Maryland

One of the United States, named in honor of Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I, and daughter of Henry IV, of France.  It is situated between 38 and 3943' north latitude and 7510' and 7920' west longitude from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Pennsylvania and Delaware; east by Delaware and the Atlantic; south by Virginia and Chesapeake bay, and southwest and west by Virginia, from which it is separated in part by the Potomac.  Its superficial area is 13,959 square miles.

Physical Aspects-- This state may be said to embrace the three great zones of soil, alluvial, hilly and mountainous.  In the counties on the eastern side of the Chesapeake, with the exception of a small part of the northern extremity, is an extensive plain, low and sandy, and much intersected by rivers and creeks, having but few springs, and abounding, in many places, with stagnant pools.  The land in this portion of the peninsula is of much better quality than in the Delaware part.  The country on the western shore of the Chesapeake, below the falls of the rivers, is similar to that of the eastern side.  Above the falls the surface becomes gradually uneven and hilly, and in the western part of the state it is mountainous.  There is much good soil existing in every section of the state; but the most productive in grain and fruits are some of the limestone tracts in the western counties.

Mountains-- Several branches of the Allegany chain cross the state from Pennsylvania to Virginia, the principal of which are, North mountain, South mountain, Warrior's, Sugar-loaf, Savage, Will's mountains and Sidling Hill.

Rivers and Bays-- The principle rivers are, the Potomac, Susquehanna, Patapsco, Patuxent, Elk, Sassafras, Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, Pokomoke, St Mary's, and the Severn.  Chesapeake bay runs through the state from north to south, dividing it into two parts.  The part east of the bay is called the "Eastern Shore," and the portion adjoining the bay on the west is called the "Western Shore." Sinepuxent bay lies near the Atlantic coast, and is connected to the ocean by an inlet of the same name.

Climate-- In the eastern part of the state, the climate in summer is moist, sultry and disagreeable, and the inhabitants are subject to agues, intermittents, and bilious attacks; but in the western regions toward Virginia, where the land is more elevated, the climate is agreeable and highly salubrious.

Productive Resources-- The chief products are, horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, butter, cheese, sugar, wax, hops, tobacco, wool, cotton, silk, hemp, flax, hay, wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, and Indian corn.  Among the mineral resources are bog iron ore, bituminous coal, porcelain and other clays, red and yellow ochre, chrome ores, alum earth and copperas.

Manufactures-- in manufactures, Maryland occupies a respectable position.  Numerous woolen and cotton mills, copper and iron rolling mills, are established near Baltimore, and also scattered over other parts of the state.  Silk, flax and mixed goods, are also manufactured to a considerable extent.  Tanneries are numerous, and ship building is carried on extensively.  The flour of Maryland is considered second to none in the market.  The capital invested in manufactures is about $12,000,000.

Railroads and Canals-- The great chain of southern railroads traverses this state.  The Baltimore and Ohio railroad, extending from Baltimore to Wheeling, 178 miles, is a magnificent work.  Other lines intersect the state in different directions.  The Chesapeake and Ohio canal, from Georgetown, DC to Cumberland, 184 miles long, lies mostly in this state. It is intended to continue in to Pitssburg, PA, 340 miles.

Commerce-- The imports and exports of Maryland are about $14,000,000 annually.  The shipping owned within the state is about 2,000,000 tons, about one half of which is engaged in the coasting trade.

Education-- There are several colleges in Maryland.  Washington college at Chestertown, founded in 1783 is the oldest;  ST John's college at Annapolis, founded in 1784 is next.  Besides these, are, the University of Maryland, and the SY Mary's both of Baltimore; Mount St Mary's at Emmitsburg; and St James near Hagerstown.  There are two medical schools at Baltimore.  There are besides, in the state, about 200 academics and grammar schools, and 800 common schools.

Government-- The legislative power is vested in a senate, and a house of delegates.  The senators are elected by the people for a term of four years, one half of them being chosen biennially.  One senator is chosen from each county, and one from the city of Baltimore; making the present number of senators 22.  The members of the house of delegates are elected by the people once in two years, and until the apportionment to be made under the census of 1860, are 72 in number.  Te executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people, for a term of 4 years.  The state is divided into three districts, and the governor is taken from each of the three districts alternately.  The judicial power is vested in a court of appeals, in circuit courts, courts for the city of Baltimore, and in justices of the peace, all elected by the people.  The judges of the court of appeals, four in number; and the circuit judges, eight in number, are chosen for ten years.  The general election is held on the first Wednesday in November, biennially.  The constitution conveys the right of suffrage on every free white male citizen, of 21 years of age, having resided one year in the state, and six months in the county in which he offers to vote.  Imprisonment for debt, and lotteries, are now prohibited.

Population-- In 1790 was 319,728; in 1800 was 341,548; in 1810 was 380,546; in 1820 was 407,350; in 1830 was 447,040; in 1840 was 469,232 and in 1850 was 583,035.  Number of slaves in 1790 was 103,036; in 1800 was 105,635; in 1810 was 111,502; in 1820 was 107,398; in 1830 was 102,294; in 1840 was 89,737 and in 1850 was 90,368.

History-- In 1632, Charles I, granted to Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) the whole territory extending from the Potomac to the fortieth degree of north latitude, comprising not only all the present states of Maryland and Delaware, but a part of Pennsylvania and New Jersey.  Though involved in a controversy for many years, respecting their common boundaries, Maryland and Pennsylvania did not fix upon their existing limits before the year 1762, when they were determined by actual survey by two eminent English engineers, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, and hence the present boundary between these two states is call "Mason and Dixon's line."  The first permanent settlement within the limits of Maryland was made on the island of Kent, by William Claiborne, in 1632.  A few months later, the grant was made to Lord Baltimore, and his brother, Leonard Calvert, proceeded to the Potomac, in 1634, with one hundred emigrants, mostly Catholics, and formed a settlement at St Mary's, where the first legislative assembly convened, in 1635.  In 1774, a provincial Congress took the government into its own hands.  It joined the confederacy in 1776 and adopted the federal constitution in 1788.  In 1790, that portion of the state now constituting the District of Columbia, was ceded to the general government.  Maryland formed her constitution in 1776, which was subjected to numerous amendments till 1851, when a new one was framed by a state convention, and adopted by the people.  The motto of the seal is, "Industry the means, and plenty the result."