Genealogy and History
Part of the Genealogy Trails History Group
Oneco Township in the north tier of townships of Stephenson County, is one of the most prosperous and highly productive sections of the State. It contains a large acreage, about equally divided between timber and prairie, with Richland Creek coursing the eastern portion from north to south, and other streams and rivulets, furnishing an abundant and permanent water-power for available use. The early settlement of Oneco Township is somewhat involved in doubt. The effort was made to ascertain to whom was due the distinguished honor of first venturing into the wilderness, at present comprehended within the limits of the township; but, owing to the fact that none of the earlier pioneers of that region survive the march of events, this labor was attended with a success disproportion to the importance of the subject in hand. Simon Davis, it is believed, was among the first to settle in this portion of "Brewster Precinct," he coming about the year 1833. After him, it appears that Andrew Clarno followed. Both of these, it is assumed, had previously made claims in the lead regions, further north and west; but, indifferent success or a desire to engage in agricultural pursuits, influenced them, about the time above designated, to effect a change of base and open farms, the former near the town of Oneco, and the latter in the vicinity of Honey Creek. John M. Curtis also appeared in this vicinity during the same year, and made claim to a tract of land in the vicinity of Oneco.
In 1835, Jefferson and Lewis Van Matre settled one and a half miles west of Oneco, Lewis removing from the lead mines at Galena, and Jefferson coming from Ohio. Morgan Van Matre followed in the footsteps of his brethren a year later, and William Van Matre in 1839, together with Joseph Van Matre.
The year 1836 witnessed a large emigration from the East to all portions of the West, as is well known, and Oneco received considerable additions to her population. Among those who arrived about this time were Alcoa Denio, who settled in the present site of Oneco Village; a Mr. Lott, Duke Chilton, Lorin and Fred Remay. Ralph Hildebrand, Jonas Strohm. and others. Between 1836 and 1838. James. Henry and George Howe were included among the recent arrivals, as also were James Young and Philip and Warner Wells, all of whom opened farms at the head of Long Hollow; Henry Johnson, at the northeast corner of the town: Oliver and John R. Brewster. Ezra Gillett, who erected the mill at Buena Vista ; Joab Morton, identified with the eastern portion of the township; Isaac Kleckner, with the eastern vicinity of the village of Oneco, James Turnbull, who removed subsequently to Winslow; Father Ballinger,. whose son Asa was among the earliest circuit preachers of the Illinois Conference, and others.
The tragic death of one of the Lotts caused no inconsiderable excitement among his neighbors at the time, and is believed to have been among the first deaths, if not the first, to occur in the township.
The Indians occupied camps in various portions of Oneco and Buckeye Townships when their present territories were in that primitive condition in which they were found by the pioneers. They were not particularly demonstrative in acts of hostility or annoyance, yet the first comers experienced some trouble with the impecunious and embarrassed red man. He left his mark on the resources of his neighbors at any and every opportunity, and not unfrequently the mournful notes of a porker broke upon the ear of the settler long after midnight's holy hour. When one of these despoilers of man's happiness and property was discovered in the act. or convicted of crime, he was punished severely : this discipline, together with the gradual settling up of the country, and his departure for other fields, finally relieved the pioneers of these annoyances and his presence.
In 1839, Lewis Gilder removed from Ohio to Oneco Township, settling on Section 18, on the farm at present owned by Judge Alexander Hinds. William Van Matre. as mentioned above, came also, it is believed, in this year, as did Jacob Stroder. Joseph Van Matre, Jr.. and others. William established himself in the western portion of the town, whence he removed to Rock Grove, and Mineral Point. Wis. The following year, it is believed. Isaac Miller settled in the township; also Mike Bolander, Lyman William and Nelson Hulburt, John Clarno, Joseph Norns and Seth Schockley. The first marriage of which there are any reliable data, occurred during this year. Henry Rybolt and Lizzie McNear were the felicitous candidates, and Squire Gibler performed the ceremony, at the residence of Jefferson Van Matre. William Van Matres' daughter, who died in 1840, is stated to have been the first interment made in Mount Pleasant Cemetery. Some advise that hers was the first death, but this can hardly be when the suicide of Mr. Lott is remembered, if the latter occurred in 1838 as is related.
