Genealogy Trails




When the first call of President Lincoln was made at the outbreak of the Civil War, a fife and drum corps was organized by Capt. Reuben A. Riley, Henry Snow and others, who made a circuit of the county to stir up enthusiasm in the enlistment. A company was organized and mustered in at Indianapolis on April 22, 1861, as Company G of the Eighth regiment. Indiana volunteers (three-months service). The muster roll is as follows: Reuben A. Riley, captain; John Stephenson, first lieutenant; Lee O. Harris, second lieutenant; John M. Stevenson, first sergeant; Marion M. Stevenson, Pilatiah Bond and John S. Edwards, sergeants; John H. Duncan, Samuel Marsh, John S. Chittenden, Henry Snow and Elberlee S. Duncan, corporals: Jacob Mullen, George P. Stevenson and Sylvester Shorn, musicians; privates, William W. Alexander, Jacob T. Battett, John S. Allison, Benjamin Bond. Lusettus Anderson, Arthur S. Brown, James Buchanan, Martin V. Chapman. Jesse D. Dobbins, John Dye, Jr., Orando Ellis, Jabez E. Harrison. Jacob Hook, George W. Johnson, Thomas S. Jones, John  A. Lynam, Thomas M. Martin, Henry Mickle, John Pope, Nicholas Remeshart, William H. Scott. Joseph T. Short, William Sleeth. George, W. Smith, George W. Travis James L. Clayton, Thomas Day, Martin Dunn. Samuel Dye, Alfred Gapen, Charles Hartner. Aaron Hutton, Isaac T. Jones, Miller J. Laporte, Seth Marsh, George F. McNamee, John A. Morford, Newton Pope, Jasper Rawl-ings, William J. Scott, William H. Short. Lafayette Slifer, Andrew Stutsman, David N. True, William Campbell, Charles Dipper, Fred Dye, Benjamin Elliott, William Gapen, William G. Hill, Milton Jackson, Henry Jones, George L. Lipscombe, Lot W. Martin. Jasper C. McKelvey, Marion Philpott. James S. Reeves, George Rynerson, Conrad H. Shellhouse, Aaron A. Sleeth, Levi Slifer, Calvin Sullivan, Elijah Tuttle, David Ulery, John Wolf.

On starting for the front this company was presented with a large flag made by several of the Greenfield ladies, Mrs. Permelia Thayer, Mrs. A. P. Williams, Miss Alice Pierson, Miss Martha Meek and others. The flag was made in the house now occupied by Mrs. Permelia Thayer, on the north-east corner of Main and Pennsylvania streets in the city of Greenfield.

The "three-months men" were mustered out on August 6, 1861, after having been as far east as Virginia, and having participated in the engagement at Rich Mountain in that state. Many of them, however, reenlisted at once for a period of three years, or during the war.


It is exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to make a complete roll of the men who enlisted as volunteers from this county and who were among the veterans of the Civil War. By far the great majority of our boys en-listed in Indiana regiments. But many, who were temporarily absent from home, also enlisted in other states, and Indiana has no record of their names, hi going over the records in the adjutant-general's office, page by page, it is still practically impossible to make a correct roll, since in so many instances the record is incomplete, failing to show the residence of the men. In such cases-personal acquaintance would be required with each man to determine accurately to which county he belongs.

Below is given the roll of enlisted men from our county as nearly correct as we have been able to make it. Some of the men who enlisted as pri-vate soldiers were later commissioned as officers. Others were transferred to different regiments. Some of the officers were also promoted from time to time. This accounts for some names appearing several times, especially in the companies that were filled almost entirely with Hancock county boys. The men have been grouped in companies, showing their associations during the war.

Among those who always claimed Hancock county as their home, but who were not credited to this county, were Gen. Oliver P. Gooding, who was tor many years in the regular army, but who was appointed colonel of a Massachusetts regiment during the war, and who rose to the rank of brigadier-general. Adams L. Ogg, who was in Iowa, organized a company there and was captain of Company G, Third Iowa volunteers.

The following men enlisted and were credited to Hancock county:


Company G.

