BROWN COUNTY INDIANA
WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP

MINERALS, OIL, SALT, ETC.

    The township of Washington was created in August, 1836, and at first comprised a strip four miles wide and sixteen miles long entirely across the county from east to west. Afterward two tiers of sections from the northern part of Johnson were added, thus giving the township a total of eighty sections, eight more than two full Congressional townships. The area of this township is almost or wholly drained by the North Fork of Salt Creek. Its branches on the north are Jackson's Lick, Owl, Greasy, Clay Lick, and on the south Schooner, Hampton and on the east Henderson's. The township except the eastern part is a valley bounded south, north and east by high hills. Salt Creek enters the township from the northeast coming from Hamblen Township. The geology of the county teaches that North Salt Creek is not as old as Bean Blossom. At the time of the glacial epoch, the ice masses could get no farther south, except in comparatively small quantities, at the ridge bordering Bean Blossom on the south. On the northern side of that ridge the ice melted and the water was forced westward, soon eroding the valley of Bean Blossom. It must be understood that at the beginning of the glacial epoch the surface of the county was almost level and was at the elevation of the highest lands. The streams, or rather their valleys, have all been cut down through the subsequent years to their present depression. The hills have not been raised ; the valleyshave been cut out by the action of the water. As the ice melted on the northern slope of Bean Blossom ridge (when the valley of that stream was almost as high as the ridge, and when Salt Creek Valley had not been commenced), large quantities of water, with some ice and some drift of soil from Canada were forced over the ridge, thus forming sluggish rivulets which slowly forced their way southward covering all the county and gradually wearing small depressions which have since been formed into North Salt Creek and its northern branches. The ice which passed over Bean Blossom ridge was stopped by the higher elevation of the central ridge (the one just south of North Salt Creek) and forced southwestward in the general direction of Salt Creek where an outlet could be had. The only portion of the county that seems not to have been under water during the glacial epoch is Weed Patch Knob and perhaps a few others of the highest elevations on the ridges. Around their sides the ice water has deposited slight terraces containing minute pebbles and some imported material as if to record the highest flood upon this meter of the great glacial river, while white and bare these storm scarred summits looked out over the wintry wild and saw that rigid river of ice menace their base or turn to right or left into the two White River Valleys and float by in a stream of molten silver.  

A table of altitudes is here given:

Nashville above the ocean652 feet.
Nashville above mouth of Wabash355 feet.
Nashville above Columbus35 feet.
Nashville above Wabash at Terre Haute167 feet.
Nashville below Georgetown42 feet.
Nashville below Spearsville285 feet.
Nashville below Bloomington132 feet.
Nashville below Indianapolis46 feet.
Nashville below Weed Patch Knob495 feet.
At the Hester Quarry, half a mile west of Nashville, the following is the formation :
Soil on first terrace, containing a few small quartz, pebbles and minute grains of black sand from the glacial drift
10 feet.
Soft friable reddish sandstone43 feet.
Shaly sandstone with ferruginous bands25 feet.
Sandy shale with ferruginous plates and concretions65 feet.
Sandstone (Quarry)12 feet.
Total155 feet.


    In the western part of the township, notably on Section 31, Township 9 north, Range 2 east, and Section 12, Township 8 north, Range 2 east, are salt springs which were famous " licks " in early times, when deer in large numbers wandered browsing through the glades and forests and came there to get their salt. These springs, known of course to the Indians before the whites came, gave name to the creek along which they are found. On Section 31, above mentioned, Mr. Jackson, as early as 1823, bored a well about 300 feet deep, securing a good flow of brine, which was boiled down in eight or ten large iron kettles and sold to the early settlers, many of whom came forty or fifty miles for it. He manufactured thus about 2,500 bushels of superior salt per annum after the well had been fully secured, and gave employment to some six or eight hands, who watched the fires and water. At first the salt sold as high as $8 per bushel, but within a few years it went down, and after about 1836 did not pay, and the manufacture was abandoned. On Section 12, above mentioned, a company from Bloomington, at the head of whom were the Howes, sunk a well in the twenties and also manufactured a considerable quantity of excellent salt. This was called Howe's Salt Lick and the other Jackson's Salt Lick. Several other wells were sunk for salt, one being about three miles northeast of Nashville. During the great oil fever many years ago, an oil well was sunk at the old Howe's Lick by a company, of which Dr. Arwine of Nashville was a member.

The well was on the Story farm, and the strata passed through were as follows:

Surface clay10 feet.
Sandstone with partings110 feet.
Shale, white and blue220 feet.
Shale, reddish48 feet.
Slate, black, with a carbonaceous parting of six inches110 feet.
Huron shale containing sulphur1 foot.
White sandstone or limestone45 feet.
Clay15 feet.
White sandstone or limestone4 feet.
Total560 feet.


In the black slate, all the way through it, a small quantity of crude petroleum was  found,   which   formed bubbles  on  the " pumpings" of water, and when a lighted match was applied to the bubbles the gas therein took fire and burned as quick as powder. This gas was carbureted hydrogen very similar to ordinary coal gas manufactured for lighting cities. The oil brought up had a plainly perceptible odor, which was unpleasant. It was found only in small quantity. Brine was struck near the base of the slate in sufficient quantity and strength, it was estimated, to make one barrel of salt per day. The well northeast of Nashville was sank to about the same depth, about the same formation being found; the slate was not so thick. Gas, oil and salt were also found. It is estimated that $1,000 worth of gold has been found on Salt Creek (North Fork), principally near its head. Traces are found in places along its course.

