Newark, NJ


City, seat of justice of Essex Co, NJ, 49 miles northeast of Trenton, is situated on the west side of Passaic river, 3 miles from its entrance into Newark bay, 9 miles west of New York, and 215 miles from Washington.  It has a pleasant location on level ground, somewhat elevated above the river.  The streets are broad and straight, lighted with gas, and supplied through iron pipes with pure water from a neighboring spring.  Two spacious public parks, shaded by lofty trees, add much to the beauty of the place.  The houses are generally of wood or brick, the former white and neat, the latter substantial and elegant.  Toward the west, the elevated ground affords a commanding site for residences; and the courthouse, which is a large structure of brown freestone, in the Egyptian style of architecture.  The materials for this, were wrought from the neighboring quarries, which furnish large quantities of material for buildings in New York and elsewhere.  The New Jersey railroad, connecting New York with Newark, Trenton and Philadelphia, here enters a splendid depot, which is one of the most prominent buildings in the city.  The Morris and Essex railroad also terminates here.  Newark has also a number of churches, of which some are elegant and beautiful; also several banks, literary institutions, and libraries.  In proportion to its population, few cities are more extensively engaged in manufactures.  Whalebone, oil, carriages, varnish, leather, shoes, candles, soap, harness, machinery, castings, zinc, paint and glass, are among the articles most largely produced.

Steamboats ply several times a day to New York; and the Morris canal, traversing the fruitful country from which it is named, has contributed much to the trade and prosperity of the place.

The Population in 1810 was 5,000 (in whole township, 8,008); in 1820 was 6,507; in 1830 was 10,953; in 1840 was 17,2090 and in 1850 was 38,893.