After 1840, emigration became more rapid and generous. The enterprising descendants of those who had built up Pennsylvania and Ohio half a century before, were equally ambitious as had been the parent, to carve out fortune for themselves in the Far West. The growing East afforded too little encouragement to attract them to remain at home, and, prompted by these influences, as also that spirit of thrift, not to say adventure, which predominates throughout the Yankee nation, their "prairie schooners " and pack horses were to be seen daily crowding the trails which were finally lost in the unbroken wilderness of that territory in the direction of the setting sun. With each succeeding year their number increased, and the township under consideration received large accessions to its inhabitants, until the last claim was taken up, and the landscape dotted with the homes of these hardy pioneers. Most of them have gone the way of all flesh - rest from their labors. But their names are preserved among the archives of the past, as among the distinguished few to whom must be attributed the honor of first settling a wilderness, and opening a way for the present prosperity and advanced refinement to be witnessed on every side.
In time villages sprang up in the new township. One of these has become an incorporated town, the objective point toward which farmers and producers living within a radius of many miles, turn for bargain or sale, with the effect of making Orangeville a lively business center, at which an annual business is transacted that would astonish the more pretentious city rival. Oneco Village is scarcely changed, it is said, from what it was nearly forty years ago, and "hardly ever" will. The laying-out and building-up of Orangeville has appropriated the patronage and population at one time lending to Oneco, and the latter remains as it was left when its rival's site was selected a post office center, where the residents of the immediate vicinity congregated to receive their mail, and canvass questions of local or national issue. Throughout the township churches and schools are to be found at nearly every cross-road, and the causes of education and morality are guarded with the same care, and promoted with the same earnestness in Oneco as are the vital interests of life throughout the civilized world.
An inland village, delightfully located in the southeastern part of Oneco Township, handsomely built, inhabited by an industrious, progressive and enterprising class of citizens, containing a population of from tour to five hundred, and the market town of the section, wherein it is situated, the village does an immense business, and presents a fine field for investment or residence. Orangeville, originally known as Bowersville, owes its immediate origin to John Bowers, though the town site had been partially entered and improve by John M. Curtis, prior to Mr. Bowers' arrival in 18415. About the year 1845, Mr. B. came West, and settled at Walnut Grove. A year's residence thereabout prompted a removal to more desirable fields for permanent settlement, and, after canvassing the surrounding country, he at last selected the present site of the town, where, by entry and purchase, he secured title to 320 acres of ground, including a log cabin, mills (saw and grist), and water-power obtained from Richland Creek. After a residence at his new home of about one year. Mr. Bowers, regarding the site as possessing many advantages for the purpose, determined to create a town in the. even at that late day, almost impenetrable wilderness. Thereupon, he appropriated fifteen acres of the land purchased, caused the same to be surveyed and platted by Marcus Montelius, and named his venture, as already stated, " Bowersville." This was in 1849, at which time the brick house on High street, wherein the post office is now kept, is said to have been built. Charles Moore's present residence, a store, presided over by George Hoffman, a blacksmith-shop, built by John Bowers, and occupied by Benjamin Hallman. together with the old Curtis Mills, composed the improvements. The next year, however. Mr. Bowers commenced the building of the present mill, hauling the shingles and better qualities of lumber from Chicago by team, himself acting as driver. The mill was finished the same year at a total cost of about $8,000.
Immediately upon the completion of the survey and the promulgation of the fact that a village was in progress of building, speculators, agents and bonafide purchasers came into the country. Some invested and remained, others departed, promising to return, while others departed without leaving either promises or collaterals to indicate their intentions. Daniel Duck is said to have been the first purchaser of lots in the future town, obtaining that on which is now located the house of Franklin Scott, paying $10 therefor. William Herbert and others came about the same time, and within that decade large numbers of substantial residents settled in the town. Lands were cheap, the village was near Freeport, possessed of valuable water privileges, and other inducements prevailed to meet the popular demand, which found expression in the number of inhabitants who came during the first ten or fifteen years of its existence.
In 1861, the breaking-out of the war caused a large increase in the volume of business done by the merchants, which was materially diminished for some years thereafter, owing to the unsettled condition of affairs throughout the country, the departure of volunteers, and other causes producing similar effects elsewhere. The last half of the decade beginning with 1860, however, witnessed an improved state of public feeling, producing a better market for commodities and correspondingly prosperous times. Orangeville of course participated in these benefits, and so pronounced was the success which attended her development and building-up, that in 186" the village was incorporated as a town, with such prerogatives and privileges appertaining thereto as by law are conferred, including town officers, the following being the roster of those who have held during the years succeeding:
Trustees. - Charles Moore. President; William Wagenhols. George Erb. W. A. St. John and Jacob Kurtz. Associates. 1867.