CIVIL  DIVISION  AND  ORGANIZATION


    Before the creation of Brown County in 1836, the western portion of Washington Township formed a part of Monroe County and the eastern of Bartholomew County. The dividing line, or the " old county line," as it is yet called, was a short distance east of Nashville. As soon as the township was created in August, 1836, John S. Williams was appointed Assessor, and upon the completion of his work was paid $B in full in county orders. He was also paid 50 cents for making return of the September election in the township. Levin Tull was the first Constable. James Mclntire assessed the township in 1837. In 1838, J. S. Williams was Inspector of Elections ; Robert Henderson and William Jackson, Overseers o the Poor; John Hoover and Levin Tull, Fence Viewers; Stephen Parks and Littleton Matthews, Constables. Joseph Stilson was Assessor in 1840, and James Taggart, Jr., in 1841. The old Sparks Ferry road extended north and south across the county, passing through the little village of Hedgesville, about three miles and a half east of Nashville. This road was divided into five districts: 1st. From the Jackson County line to Section 14, Van Buren Township; 2d. Thence to Hedgesville; 3d. Thence to Owen Simpson's about Section 1, southern Hamblen; 4th. Thence to Section 14, Hamblen; 5th. Thence to the county line of Johnson. Alfred Weddel, in July, 1836, was appointed Superintendent of District No. 3, with the following hands: Hiram C. Weddel, John Harris, William Matthews, Matthew Matthews, Martin Matthews, Isaac Matthews, Henry Sipes, Jeremiah King, George King, Jonathan Fox, Joseph Fox. Alfred Young was appointed Superintendent of District No. 2, and was given the following hands: John Hampton, Edward Ayres, Henry Ayres, Samuel Ayres, Enoch Hampton, Ephraim Hatton, James Williamson, Asa Hatton, Alfred Young, William Rippey, John Rippey, William Kenworthy and Thomas Polly. At this time also (July, 1836) the Columbus & Bloom-ington road east of the old county line was divided into two districts : 1st. From the line to Hedgesville; 2d. From Hedgesville to the Bartholomew County lines. Andrew Marshall was appointed Superintendent of District No. 1, his hands being John Floyd, John Ping, Edward David, John Whittington, James Matthews, M. Hedges, Lemuel M. Hedges, David Randolph, Thomas Hampson and Gamaliel Millsap. Robert Henderson was appointed Superintendent of District No. 2, with the following hands: Henry Whittington, James Mullis, Henry Newkirk, Merrick Graham, Job Ping, Walker Ping, Lewis F. Raper, Am­brose Cobb, William Crouch and David Crouch. These names include many of the earliest residents of Washington Township.

THE  EARLY  SETTLERS


    It is probable that old man Schoonover, who located on Schooner Creek in Washington Township, as early, certainly, as 1820, was the first permanent white settler within the county limits. He was a Ger­man and was semi-barbarous, preferring to live in the wilderness than in the settled localities. Some state that his location in the township, on Schooner Creek, was as early as 1817 or 1818, and there is postitive and undoubted evidence that he was living on the creek in 1820. Others also state that, for a time, at the period of his earliest settlement, he owned a small stock of trinkets, ammunition, etc., which he kept to trade with the Indians for their furs. This is purely traditionary, and could not have continued longer than three or four years at the farthest, as the great bulk of the natives was removed early in the twenties. What finally became of the family cannot be stated. It is likely that the second set­tlement was at the old Jackson salt works, about the year 1821. The presence of salt there became known to hunters and others in Monroe County several years before, and finally families moved there to open the industry of manufacturing salt. A well was sunk, and a fair article of brine was secured and boiled down in iron kettles until a hard cake of salt was the residue, which was pulverized and rendered fit for market. In after years large quantities were prepared. Several familes located there and in a few years a little settlement sprang up around them. Edward David located in the eastern part of the township as early as 1822, though it is stated that he was not the first there. A man named Henderson, and perhaps others, settled on a creek of that name about the same time, and perhaps earlier. The early entries of land will show the early settlement in a fairly correct light.

