Ryan Murder Trial is on Girl Charged with Killing Her Father Arraigned and Pleads Not Guilty
The trial of Mary Ryan for the murder of her father John Ryan, on the morning of Oct 11, 1918 was begun this morning before Judge Wood, when the girl, who is charged with the murder of her father to save her mothers life, was arraigned and pleaded not guilty to the two counts of the grand jury indictment one charging first degree murder with premeditated malice. The the other second degree murder without premeditated malice The entire day was spent in impanelling a jury, but indications pointed that a jury would probably be secured by tomorrow.
Miss Ryan, who is 25 years old, and is of dark complexion and medium build, sat beside her mother in the court-room She wore a red hat and was neatly though plainly attired. Throughout nearly the entire morning she sobbed quietly at intervals This afternoon she seemed more composed but would, never-the less weep intermittently as her mind evidently recalled the awful story of the past Miss Ryan was represented by Attorney Harry O Hogan and Guy Colerick, while the prosecution was in the hands of Prosecuting Attorney Levi A Todd
Story of the Murder,
The murder took place on the morning of October 11, 1918 at the Ryan home one mile east of Arcola john Ryan who was sixty one years old was almost instantly killed by the 32 caliber bullet fired by his daughter. Mary Rjan.
According to the story of the family, following the murder Ryan had been quarreling with his wife and daughter. Following an alleged heated argument over some sheep the son is said to have left the houee He said that he left the house because he thought that his mother might then be able to calm down the enraged man.
The father is then said to have continued to call the mother and daughter vile names and allegedly raving he would "fix" them, so that they would never be able to tell what he had called them. When the rather started toward a shotgun standing in a corner the daughter secured a 32 caliber pistol from a drawer and as her father grasped the shotgun she fired three shots at him, the farmer staggering out the door and falling to the steps. The son hearing the shots rushed from the barn where he had gone after leaving the house, and carried the prostrate form into the living room and laid him on a couch. He had never uttered a word after being shot. and must have died within a moment after being placed on the couch
The victim of the shooting is said to have on a number of occasions threatened his family. He is alleged to have been a heavy drinker, and is said to have frequently be some very enraged at his family.
When Interviewed at the county jail following the shooting, Miss Ryan in heart broken sobs said "I had to do it. If I had not killed him he would have killed my mother "
Her story of the murder is as follows I am twenty-four years old and ever since I was that high, I have lived in terror of him killing us all. He never provided for us, but things were not no bad until my brothers left to enter the army. Four of Ryan's son a were in the army at the time of the murder. He tried to kill one of my brothers five times and a year ago I thought that I would have to kill him to keep him from killing my brother. He was a vicious quarrelsome and jealous husband to my poor mother and when he was mad about anything, he had only one idea, and that was to kill the family.
I want everybody to know that l just had to do it. He started to get his shotgun and said he was going to kill my mother and me. Since the boys have been gone there wasn't anyone strong enough to stop him so I knew I had to kill him in order to save my mother's life. I'm praying and I guess I will have to trust to God because He knows there wasn't any thing else to do.
Mother's Story Of Killing
Following the murder the mother said the following regarding the murder.
Oh I'm so sorry sorry for Mary She has led a dogs life since she was a little girl and now to have to face this. It 's terrible. 1 cannot feel sorry for john. He never treated us right and when he tried to kill us, Mary did the only thing which she could do to protect us. For twenty years she had known nothing but abuse at his hands and when he threatened to kill us and reached for the shotgun we thought that he would do it. I think he would have too had Mary not prevented it. Oh If they only do not punish her for it. She has suffered so all her life and what she did is only the natural result of the abuse her father heaped upon her.
Mary has always been a good girl and when her father kept accusing her of being bad and of associating with bad men and women it nearly broke my little girls heart. She never went any where like other girls because she never had good clothes and when evening came she was always too tired from hard work The only places she has ever been are church and to Fort Wayne on Saturday to sell our garden truck.
There never was a better girl than Mary. She worked in the house and then went into the fields to work there doing a man's work as far as her puny strength would permit. Her father never gave her credit for her work but always drove her to do more. He abused her when came home home from the fields too tired to even eat mistreating her shameful because she could not work harder and make more money for him. In return for her woik she did not even get clothing.
