City, PT and seat of justice of Hampden Co, MA, situated on the east side of Connecticut river, 91 miles southwest of Boston, and 363 miles from Washington. It principally occupies a single street, parallel with the river, and contains many handsome buildings. Pleasant alluvial meadows gradually rise from the river into a region of less fertility. A bridge here spans the river to West Springfield. Manufactures of various kinds are largely produced, and give to the place its prosperity. The most important establishment is the United States arsenal, which, built on an elevation above the village, presents within and without an imposing spectacle. Small arms are made a the factory, one mile distant, on Mill river. The Western railroad, between Albany and Boston, and the chain of railways through Connecticut river valley to Hartford, New Haven, and New York, concentre at this point.
The population in 1810 was 2,767; in 1820 was 3,914; in 1830 was 6,784; in 1840 was 10,985 and in 1850 was 11,766.