Boston City, MA
The capital of ME and seat of justice of Suffolk Co, occupies a peninsula and other adjacent points, at the had of Massachusetts Bay. The original town was confined to the peninsula, but this, although enlarged by artificial means, has long since proved too narrow for the growing city, which, passing the barriers thrown around it by nature, one embraces, independently of the populous towns and villages that are its offspring, the triple division of "Old Boston", "South Boston" and "East Boston". The "Neck" was formerly the only avenue from the town to the main land, bit it is now united by bridges and other avenues. to Charlestown, Cambridge, South Boston and other surrounding points. From the west side of the city, Western avenue is continued to Brookline on the opposite side of Charles river bay, by a costly dam, one mile and a half in length, and 100 feet broad. Proceeding from the middle of this, on which are several tide mills, a second dam divides the bay into two spacious basins. Several of the Boston railroads also enter the city, by bridges built expressly for that purpose.
The harbor extends from Nantasket to the city, and spreads from Chelsea and Nahant to Hingham, containing about 75 sq miles. It is studded with upward of 50 islands, or rocks, ad receives the waters from the Mystic, Charles, Neponset and Manatticut rivers, with several other smaller streams. One of the most remarkable features connected with the harbor, is the costly and splendid wharves. These marks of commercial enterprise and prosperity are about 100 in number, and of various dimensions. Long Wharf is 1800 ft long & 150 ft wide; Central Wharf is 1397 ft long & 150 ft wide; India Wharf is 980 ft long & from 246 to 280 ft wide; and Commercial Wharf is 1100 ft long & 160 ft wide. These, like most of the others, are lined with extensive and magnificent warehouses, constructed f the most substantial materials.
Another valuable acquisition is Boston Common, a pleasant park of about 50 acres, situated at the south westerly slope of Beacon Hill. It is pleasantly diversified with knolls, Avenues, fountains, a small lake or pond and tress, some of the latter being interesting relics of colonial and revolutionary times. The common is surrounded by a iron fence, over one mile in extent. Between the common and the Charles river bay, lies the Botanic Garden, a beautiful and tasteful enclosure. On the north side of the common, and at the summit of the hill stands the statehouse, an elegant structure, 173 ft in length, 61 ft in depth and 120 ft in height. The top dome is 230 ft above tide water. The view from the top of the statehouse is very extensive and variegated; perhaps nothing in the country is superior to it. To the east appears the bay and harbor, interspersed with beautiful islands; and in the distance beyond, the wide ocean. To the north the eye is met by Charlestown, with its interesting and memorable heights of Bunker Hill, crowned with the monument, 220 ft in height, and the Navy-yard of the United States; the town of Chelsea, Malden, and Medford and other villages, and the natural forests mingling in the distant horizon, To the west is a fine view of the Charles river and bay, they city of Cambridge, rendered venerable for the university, now about 200 years old; of the highly cultivated towns of Brighton, Brookline and Newton; and to the south is the city of Roxbury, which seems to be only a continuation of Boston, and which is rapidly increasing Dorchester, a rich, agricultural town, with Milton and Quincy beyond; and further south, the Blue hills at the distance of 8 miles, which seem to bound the prospect.
Faneuil Hall, which is justly styled the "cradle of American liberty" was originally built in 1740, for a town-hall and market home. It has been enlarged and beautified on several occasions, and will always be a place of historical interest to the lovers of liberty. Adjoining it on the east is Quincy Market, one of the most splendid and commodious edifices of the kind in the country. It is constructed of granite, or sienite, 540 ft in length, 50ft wide and 2 stories high. The courthouse, merchants' exchange, post office, custom-house, Massachusetts general hospital, the old south meeting house, Park street, Brattle street, and Trinity churches, the Tremont house, Revere house, the Athenaeum, the jail, Society of Natural History, the house of industry, correction and reformation, are among the objects of interest. The water-works may be regarded as one the most important of the recent improvements. By a series of pipes and reservoirs, water is conveyed at all parts of the city proper, and East and South Boston, from Long Pond or Lake Cochituate, a distance of nearly 20 miles. It will supply 10,000,000 gallons of water daily, ad cost about $5,000,000.
Railroads diverge from this city in various directions, connecting it with Plymouth, New Bedford, Fall River, Providence, Stonington, New York (via Worchester, Springfield, Hartford & New Haven); with Albany, via Worchester & Springfield. With Vermont via Fitchburg, also with Lake Winnipisiogee and the White Mountains. In NH via Nashua, Concord and Meredith Bridge: also via Lowell and Manchester: with Augusta, ME, via Salem, Newburyport, Portsmouth, Portland and Bath.
Boston is pre-eminently distinguished for its efforts in behalf of education. Its public schools are unrivalled in excellence, and its numbers among its citizens some of the most munificent patrons of learning, literature and science: which, with its many eminent literary and philosophical societies, has led to its being honored with the title of the "Athens of America".
Mount Auburn, a beautiful cemetery, belonging principally t Boston, is picturesquely near Cambridge, about 5 miles distance. Within this interesting "city of the dead" rest the remains of many of the illustrious sons of New England.
Populations: 1700 was 7,000; in 1722 was 10,567;
in 1765 was 15,520; in 1790 was 18,033; in 1800 was 24,937; in 1810 was 33,250;
in 1820 was 43,298; in 1830 was 61,392; in 1840 was 93,383 and in 1850 was