She was always so shabbily dressed that she would be ashamed to be seen on the roads. She went to church in her ragged clothes, because like the good girl she was, she believed that God would not look at her clothing but would only look within her heart, which 1 know is clean and pure.
Mary did kill her father. For the trouble it is bringing her I am sorry but for that it brought my husband I can not be sorry. He has abused us too much and years ago he killed all the affection any of us had for him.
Date: Monday, October 20, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 22 Page: One Piece: One of Two
No Jury Yet in Parricide Case Mary Ryan Bears Second Day of Ordeal with Much More Fortitude
MANY TALESMEN EXCUSED
It is not likely a jury will be secured before tomorrow if then, in the case of Mary Ryan, on trial in the circuit court for the alleged murder last October of her father, john Ryan. The trial began Monday morning.
The entire day was consumed in examining additional jurors and many more were discharged because of disqualifications. The majority of prospective jurors have already formed an opinion. One was discharged because of defective hearing.
Miss Ryan was again accompanied by her mother a tall gaunt woman the furrowed delineations on her face plainly expressing the worry which has been her portion since the day of the tragedy. Miss Ryan was much more of a picture of composure to day than on the opening day of the trial.
She wore a black velour hat today instead of the scarlet one which she had on yesterday.
Four of her bothers were in court today occupying chairs at her side.
Last evening as Miss Ryan walked through Sheriff Gillies office on her way from the riwit mom aha saw one of the sheriffs little girls with whom she had become intimately Acquainted while a prisoner in the county jail. She kissed and embraced the child for several minutes.
Date: Tuesday, October 21, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 23 Page: One
Mrs. Ryan is on the Stand Again Mother of Defendant is First Witness Called by the Defense
States Rests Case Today Personnel of Jury
W.B. Shriner, merchant. Greenwood avenue city, J. O, Gilbert, retired farmer, Monroeville. Jacob Boren, retired farmer, Springfield township Charles Clark, farmer, Pleasant township, C W Jackson, farmer, Scipio township. Thristian Thompson, farmer, Scipio township John Gorrell, farmer, Pleasant township. Birt Ort, farmer, Maumee township. Clifford Clark, gardener, Wayne township. Herman Habig, farmer, Cedar Creek township W. O. Goeglein, farmer, Milan township Dan Allgeier, farmer, Adamstownship
The first witness to be called to testify by the state in the case of Miss Mary Ryan, on trial in the circuit court for the murder of her father, John Ryan, farmer near Arcola, was also the first witness to be called on behalf of the defense, The state rested its case suddenly at 10 :35 o clock this morning with the expectation of bringing in a number of more witnesses in rebuttal.
Mrs. Ryan's testimony is practically the same as when she was examined by the state. She was still on the stand at a late hour this afternoon,
Coroner Charles J Rothschild was called upon to testify by the state this morning and told of his findings After securing the testimony of the coroner, the state again called upon Sheriff Gillie and Deputy Sheriff Al Abbott to testify before resting its case.
The State's Testimony Testifying that the bullet which killed John Ryan, lodged in the upper lobe of the right lung. Dr Philip Titus, deputy county coroner, was the first witness to take the stand when the trial of Mary Ryan, charged with the murder of her father, was resumed before Judge Sol A Wood and a jury in circuit court this morning Dr. Titus was asked to tell in detail of his finding in the post mor-tem examination of Ryan's body, which he conducted in a local morgue shortly after the decedent was killed.
Late this morning Mars Emma. Ryan, mother of Mary and widow of the shooting victim, was again called to the stand by Prosecuting Attorney L A Todd, who then introduced a photograph of the parlor of the Ryan home as evidence. The picture shows the stand from the drawer of which Mary Ryan is alleged to have secured the weapon with which she is said to have killed her father, and also purports to show the remainder of the house furnishings as they were on the day of the shooting The photograph was taken at the request of the prosecution a short time after the murder. Mrs. Ryan was questioned at length about the picture.
