Georgia, so called in honor of its royal grantor, George II, of England, and the most southern on the original thirteen states, lies between 30°19' and 35° north latitude and 80°50' and 85°40' west Longitude from Greenwich; and is bounded north by North Carolina and Tennessee, northeast by Savannah river, which separates it from South Carolina, southeast by the Atlantic, south by Florida and west by Alabama. Its superficial area is 61,500 square miles
Physical Aspect-- This state occupies a large proportion of the great inclined plain, from which the peninsula of Florida protrudes, and down which several rivers flow into the Atlantic and the Mexican gulf. From the Atlantic border of this state, this acclivity gradually rises to an elevation of 1200 feet above the level of the sea, without estimating the mountain ridges. Like the Carolinas, it may be divided into three zones. First, the flat sea-border, including numerous small islands; second, the sand-hill zone; and third, a hilly and partly mountainous tract, beyond the lower falls of the rivers. The soil on the islands, called Hummock land, is very rich, producing the celebrated Sea-island cotton. The seacoast on the main land consists of a belt of salt marsh, four or five miles in width. In the rear of this margin commence the "pine barrens," which extend 60 to 90 miles from the ocean. The rivers and creeks are generally bordered with swamps, or marshes, which, at every tide, are either wholly ort partially overflowed, for 15 or 20 miles from the coast. These constitute the principal rice plantations. Beyond the pine barrens the country becomes uneven, diversified with hills and mountains, of a strong rich soil. The northwestern part of the state is mountainous, and abounds in beautiful scenery. The soil of Georgia, though varied, is a large portion of it, productive. At a distance from the sea it changes from gray to red; in some places it is gravelly, but fertile; and further back in the country its color is gradually deepened, till it becomes that is called the "Mulatto soil", consisting of black mould and reddish earth. This is succeeded in its turn by a soil that is nearly black and very rich. In the southwest portion of the state is Okefenokee swamp, about 170 miles in circumference.
Mountains-- This state is traversed on the north by a spur of the Alleghanies, among which are Yonah and Currahee mountains. Pine Mountain lies near the western boundary.
Rivers and Sounds-- The principle rivers are, the Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla, Ocmulgee, Oconee, St Mary's, Flint, Chattahoochee, Tallapoosa and Coosa. The coast of Georgia is indented by numerous sounds and inlets, which occur at the mouths of the principal rivers.
Islands-- Along the Atlantic coast there is a chain of Islands, which are separated from the main by rivers, creeks and inlets, forming an inland navigation of more than 100 miles. The principle of these Islands are: Tybee, Wassaw, Ossabaw, St Catherine's, Sapelo, St Simon's, Jykill and Cumberland
Climate-- The climate, from the difference of elevation, is varied, one section producing wheat, and another sugar-cane. The winters are usually mild and pleasant; snow is seldom seen, nor is vegetation often interrupted by severe frosts. The temperature of winter usually fluctuates from 40° to 60°,although it occasionally falls as low as 16°. In the low country, in the vicinity of swamps, fevers and bilious attacks are common, owing partly to the badness of the water, but principally to the noxious vapors which arise from stagnant water, and putrid matter in the rice swamps. In the upper country the air is pure and salubrious throughout the year, and the water is abundant and good.
Productive Resources-- The staple products of this state consist of horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, silk, wool, butter, cheese, cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar, wine, wheat, rye, oats, barley, potatoes, and Indian corn. Among the mineral resources are, copper, iron and gold. The latter occurs in considerable abundance in the northern part of the state, on both sides of the Chattahoochee river, as far north as the Blue Ridge.
Manufactures-- The people of Georgia are more engaged in manufactures than those of any other southern state. It has quite a number of large cotton factories, which are worked by slave labor. It has also extensive tanneries and mills of various descriptions.
Railroads and Canals-- there are about 1000 miles of railroad already in successful operation in Georgia, and more in process of construction. The cost of the railroads already completed in this state is over $15,00,000. The principle canals in Georgia are, one from Savannah to the Ogeechee river, 16 miles, and from Altamaha to Brunswick, 12 miles
Commerce-- The foreign commerce of Georgia amounts to about $9,000,000 annually. The coasting trade is also considerable.
Education-- The university of Georgia, founded in 1785, at Athens, is the principal literary institution in the state. There are also, the Oglethrope university at Medina, near Milledgeville. The Mercer university at Penfield, the Georgia Female college near Macon, and the Georgia Medical college at Augusta. There are about 250 academics scattered through the state, and some 1500 primary and common schools.
Population-- in 1749 was 6,000; in 1790 was 82,584; in 1800 was 162,686; in 1810 was 252,433; in 1820 was 348,989; in 1830 was 516,567; in 1840 was 691,392 and in 1850 was 905,999. Number of slaves in 1790 was 29,264; in 1800 was 59,404; in 1810 was105,218; in 1820 was 149,656; in 1830 was 217,531; in 1840 was 280,944 and in 1850 was 381,681.
Government-- The governor is elected by the people, and holds his office two years. The senate consists of 47 members, elected from 44 districts of two counties each, two districts of three countries each, and one district comprising but a single county. The house of representatives is composed of 130 members; the 35 counties having the largest number of inhabitants are entitled to two members each, and the remainder one each. State election biennially, first Monday in October. The legislature meets biennially, on the first Monday in November (odd years), at Milledgeville. The judges of the superior court are elected for three years by the legislature, and the judges of the inferior court and justice of the peace are elected quadrennially by the people. All the free white male inhabitants, who shall have resided within the country in which they vote six months preceding the election, and shall have paid taxes in the state for the year previous, have the right of suffrage.
History-- The state of Georgia embraces a part of Virginia, as granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584; or a portion of South Virginia, as granted by James I, of England in 1606. A portion of its present territory also embraces a part of the ancient Georgia colony, chartered in 1732, to a corporation "in trust for the poor", for 21 years, including the country between the Savannah and Altahama rivers, extending westward from their sources to the "South Sea"; also a portion of the northern part of Florida, as claimed at the time by Spain. The first permanent settlement in Georgia, was made under this grant at Savannah, Oglethorpe in 1732, who brought out a band of colonists, collected from among the poor and vicious population, as an experimental effort for their reformation, by providing them with the means of self support. This benevolent design failing of success, the trustees of the colony sent out a better class of emigrants in 1735 from Scotland, Switzerland and Germany. In the year following Oglethorpe extended his settlements as far south as St John's river, in Florida, but was repulsed by the Spaniards. He retained his fortification at the mouth of the St Mary's and this river afterward became the boundary between Georgia and Florida. In the year 1752, the trustees of the colony surrendered their charter to the king, and their province was forced into a royal government. A general representative assembly was established in 1755; and in 1763 all the territory between the Altahama and the St Mary's was annexed. In 1775, Georgia acceded to the union of the colonies, and sent deputies to Congress. When military operations were transferred to the southern states, from 1779 to 1781, Georgia became a portion of the bloody arena. It was at the siege of Savannah, 23 Sep 1779, that Count Pulaski, the brave and patriotic Pole, was killed. In 1777, the first state constitution was adopted, and the parishes then existing were formed into counties. A second constitution was adopted in 1785, and the one now in force in 1798. In 1788 it adopted the constitution of the United States by a unanimous vote. By different conventions, all of the new states, Alabama and Mississippi, lying north of 31°, have been yielded to the general government. Motto of the state seal of Georgia "Constitution" supported by "Wisdom", "Justice", "Moderation" and "Agriculture and Commerce".