City, seat of justice, together with Salem and Ipswich, of Essex Co, MA, situated on the south bank of Merrimack river, three miles from its entrance into the ocean, and 30 miles north of Boston. It embraces about one mile square with regular streets, those parallel with the river rising one above the other, after the manner of terraces. That nearest the water is occupied by stores and warehouses, and the higher ones by neat and commodious dwellings, which command a beautiful prospect of the harbor and ocean. A road and bridge lead to Plumb island, at the mouth of the river, which is pleasant summer resort. A suspension bridge and a railroad bridge extend across the Merrimack to Salisbury. The harbor is ample and is protected by a breakwater, but is obstructed by a sand bar at its entrance. Newburyport has been and is still extensively engaged in commerce and fisheries; and although of late its maritime trade as diminished, its population and general prosperity has increased. The town contains a custom house of rough granite with a Grecian Doric portico, churches, a courthouse, jail, market and other public buildings. The Eastern railroad from Boston and Salem, enters the place, and unites it to the Portsmouth, Portland and Saco railroads.
Population in 1810 was 7,634; in 1820 was 6,852; in 1830 was 6,375; in 1840 was 7,161 and in 1850 was 9,532