Mother is first Witness
Mrs. Emma Ryan, the mother of Mary Ryan, was the first witness after the selection of the jury had been completed at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon. The was called by the state Mrs. Ryan talked In a low tone and scarcely could be heard she frankly admitted that her daughter Mary Ryan, fired the shot that killed John R)an, and that herself her daughter and her husband were the only persons In the house at the time she told of the quarrel that had taken place between her husband and the and Edward Ryan, upon the morning of the shooting However Ed was not In the house at the time of the tragedy The mother told of threats that the father had made at her son and her daughter but a short time before he was killed Ryan is alleged to have said "I'll fix you so you can't prove anything on me and G—d—you, I'll blow your heads off.
Mrs. Ryan testified that the quarrel with the son was over some sheep and that Mary was in the front room at the time. She said that her husband had told her that Ed was lazy and didn't want him to get the sheep he was buy and laid In bed until noon
Date: Thursday, October 23, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 25 Page: One Piece: One of Two
State Begins on Rebuttal Arguments in Mary Ryan Murder Trial May be Commenced Yet Today
GIRL BREAKS DOWN TODAY
The defense having rested the state this afternoon commenced on its rebuttal in the case of Mary Ryan, on trial for the murder of her father John Ryan last October. It is highly probable that the state will late today complete its rehuttal, in which event arguments will be begun at once. Every indication now points to the case going to the jury some time tomorrow.
Witnesses for the state in rebuttal included the following W E Willard, Dr E Glock, James D. Butt, M Long William White, H. Studer, James Vaughn And Henry R Frosch Four or possibly five more witnesses will probably be called to testify by the state before concluding its rebuttal
These witnesses testified that John Ryan had a good reputation for peace and quietude in the community in which he lived.
Recalls Grand Jury Hearing
Henry R Frosch., one of the witnesses for the state was foreman of the grand jury which indicted Mary Ryan on two counts, one murder in the first degree with premeditated malice and another with second degree murder without premeditated malice. In examining Mr Frosch Prosecuting Attorney Levi A Todd referred to certain answers made by Mary Ryan in response to questions propounded at her at the grand jury investigation.
In her direct examination in the trial Miss Ryan testified that she had no opportunity to run from the house before her father would have secured the shotgun. In the grand jury investigation she was asked whether she could not have run away as far as the barn before her father could have gotten the gun According to the court reporter record she answered.
"No I could not have gotten as far as the barn, but I could have gotten out of the house ."4
Mr. Todd asked Mr. Frosch whether he remembered Miss Ryan answering this question in that way. The question was however, objected to by counsel for the defense and developed into a long argument by attorneys for both sides.
Mary Breaks Down
Mary Ryan, on trial for the murder of her father John Ryan after four day of remarkable fortitude and composure, today gave way completely to the flood waters of extreme emotion when she collapsed in the circuit court room.
Apparently having steeled herself for the terrible ordeal of facing trial for the murder of her own father she bore up with remarkable composure until this morning.
When she appeared in the court room with her mother this morning she appeared physically much exhausted and the weary utter fatigue, stricken expression, paradoxically to present, with the unmistakable evidence of acute mental suffering at once indicated that her physical self was cracking under the strain. During the morning her head was constantly resting on her mother's breast and her hands hung pitiably impotent and helpless across her mother's lap. The pupils of her eyes were scarcely visible at any time and she was apparently unconscious of what was transpiring about her.
Her general facial expression however, at intervals, would indicate the fierce battle between sheer exhaustion and collapse and acute mental suffering and consciousness, which was pulsating within her.
Finally at shortly before 11 o'clock she collapsed entirely, Dr. J. H. Gilpin, of this city and Dr. E. Glock of Arcola, who was in the city were hurriedly summoned and supported on the shoulders of her mother and sister-in-law, Mrs. joseph Ryan, and assisted by the physicians, she was taken out of the court room and placed on a couch in an ante-room.
Medical attention was then given her.
Alleging that their father had on different occasions threatened to kill their mother and other members of the family Mary Ryan's two brothers William and Ed Ryan, took the stand in her behalf this morning. The four days since the trial commenced Monday morning have lain very heavily on Mary Ryan and she appeared physically much exhausted and less composed than she did yesterday. During the entire morning her head lay on her mother's breast, ard she sobbed intermittently quietly, but bitterly.
