On the United States, lies between 32°2' and 35°10' north latitude, and 78°24' and 83°30' west longitude from Greenwich; bounded north by North Carolina, southeast by Atlantic, and westerly by Georgia, from which it is separated by Savannah river. Its superficial area is 28,000 square miles.
Physical Aspect-- This state, like North Carolina and Georgia, presents a great diversity of surface, as well as of soil and climate, and may also be physically divided into three zones. The first bordering on the Atlantic, is that of sea sand alluvion, below the lower falls of the rivers, about 60 miles wide, and in most places penetrated by the tide. The second commences along or near the lower falls and primitive ledge. The sea sand zone is very nearly a dead plain, but at its interior margin hills begin to appear, springs of water become plentiful, the soil meliorates, and the whole face of nature assumes an agreeable diversity of surface. The third, or what may be called the mountain zone, though but little of it is really mountainous, comprises the northwestern part of the state, and lies based on the Blue Ridge chain. The first of these zones, which includes the "Sea islands," is covered with extensive tracts of pine "barrens," open plains without wood, savannas, swamps, and salt marsh, presenting the most fertile and the most sterile extremes of soil. The second zone displays, amid a series of hills, bold, swelling, and varied in their form, a rapid succession of rich cotton lands, meadows, orchards, and fields of small grain, interluded by extensive forests, barrens, and swamps. As we approach the mountainous zone, we are gratified by the pleasant alternation of hill and dale; the lively verdure of the hills is contrasted with the deeper tints of the forests which decorates their sides; and in the valleys, broad rivers roll their waters through the varied beauties of the luxuriant and cultivated fields. From these delightful regions the surface still continues to rise, till we reach the western limit of the state.
Mountains-- The Blue Ridge, or Appalachian chain, traverses this state in its northwest part, of which Table mountain is the most conspicuous. The other mountains are Olenoy, Oconee, Paris, Glassy's Hog Back and King's.
Rivers, Bays and Sounds-- The principal rivers are the Savannah, Pedee, Black, Santee, Cooper, Ashley, Stono, Edista, Ashepos, Comhahee, Coosaw, Broad and Waccamaw. Besides Bull's and Winyaw bays, this state contains numerous estuaries and sounds, the principal of which are Port Royal and Georgetown entrances, and Tyree and St Helena sounds.
Islands-- The coast is bordered by a chain of fine islands, the most important of which are, Port Royal, St Helena, Edisto, Ladu's, Trench's, Hunting and Raccoon keys.
Climate-- The climate along the seaboard is moist, very changeable and, during the summer and autumn, is extremely unhealthy. The middle region, particularly in winter and spring, is regarded as the most healthy part of the state. In short, all the districts of the upper country enjoy as salubrious a climate as is found in the Union.
Productive Resources-- The principle products of this state are, horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, sugar, wax, hay, lumber, pitch, tar, turpentine, cotton, wool, silk, tobacco, rice, wheat, rye, barley, oats, sweet potatoes and Indian corn. Of the mineral and fossil resources of the state, gold is found in considerable abundance, but the "diggings" are less considerable than in Georgia and North Carolina. Marble, limestone, granite, oil and soap stone, iron and lead ores, talc, asbestos, plumbago, pyrites, ochres used for painting, potter's clay, and fullers' earth, also occur in greater or less abundance.
Manufactures-- The manufactures of South Carolina are limited in extent. There are about 20 cotton mills, which consume about 4,000,000 pounds of cotton annually. There were, in 1850, over 1400 manufacturing establishments of all kinds in the state.
Railroads and Canals-- The aggregate length of railroads in operation in the state is about 300 miles, and about the same amount in process of construction. The longest canal in the state is the Santee, from Charleston to Santee river, 22 miles. There are several other shorter ones, amounting in the aggregate to about 30 miles.
Commerce-- The foreign commerce of South Carolina is quite large, its exports and imports amounting to about $14,000,000 annually. The shipping owned in the state is about 40,000 tons. Charleston is the principal port, and enjoys about nine tenths of the commerce.
Education-- There are three colleges in South Carolina. The Charleston college, founded in 1785; the college of South Carolina, founded in 1804; and the Erskine college, in Abbeville district. There are three theological seminaries in the state. There is also a medical college at Charleston. There are about 1000 public schools, and 200 academics, in various parts of the state.
Population-- In 1790 was 249,073; in 1800 was 345,591; in 1810 was 415,715; in 1820 was 502,741; in 1830 was 581,185; in 1840 was 594,398 and in 1850 was 668,507. Number of slaves in 1790 was 107,094; in 1800 was 146,151; in 1810 was 196,365; in 1820 was 258,475; in 1830 was 315,401; in 1840 was 327,038 and in 1850 was 384,984
Government-- The governor is elected for two years, by a joint vote of both houses of the assembly. After having served one term, he is ineligible for the next four years. A lieutenant governor is chosen in the same manner, and for the same period. The senate consists of 45 members, elected by districts for four years. The house of representatives consists of 124 members, apportioned among the several districts, according to the number of white inhabitants and taxation, and are elected for two years. The representatives and half the senators are chosen every second year, in October. The chancellor and judges of the supreme court are chosen by the joint ballot of both houses of the assembly, and hold their offices during good behavior. Every free white male citizen, 21 years of age, who has resided in the state two years immediately preceding the election, and who is possessed of a freehold of 50 acres of land, or a town lot, six months before the election; or not possessing this freehold, who shall have resided in the election district in which he offers to vote six months before the election, and have paid a tax of three shillings sterling to the support of the government, has the right of suffrage.
History-- The state of South Carolina embraces a portion of the ancient territory of Florida, as first discovered by Ponce de Leon, in 1512; as well as a part of Carolina, as colonized by Coligni with Huguenots, in 1562-65;or as part of Virginia, as granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584. In about the year 1630, another grant was made to Sir Robert Heath, of the tract lying between 30° and 36° north latitude, which was erected into a province, under the name of "Carolina." As no settlements were made under this grant, the charter was declared void. In 1663, the providence of Carolina was granted, by Charles II, to Lord Clarendon and seven others. Two years late, the grant was enlarged, so as to comprise all the territory between 31° and 36 1/2° north latitude, extending westward from sea to sea. In 1670, a small body of English emigrants, under William Sayle, commenced the settlement of Old Charleston, on the south side of Ashley river, which they called "Carteret County Colony," in honor of one of the proprietors. From this place they removed in 1679, to the present site of Charleston. In 1720, the proprietary government was thrown off, and that of the crown established. In 1729, after much controversy and difficulty between the proprietors and the crown, seven out of the eight sold all their claims to the soil and rents in both Carolinas to the King, for £17,500, and the provinces then became royal governments, entirely unconnected under which they remained until the Revolution. South Carolina early resisted British oppression, and was one of the confederacy in 1776. It ratified the constitution of the United States, and was admitted into the Union as a sovereign state in 1788. Mottoes of the seal Animis Ophibusque parati: "Ever ready in spirit and achievements." Reverse-- Dum spiro spero: "While I live I hope."