Seat of justice of Rensselaer Co, NY, is situated on the east side of Hudson river, 6 miles north of Albany, and 151 miles north of New York. Formerly, this point was the head of sloop navigation; but a dam across the river above, 1,100 feet long and 9 feet high, with a lock enables sloops to ascend to Lansinburgh, four miles higher up. The city is built on level ground, at the foot of steep hills, the two chief of which have classic names "Mount Ida" and "Mount Olympus." From both of these eminences spreads a wide prospect of the Hudson and the towns along its valley. It is laid out with broad and pleasant streets, and the houses are neat and substantial. South of the city, the Poestenkill comes tumbling and foaming through a wild ravine, affording a fine water power for several mills, which lie buried in the deep, dark gorge. A railroad bridge spans the Hudson to West Troy, a flourishing village in Albany county, where there is a United States arsenal, an extensive bell foundry, cotton factories, and other establishments. Among the public buildings of Troy, besides churches, the Troy Female Institute and the Troy academy deserve notice from the reputation which they enjoy. Water is conveyed to the city from a basin in Lansinburgh, elevated 72 feet above the level of the streets, through which it is distributed by iron pipes buried under ground. One and a half million of gallons are thus supplied for daily consumption or to extinguish fires.
Troy is united to Lake Champlain by railroad, via Saratoga and Whitehall, to Greenbush, opposite Albany; and to Schenectady, on the great central line, by one of two branch railroads, the other proceeding from Schenectady to Albany. There has been considerable rivalry in enterprise between Albany and Troy, which has probably injured neither city. The Erie canal passes through West Troy, and steamboats and numerous vessels communicate with New York and the other towns on the river.
The population in 1810 was 3,885; in 1820 was 5,264; in 1830 was 11,401; in 1840 was 19,334 and in 1850 was 28,785.