City, seat of justice, together with Exeter, of Rockingham Co, NH, occupies a peninsula on the south side of Piscataqua river, three miles from the Atlantic. It has one of the finest harbors in the world, being completely land locked, defended by several forts, and having from 45 to 53 feet of water at low tide. The town is built on ground gradually sloping toward the river, presenting a beautiful aspect from the ocean. It is well built and possesses much wealth, many of the houses being spacious and elegant. Its public buildings are an ornament to the city, consisting of the court house, churches, banking houses, markets and Athenaeum. A United States Navy yard, is situated on Continental, or Navy island, on the east side of the river, opposite the town. Ship building and cotton manufactures employ a large amount of capital. The Eastern railroad connects the place with Boston and Portland. Another railroad extends to Concord.
The population in 1810 was 6,934; in 1820 was 7,327; in 1830 was 8,082; in 1840 was 7,887 and in 1850 was 9,738