City, seat of justice together with New Castle, of New Castle Co, DE, situated between Christiana Creek and Brandywine river, two miles from the entrance of the latter into the Delaware, 28 miles southwest of Philadelphia, and 70 miles northeast of Baltimore.  The ground on which it is built rises from the river to an elevation of 112 feet, and offers a pleasant prospect of the neighboring scenery.  The streets are broad and rectangular, and the houses, generally of brick, are many of them costly and beautiful.  Wilmington has the usual number of public buildings, but the most interesting are the flour mills, to which it owes its celebrity.  These are situated near the falls of the Brandywine, not far from the town, and afford an extensive water power.  To this point, vessels ascend drawing eight feet of water, those of fourteen feet draught navigating both streams to the city.  The Christiana admits vessels of eight feet draught, eight miles further up.  A large number of ships anchor at Wilmington, receiving and exporting the produce of the mills and manufactories in its vicinity; others are employed in the whale fishery.  Each of the streams are crossed by bridges, and the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore railroad communicates with this city.  Five miles from Wilmington are the Brandywine chalybeate springs, the salubrious waters of which contribute much to the health and recreation of the visitors.

The population in 1810 was 4,416; in 1820 was 5,268; in 1830 was 6,628; in 1840 was 8,367 and in 1850 was 13,979