Reuben A. Riley, captain: Solomon T. Kauble and William H. Pilkinton, first lieutenants; John H. Duncan. Lee O. Harris and William H. Pilkinton. second lieutenants; Elias Marsh, first sergeant; James Furry, commissary quartermaster sergeant; William A. Pope, commissary sergeant: Jasper N. Pope. James T. Pope,*Milton T. Morris and John Galliher. sergeants: George S. Andrick. George H. Alford, David Bellville Joseph Marsh, William G. Ritchie. George W. Miller, Rezin D. Collins and William W. Price, cor-porals; William Smith and Herman Ridlin, buglers; Loyd Offutt. farrier; Jared C. Meek, blacksmith; Jonathan Cartwright. saddler; John R. Hoobler, wagoner. Privates—George S. Andrick, George H. Alford, Alexander An-dis, Perry H. Andrick, William S. Avers. David Bellville, Landon Bellville, John Breece. John Burnwick, Marion T. Burris, Francis M. Brizendine, John J. Chapman. John Copeland, Charles W. Campbell, Charles Campl>ell, Samuel P. Cottrell, John Day, John Dye, Jonas H. Davidson. William Daugherty, George W. Duncan. John Egger, Morris Font. John Galliher. William H. Gooding, Marshall M. Meek, Benjamin F. Gant, Henry C. Gant, Henry Harris. Nathaniel Haskett, Adam Hutton, James Hudson, Milton Jackson, John Kellum. John Kiger. Paul Kowan, AInion Keefer. Hiram Lawson, Joseph Marsh, George W. Miller. Joseph Martin, Henderson McFarland, Thomas Mack, Jesse McKinney, Jared C. Meek, George McGee. William P. Mints, Albertus Milroy, William H. Pilkinton. Jasper N. Pope, Peter S. Pope. Albert Martin. Lewis Gillum. Herman Ridlin. Jeremiah Reedy. John Rockey. Jonathan Snow. Andrew 1. Smith, Oliver H. Smith, John H. Smith. John A. Samuels. William A. Pope, William Price. William M. Sleeth. Zachariah T. Snell. Henry \V. Thornton. Samuel C. Thompson. Ralph I.. Thompson. James Thomas. John H. Taylor, John Vail. John Wort. Charles J. Willett. Ephraim P. William. James T. Pope. Isaac Powers. James Pugh, Sanford Grigsby, Ransom M. Meek. William G. Ritchie.


Colonel, George W. Jackson; major, William R. Walls.

Company B.

William R. Walls and John C. Rardin, captains; John C. Rardin and John B. Harrod. first lieutenants; John B. Harrod and John V Hinchman, second lieutenants. Privates—James D. Anderson, Asbury E. Anderson. Benjamin F. Alexander, John Bennett, George S. Bailey, Frederick W. Byfield, Leroy Bush, Jacob T. Barrett, James Burris, Heny Beachman, Jacob Buchel, Thomas Cadv, Joseph (Training, Rossville Curry, Charles A. Kirkhoff. John Manche, Mark Hamilton, Willis Hudson, Francis P. Jones, An-Andrew S. McGahey. George Parker, James W. Pilkinton, James Shaffer, John Steward, Hugh Short, John H. Walls, John A. Vernon. Benjamin Waller. Joseph Conner, Alexander Copper, William H. Cross, Charles E. Church. George W. Crews, Michael Chancery. David Connett. Calvin Clark. Frederick Blessinger, Odell Despo, Ephraim C. Duncan, Andrew Dunn, John W. Davis, Deane Lewis, Mathias Kiger, John C McCorkle, Aaron J. Rawlings. Wilson Hamilton. Henry Jones, Joseph H. Pauley, George Parsons, Joseph M. Russell. Isaac Shaffer, Calvin Sullivan, Christian H. Seers. Marcellus Walker, William H. Waller, Aaron D. Xixon, William Lamb, John S. Loehr. Ambrose Miller, Reuben Xiles. Charles Everts, James Elmore. John Egger, Isaac Grigsby, Joseph H. Gray, John Grigsby, William Harvey. Thomas R. Henner, Joseph V. Hinchman, Patrick Hanley. Othniel Fisk. Edward Hudson. James Hook. Joseph Hutton, Daniel McPhall, Franklin R. Poole, Ephraim Parmon, William Robison, John W. Sherrill. August Smith. Francis O. Seers, Daniel Thornton, John J. Winn, William Smith.


Company I.

Samuel P. Anderson, Isaac McBane. Benjamin T. Robison, Albert Alyea. Isaac Lane, Samuel C. Willis. Samuel E. Collins, James T. Reynolds, Thomas J. Lincolnfelter.


Company B.