Ed Ryan, who was at the family home when the shooting accrued corroborated Miss Ryan's and her mother's stories of the incidents leading up to the killing of John Ryan on October 11, 1918. He told of the threats which had been made by the father and of his leaving the house because he thought that his mother might be able to then quiet the enraged man.
Joseph Ryan, who is a veterinarian practicing at Arcola and who served as a first lieutenant in the United States Army Veterinary Corps in France took the stand after his brother Ed. he told of numerous occasions when his father threatened the lives of members of the family, and of his making attacks on his children. he told of one instance in particular which took place in 1916 when his father alleged to have choked his son, Robert Ryan, until his body fell limp and relaxed to the floor after witness William Ryan had torn his father's fingers from his brother's throat before the killing took place
Said He Would Get The Rest.
Dr. Ryan further testified that in the fall of 1917 about a year before Mr. Ryan’s second son was to leave for the Army service. The father was quarreling with members of the family when he said. Well, the army's got one of them it will soon get another and I'll get the rest.
Eugene Ryan on Stand
Eugene Ryan, another brother of the accused girl also was called on the stand by the defense this morning. His testimony was similar to that of his brother, Dr. Ryan. he also related of threats made by the father against the lives of his wife and children. He likewise corroborated his brothers recital of attacks on his sons by the father.
"Would Clean Out Whole Family"
After the three Ryan boys testified this morning the defense called Robert L. Romy on the stand. Mr. Romy testified the Ryan had, in conversations with him said "I'll clean out the whole family" "Did you hear Mr. Ryan say that or words to that effect more than once?" asked Attorney Guy Colerick, "Yes more than once. I think two or three times, at least. " responded Mr. Romy "When was the last time you heard Mr. Ryan make this threat?" queried counsel for defense. " Not more than a month before the accident" said the witness. "Was that threat communicated by you to anyone of the Ryan family?" next asked Mr. Colerick
"Yes I told Mrs. Ryan about it"
In the cross examination of the witness, Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Louis P. Crosby endeavoring to show that Mary had not been apprised of this threat, asked. Do you from your own knowledge know whether Mary Ryan ever knew of this threat.
No responded Mr. Romy this concluding his cross examination.
Mary's Cousin Testifies
Frank Biemer, cousin of Mary Ryan, waa next called to testify in behalf of the defense. He also testified he had heard John Ryan make threats that he would kill his family, and told of these threats having been communicated to members of the family'
Both Mr. Romy and Mr Biemer alos testified as to the good moral character and reputation of Mary Ryan.
Many Character Witnesses
The defense called seventeen character witnesses all of whom told ofthe good reputation and moral character of Mary and her mother. All of the witnesses were residents of Lake township and all resided not farther than two and one-half miles from the Ryan home.
The character witnesses included Mrs. James Vaughn, Mrs.. Alfred Clapsattie, Mrs. Clarence Gounan, Mrs. J. Rockhill, Mrs. James B. Butt, Mrs. A. Heidrich, James D. Butt, Mrs. D. Smith, Mrs. Charles Gerding, Alfred Clapsattle, Ed Lahy, Mrs. O Trahin, Mr. J Rockhill.
Tells Story of Her Life
Later yesterday afternoon when Mary Ryan took the stand she told to the jury the story of her life and her version of the incidents which led up to the killing of her father. While apparently suffering from the great mental strain Miss Ryan had steeled herself for the ordeal and maintained her composure surprisingly well. The placing of Miss Ryan on the stand at this time occasioned considerable surprise.
The preliminary questions by Attorney Guy Colerick brought out that Miss ryan is 25 years of age and resided in Lake township all her life.
The first formal question propounded by Mr. Calerick was
"I asked you whether you ever had illicit relations with any man?"
Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Leo J. Hartsell at once interposed an objection on the grounds that the question did not tend to prove or disprove the guilt or innocence of the defendant and that they were not trying the witness on a charge of immorality. After a caustic legal skirmish the objection was over ruled by the court, Miss Ryan responding "No"
An Important phrase of Miss Ryan's testimony was that father on more than one occasion threatened to kill herself her mother and one of her brother. She testified that as far back as 1912 he referred to her as immoral and that she was so dirty that she stunk. She referred to one occasion on which she said that he got a shot gun and threatened to kill the family and that when she had taken the weapon away from him he drew a knife from his pocket and threatened to kill one of her brothers. Mary said that she stood between the father and brother and struck the knife out of his hand.
Quarrel That Ended Fatally
After relating incidents alleging ill treatment by the father prior to October 11 1918. Miss Ryan told of the incidents that occured on the morning of the shooting and which culminated in her father being killed. she testified that her father and his son had some quarrel over some sheep. she said that one of her brothers Ed Ryan had told the father that if he did not want to get thirty sheep he should get twenty.
The father is alleged to have then responded "I don't give a G___ D___ whether I get any sheep at all. I wish I was out beside my old mother"
Mary further said that her father then referred to her as an immoral girl that she had lain along the road with a man and did nothing but hang on the telephone talking to this man. The witness further testified that her father also accused his wife of being immoral and of having gone out with other men.
The witness continued "I told my father that he would prove those statements that I was going to see a lawyer and make him prove them. He replied that he wouldn't give me a chance to make him prove them that he would kill us.
Mary testified that just before the shooting she was in the adjoining room to where her mother and father were while her brother Ed had gone to the barn. the quarrel was furious and Miss Ryan said that when her father went after the shotgun and threatened to kill th mother and daughter she went into the room secured the revolver and fired at her father she said she did not know how many times.
When asked where she went after doing the shooting she said:
"I went into another room and walked the floor. I was so excited I didn't know what I was doing."
Was In Constant Fear
Efforts on the part of the state to Mary's statement that she was in constant fear that her father would carry out his threat to kill herself and mother proved ineffectual. Mary continued to testify that her father was constantly quarrelling with the family. She averred that he said the boys were lazy and that Mary was so lazy she could not even sew a patch on her dress.
I helped with the housework, I milked and planted potatoes, worked in the harvest fields and cut corn. I was always doing dome of the hard work on the farm she told the jury.
She further told of how when her brothers went to war she did much of the work on the farm. She said that it made her feel terribly bad to have her father accuse her of being immoral when she had always worked hard and lived a straight forward life.
Date: Friday, October 24, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 26 Page: One Piece: One of Two
Mary Ryan is Acquitted Not Guilty, is Verdict of jury after Only Fifty Minutes' Deliberation
Mary Ryan stands today acquitted of the murder of her father, John Ryan, on October 11, 1918 "Not guilty" was the verdict of the jury rendered on the third ballot and after only fifty minutes' deliberation at 9:30 o'clock; Saturday evening.
The twelve with whom Mary Ryan's fate rested are: W.B. Shriner, merchant. Greenwood avenue city, j. O, Gilbert, retired farmer, Monroeville. Jacob Boren, retired farmer, Springfield township Charles Clark, farmer, Pleasant township, C W Jackson, farmer, Scipio township. Thristian Thompson, farmer, Scipio township john Gorrell, farmer, Pleasant township. Birt Ort, farmer, Maumee township. Clifford Clark, gardener, Wayne township. Herman Habig, farmer, Cedar Creek township W. O. Goeglein, farmer, Milan township Dan Allgeier, farmer, Adamstownship
Oblivious and unconscious of its dignified and solemn environment, the crowd of men and woman who thronged every available bit of space in the court room applauded when judge Sol A. Wood, of the circuit court, pronounced the verdict of the jury. The cheers continued until the judge had to call order.
Sitting in an arm chair beside her mother and directly in front of the judge was Mary Ryan, the accused Her eyes covered with her handkerchief, she wept quietly while the verdict was being read. This was the only emotion she manifested. After the words "not guilty" which in a measure at least, meant to her the dawn of new life new hope and new peace the brightened visibly as her friends clustered about her to congratulate her.
As she was leaving the court room and apparently as though she was only half conscious of it all, just the faintest suggestion of a weary, though cheerful, smile momentarily lighted up her countenance in response to the repeated earnest congratulations of her friends.
