One of the United States, situated between 33°53' and 36°33' north latitude and 75°45' and 84° west longitude from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Virginia; east and southeast by the Atlantic; south by South Carolina and Georgia: and west and northwest by Tennessee. Superficial area 43,800 square miles.
Physical Aspect-- This state, like South Carolina and Georgia, presents a variety of surface, soil and climate. It may be physically divided into three zones; first the flat sea border, including numerous small islands; second, the sand hill zone, spreading by an indefinite outline between the sea border, and the third, a hilly and partly mountainous tract, beyond the lower falls of the rivers. The Maritime section, which extends from 80 to 100 miles inland, is nearly a dead level, varied only by deeply indented, though shallow sounds, and occasional openings, in the immense forests of pine, with which it is covered, and extensive glades, marshes or swamps. In the northeastern part, extending into Virginia, lies the Great Dismal swamp, thirty miles long and ten broad, thickly wooded with pine, juniper, cypress and in the drier portions with red and white oak. Between Albemarle and Pamlico sounds is the Alligator or Little Dismal swamp, which contains a lake. Here the soil is generally sandy and poor, though on the banks of some of the streams, particularly those of the Roanoke, it is remarkably fertile. In other instances, there are ridges of oak land, of a dark colored and fruitful soil. After traversing this tedious plain, we are relieved by the appearance of the sand hills in the middle section, which in general, presents an indifferent soil. But the third, the hilly and mountainous section, abounds in excellent soil, pure fountain water, and salubrious air. Those portions of the state lying west of the mountains are also exuberantly fertile, and will richly reward the planter's toil.
Mountains-- The Blue ridge constitutes the main range through the western part of the state; but on most maps is made to represent the outer chain of the Appalachian system, as in the contiguous states. Strictly speaking, there are two other chains, between the Blue ridge and the ocean. Black mountain in Yancey county, is the highest land in the United States, east of the Rocky mountains, being 6,476 feet above the level of the sea. Roan mountain is 6,038 feet high, and Great Father mountain 5,556 feet. The chain in the extreme western part of the state, in which Roan mountain is situated, is known by different name, as Smoky, Unica, Bald, Yellow Iron and Stone mountains.
Rivers, Lakes, Bays and Sounds-- The principal rivers are; the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Waccamaw, Lumber, Catawba, Broad, Yadkin, North, Pungo, Hiwassee, Pamlico, and the Little Tennessee. Lake Phelps, Alligator, Mattimuskeet and Waccamaw, are situated in this state. The principal sounds and bays are Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, and Onslow and Raleigh bays.
Islands and Capes-- The chief islands are: Roanoke, Smith's, Brodie's, Currituck, Hatteras, and Cove. Capes Outlook and Fear are much dreaded by mariners; and Hatteras is considered the most dangerous headland on the American coast.
Climate-- Like most of the other southern states, North Carolina is somewhat varied in its climate, occasioned by physical peculiarities of its different parts. In the lower districts, intermittent are frequent during the summer and autumn, and the countenances of the inhabitants often have a pale yellowish hue, occasioned by the prevalence of bilious disease. In winter, pleurisies are frequent, as well as inflammation of the lungs. In the western and hilly parts of the state the air is elastic, salubrious and pure, which renders the country as healthy as any part of the United States. The summers are hot, though evenings are refreshing and cool. Autumn is temperate and serene; and in some years the winters are so mild, that autumn may be said to continue till spring. The winters in the mountains. however, are visited by frost and snow, and in the rigors of the climate are nearly as severe as at the north.
Productive Resources-- The great staples of the south; tobacco, cotton and rice are extensively cultivated. Other products are silk, wool, lumber, turpentine, spirits of turpentine, resin, pitch, tar, hay, hemp, flax, wine, sugar, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes and Indian corn; also horses, mules, neat cattle, swine and poultry. Of the mineral resources, gold, coal and iron are the most imporant. The gold region lies on both sides of the Blue ridge, and extends to the eastward of the river Yadkin. It occurs in fine grains, in small masses, or lumps, weighing from one to two pounds, and in veins.