1868 - Daniel Ream. President: B. H. Bradshaw. William Herbert. Henry Kline and Aaron Boltzer. Associates. William Herbert refusing to serve. W. R. Moore was elected in his stead.
1869 - J. K. Bloom. President: D. R. Rubendall. Peter Scheckler. F. Winters and Edward Moore.
1870 - William Wagenhals. B. H. Bradshaw. W. B. Moore. W. A. St. John and James Musser.
1871 - John K. Bloom. President: Edward Moore. Peter Sheckler. William Trotter and William Potts, Associates.
1872 - M. Musser, President; William Sandoe. M. Lanker. John Munich and E. F. Smith. Associates.
March 20, 1873 - At a special election holden this day, Orangeville was incorporated as a village under the general law.
1873 - W. P. Musser, President; Charles Moore. B. Bowers. D. L. Mahoney, F- A. Miller and Moses Zenker, Associates.
1874 - W. P. Musser, President; John J. Moore, A. Baltzer, M. Lenkard, D. Beaver and William Potts, Associates.
1875 - H. W. Bolender, President; William Wagenhols, D. H. Zettle, Peter Sheckler, Benjamin Bowers and William Trotter, Associates.
1876 - A. Baltzer. President; B. H. Bradshaw, William E. Eble. Edward Moore. H. Cadwell and D. L. Mahoney, Associates.
1877 - M. P. Musser, President; J. B. Schrack, A. Bowers, H. W. Bolender, D. L. Mahonev and George Erb. Associates.
1878 - M. P. Musser, President; S. E. Deal, J. B. Schrack, B. H. Bradshaw. H. W. Bolender and Abraham Bowers, Associates.
1879 - J. G. Wise, President; Henry Deal, William Sandoe, E. T. Moore, John H. Denhart and H. Skinner, Associates.
1880 - D. A. Schock. President; J. G. Wise, William Sandoe. Hiram Skinner, E. T. Moore and Henrv Deal. Associates.
Clerks. - W. A. St. John, 1867; B. H. Bradshaw. 1868 : D. R. Rubendall, 1869 : W. A. St. John. 1870; W. Trotter. 1871; W. Sandoe. 1*7:2: H. W. Bolender, 1873; J. J. Moore. 1874 : J. G. Wise, 1876; T. H. Rote. 1876-77; J. H. Miller, 1878; T. H. Rote, 1879-80.
Treasurers. - W. Wagenhals, 1867; H. Kline, 1868; P. Scheckler. 1869; W. Wagenhals, 1870; W. Potts, 1871 ; J. Munich, 1872; C. Moore, 1873; W. Potts. 1874: W. Sandoe, 1875; James Musser, 1876-80.
Police Magistrate. - William Sandoe, 1877.
Schools. - The first schoolhouse erected in the village occupied a portion of the lot east of the present site of the Luthern Church. In 1860. the school was graded, and in 1874 the present edifice was completed and occupied at a cost of $6,000.
The scholastic curriculum embraces two departments, "primary " and "grammar," employing two teachers and enjoying a daily average attendance of seventy-six pupils. The annual expense attending the support of the schools is about $800.
Lutheran and Reformed Church. - The Lutherans and Reformed Lutherans occupy the same edifice located on the main street north of the schoolhouse.
The Reformed society was organized May 3. 1851, by Henry Habliston, with twenty-four members, of whom Henry Ault was Elder and John Bower and M. Bolander Deacons. At a meeting held the same year, it was decided to unite with the Lutherans to procure the erection of a church edifice, and Daniel Rean, John Bowers and John Wohlford were appointed a Building Committee. The corner-stone was laid in September, 1852, the Revs. G. J. Donmeyer. Daniel Kroh and George Weber officiating, and completed and dedicated September 23, 1855. The church cost $1,900 ; it is of brick, plainly furnished, supplied with an organ, and possessing a capacity for seating about 200 auditors. The dedicatory services were held by the Revs. G. J. Donmeyer, Daniel Kroh, F. C. Bowman, Aratus Kent and J. P. Decker, and the following Pastors have since served: The Revs. John Hoyman, Henry Knepper, C. G. A. Hulhorst and F. W. Stump. The congregation numbers about seventy communicants.
