Seat of justice of Hartford Co and state capital, together with New Haven, of Connecticut, is situated on Connecticut river, at the head of sloop navigation. 45 miles from it entrance into Long Island sound, 100 miles, southwest of Boston, and 123 miles northeast of New York. The city is built on the west bank of the river, which rises suddenly into an elevation, and stretches away into an undulating and diversified country. Seated in the centre of the state, and in its richest region, and communicating with the whole valley of the Connecticut, from Vermont to the sound, it enjoys an extensive and valuable trade in all the manufactures and productions peculiar to New England. The plan of the city is not very regular, but many of its buildings are elegant and beautiful for situation. On a public square stands the state house, a fine structure of the Doric order, 116 feet long, 75 wide and 54 high. Trinity college, an Episcopal institution, has a fine location near the city. The city hall is the Doric and he Athenaeum of the Gothic architecture, are conspicuous edifices. But the buildings most honorable to Hartford, are the American Asylum for the education of the Deaf and Dumb, and the Retreat of the Insane. Both of these institutions are widely known, and include persons from all parts of the country. The former is situated on Tower Hill, about a mile west of the city, and receives a revenue from grants made by the general government and from other sources. The buildings of the Insane Asylum are located toward the southwest of the city, upon an eminence, in the midst of picturesque and delightful scenery, well suited to minister to the injured mind that peace and quietude which nature can best impart.
A beautiful freestone bridge spans Mill river, which winds through the city into the Connecticut, by a single arch of 100 feet, and a substantial and costly bridge connects the town with East Hartford. Perhaps the object of most universal interest in the vicinity of Hartford, is the Charter Oak, which still flourishes as in its pristine verdure, through age has robbed it of some of its limbs. It stands on a beautiful elevation south of the city. The New Haven and Hartford, the Hartford and Springfield, and the Connecticut river railroads, traverse the best part of Massachusetts and Connecticut and sloops and steamboats ply upon the river and Long Island sound.
Population: in 1810 was 3,955; in 1820 was 4,726; in 1830 was 7,074; in 1840 was 12,793 and in 1850 was 17,966