a satisfactory substitute for physical restraint; and it is to be regretted that more use is not made of this means of treatment, both in our county and in our state asylums. The management of this almshouse and farm is worthy of high praise. The keeper's wife is admirably adapted to her position, and takes the utmost care of the premises, which are clean and neat throughout. The beds and bedding are comfortable, and the inmates well fed and well clothed. The keeper receives a salary of seven hundred dollars, and the county pays the county physician two hundred dollars a year. He furnishes medicines at his own cost, and visits 'the almshouse, the jail, and paupers outside. The almshouse register is not in regular form, but has been kept since the opening of the institution, December 20, 1858, since when four hundred .and nineteen paupers have been received. The overseers of the poor return the lists required by law, but do not file their accounts with the county clerk. Four children were found in this institution, of whom one attends the district school. The annual cost of the almshouse is about twenty-eight hundred and fifty dollars, and the amount expended for outdoor relief forty-four hundred. Might not this latter figure be reduced, by a little systematic effort?

Washington.—Washington county is not under township organization. The county almshouse is a fine building, but is not sufficiently well furnished, and is not kept in as good condition as it should be. The rooms and bedding require more care. The keeper, who was appointed hi March, 1878, takes the county farm under contract, and pays rent in kind, the county receiving one-third of the crop. The amount allowed him for keeping paupers is one dollar and seventy-five cents each per week, and the county furnishes clothing, furniture and medical care. The county physician's salary is one hundred and fifteen dollars. He furnishes his own medicines, and visits both the almshouse and the jail. In this county, outdoor relief is admittedly cheaper, paupers being kept at an average rate of twelve dollars per quarter. The cost of keeping paupers at the farm was nineteen hundred and twenty-five dollars. Seven hundred and twenty-dollars was paid for paupers who boarded elsewhere, and fourteen hundred and forty granted in the form of outdoor relief. The total pauper expense was forty-eight hundred and fifty dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since March 12, 1873, and one hundred and ninety-five inmates since admitted. The county court does not appoint any overseers of the poor. When inspected, there were upon this farm sixteen inmates, of whom four were insane; none of them in seclusion and all capable of a certain amount of labor. They have their entire freedom.

Wayne.—Wayne county is under township organization, but the paupers are a county charge. The almshouse has been enlarged, since our last report, by a frame addition two stories in height, containing four rooms. The number of inmates was eighteen, of whom three were children and one insane. This insane man works upon the farm. The keeper, who was appointed in March, 1877, is paid a salary of one thousand dollars a year, and furnishes two teams, all necessary farm implements and one hand. The county physician's salary is one hundred and twenty-five dollars. He visits both the almshouse and the jail, and furnishes medicines at his own cost. An almshouse register has been kept since March 1, 1875, but the overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

White.—White county is under township organization, but the county maintains all paupers. The almshouse is even more overcrowded than at our last report. The number of inmates, when visited, was thirty-two, of whom eleven were children, but none were insane. It is evident, without argument, that the keeper's family and thirty-two paupers cannot be properly and well cared for in nine rooms. The.keeper pays no rent for the farm, but receives fourteen and one-half cents per day for each pauper sent him. He supplies everything, including clothing and furniture; except medical care. The county physician visits the almshouse and jail, furnishes medicines at his own cost, and is paid one hundred and thirty dollars a year. We were unable to obtain the exact figures, but the total pauper expense, both for indoor and outdoor relief, including the amounts paid to state institutions and transportation of paupers, is estimated at thirty-five hundred dollars a year. No almshouse register is kept, and the overseers fail to keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Whiteside.—Whiteside county is under township organization, but the poor are a county charge. The county farm and almshouse are among the very best in the state, but the insane department needs attention. It is not kept in as clean condition as it should be. Of the insane inmates, two (one a man and one a woman) are nearly always in a state of nudity. There were forty-seven pauper inmates when visited, of whom seventeen were insane. None of them were in seclusion, except the two referred to, and none of them otherwise restrained. Three were said to be capable of farm labor, and three of labor about the house. There were seven children, and those of them of suitable age attend the district school. The keeper, who is thoroughly competent for his position, has been employed by the county since 1871, and receives a salary of seven hundred dollars a year. He states that during his entire time of service, only one case of typhoid fever has occurred in the house. An almshouse register was opened in October, 1871, with twenty-four paupers present, and the number admitted since then is three hundred and seven. The cost of maintaining the county farm is about forty-five hundred dollars a year, and the amount expended for outdoor relief exceeds thirty five hundred. The county physician receives one hundred and seventy-five dollars a year, and is required to visit the almshouse, the jail, and outdoor paupers in Morrison and Union Grove townships. He furnishes medicines at his own cost. The overseers do not keep the accounts or make the reports required by law.