Manufactures-- North Carolina being an agricultural state, but little attention has been paid to manufactures. There are, however, about 30 cotton factories in the state, which consume about 5,000,000 pounds of cotton annually. There are also a few woolen factories. Other manufactures are, paper, leather, furniture, cutlery, carriages &c, though none of them are carried on to any great extent.
Railroads and Canals-- There are some 600 miles of railroads in operation and under construction, in North Carolina. The principal roads completed at present are, the Raleigh and Gaston 87 miles, and the Wilmington and Weldon 167 miles, which connect the towns indicated by their titles. The only canals wholly within the state are, the Weldon, extending around the falls of the Roanoke 12 miles and a short one connecting Harlow and Clubfoot creeks.
Commerce-- North Carolina has but a limited foreign commerce, its imports and exports being less than a million annually. Its coasting trade, however, is considerable. The shipping owned within the state is about 50,000 tons.
Education-- The literary institutions are, a university at Chapel Hill, Davidson College in Mecklenburgh county, and Wake Forest College. There are about 200 academies, and 1,500 common schools in the state.
Government-- The legislative power is vested in a senate of 50, and a house of commons of 120 members, both elected, biennially, on the first Thursday in August, by the people. The executive power is vested in a governor, elected biennially by the people, who is not eligible for more than two terms in succession. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, of three judges, and a superior, or circuit court, of seven judges, besides inferior courts. The judges of the supreme and superior courts are elected by the legislature, and hold office during good behavior. All free white males, of 21 years of age, who have resided in the state one year, are entitled to vote for governor and members of the lower house; to qualify to vote for senators, a freehold of fifty acres, of six months' possession, is also required.
Population-- In 1790 was 393,751; in 1800 was 478,103; in 1810 was 555,500; in 1820 was 638,829; in 1830 was 737,987; in 1840 was 753,419 and in 1850 was 868,903. Number of slaves in 1790 was 100,572; in 1800 was 133,296; in 1810 was 168,824; in 1820 was 295,017; in 1830 was 235,601; in 1840 was 245,817 and in 1850 was 288,412
History-- North Carolina embraces a portion of the ancient territory of Florida, as named by Ponce de Leon, in 1512, and was, more recently, a portion of South Virginia, as granted by James I of England, in 1606. It was within the limits of this state that Sir Walter Raleigh's unsuccessful attempts at settlement were made, in 1584 to 1590. In about the year 1630, another grant was made to Sir Robert Heath, of the tract lying between the 13th and 36 degrees of north latitude, which was erected into a providence, under the name of "Carolina." No settlements were made under this grant, however, and consequently it was declared void. The first permanent settlement in the region now called North Carolina was made on the east bank of the river Chowan, near the present village of Edenton, in about the year 1650, by a company of emigrants from Virginia, who fled from religious persecution. In 1661, a small Englisj colony, from Massachusetts, purchased a tract of land on Cape Fear river, from the Indians, and formed a settlement on Old Town creek, a few miles below Wilmington; but the enterprise was abandoned from the hostility of the Indians. Two years later the province was granted, by Charles II, to Lord Clarendon and seven others, and a government was established over the infant settlement on the Chowan, which was called the "Albemarle County Colony," in compliment to one of the proprietors, the duke of Albemarle. In 1665, their grant was enlarged, embracing the territory between 31° and 36½° north latitude, extending westward to the South Sea. In 1667, a new settlement was established on Cape Fear river, near the abandoned site of the New England colony, called "Clarendon County" which was again surrendered to the Indians before the year 1690. In 1707, a company of French protestants, who had previously settled in Virginia, removed to Carolina, and two years later were followed by 100 German protestant families, who were driven from their homes by religious persecution. In 1729, the crown of England purchased the whole of Carolina, which had hitherto been under the superintendence of the same board, for £17,500; and the king divided it into two provinces, North and South, which have ever since been continued separate. A convention or a kind of Congress, composed of military officers, assembled at Charlotte, in the county of Mecklenburgh, in 1775, and declared the people independent of British rule. In 1776, this state formed a constitution which, with subsequent modifications, continues to the present time. In 1789, it ratified the constitution of the United States, and was admitted into the Union as an independent state