William R. Walls. Samuel H. Dunbar, Philander Smith, Stephen A. Jones, captains; Solomon T. Kauble. Samuel H. Dunbar, William G. Hill. Philander Smith, Stephen A. Jones and George H. Black, first lieutenants; Samuel H. Dunbar, William G. Hill. Philander Smith and Nicholas Miller, second lieutenants; William G. Hill, first sergeant; William Short, John S. Chittenden. Elijah Tuttle and Philander Smith, sergeants; Aaron Scott. Thomas M. Martin, Richard Lamb, William Branson, William Gapen, David M. Dove. James Hawkins and Richard Leamon, corporals; John S. Davis and John Ulrey, musicians; Jacob Mullin, wagoner.   Privates—William W. Alexander, David Adams, George Black, Henry Bush, Samuel S. Brooks, James Bush, David Dove, William C. Dove. Jacob Dinkle, Francis M. Sanford. James P. Scott, John Scott, Ebenezer C. Scotten, William W. Scotten, Martin Shelton. Samuel Shelby. Wilson S. Slifer, Ruel Stevens, Aaron Scott, Philander Smith. William H. H. Seeley. George W. Smith. William H. Siplinger, Peter Sellery, John B. Scotten, Lewis Snell, William T. Snider, Isaac P. Thompson, Henry P. Thomas, John B. Anderson. Andrew J. Alyea. William Branson, John Bush, Noah Bixler, Charles H. Clapper, Samuel Dunbar, James Derry, Thomas Dinkle, George W. Dixon, George M. Davidson. John Dorman. Joseph Davis, Samuel H. Dillman. Fred Elsbury, Amos Everson, Ira B. Fountain, Andrew J. Fuller, Andrew J. Gilbert, Eli Gapen, John C. Gephart, Henry Goar, James M. Goble, Charles G. Gunn. William Hill, Thomas J. Huston, Cyrus Haines. John Hall, Francis H. H. Hudson. William T. Askins, John A. Alyea, John Brock, Jacob Bower, Abijah Bales. Levi Collier, Charles E. Deppery, Alexander Derry, Richard Lamb, Richard Leamon. Isaac Linehack, Peter Lamb, Albert Lake, Adam F. Louder, Alfred Louder, William Louder, Jacob Mullin, James Louder, Henry McCorkle, W. H. H. Morgan, Emanuel Morris. Francis Miller, Isaac McGee. William McConnell. Jacob Martin, Lester R. Moore, Clark McDonald, William B. Martin. Henry Mann. William S. Thomas. Elijah H. Tyner, John Ulrey. John N. Underwood, James M. Underwood, John F. Wiggins, Lawson Wiggins. Alfred Wilson. Adams F. Wilson, Edwin H. Wilcoxen, Stephen A. Jones. Isaac T. Jones, John Jennings, John Jack, Thomas Jones, John Jackson, Solomon T. Kauble, Christian Kreager, William W. Welling. Stephen B. Meek. Azor M. Nixon, Marion Philpot. Samuel Robinson, Edward H. Roney, Benjamin A. Roney, Nicholas Reamsheart. Christian Redmire, John S. Welling.

Company C.

John G. Hendricks.

Company D.

Alexander Osborn.

Company G.

John Raker, Henry H. Burns, John W. Long, Stephen R. Meek. Robert J. Smith.

Company H.

John Brock, John W. Ellis, James P. Mendenhall.


Company C.

Joseph F. Bart low, Jonathan Bundy, James M. Bragg, Simeon Dennis, Henry Frederick, Henry Kinsey, Thomas W Mondon. Lawson Rash, Thomas H. Robb, William Simmons, Robert T. Wood, Daniel Welt, John M. White, Joseph Wolf.

Company D.

Albert Banta, John H. Bolander, James W. Cooper, James S. Davidson. Jacob Brantlinger, Lewis C. Davis, Francis M. Hays, William McKinley. William Personett. James T. Russell. Isaac Whetsel, Eli Prickett, William H. Russell, Peter Robison, Rufus Scott, William Sanders. John W. Simcox.

Company E.

Granville Bellville, John Price. William F. McCorkle. John Lockwood. Oliver Dilhnan. James Pauley.

Company. F.

John S. Hackleman.

Company G.

Henry Collins, Albert Roberts.


Company A.

Henry S. Davidson.

Company F.

Stephen Bedgood, Herman Kunz.

Company I.

John J. Karl. William Rudrick. Charles J. Williams.

Company K.

John W. Grenier.


Solomon D. Kempton. lieutenant-colonel: Noble P. Howard, assistant surgeon: Gordon Browning, commissary sergeant.

Company A.

Jesse McDaniel.

Company B (One-Year Service).