The Lutheran branch of the congregation was established about 1841 or 1848, under the auspices of the Rev. G. J. Donmeyer, with a very small congregation. Services were first held in a log schoolhouse on the Ault farm in Buckeye Township. He remained in charge for a number of years, exchanging occasionally with the Rev. Ephraim Miller, of Cedarville, convening for service in the schoolhouse, mill, etc., until the church above mentioned was built, when it was occupied in part with the Lutheran Reformed congregation in accordance with the terms of an agreement concluded between the several associations.
The following Pastors have served since the society was established: The Revs. G. J. Donmeyer, Mr. Fahr, Charles Anderson, Mr. Cook, John K. Bloom. J. Stoll, A. B. Kiddlesworth, and B. F. Pugh, the present incumbent. The congregation numbers seventy-five worshipers.
The United Brethren Association - Has been in existence in Oneco since 1844. The first services were held in schoolhouses and private residences. The Orangeville Circuit was established in 1856. and in 1857 the present church in the village was erected. It is of brick. 36x50, and cost $2,000. Other churches were subsequently erected in the circuit, including Boehm Chapel in 1865, at an expense of $1,700, and St. James* Church in 1870, for which $2.000 was paid. The association property is valued at 86,500. and the congregation numbers 200 communicants. The following ministers have served in the circuit: the Revs. Heman Scott. Jeremiah Kenoyer, Samuel Kretsinger, Mr. Frazier, William Dollarhide, Moses Clifton, Mr. Collins. Mr. Henninger, George Schneider. J. Hiestand. Mr. Pope, J. H. Grim, S. Rogers, J. H. Young, C. A. Philipps. J. W. Burd. Mr. Roe, J. Johnson, J. Dodson, W. R. Coursey, A. G. Loomis and O. M. Van Swearingen.
Methodist Church - Organized under the present arrangement October 15, 1875, though the sect had held services in the township for many years prior to that date. The charter members were Benjamin Bower and wife. Mrs. Susan Bennett, Mi's. Sarah Heckman, Mrs. B. J. Parriott, Mrs. J. H. Cook, William and Phcoby Frederick, and William Holloway and wife. Services were had semi-monthly, under the pastorate of the Rev. F. B. Hardin, in the German Reformed Church. He was succeeded by the Rev. Bertrand Dickens, under whose incumbency possession of Masonic Hall was obtained and is now in use. At first, the congregation in the circuit and village was quite small, but in 1676 it began to increase, and has so continued with gratifying frequency to the present time. In October, 1877, the Rev. R. A. Harwood accepted charge of the church, and under his dispensation a new edifice was contracted for, same to be erected of frame at Oneco, to cost 81,100. and be completed September 1, 1880. There are now 140 members of the congregation in the charge and twenty-eight in the village of Orangeville. The church property, including the parsonage, is valued at $2,000. Evangelical Association. - Formerly the Cedarville and Orangeville Circuits were several; but increase in numbers necessitated a division at various times, the last one occurring in 1870, when Orangeville was made a separate charge. The Orangeville Circuit now includes Orangeville, Fairfield. St. Peter's Church at Clarno, Wis., two appointments in Wayne County and one at Pleasant Hill.
The present congregation was organized at Orangeville some years ago, but the church edifice was not erected until 1880; it having been completed, and dedicated January 18. of that year, and is one of the finest finished and commodious churches in the county.
The edifice is of frame. 36x52, with a steeple eighty-seven feet high and an auditorium capable of comfortably seating 200 worshipers. It is elaborately frescoed, possessing superior acoustic qualities, furnished with an organ, and desirable in every particular. It cost, complete, $2,500.
The following Pastors have served since the Orangeville Circuit became a separate charge: The Rev. J. B. Rife, William Caton, and S. A. Miller, the present incumbent.
The circuit congregation numbers 245 communicants, fifty-two of whom worship in Orangeville, and the church property is valued at $5,000.