LAND   ENTRIES


    The early entries on Township 8 north, Range 1 east, were as follows : Section 1Finney Coatney, 1844 ; Joshua O. Howe, 1826; John W. Lee, October 21, 1824 ; the east half of the southwest quarter; Henry Wampler, August 17, 1824, the west half of the southwest quarter. Section 12Dawson Debord, 1836 ; J. 0. Howe, 1826; Moses Williams, November 26, 1821, the west half of the northwest quarter, and in June, 1824, the east half of the northwest quarter. Township 8 north, Range 1 east. Section 1Samuel Dunn, 1831; Fred Fleener, 1844; Michael Fleener, 1836; Elizabeth Fleener, 1837. Section 12 Nathan Pruett, 1839, Township 8 north, Range 2 east. Section 3 George Henry, 1839; William Followell, 1836. Section 4George Cox, 1839. Section 6John B. Williams, 1844; Elam Carter, 1839; Jacob Stephens, 1836; James B. Chandler, 1839. Section 7 Robert Robertson, 1843 ;   William Johnson, 1831; Peter Sink, 1839.    Township 9 north, Range 2 east. Section 14David D. Weddel, 1887. Section 18Gilbert Percifield, 1839 ; Henry Jackson, 1839. Section 19 Gilbert Percifield, 1836. Section 23Polly Kannatser, 1836; James Taggart, 1836; James Taggart, Jr., 1837. Section 24Bezaleel Me Aully, 1833; William Jackson, 1836; Henry Jackson, 1839; James Taggart, Jr., 1837; Jesse L. Hubbard, 1839. Section 26Stephen Parks, 1836; George FollowelL 1836: William Wise. 1836 ; John Followell, 1844. Section 27Thomas J. Breedlove, 1836; William Followell, 1839; William King, 1836; Rachel Coulson, 1837; John Hoover, 1836-37-40-47. Section 28Rachel Coulson, 1837 ; John Hoover, 1839^ Section 29Finney Coatney, 1838. Section 31was reserved by the Government for the Saline Fund. Township 9 north, Range 3 east, Section 14Jonathan Fox, 1831; John Brown, 1836; Jacob Davis, 1835; Cornelius W. Tucker, 1835. Section 18Pierson Brummet, 1837 ; Ira Davar, 1844; Alexander Baker, 1828 ; Sylvanus Manville, 1844. Section 19(see in advance a few pages). Section 20Matthew Matthews, 1836 ; Reuben Matthews, 1836; John Huff, 1836; James Mclntire, 1836; J. B. Chandler, 1844; John S. Williams, 1836; Isaac Matthews, 1836; Levin Tull, 1836 ; Henry Sipes, 1836. Section 21Thomas Coulson, 1837. Section 22Jesse Brown, 1840; Thomas Coulson, 1837; James D. Robertson, 1840. Section 24John Flinn, 1830. Section 25 Jerry King, 1832; James Taggart, March 22, 1828; Robert Henderson, 1835; Henry Newkirk, 1836; James Sullivan, 1832. Section 26 Henry Whittington, 1834; Hiram C. Weddel, 1839. Section 27 John King, 1833; William Snyder, 1832; John Alcorn, 1832; Fran­cis Whittington, 1837 ; John Fox, 1839. Section 28John Alcorn, 1832; Edward David, Jr., 1833; Aquilla Rogers, 1836; Edward David, March 6, 1828 ; Benjamin Rogers, 1836; John Matthews, 1844; James D. Robertson, 1840; John Fox, 1839. Township 9 north, Range 4 east. Section 4John King, 1836; William Taylor, Sr., 1836. Section 5William King, 1832; John King, 1839 ; Section 6 P. J. Weddel, 1839. Section 9Alfred King, 1843. Section 19 James Rude, 1839; Henry Whittington, 1839; Joseph White, 1833; John Harris, 1836. Section 30Matthew Matthews, 1887. Section 33 Abe Marlett, 1839; Isaac Nickerson, 1839. . This list includes all who entered land in Washington Township, or nearly all, before 1850. The list includes many of the very first settlers, though unfortunately, owing to the destruction in 1873 of the county records, the names of all the early residents cannot be given. As a means of preserving as many of the names of the early residents as possible, the following list is given:

POLL-TAX PAYERS OF  1848


    Thomas M. Adams, W. W. Baker, Jesse Brown, George Brum­met, T. S. Breedlove, Joab Brummet, James Bradley, Milton Bradley, Samuel Boruff, Robert Brummet, Solomon Brummet, Joseph Brummet, John A. Breedlove, Thomas J. Breedlove, David D. Bradley, Banner Brummet, Jr., William Bracken, Shadrack Chandler, George Coulson, Robert Carter, Thomas Coulson, Elam Carter, James Chandler, James Carter, Richard Corum, Daniel Carmichael, Washington Crouch, Levi B. Dubois, Edward David, John L. Due, Asa B. Dowell, George W. David, W. W. Duncan, D. 0. Elliott, Drury Edwards, Mathew Floyd, John Fox, Robert Floor, Samuel R. Followell, Joseph Fox, L. B. Fol-lowell, Alexander Followell, James J. Floyd, Isaac Fox, James H. Follo­wed, Hanson -Graham, John C. Gould, Thomas M. Guffey, William Griffin, Benjamin Huntington, John Hoover, John Huff, James Hunt-ington, Charles B. Huff, Henry Hampton, William Hoover, D. L. Hunt­ington, William Huntington, David Jackson, Henry Jackson, James Jackson, Joshua Jackson, John Jeffries, Isom Jones, W. Joslin, Levin Knight, Henry King, W. H. Knight, John Kelley, James Kentz, Kizer Loudermilk, P. A. Meadows, William M. Mason, Alfred McGuire. Jacob B. Myers, Daniel McKinney, L. R. Moore, John P. Myers, Robert Marshal, John Miles, Breckenridge Mason, John Mathis, Royal P. Manville, Sylvanus Manville, William McCoy, James Marshal, Matthew Mathis, Joseph Parks, Thomas Percifield, Stephen Parks, Gilbert Percified, Daniel Pogue, Henry H. Porter, P. C. Parker, Jesse R. Payne, M. G. Percifield, George Percifield, W. J. Percifield, Phillip Pike, Bluford Reddick, Robert Robertson, Joseph H. Rice, Arson Richardson, Hiram Reynolds, William S. Roberts, William K. Rogers, Lewis Rogers, E. E. Rose, Dennis Rey­nolds, Thomas Rutherford, J. S. Resley, John Lee, Charles Sipes, Daniel Scrogham, Henry Sipes, Jr., James Shelton, Alexander Sturgeon, James Sturgeon, Lewis Sisco, George Stephens, G. W. Snider, John Tumblenson, Lewis I. Tull, John Tull, Samuel Turk, James W. Taggart, Mason Watts, Matthew Wise, William Weatherman, John B. Williams, James Wise, Alfred Williams, Jackson Woods, I. Westfall, Peter Whisnand, Jacob Toder. The heaviest tax payers were Thomas M. Adams, $9.29; Ban­ner Brummet, Sr., $7.46 ; John Carter, $15.61; Thomas Coulson $10.; L. B. Dubois, $8.49; Edward DaVid, Sr., $8.12; David Deitz, $5.50; John Floyd, $7.15 ; Matthew Floyd, $5.63 ; Robert Henderson, $6.99 ; John Hoover, $8.61; James Huntington, $5.71; Joshua 0. Howe, $22.06; Henry Jackson, $6.21; Levin Knight $6.21; D. M. C. Lane, $5.78; P. A. Meadows, $5.16; Lewis Rogers, $5.05; Henry Sipes, Sr., $5.50; James Taggart's heirs, $8.03; James Taggart, $5.72; Number of polls, 134; Number of acres, 6,226.34; value of land, $17,313 ; value of improvements, $15,540; value of lots $6,650 ; personal property, $20,040; total taxables, $59,543; total tax, $561.98; delinquent tax and interest $187.92 ; grand total tax, $749.80.