Thomas B. Noel, captain: Solomon D. Kempton. first lieutenant: James Huston, second lieutenant; John YY. Statts, first sergeant: Newton S. Dexter. Peter Statts, Isaac P. Ringwalt. John Hall, sergeants; Samuel P. Colwell. William G. Elliott, Homer L. Buntrum, Various Virgin, William O. Irish. Amzi W. Thomas, Alexander H. Lile and Richard W. Jones, corporals; Robert A1 font and John L. McConnell, musicians; Harrison McGuire, wagoner. Privates—Benjamin F. Alexander, George Alley, Albert Alfont, Harrison H. Adams, Eli Abney, Christopher Alt, Hammer L. Bentreen, Isaac Butcher, Darius Collins. James Dowling, William Hasley. George W. Knotts. John D. Kirkman. Claud Hugeneard, John W. McConnell. James H. Lewis. Theodore Mosier. George Romack, Thomas Sherman, James A. Watson, William F. Bright, Samuel P. Cottrell, Edward Clampet. Joseph A. Gwinn. Ulysses P. Haskell, Herman Kassler, William O. Irish, Cornelius Laymon, Ira McCullom. James N. Lister. John A. Messier, John H. Savage. Joshua Winn. William R. Windle. John C. Burris. George W. Clark. Newton Dexter. James C. Jordon, Brazil Johnson. Albert Keffer. Robert Faucett. Harrison McGuire. Amos McGuire. Michael Larkin. Ransom Olney. Edward Smith. David T. Winn. Levi Wiseman.

Company G (Three-Year Service).

James Huston, captain; Eastly Helms, first lieutenant; Abraham Whelchel, Benjamin F. Alexander, sergeants; Jacob Hiday. Ezekial Cooper, Milton Curry, James Barnard, Abraham Bannon. coporals; John Waterman, wagoner. Privates—Benjamin F. Alexander. John H. Bannon. John Brantlinger. John B. Boone, John C. Cottrell, Thomas Cottrell. Alfred Dobbins. William H. Fllingwood. Archibald Gardner. Thomas Hiday. Mell Hunter. Samuel Lister, Erasmus Myers. George Piper, Thomas M. Rash. John T. Rash. John S. Sample. William Shaffer. Milo Shaffer, William Wright.

John Whelchel, Samuel B. Allison, Thomas B. Bannon, Abraham Bannon, Robert Chitwood, John Clark, James H. Crossley, James Dunham. Andrew Forgey. John Ginder, Jacob Hiday. Elijah Lunsford. Elijah Marshall, John \V. Reynolds. David Richards. William Scott. Peter Shaffer, John Shull. George D. Walker. Aaron C. Wright. Richard Allison. William C Bannon. James Barnard, Milton Curry, Davis Catlin, George Denny. Henry Edwards, Hugh Forgey, Hiram Gardner, John Hunter, James M. Lister, Joseph Mc-Guire, Amos Rash, Daniel Rash. Dezra Shroy, Joseph Shaffer, Hiram Shaffer, Freeman Shull, Marcellus B. Waler, James Humphreys, Jacob Shaffer, James Lister. Company H.

Samuel Applegate. Elijah Asbury, Aaron Bills. Nelson Bills. Abner Brown. Benjamin Brown. William H. Bolander, John Brooks, Anion Rucy, Nicodemus Camp. William Camp. William Brantlinger. Joseph D. Camp, George W. Camp. David Davidson. Jacob Hooker, Elijah Morton, James Luntsford, Michael H. Mack, William Olvey. Francis Vanzant, Joseph Yanzant. Jesse Vanzant.


Company J.

Thomas J. O'Reilly, Ebenezer Toon. Oliver H. Tuttle.


The Greenfield band enlisted and became the regimental band for this regiment. Professor Eastman, prominent in Greenfield musical circles at that time, was its leader. The following were the members: Omer Arnold. Samuel W. Barnett. F. M. Crawford. James E. Cravens, James H. Crowder, William Elliott. Albert G. Griffith. William E. Hart. John W. Lambert son. Edwin M. McCrarey. Samuel M. Martin. John H. Noble. William L. Ogg. Martin E. Pierson, Thomas E. Richardson. James T. Reed, Henry Snow, Nathan Snow. James F. Stewart. Alfred M. Thornburgh. David Voust.


Company F

Joseph L. Hartley. Leroy Holding. John Cly, Theodore Ward, Abram Oly. Peter Lamb, J. Holden.


Company H.

Lemuel Bailey, Shelton Bailey, William Bannon, John Clark, John Ca-hill. William Mesler, William J. Shull, Mark Thompson.

Company I.

James G. Boyce, Samuel Burk, John Davis. Irvin B. Lutes, Richard Meek, William Sapp. Conrad Shellhouse, William J. Siberry, William Si-berry, James Roberts, Charles C. Wilson, Jefferson Ulery.


Company K.

Perry J. Rhue.


Company D.

Benjamin Griffith. Jefferson Roland. Thomas S. Surgnar, Charles S. Smith. John Varner, Samuel Walker.

