Capital of New York State and the seat of justice of Albany Co, situated on the west side of the Hudson River, 147 miles north of New York City. Rising by a bold ascent from the water and crowned with the glittering domes of the capital and city-hall, it presents as interesting appearance from the river, and creates anticipations which are rarely realized on entering the streets, many of these retain their earlier irregularity and narrowness, but the more modern avenues and buildings are generally spacious and elegant. The capital, at the head of State street, a board avenue, ascending steeply from the river, stands on the east side of a beautiful public square. In the north part of the square, which is divided by a street running from east to west, stands the city-hall and the state-hall, both of white marble, the former adorned with a beautiful gilded dome. The other public buildings are: churches, over 30 in number; the Albany Academy and he Female Academy. Few inland cities combine so many natural advantages for trade, improved by such extensive and costly public works, as Albany. It is the terminus of the Erie canal and the great chain of railroads which connects the central counties of New York, the Great Lakes and their vast shores. The Green Mountain state sends its productions to Albany through Lake Champlain and the Champlain canal. Some of the products brought through these channels, pass through MA to Boston by railway; more are whirled in few hours to New York, by the gigantic Hudson River railroad, which now sweeps majestically through the solid mountains and rocky headlands which skirt that mighty stream. Steamboats, schooners and sloops also convey large cargoes to and from the towns along the route.
POP: 1790 was 3,798. In 1800 was 5,349. In 1810 was 9,356. In 1820 was 12,530. In 1830 was 24, 238. In 1840 was 33,731. In 1850 was 50,763.