INCIDENTS


    William S. Roberts was one of the first Justices of the Peace of this township. His old docket exhibits many amusing items. Fighting to see which was the better man was as fashionable as drinking to see which could carry the more liquor. Many of the best citizens were involved in fights, and were required to swell the seminary fund by fines. In 1839, Stephen Gibson was fined $1.50 for an assault and battery on Samuel Parsley. He was also fined $10 for profane swearing, which fine seems not to have been paid, probably because it was excessive. James Stephens was fined $2.50 for thrashing L. Marshall. Matthew Matthew's and Calvin Huff were fined $1.50 each for an affray. A. J. Dietz. and H. C. Weddel were fined each $1 for an affray.    Banner C. Brummet and Littleton Matthews were each fined $1 for contempt of court. And so the record goes on. In 1840, the township officers were as follows : James Taggart and William Followell, Overseers of the Poor; Roily Rains and Henry Jackson, Fence Viewers; William S. Roberts, Inspector; John Hoover, P. C. Parker, Littleton Matthews, Henry Newark, Road Supervisors.

    The township was very wild even in 1836. Deer, bear, wolves and panthers were quite numerous. Green Graham tells that on one occasion, at night, he had occasion to pass from Jackson's salt works to the eastern part of the township via Weed Patch Knob. He was on horseback, and was unaccompanied except by a small colt and a cur dog. Just before reaching the summit of the hill, he heard what he took to be some one calling him on some distance in advance, and he returned the call, which was soon repeated. He again answered, and this was repeated several times, and the person calling seemed each time to be getting nearer. At last, just before reaching the top of the knob, he observed that his dog was so frightened that it ran under the side of the mare he was riding, and remained cowering there. The mare also began to prick up her ears and sniff the air in fright, and shy off to one side of the path. A minute later the leaves rustled out to his right, and looking that way, the already frightened settler saw two large cat-like forms skulking along through the weeds. He knew then that the animals were panthers, and without further parley he put whip to his mare, and regardless of the consequences, went down the steep hill at a break-neck pace. He was soon away from the spot and saw no more of the panthers whose cries had so misled him. He states that he was so scared that his hair rose straight up on his head.

HEDGESVILLE


    This defunct village, on Section 27, had a short and insignificant ex­istence. It is thought that Merrick Graham first lived there. Some of the Hedges located there probably as early as 1834, thinking that a new county was to be formed, and built a few houses, designing to start a town near the probable centre of the new county, and expecting to lay claim to the county seat when the county should be created. One of them started a small grocery and liquor establishment, which was conducted for a year or more. Joseph King lived in the village. It is stated that a tavern was also kept by the Hedges, and was well patronized by the trav­elers along the Columbus & Bloomington road. It is said that John Whittington had a store there for a short time. Not more than five or six families ever lived at one time in the villager Jacksonsburg was no sooner founded than the little village was deserted. The residents there and in that vicinity had put in a claim for the county seat, but failed to secure the prize.

JACKSONSBURG,     OR    NASHVILLE


     This town was founded in 1836, and was laid out in August of that year by Banner C. Brummet, .County Agent. It was named Jacksons­burg from the township in which it was then located. James Dawson prepared the plan of the town, and was the surveyor under whose direction the lots and streets were measured. The first sale of lots took place on the 12th of September, 1836, and was continued privately during the autumn months. The names of the purchasers cannot be given. Prior to January 3, 1837, fifty lots were sold for $694.87£, of which $91.90£ was cash, and the remainder, $602.97, in notes, one fourth due in eight months, one fourth in eighteen months, and one fourth in twenty four months. The results were not flattering for the future prosperity of the county seat. By the 2nd of May 1837, the County Agent received $42.50J more for town lots, $5.68} being cash. Sales continued to be made from time to time. In September, 1837, it was ordered' that one third of the purchase price of town lots could be paid in county orders. In March, 1838, the County Agent's report was as follows, from the commencement of the sales in 1836 to that date: Total proceeds of all sales, $759.37; total cash receipts, $260.31; total paid out, $246.28 ; leaving on hand $14.03. In August, 1838, all lots south of Washington street were ordered sold by auction. The sales by January, 1840 (from the commencement), amounted to $864.87-, of which $569.38 was cash, and $543.08 had been expended. And so the sales went on very slowly, and with meager available results.

    The first house built at Jacksonsburg, or that immediate vicinity, was a log structure erected about 1835 by Banner C. Brummet, and was located about one hundred and fifty yards northeast of the present poor-house. About the same time, or soon afterward, Isaac Matthews built a log cabin in the northwest part of town. Henry Jackson's log cabin, near the cemetery, was erected about the same time. W. S. Roberts built in town in May, 1836, before the lots were laid out, and placed in one apartment of his double log cabin a stock of goods worth $1,500, which he brought with him from Bloomington, where he and Mr. Barnes had been in business together. Mr. Barnes owned art interest in the store, but continued to reside in Bloomington. Elijah Preston came in about this time, as did also Avery McGee, the Deputy County Clerk and Recorder. Lorenzo D. Head came in not far from this time. He was a gunsmith, and had a small shop in his cabin, and was also a blacksmith, building a shop soon afterward. He was a single man, and boarded with Henry Jackson, up by the graveyard. His widowed sister, with three children, kept house for him later. Lewis E. Wayland moved his family in soon afterward, as did also David Deitz. The latter built a double log cabin, in one room of which his family was domiciled, and the other of which he opened a store of probably $2,000 worth of a general assortment of goods. The crash of 1837 was felt in Jacksonsburg, and Mr. Roberts was forced to close his doors. He was entirely broken up, and saw the Constable drive away his last cow. In 1839, he managed to start in business again, however, with a fair stock, which was rapidly increased. Banner C. Brummet opened a grocery (liquor), in 1837. William Davidson also began selling liquor about the same time. William M. Mason, Thomas M. Adams and Henry Whittington came to live in the town early. P. C. Parker was the first tavern keeper. He owned a double log cabin arid sold liquor and groceries. William Followell began selling liquor early. Davidson's liquor was kept for sale in Ike Matthews' house. Pierson Brummet also sold liquor early. This was the town of 183738, or nearly so. The Section 19 upon which the town was located was entered as follows:

PurchaserSectionTownshipRangeAcresEntry DateLocation
Thomas Coulsou199340Jan 15 1846N.E.N.E.
Littleton Mathis199340Feb 24 1845S.E.N.E.
Nicholas Fleener199340Aug 15 1836N.W.N.E.
Isaac Boltenhouse199340July 8 1836S.W.N.E.
George Brummet199340Apr 4 1836N.W.S.E.
James Huff199340Oct 13 1832S.E.S.E.
James Huff199340Apr 4 1836N.W.S.E.
Calvin Huff199340Nov 24 1836S.W.S.E.
Banner C. Brummet1993179.52Mar 25 1836N.W.
James Dawson199345.62Jun 16 1836N.E.S.W.
John Huff & Levin Tull199345.62Aug 7 1844S.E.S.W.
Miltou Fleener199345.62Oct 5 1836N.W.S.W.
John Hight199345.62Nov 23 1846S.W.S.W.



    Elijah Preston was an early tavern keeper, as was Thomas Chinn, who bought him out. In the forties, Sylvanus Manville was tavern keeper, his house being called the American Tavern. Chapman & Lowe conducted the hotel before Manville. James Taggart sold merchandise and groceries for a short time in 1837-38. John S. Williams sold liquor in 1837. Nearly or quite all of the early business men sold liquor. Henry Jackson, Thomas Chinn, W. S. Roberts, P. C. Parker, Thomas Carr, Avery Mc-Gee, Israel Mullinix, Daniel C. Smith (colored) and others being among the earliest. Sylvanus Manville & Co. opened an excellent store in 1840, though his stock did not exceed $2,500 in value. D. M. 0. Lane, an attorney, began selling merchandise in 1842. In 1846, Svlvanus Man­ville, D. M. C. Lane, David Deitz, W. S. Roberts, E. E. & G. G. Sluss, Royal P. Manville and others were in business in the village, which contained a population of about 175 or 200. Merchants and grocers after this were as follows: Chapman & Co., W. S. Roberts, Joseph Kelley, G. W. Crouch, 1848; Albert Martindale, Dr. John Kelley, David Deitz, L. F. Raper, David Huntington, F. A. Metheney, William and D. A. Elli­ott, 1849; T. M. Adams & Co., John Jackson, John Wershing, T. S. Colvin, Henry Havlin, 1850; Mathew Floyd, W. J. Mathews, W. W. Baker, Z. Kelley, 1852; Cross & Hull, J. W. Knight, W. M. Mason, James S. Hester, Roberts & Taggart, William Hayes, Robert Miller, 1855; W. B. Hoagland, T. S. Larkin, George Jackson, Ed Mc-Elhaney, Sylvanus Manville, E. H. Cox & Co., 1862; W. H. & C. T. Taggart, 1865; W. W. Browning, 1867; John Genolin, J. C. Hester, Moody & Cumming, Frank P. Taggart, Charles Davidson, Charles Gib­son, W. T. Grattan, Hugh Mason. The following constitutes the pres­ent business of the town : General merchandiseF. P. Taggart, Charles Gibson, Patterson Brothers, Hugh Mason, Taggart & Grattan. Drugs and notionsCornelius & Colvin. William Day, groceries and boots and shoes. John & F. D. Calvin, hardware. J. E. Kennedy, groceries and confectionery. W. A. Mason, groceries and notions. O. J. Tag­gart, Barber. BlacksmithsGuthrie & Patterson, George Stone. Car­pentersJ.   P.   Gray,   James  Meyers.  Grist millYoder   &  Gray. WagonsLeander Smith,  Arnold.    HarnessJ. & T. D. Calvin. FurnitureJohn L.  Dew.    ButcherRobert Brown.    MillinerMrs.Jennie Allison. DoctorsC. T. Taggart, John F. Genolin, A. J. Ralphy. LawyersR. L. Coftey, W. W. Browning, W. L. Cox, Anderson Percifield, W. C. Duncan, J. C. Hester. MinistersRob­ert J. Watts.    ChurchesMethodist South, Presbyterian
.

