New Haven, CT

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City, seat of justice of New Haven Co and capital, together with Hartford, of Connecticut, situated on a bay of Long Island sound, which is here about 20 miles broad.  It is 76 miles northeast of New York and 300 miles from Washington.  The city is built on a plain, or gentle slope, at the foot of two bold spurs from the Green Mountain range, which here terminate in two abrupt cliffs, called "East Rock" and West Rock," rising like sentinels on either side.  From the top of these, the eye beholds a wide and enchanting prospect.  Below the feet, New Haven lies in quiet beauty, with its white mansions and steeples embowered amid clusters of rich foliage.  Far around stretch hills, slopes and valleys, rich with colors of nature and cultivation; away to the south and east, like an ocean, spreads the sound, sprinkled here and there by a mote-like sail, and dimly bounded by the cloud-like shores of Long Island.  New Haven is on of the most beautiful cities.  Its streets are broad and regular; tasteful, chaste and splendid buildings are surrounded by pleasant gardens, parks and trees.  Many of these are elms, stately and venerable, planted by the fathers of the town and cherished, with commendable pride and care, by their descendents.    This profusion of foliage and freedom from contracted and uncleanly streets, combine for New Haven the advantages of the city and the country.  The "Green" is a pleasant spot of ground, shaded by rows of lofty elms; in the centre stand the three oldest churches in the city.  Toward the west is the statehouse, a large and imposing structure; still further to the west, are the buildings of Yale College, one of the oldest, most flourishing, and respectable institutions of America.  Hillhouse avenue, bordered by sides of undulating green, from which spring rows of stately trees, runs between splendid mansions and gardens, that rival Italian villas in loveliness.  Northwest of the city, is the cemetery, beautifully laid out, and adorned with an imposing entrance in Egyptian architecture.

The harbor is spacious, but so shallow that large vessels are obliges to anchor at Long wharf, which from time to time has been extended to a length of 3,943 feet.  New Haven prosecutes an extensive coasting trade with New York and the towns along the sound.  Several ships from foreign shores also make this city their port.  The New York and New Haven railroad has largely increased the communication between the two cities, and the New Haven and Hartford railroad joins the lines at Springfield, which traverse the valley of Connecticut river, and other parts of Massachusetts.

Population in 1810 was 5,772; in 1820 was 7,147; in 1830 was 10,180; in 1840 was 14,890 and in 1850 was 20,345.