Orangeville Lodge, No. 687 A. F. & A. M. - Was chartered October 1, 1872, to the following-named members, though the lodge had been working under a dispensation for some time prior to that date: B. H. Bradshaw, David Jones, James Musser, Benjamin Musser, Charles Musser, I. G. Ermhold, J K. Bloom, H. W. Bolender. P. Scheckler, William Potts and D. A. Schock. The officers at this time were B. H. Bradshaw, W. M.; David Jones, S. W.. and James Musser, J. W.
The order progressed and prospered in wealth and influence, and, in 1876, erected a handsome hall on High street, a decided ornament to the village, and a source of pride to the fraternity and citizens of Orangeville. The hall is of frame, 26x51, two stories high, handsomely finished, and peculiarly adapted to the uses for which it is appropriated. The basement contains a supper-room, equipped with furniture, cooking and table utensils, and is used upon festive occasions. The first floor is occupied for hall purposes, where entertainments, lectures, social and church gatherings are held. It contains a stage, is thoroughly lighted, heated and ventilated, with a capacity for seating an audience of 300. The upper story is devoted to the lodge-room of the organization, and is superior, in point of finish, to many in cities more pretentious. The cost of the building was $2,500.
The present officers are S. R. Pollock. W. M.; C. Musser, S. W.: W. H. Barnes. J. W.; John F. Fink, Secretary; William E. Eble. Treasurer; P. Rubendall, S. D.; J. S. Hess, J. D., and H. W. Bolander, Tiler.
The present membership includes thirty-one of the craft, and the lodge property is valued at $2,500. Meetings are convened on the first and third Thursday of each month.
J.R. Scroggs Lodge, No. 372 I. O. O. F. - was organized October 13, 1868, under a charter issued to A. A. Krape, Thomas Spriggs, Henry Dinges. J. K. Bloom, J. J. Moore and William Sandoe. The officers then were A. A. Krape. N. G.: J. K. Bloom, V. G-, and William Sandoe, Secretary. Since the date of its organization the lodge has prospered deservedly, and now enjoys a membership of sixty-five of the order, with property valued at $2,000. The present officers are A. Rubendall. X. G.; Charles Worrick. V. G.: J. J. Moore and G. F. Ream, Secretaries, and H. W. Bolender, Treasurer. Meetings are held weekly, on Saturday evening, in Masonic Hall.
Orangeville Lodge, No. 133, I. O. G. T. - Was first organized in 1867, and, after a few years' combat with the world of intemperance, yielded up the ghost. In the fall of 1877, J. Q. Detwiler, an ardent temperance reformer, labored throughout the county, and effected a re-organization of the society, with a total of twenty-four members, and the following officers : J. Cook, P. W. C. T.; Henry Knepper, W. C. T.; F. W. Stumpf, W. S.; Sarah Scheckler, W. F. S.: Mary Scott,
W. T.; Sadie Seidel, W. V. T.; Addie Cook. Wr. I. G.; C. F. Winchell, W. M.; B. Dickens, Chaplain.
Within three years, the lodge has increased its working force to forty members, and is otherwise prosperous. The following are the present officers: B. H. Bradshaw, P. W. C. T.: Sarah Seidel, W. C. T.; Amelia Dorn, W. V. T.; M. E. Bradshaw, W.S.; Milton Stites. W. F. S.; Libbie Bower, W. T.; L. Strevfeller, W. M.; Alory Scott, W. I. G.; Mrs. Kate Bowers, W. 0. G.
Meetings are held semi-monthly, on Friday evenings, in Masonic Hall.
In addition to the societies which convene in Masonic Hall, its occupation is granted, on the first and third Saturday afternoons, to Excelsior Grange, No. 109, Patrons of Husbandry, which was chartered January 21, 1873, and now has sixty members, with the following officers: Daniel Musser, Master; Franklin Ream, Overseer; Charles Cadwell, Secretary; Reuben Bobb, Treasurer; and Charles Cadwell, Chaplain.
Orangeville Flour Mills. - The first mills erected in the immediate vicinity of Orangeville, were put up by John M. Curtis, at a date long before the now flourishing village was conceived in the-brain of its founder. In 1838. Mr. Curtis "rigged" a very primitive dam on the opposite side of Richland Creek, near the foot of what is now known as High street, and built a mill supplied with one run of stones, and machinery for sawing purposes. He worked this industry successfully until his death, which occurred along in the forties, when they remained idle until John Bowers purchased the establishment and prepared to lay out the village.