TOWN  AND  TOWNSHIP  INDUSTRIES


The old Edward David combined grist and saw mill was erected in the eastern part of Washington Township not far from the year 1830. A small temporary dam was built on the creek, and a race of perhaps 100 yards furnished additional head to the water which furnished the power to propel the saw and nigger head stones. The mill was afterward much

improved, a set of French buhrs being secured and a stronger dam being constructed. The mill was very useful in its day. Jonathan Fox conducted an old horse mill in the eastern part near Salt Creek at a very early dayas early as 1828 it is said. In the year 1840, there was obtained in the township salt to the amount of 1,600 bushels, as shown by the United States census reports. Some years before that, as high as 3,000 bushels were obtained in one year. Six men, with a capital of $3,000, carried on this enterprise m 1840. There were also raised 3,562 pounds of tobacco. Nashville in early years was a famous resort for sporting characters. Horse racing was a favorite pastime, and when that became too dull a fight was projected and enjoyed, or perhaps a game of cards was played on a stump in the court house square as a settlement of who should treat to a quart of whisky. All this was called gaming, and was fined by the early laws before Justices. Another amusement was shooting at a mark, either for pleasure or profit. Turkeys were shot for, but the drinks were settled oftener this way than any other. From this chapter it will be noticed that the county seat contained a great many liquor establishments. It was thought nothing of then, and cannot be judged by the standard of to-day. All drank then, and rejoiced as the liquor element now does in their personal liberty. Fights in those days were very frequent and were projected in a perfectly friendly way to settle who was the best man. Any and all new comers were required to show their mettle and muscle. Friendly and neighborly relations were resumed when the fight was over. All this took place at the county seat. It is said that Isaac Hooper was the first carpenter in Nashville, and Dow Head and John Mills the first blacksmiths ; Jesse Payne was the second carpenter. John L. Dew was probably the first cabinet-maker; he is yet a resident of the town and works at his trade. Henry Sipes conducted a small distillery as early as 1839. about a mile and a half out of town. It was operated several years. John Genolin, Sr., owned a distillery in Nashville, early in the fifties. It did a small business for several years. Benjamin Huntington started a tannery southeast of Nashville early in the forties, and at first had four vats which were soon increased to eight. It afterward passed to Mr. R, and later to Mr. Calvin. It was abandoned about the beginning of the last war. T. S. Calvin started a tannery in Nashville about 1851, and had six vats. He afterward sold to Shotwell & Larkin. It was afterward owned by Dow Head, Carter and others. As high as ten or twelve vats were used. Late in the forties John Hight built a carding mill in Nashville. He fitted it up with the necessary machinery for a general carding business. It was operated by a tread wheel, and was conducted by W. H. Turner. Mr. Hight took out the second flat-boat from the dock at Nashville. In about 1852, he constructed a boat, loaded it with grain and pork and floated it down the streams to New Orleans. Only two boats were sent out from Nashville, the first being a load of bacon by, and the second grain and pork by Mr. Hight. Elijah Scarborough took out two or three farther down the creek, as did also AL Meadows, and perhaps others.
    The county seat was first called Jacksonsburg, but at the session of the General Assembly in 1836-7, an act was passed changing the name to Nashville, after the capital of Tennessee, the change to take effect from and after the publication of the law, which was about the 1st of March, 1887. This name has since been retained. The population of the town in 1840, was about 80; in 1850, about 175; in 1860, about 220; in 1870, about 260 ; in 1880, 348; in 1883, about 380. In 1880, the population of Washington Township, including Nashville, was 2,836.

INCORPORATION  OF   THE  COUNTY  SEAT


    Nashville was incorporated in 1872. The census was taken by S. Gr. Pettigrew early in August, and the survey of the territory, to be comprised within the limits of the corporation, was made by John P. Wright about the same time. The petition for the incorporation, signed by forty residents and accompanied by the necessary plats, descriptions, etc., was presented to the County Board on the 5th of August, whereupon an election was ordered held to determine at the polls whether a municipal government should be assumed. This election was held September 23, and the vote was as follows: For incorporation, 39; against incorporation, 8; total 47. The village was then duly declared to be the incorporated town of Nashville. It included 194.37 acres, a strip ten rods wide and and 162 rods long being taken from Section 24, Township 9 north, Range 2 east, the remainder being on Section 19, Township 9 north, Range 3 east.

The census as taken by Mr. Pettigrew, in August, was in full as follows:

Heads of family

Males.Females.Total.
John Genolin639
W. W. Browning246
T. D. Calvin426
Minerva Jackson011
John C. Hester35
James S. Hester538
E. H. Cox314
Hannah Stone325
Sarah Stabb123
William G. Watson336
Captain T. Taggart224
George Milhorn224
Leander Smith213
M. C. Hunter011
Mary Manville123
P. S. Taggart314
Frank P. Taggart426
John Ralptay314
John A. Marshall224
James Myers224
Martin E. Phillips336
Samson Scrock268
William M. Mason325
W. T. Gratton123
A. S. Griffitt246
Rachel Pearsoll224
John Mobley336
Michael McNamee336
Richard L. Coffey 325
Mary Price213
Daniel Marcellus325
Katharine Roberts 325
William S. Olmstead336
John L. Dew145
Andrew J. Williams213
Blenin Percifield415
Felix G. Metheney347
Charles Gibson358
William L. Cox314
F. D. Wood336
John Britton224
Seth Stevens426
James P. Gray235
Martin B. Jackson246
Leander Wilson224
Caleb B. Ferguson71421
Thompson Mobley314
S. G. Pettigrew257
A. E. Hatton213
William Kelp415
Nelson Baker246
Eli Bartholomew112
Totals144142286
    


