City, seat of justice, together with Cambridge and Concord, of Middlesex Co, MA, is situated at the confluence of Concord and Merrimac rivers, 25 miles northwest of Boston. From an insignificant village, in 1822, it has sprung up into a wealthy and populous city, celebrated over the world for its unrivalled manufactories of cotton and woolen fabrics, by which it has gained the title of the "Manchester of America". The secret of its prosperity lies in the vast water power, which enterprise and skill have turned in to available channels. By a canal which connects the Merrimac below Pawtucket falls, with Concord river, water is conveyed to the town, and distributed to the various factories. About 30 are employed in the manufacture of cotton; a number of others produce woolen fabrics of various kinds, as carpets, broadcloths, cassimere, calicoes, machinery for railroads &c. About $20,000,000 are invested in these operations. Lowell is pleasantly situated, and is laid out with broad streets, and the inhabitants are distinguished for industry and good morals. The operatives in the factories, are far above the ignorance and degradation which belong to those similarly employed in other countries. The "Lowell Offering" a periodical composed of communications from the young women of the :mills," is an instance of the truth of this remark. The principal public buildings are the court house, city hall, mechanics hall ( the latter of which is devoted to literary and scientific intelligence, and furnished with a museum and library), and the public school, which receive a very liberal support. Lowell is connected with Boston by the Middlesex canal, and by railroad; there is also railroad communication with all the principal towns of the surrounding country.
The population; in 1822 was 100 or less; in 1830 was 6,474; in 1840 was 20,796 and in 1850 was 27,463