Seat of justice of Sangamon Co and capital of the state of Illinois; from Washington 780 miles. The town is situated four miles south of Sangamon river, and became the capital of the state in 1840. It is surrounded by a rich and populous region, picturesquely varied with prairies, forests, vales, and gentle elevations. The village is one of the most pleasant and beautiful in the west, situated on the border of extensive prairie, laid out with broad and shaded streets, interspersed with spacious lawns and squares, and indicating, in its neat and comfortable dwellings, prosperity and vigorous health. It contains a number of fine public school, academies, churches, a jail, market house, courthouse, and the statehouse, a costly and elegant structure. The Sangamon and Morgan railroad extends to Naples, on Illinois river, 54 miles distant.
The population in 1840 was 2,579 and in 1850 was 4,533