    Soon after the village was incorporated, the first Trustees, Frank P. Taggart, John Genolin and Charles Gibson, met and adopted a series of by-laws, and also a series of ordinances, for the government of the town. E. H. Cox was the first Clerk, and Leander Smith the first Treasurer; but little was done during the winter. The May election, 1874, resulted as follows: John Genolin, Charles Gibson and John C. Hester, Trustees, each receiving thirty three votes. Frank P. Taggart, Treasurer and Assessor; Allen W. Prather, Clerk. The latter was also employed as Town Attorney. Jonas Milhorn was appointed Marshal. At the next few meetings, the by-laws and ordinances were revised, amended and put in force. Work was begun upon the streets, one of the first acts being to build a bridge over the creek, leading to the poor house. In October, two town bonds of $110 each were issued, to cover certain repairs to the schoolhouse. W. W. Browning became Town Attorney in January, 1875. The Treasurer, in May, 1875, reported receipts for the year past as $t>6; expenditures, $55.58 ; balance on hand, 42 cents. In May, 1875, the officers were John L. Dew, W. R. Selfridge and Allen W. Prather, Trustees; James McGreyel, Clerk; John C. Hester, Treasurer and Assessor; John A. Marshall, Marshal. A tax of 30 cents on each $100 was levied to pay off the bonds above mentioned. In October, 1875, James McGreyel became Trustee, vice Prather, resigned. Gilbert F. Little was appointed Clerk and Town Attorney. A road scraper was purchased for $15.    The receipts for the fiscal year 187576 were $117.17 ; expenses, $103.62. The officers elected in May, 1876, were Eugene Cully, James McGreyel and W. R. Selfridge, Trustees ; James P. Gray, Marshal; G. F. Little, Clerk; J. 0. Hester, Treasurer . The officers of 1877 were John C. Hester, W. L. Cox and James Mc­Greyel, Trustees; Aaron David, Marshal; W. L. Cox, Town Attorney ; Nelson H. Franklin, Clerk. The officers of 1878 were Alonzo Allison, Charles Gibson and Collins Calvin, Trustees; W. L. Cox, Treasurer and Clerk; T. J. Taggart, Marshal. W. W. Browning soon took Calvin's place as Trustee, and John K. Roth Taggart's place as Marshal, and Eugene Cully Cox's place as Clerk, etc. Columbus Duncan was appointed Attorney. The officers of 1879 were Alonzo Allison, C. M. Calvin and Charles Gibson, Trustees; W. L. Cox, Treasurer and Clerk; T. J. Taggart, Marshal; W. C. Duncan, Attorney. The officers of 1880 were W. M. Hopper, George Stone and Alonzo Allison, Trustees ; James A. Wilson, Clerk; W. L. Cox, Treasurer; C. M. Calvin, Marshal; R. L. Coffey, Attorney. L. F. Wilson became Attorney in August. The receipts for the fiscal year 1879-80 were $205.40, including $45 on hand from the previous year, and the expenses were $161.05, leaving in the treasury $44.35. The officers of 1881 were G. J. Stone, T. J. Taggart and Alonzo Allison, Trustees; J. A. Wilson, Clerk: W. L. Cox, Treasurer ; CM. Calvin, Marshal. The officers elected in 1882 were Charles Gibson, James Hampton and Sanson Shrock, Trustees; Henry Pope, Clerk; C. C. Both, Treasurer; Samuel Brandenburgh, Marshal; W. C. Duncan, Attorney. Mr. Duncan also became Clerk in June, vice Pope. The receipts for the fiscal year 1882-83 were $325.71, and the expenditures $224.85, leaving on hand a balance of $100.86. The officers elected in 1883 were James Hampton, Charles Gibson and Sanson Shrock, Trustees; C. C. Roth, Treasurer; Anderson Percifield, Clerk;, R. N. Guthrie, Marshal. In September, Leander Woods became Clerk, and Robert J. Watts, Treasurer.  Many changes were made by resignations and special appointments, which are not noticed above. The municipal government is not rigid; it is in accordance with the Democratic policy of open instead of centralized government. Red tape is an article unknown to the " City Dads " in their official capacities. It may be said in all truth that the metropolis of Brown County contains some of the best citizens of the State. The society is good, morals are observed, schools are well attended, and the citizens indicate refinement and culture.

SECRET   SOCIETIES


    The Masons organized a lodge at Nashville in about the year 1850, among the earliest members being T. M. Adams, Larson Hopper, W. S. Roberts, John L. Dew, Sylvanus Manville, Shadrach Chandler, W. W. Baker, F. A. Metheney and B. S. Roberts. Mr. Adams was the first Worthy Master ; F. A. Metheney the first Senior Warden,, and Larson Hopper the first Junior Warden. The lodge grew and multiplied until it now has a pleasant hall and a flourishing membership. In August, 1883, Post Commander Samuel Webber, of Shearsville, organized at Nashville the J. S. Hester Post, No. 218, Grand Army of the Republic, with the following charter membership: T. D. Calvin, James P. Gray, James M. Yoder, James Hampton, C. T. Taggart, D. P. Acton, William Bay, G. W. Marshall, Leander Woods, Leander C. Smith, William T. Grattan and James Myers. The first members to be initiated were W. D. Watts, Theodore Huff, J. W. Mathis and J. W. Percifield: The first and present officers are T. D. Calvin, Commander ; J. P. Gray, S. C.; J. M. Yoder, J. C.; James Hampton, Q. M.; C. T. Taggart, Surgeon; D. P. Acton, Chaplain; William Day, O. of D.; G. W. Marshall, O. of G.; Leander Woods, Adjutant; Leander Smith, S. M.; W. T. Grattan, Q. M. S

.
BANKING  AT  NASHVILLE


    Early in the fifties, it was found necessary at Nashville, owing to the limited quantity of small change in circulation, and to the constant fluctuation in the value of the various wildcat bank issues then passing current, to issue a small amount of local shin-plasters of the denominations of 25, 50 and 100 cents. William M. Mason issued a few hundred dollars worth, as did also Snyder & Arwine, the latter doing at the same time something of a brokerage business. Their money passed readily, and for a time met a greatly needed want, but ere long it also began to depreciate and fluctuate, although it was secured by real property. In March, 1854, the Traders' Bank of Nashville, Ind., was established, with the announced capital of $100,000, the charter to extend twenty years. The stock was divided into 1,000 shares of $100 each, and was owned by the following men: Andrew Wilson, of Indianapolis, 331 shares ; John Woolly, of Indianapolis, 333 shares; L. D. Inglesbee, 333 shares. This banking enterprise did little more than file and record its articles of association.    Nashville now has no bank.

