One of the United States, formerly a portion of the Louisiana territory, situated between 40°30' and 43°30' north latitude, and 90°20' and 96°50' west longitude from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Minnesota, east by Mississippi river, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, south by Missouri, and west by the Indian territory. Its superficial area is 50,000 square miles.
Physical Aspect--The general surface of this state is moderately undulating, without mountains or high hills, except in the northern part, where the hills are of considerable height. Along the margins of the rivers there are frequent ranges of bluffs, which vary in height from 40 to 130 feet. In other instances, the streams are skirted by rich "bottoms" covered with trees. A large proportion of the territory consists of prairies, some of which have a level, others a rolling surface. The soil on the bottoms, as well as on the prairie, is generally good, the former consisting of a deep rich black mould and the latter of a sandy loam, sometimes intermingled with gravel or red clay.
Rivers and Lakes--The principal rivers are the Mississippi, Des Moines, Iowa, Keosauque, Little Iowa, Turkey, Shunk, Red, Cedar, Maquekota and Wabsipinecon. At the north part of the state there are numerous small lakes.
Climate--The climate is pleasant, and generally healthy, except where, during the summer, bilious complaints, fevers, and agues, usually prevail. Snow rarely falls to exceed eight or ten inches in depth; and the Mississippi, at Prairie du Chien, is not frozen sufficiently strong to be crossed more than five or six weeks in the year. The summers are warm, but not oppressively so, and are refreshed by frequent showers.
Productive Resources--The staple products of this state are, horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, butter, cheese, wax, wool, hay, hemp, flax, skins, furs, sugar, tobacco, wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, and Indian corn. Among the mineral resources are found lead, iron, copper, zinc and coal; but lead is the most abundant, and the mines are extensively worked in the vicinity of Dubuque.
Manufactures--The manufacturing and mechanic arts have as yet but a slight foothold in Iowa; but with its abundant water power and other resources, it undoubtedly will not remain long as now almost entirely an agricultural state.
Commerce--From its position lying upon the Mississippi river, with numerous navigable streams traversing its interior, Iowa possesses commercial advantages equal to those of any other western state. It contributes largely to the valuable cargoes that are floated down the Mississippi to New Orleans.
Education--There are two collegiate institutions in this state; the Iowa University, at Iowa City, and the Franklin college, at Franklin. The constitution makes it imperative that a school shall be established in each district. All lands granted by Congress, and other specified avails, constitute a fund to be applied to education. A special fund is also provided for the support of the state university.
Government--The legislative power is vested in a senate consisting of not more than one half, nor less than one third, of the number of representatives, and who are chosen for four years, one half biennially; and on a house of representative, not less then 39, nor more than 72 in number, chosen for two years. The executive power is vested in a governor, chosen for four years. The judicial power in a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and two associates, elected by the legislature for six years; in district courts, the judges of which are elected by the people for five years; and in justices of the peace. Every white male citizen, 21 years old (idiots, insane or infamous persons excepted), having resided in the state six months, and in the county 20 days, has the right of suffrage. State elections first Monday in August; the legislature meets biennially, first Monday in December.
Population--In 1840 was 43,111 and in 1850 was 192,214.
History--Iowa embraces a portion of the ancient territory of Upper Louisiana, the eastern border of which was explored by Marquette and Joliet, in 1673. It remained under the jurisdiction of France until 1763 when it was ceded to Spain. In 1800 it was retro ceded, to France, who formally took possession of the country, and sold the whole to the United States in 1803. Subsequently to this, Iowa constituted a part of the territory of Louisiana, and afterward of that of Missouri. Until as late as the year 1832, the whole of this territory north of Missouri, which was admitted into the Union as a state in 1821, was in undisputed possession of the Indians. By a treaty made in 1830, the Sacs and Foxes, then the principal tribes, had ceded to the United States the last of their lands east of the Mississippi. In consequence of not leaving the territory, in compliance with the treaty, arose the "Black Hawk War," which resulted in the total defeat of the Indians at the Battle of Bad Ax, in Wisconsin in 1832. In the autumn of that year a belt of country along the west side of the Mississippi, extending northward from Missouri for nearly 300 miles, and 50 miles in width, commonly known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," was ceded by the Indians to the United States. In 1836-37 further purchases were made, and in 1838 Iowa was erected into a territory. By another treaty in 1842, a tract of some 15,000,000 acres more were purchased of the Sacs and Foxes for $1,000,000. From that time the Indian title became extinct in the whole country lying within this state, which was admitted into the Union in 1846. This state is being rapidly settled, and the tide of emigration now flowing westward will, at no distant day, make this one of the most populous states in the Union.