Verdict on Third Ballot
As soon as the case went to the jury at 6:45 o'clock Saturday evening the jurors were taken out for supper for an hour, At 7:45 o'clock they returned to the jury room Fifty minutes later Foreman Charles Clark apprised Balliff William Oswald that the jury was ready to report. Within ten minutes the judge and attorneys were in court and the verdict was read. The judge then discharged the jury.
Long Instructions Given
It required forty-five minutes for Judge Sol A. Wood to read his instructions to the jury. The jurors retired with a copy of the grand jury indictment which Indicted the defendant with both first and second degree murder. The judge Instructed the jurors that they should examine the indictment but they under no circumstance should they consider the fact that the grand jury had returned an indictment as either evidence for or against the defendant. Judge Woods instructions were, lengthy and very complete, thoroughly acquainting the jurymen with every point of law, and how It should be interpreted and considered. After giving all of the instructions, however, he informed them that the jurors and the jurors alone were the sole judges and Interpreters of the law and evidence in this case and that they should therefore govern themselves; accordingly
The entire last day of the trial was devoted to arguments by the attorney for the state and defense Prosecuting Attorney Levi A Todd opened for the state being followed by Attorney Harry G. Hogan for the defense. Attorney Guy Colerick then followed Mr. Hogan in a brilliant appeal for the defense. Next was Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Louis F Crosby for the state while Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Lee J Hartsell closed the argument for the prosecution. Objecting that the state introduced argument relative to the quarrel about the sheep, which was not warranted by the evidence Attorney Guy Colerick was permit five minutes following Mr. Hartsell.
Date: Monday, October 27, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 28 Section: Second Section Page: Eighteen
First Case of Kind in County Mary Ryan First Girl in History
Mary Ryan First Girl in History of Allen Co. to Kill Her Father.
IS NOT FIRST PARRICIDE
When Mary Ryan shot John A. Ryan, on Oct 11, 1918, she was the first girl in the History of Allen county to kill her father. In this respect the case which just ended with the acquittal of Mary Ryan is in a class by itself in the annals of the county While there have been other parricides in this county, this is the first instance in Allen county where a girl has killed her father.
There have been a number of cases in the criminal history of the county in which fathers have been killed by their children but in every other case is a son who committed the crime
The Mary Ryan case is also unique in that it is the first case in the history of Allen county in been killed by a child as an expedient to save the life of a mother.
Murder Case Postponed Trial of Mary Ryan Will Not be Heard Until June Date: Monday, March 31, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Section: Second Section Page: Eleven
The case of Mary Ryan of Arcola charged with the murder of her father John Ryan will not be tried in the circuit court until June 1. The court is taking this postponement on this because three of the defendants brother who are witnesses in the case are still in route one of the being confined in a hospital.
Date: Tuesday, October 28, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 29 Section: Second Section Page: Eleven
The Ryan Verdict
The Mary Ryan murder case terminated exactly as everyone familiar with the facts knew that it would terminate Indeed, there would never have been a trial of the case except for the fact that the Fort Wayne Journal Gazette, brutally intent upon playing politics, indulged in a studied campaign to create the impression that a foul murder had been done and that the prosecutor was neglecting his duty. Harassed and embarrassed by this miserable effort of a partisan organ, the prosecutor allowed himself to be badgered into calling the grand jury and securing an indictment under which no chance of a conviction at any time existed. Possibly the prosecutor could have done nothing else, for certainly a newspaper by pursuing him vindictively and misrepresenting the circumstances in the case, would have been able to create before long the Impression that something was being hidden from the public and that the officers of the court were conspiring to protect a murderess from the vengeance of the Law No doubt, too, from the standpoint of Mary Ryan's good name, the paper in question created a condition which really made a trial imperative. The ordeal was a severe one for her, but it was probably necessary. But so far as Allen county was concerned the whole proceeding was ill advised, unwarranted, and absurd. There was never a time when a conviction was remotely possible and the trial was simply an unnecessary expense and waste of time So much for the effects of viciously partisan and yellow journalism.
Date: Monday, October 27, 1919 Paper: Fort Wayne News Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Volume: LXXXVII Issue: 28 Page: Four