SCHOOLS


The first school in the township was taught near Hedgesville about the year 1835, in a rude log cabin that had for a time been occupied by some family. The name of the teacher cannot be stated. The few families in that neighborhood sent eight or ten children. It is probable that school was taught in the David neighborhood about this time, or, as stated by some,, earlier. It is also stated that a few terms of school were taught, at a very early date, at or near the old Jackson's salt works, in the western part. In 1840, there were three schoolhouses in the township one in the western part, one in the eastern part and one at Nash­ville. In 1850, there were four schoolhouses ; in 1860, five or six; in 1870, nine or ten ; and in 1880, twelve. This number gives the township excellent educational facilities. As early as 1837, the few families at Nashville erected a log school house within a few rods of the present house, in the northwestern part of town. It was built of round logs, was not larger than 12x16 feet, had poplar poles split for benches, slabs for desks, and had no window at all. The huge fire-place which occupied one entire end of the room furnished the only light save what was occasionally admitted on warm days through the open door. The fire light was very cheerful and grateful, as the hickory logs snapped and glowed with heat, and cast a ruddy glow over the whole room. David Reddick was the first teacher (winter of 183738). Children of the Hoovers, the Dawsons, the Roberts, the Brummets and perhaps others, went to this first school. Mr.  Reddick was a good teacher. He kept in the schoolroom a small, curiously forked stick. Any scholar wishing to leave the room could 'only do so after getting possession of this stick, which arrangement prevented two or more from being out at the same time. John C. Marshall, who taught three or four terms, was the second teacher. Charles Sipes was probably the third, and John C. Gould the fourth. It was the custom then to turn the teacher out on Christmas, and keep him out until he capitulated and treated. The custom was so universal that scholars demanded the right to do it, and were upheld by their parents. Christmas came, and Mr. Gould was informed that he must treat. The scholars refused to come to order when called, and the teacher refused to treat. After a short time the large boys forcibly captured the teacher, bound him hand and foot, and carried him down to Greasy Creek to be severely ducked in the cold water, unless he surrendered and treated. Several men of the town accompanied this novel expedition. The stubborn teacher was carried out into the stream by the large boys, who took off their shoes and rolled up their pants and waded out. A parley was held, but the teacher was obstinate, and was on the point of being unceremoniously baptized, when W. S. Roberts interceded, and after some sharp words, pro and con, secured from the teacher a promise to treat to candy and apples. He was released and the cavalcade marched up to the store, where all were given a taste of the above named delicacies. School was then resumed and all went on as before. This first log schoolhouse was not used longer than about five years; after that, various buildings, already standing, were used. The Followell grocery building was thus occupied, Sipes teaching there one or more terms. The court house was used for the same purpose. Gould taught there several terms. A man named Roseberry was one of the first teachers in Nashville, and in the old log court house. 'The present schoolhouse in the northwestern part of town, though greatly altered in appearance and improved, was built about the year 1857. It is said that Ada Gould was the first teacher in this house. Others were Andrew Gray, Leonidas Alders, Graham, Luther De Motte, John Metheney and others. The schoolhouse in the southeastern part was built about fifteen years ago. The town schools have been partially graded for a number of years. The present school in the eastern part under Prof. Watts is well conducted.

CHURCHES


    It is said that a minister named Eckles preached the first sermon at Nashville in the old log court house, about the year 1837. He did not succeed in forming a class, however, for a year or two. He stopped at the tavern kept by P. C. Parker, after the class had been organized. In one of his sermons he gave the dram-sellers a broadside, which so angered Mr. Parker, who kept liquor at his bar, that he refused the man of God admission to his hotel, and the latter was forced to go to Banner Brummet's. Among the earliest members of the United Brethren class were the families of D. D. Weddel (who was himself a minister or Elder of the church), W. S. Roberts, Benjamin Chandler, James Watson, Henry Jackson and others. This old class survived for many years, but did not build a church. The Methodists also organized a class quite early. It is probable that Rev. Eli P. Farmer formed the first class.    Godfrey Jones, of Johnson County, was an early minister of this class. The Goulds, the Dews and others were early members. The old frame church now used as a printing office was built about 1848, and was used for almost everything for many years. The class went down about war time over the slavery question, and was not revived as such. A few years ago, a Methodist class South was organized by Revs. Branstutter and Hunter. In about 1878, the present church was built at a cost of about $1,500, J. C. Hester alone giving $500 and guaranteeing that full payment for the house should be made. Among the first members were J. C. Hester and family, J. L. Dew and family, W. W. Browning and family, Eliakim Hamblen and family, Isaac Chafin and family, Widow Jackson, Dr. C. T. Taggart and family, M. B. Jackson and family, Mrs. Frank P. Taggart, Solomon Lawver and wife, Dr. M. E. Phillips and family, Mrs. Gibson, Mrs. Hannah Stone and others. The ministers of the new class South have been Revs. Hunter, Taylor, Felkner,    , Hunter, Savage

and the present pastor, Mr. Jackson. The church is in a prosperous condition. In 1879, the Presbyterian class was organized, and among the first members were G. W. Allison, T. D. Calvin, W. L. Cox, Charles Gibson, R. L. Coffey, John Deitz, John Allison, Henry Voland, Harvey Bay, T. H. McLashon and their families. The frame church was built in 1882, at a cost of about $1,600. The ministers have been Revs. Wood, Larimore and the present pastor, who is serving as a supply, Elder Demaree. The Presbyterian Sunday School was organized in the spring of 1883, T. D. Calvin being the first Superintendent. The average attendance is about fifty.

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