In 1850, after Orangeville had been surveyed and began to be populated, Mr. Bowers razed the old structure, and from its ruins erected the present handsome building on the village side of the creek, at a cost of $8,000. The premises are of frame, 40x60, three and a half stories high, provided with three run of stone, and capable of grinding 200 bushels of wheat daily.
The tight times of 1857 caused a suspension of operations about the mills for a temporary period, and, in 1850, they passed into the hands of Messrs. Hefty, Legner & Co.. who conducted them for seven years, when they sold to E. F. Moore & Co. the present owners, for $12,000. In 1868, Moore & Co. reconstructed the saw-mill, located it north of the flour-mill, and refitted it with new machinery, the improvements made costing about $1,500, and to-day own one of the most complete establishments of the kind, invaluable to an agricultural community in this section of the State. Orangeville Creamery - One of the largest and most complete establishments of the kind in the West, was established January 18, 1879, by D. A. Schock and H. W. Bolender, the present proprietors. The buildings consist of a creamery and refrigerator, which were built at a cost of $5,000, supplied with convenience and detail necessary to a successful carrying-on of the every business.
The former is 38x50. containing the manufactory, cooler and other departments. The butter is manufactured by steam-power, and the process is somewhat interesting. The cream is first put in vats of a capacity of 260 pounds each and raised to a temperature of 60°, when it is thrown into a revolving churn and moved so rapidly that in forty minutes the raw butter is removed therefrom and placed in the cooling-room. It remains here about twenty-four hours, when it is taken out. worked thoroughly, salted, loaded into firkins and deposited in the refrigerator subject to order. The refrigerator is 24x40. with a capacity for storage of 180,000 pounds of butter in addition to 180 tons of ice, thereby maintaining an equable temperature of 40° all the year round.
The firm manufactures 210 tons of butter annually, or 1.400 pounds daily, requiring 6000 pounds of cream therefor per day. and furnishing employment to ten hands at a weekly compensation of $100.font>
The goods are shipped to Chicago, St. Louis, Milwaukee and the Eastern markets, and command an almost universal demand among dealers.
The Cemetery was located within the village limits when the same were described in the first instance, and so continued until increasing population compelled its removal to some point remote from the habitations of man. It now occupies a handsome site on the hill overlooking town, the territory embraced consisting of an acre of ground donated by John Bowers, which is handsomely laid out and appropriately decorated with emblems commemorative of the virtues of those who sleep beneath its turf.
Post Office. - This indispensable adjunct to civilization was first established in 1854. An effort was made the year previous to procure its location at Bowersville, but without results. The year following, however, a change came over the spirit of the Postmaster General's conclusions, who granted the prayer of petitioners in that connection, directed that the name be changed to Orangeville, and appointed William Wagenhals Postmaster. It is now located in one of the first brick houses erected in the village, with facilities for communicating with the outer world unsurpassed by those of any interior town of similar proportions and importance.
The first marriage to take place after the building of the village was formally inaugurated was that of William Wagenhols and Susan Sandoe; this was in 1848.
Emanuel Shafer, a lad residing with his parents in this village, was bitten by a snake about the same year, and his is recorded as the first death: while a daughter to Mary and William Chilton is reputed as the first birth.
Along in 1840, Henry Corwith, of Galena, acting on behalf of J. K. Brewster, entered a quarter-section of land on the very spot now occupied in part by Oneco. This village, which is located near the center of the township, was thus laid out and plaited with the hope that it in time would become a flourishing depot for prosperity to halt at permanently. Some time after its survey, the land of which the original tract was composed, excepting about fifteen acres, was sold, and is now occupied by the farm of Samuel Stout. Subsequently, two additions were made to the town site by Alonzo Denio. and it now contains a population estimated at one hundred. School was taught in sight of the village as early as 1843. In 1851, a brick building was erected on Denio's Addition, east of the post office, which was occupied until the completion of the present structure, on the Orangeville road. This was accomplished in 1876, at a cost of $2000; at present, one teacher is employed, who furnishes education and the attendant concomitant's to an overage daily attendance of sixty-five pupils. The annual expenses incident to maintaining the school are stated at $500.
The residents of the village and vicinity attend church in Orangeville, but the Methodists are at present erecting an edifice, which will be completed in the fall or winter.
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