Will.—Will county is under township organization, and the poor are supported at the expense of the towns: but the county has provided a farm and almshouse, to which they can be sent. The county board appoints an agent, who has the appointment of the keeper, and the bills for maintenance are sent directly to the towns and collected, so that the cost of the almshouse does not appear upon the books kept by the county clerk's office. The county pays the salary of the agent, which is four hundred and fifty dollars a year. The total amount expended for outdoor relief for the fiscal year 1879 was one hundred and ninety-two dollars. The total county expense, on pauper account, is less than fifteen hundred dollars. The books of the almshouse show the expenses for one year to have been $3,001, and the receipts, $3,820, making a clear return to the .county of $819. The buildings formerly occupied by paupers were entirely inadequate, and in their overcrowded condition it was almost impossible to keep them in a proper condition of neatness. The county is at present erecting a new building, of stone, three stories in height, with a basement. The dimensions of this house are thirty by fifty feet. The basement will be used as a kitchen and dining-room. The first floor will contain eleven rooms, the second floor six, and the third floor will be one large dormitory. This will be a very great improvement, for which the county deserves to receive credit. The number of inmates, when inspected, was fifty-three, all adults except one. Eighteen of them were insane, and three of these were in seclusion. One is said to be capable of farm labor, and two of labor about the house. None of them were in restraint, and their condition appeared to be tolerably comfortable. The county physician visits both- the almshouse and the jail. He furnishes medicines at his own cost, and is paid two hundred dollars a year. An almshouse register has been kept since September 10, 1870, but is not in regular form. The number admitted since that date is three hundred and twenty-five.

Williamson.—Williamson county is under township organization. The almshouse remains as when last described. The present keeper was appointed in December, 1878. He pays sixty-five dollars rent for the use of the farm, and receives paupers at the rate of one dollar each per week. The county supplies clothing, furniture and medical care. The amount paid the county physician is three hundred dollars a year, and he visits both the almshouse and the jail. He furnishes all needed medicines. An almshouse register has been kept since 1856, but is apparently incomplete. The county court has appointed twelve overseers of the poor for the several precincts, but they do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law. The amount paid the contractor, last year, for board of paupers, was about twenty-one hundred and eighty dollars, and other almshouse expenses amounted to three hundred and twenty dollars, making the total almshouse expenses about twenty-five hundred. The amount expended for outdoor relief is three hundred and fifty, and other incidental expenses equal nearly six hundred, making the total pauper expense of the county about thirty-four hundred and fifty dollars. The number of pauper inmates upon the farm was twenty-four, of whom seven were children. Four of them were born in the poorhouse, and illegitimate. None of them attend school. The number of insane inmates was two, who seemed to require little extra attention.

Winnebago.—Winnebago county is under township organization, but the poor are supported by the county. The only change in the condition of the almshouse and farm is the successful invasion of the main building by that foe to human repose known in science the name of cimex lectidarius. One unreasonably impatient pauper has profusely adorned the wall at his bed-side with the scalps of those slain in battle. The horrible insane department is still in use, and the system of seclusion animadverted upon in our last report has not been abandoned. We are glad, however, to say that the county contemplates the erection of a new building, properly planned, and large enough to accommodate all classes of paupers. The number of inmates, when visited, was thirty-one. all adults, of whom thirteen were insane, and eight of these are kept locked in their cells. It is said that none of them are capable of any labor, but probably this would not be true if a different system of treatment were adopted. The keeper has held his place since March, 1876, and his salary, as heretofore, is seven hundred dollars a year. The total cost of the almshouse is almost fourteen hundred dollars, and the amount of outdoor relief thirty-eight hundred, which argues the necessity for an enlargement of the institution. The amount paid the county physician is one hundred and eighty dollars a year. He- visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers outside. An almshouse register has been kept since November 14, 18(4, since which date one hundred and twenty-four paupers have been admitted, a small number for so populous a county. The overseers do not keep the accounts and make the reports required by law.

Woodford. - Woodford county is under township organization, but the poor are maintained at the county's cost. The county maintains an excellent almshouse, which is extremely well kept and the condition of the inmates very comfortable. A barn has been added since our last report, and a wind-mill pump, which supplies water to the lower part of the main building. The number of inmates was forty-seven, of whom four were children, all of them born in the poorhouse, two of them illegitimate. There were five insane, three of whom are kept in seclusion. The present keeper was employed in March, 1876, and his salary is one thousand dollars. The county physician's salary is three hundred dollars; he visits the almshouse, the jail, and paupers in Metamora township, and furnishes medicines at his own cost, The amount expended for the support, of the almshouse, last year, was forty-five hundred dollars, and the amount for outdoor relief exceeded twenty-seven hundred. The total pauper expense was about seventy-nine hundred dollars. An almshouse register has been kept since January 28, 1868, and three hundred and ninety-three paupers have been admitted since that date. The overseers do not keep the accounts or make the reports required by law.

 


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