City, seat of justice of Chatham Co, GA, situated on the south side of the river from which it is named, 17 miles from the sea, and 158 miles southeast of Milledgeville, the state capital, is the principal city of Georgia, and one of the most favorably located ports in the southern states. It is 90 miles southwest of Charleston, and 662 miles from Washington. Near the river, the bank is about forty feet high. Along the foot of this bluff are stores and warehouses, while the streets of the city extend over the level at the top of this eminence. They are rendered remarkably pleasant by lines of trees along their sides and through their middle, shading the traveler from the southern sun, and affording delightful walks at all times of the day. In 1820, a conflagration destroyed a great portion of the city, but it has been rebuilt with increased solidity and beauty. Formerly, the rice swamps in the vicinity, and other circumstances, contributed to render Savannah as unhealthy as it is now salubrious. This change is owing to the improvements in the culture of rice, and in the condition of the city. The exchange, courthouse, hospital, arsenal, guardhouse, jail, together with numerous churches and banks, display the characteristic enterprise and liberality of the citizens; while airy verdant, and shady parks, are interspersed more frequently in this than in most other America cities. Among other splendid trees, the "Pride of China" (Azederach) holds a conspicuous rank.
Savannah has an excellent harbor, with a safe and east entrance from the ocean. Several islands are formed by the embouchures of the river, affording both protection and ornament. Upon Tybee island, a lighthouse marks the entrance to the port, while two forts protect the city from outward assault. Vessels of 13 feet draught anchor at the wharves of the city, those of larger size at a point several miles below. Above Savannah, the river is navigable for steamboats of 150 tons to Augusta, 150 miles. By this and other cannels, most of the cotton, tobacco, sugar, lumber and other staples of Georgia, are conveyed to Savannah, where they find a market, or are exported. This city, from its favorable commercial situation, on a coast not well supplied with good harbors, is the respectable of productions from an extensive region. Late improvements in railroads and other channels of communication have added largely to its growth and Prosperity. A Canal connects Ogeechee river with Savannah. Steamboats navigate the principal rivers of the state, and sail to Charleston and other cities on the coast, and regular steam and sailing packets communicate with New York.
The Central railroad extends 191 miles to Macon, whence the Macon and Western railroad proceeds 101 miles, in a northwesterly direction to Atlanta. Through this place passess the Georgia and Western and Atlantic railroad, from Augusta to Chattanooga, on the Tennessee river, in Hamilton Co, Tennessee.
The population in 1810 was 5,595; in 1820 was 7,523; in 1830 was 9,784; in 1840 was 11,214 and in 1850 was 16,060