Principle city of the state and third largest city in the US, is situated on the north side of the Patapsco river, 14 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay and 40 miles from Washington DC. Built on uneven ground around 3 harbors. The outer harbor is 22 feet deep, the second is 15 feet deep and the inner harbor will only handle ships less than 290 tons. The outer harbor is defended by fortifications, which repulsed a British fleet of 16 ships in 1814.
The appearance of the city from the water is imposing. Within the city the house and buildings are in various degrees of beauty. Many of the public structures are also splendid and costly. Baltimore is named the "Monumental City", chiefly from the two great monuments it contains. Washington monument is a Doric column, of white marble, 1880 ft high, resting on a base of the same material, 20 ft high and surmounted by a statue of the man it commemorates. Ascending by a winding staircase within the column, the visitor beholds a wide prospect pf the city and varied environs. Battle Monument, also of white marble, is 52 ft high and was erected in memory of the patriots who fell in defense of this city against the British in 1814. Many churches are remarkable for architectural beauty. The courthouse, state penitentiary, customhouse, St Mary's college and the halls of numerous literary and scientific institutions, are among the other important builds. The Exchange is 225 ft wide, 141 ft deep and 115 ft to the top of the dome. Colonnades of the Ionic order, made of Italian marble, extend across its east and west fronts.
Water is supplied in abundance from fountains in the city, and from Jones's fall, in the vicinity, by an aqueduct and pipes. In manufacturing, as in commerce, Baltimore ranks with the great cities of America. Jones's Fall (a small creek dividing the city and spanned by several beautiful bridges) and the Patapsco afford numerous excellent seats for mills and manufacturing of various kinds.
Population in 1775 was 5,936, in 1790 was 13,503, in 1800 was 26,614, in 1810 was 46,555, in 1820 was 62,738, in 1830 was 80,625, in 1840 was 102,313 and in 1850 was 166,303