Company E.

Thomas Lvmon.


Company A.

Thomas L. Brooks. Oliver Bartlow, Henry Carroll. Alexander Foley, Jackson Galloway. Abraham Miller. John O. Moore. Adam Parkhurst. Robert Pauley.

Company D.

Thomas Burris. James D. Cunningham, Mauley Colburn. David M. True. Moses Conner. Benjamin Elliott, Marion Owens. George D. Owens. William Rvnerson. Andrew Stutsman.

Company E.

Alpheus T. Collins. James A. Lacey. Nimrod Lacey.


Company C.

Thomas C. Welsh, John S. Welsh.


Company C.

Reason Shipley, Vinton YYhitehurst.


Company D.

Jonathan Dunbar, first lieutenant; Seth Marsh, second lieutenant; Setli Marsh, sergeant; William Curry, Henry C. Duncan and John Hook, corporals. Privates—Moses Burris. William Curry. Cyrus Creviston. John Hook. Seth Marsh, Ralph L. Thompson, Elisha Whorton, Taylor B. Burris. James Dorman, Henry Duncan, Benjamin Hudson, Jesse Stump. Samuel E. Thompson, George Windsor, James K. Banks. Ebenezer Cross. Jere Ferrin, John Rittenhouse, George Slifer, Wellington Thomas.

Company F.

John K. Henby.

Company I.

George W. Farris, William N. Kitchen, George W. Owen. Leroy Wagoner.

Company K.

William Anderson. William Chappell. John W. Chappell, John L. Duncan, Joseph Shutes. Reason Hawkins, David Snow.


Company A.

Taylor Thomas. W. W.  Ragan. first lieutenants; Samuel Marsh W. W. Ragan, second lieutenants; Henry C. Perkins, first sergeant; Aaron Hutton, sergeant; Samuel Marsh, Aaron Sleeth, corporals; Andrew J. Bridges, musician. Privates—Henry Anderson. William H. Roman. Harrison Berrv, Conde Burns, Richard M. Casto, Lucellus Anderson. Harrison Black. Seth Bellville. John G. Berry. William Casto, Josqih B. Atkison. William R. Berry. George \V. Berry. Perry Reaver. Oliver Carson. Noah W. Carr, Isaac Canson, John Grigsby, Alexander Handy. John S. Loehr, John Mitchell. Christian Meyer. Asbury Xeal. Jasper Osborn, James K. Ragan. James Scott. John M. Williams. Wesley Williams. John Whitecotton, George W. Carr. Charles M. Dubois. Joseph Hubble. Joel H. Knight. Joseph Martin. Nathan C. Meek. Augustus Munden, Benjamin Osborn, James M. Personett, W. W. Ragan. Bert Scott, George \V. Wiggins, James A. Watson, John W. Dubois, Archibald Coleman, Theodore Edwards. Caleb Holden. Jacob Kessler, Edward.Martin, John Mayor, Samuel Marsh, Thomas O'Donnell, James M. Price. Stephen L. Stowder, Jasper M. Wingfield, James M. Whittaker. William Whittaker.


John A. Craft, Isaac T. Earl, captains; John A. Craft. Isaac T. Earl, first lieutenants; John A. Craft, first sergeant; George Kinder, corporal; Thomas Pyeatte, musician; Jonathan Wolfe, wagoner. Privates—Joseph Brooks, Eden Burris, William T. Byers, Henry Carroll. Cha'ries H. Fort, John W. Fletcher, John D. Gibbs, John V. Halley. William F. Lakin, John Madison, Thomas E. Xiles. Joseph M. Reynolds. Ira Shaffer, Marshall Vandyke, John M. Tygart, Oliver H. Bartlow, William Boyer, Samuel Boyer. George L. Chandler, Americu's Fish, Granville Fisk, Thomas H. Griffith. William H. Jones, George W. Landis. John McCorkle. John Probasco, Joseph Roland, Thomas M. Tygart, Charles H. Weaver, Daniel Burk, Jeremiah Boyer, Homer Craft. Lorenzo D. Fort, James M. Fletcher, Henry C. Garrett, Hiram Griffith. Jonathan Keller, Charles W. Lemay. Benjamin Miller. Lewis B. Parris. Rol>ert A. Smith, James Thomas. Michael Ward.


Company H.

James W. Adams. William R. Renan.


Company A.

Perry Dommanget.

Company K.

William Crossley.


Company I.

Isaac AIfred, Samuel DeCamp, George Garherick, John Ledmore, William H. Sanders, Melvin Brooks, Abram I. Helms, Byron Kurt., John Sherman, George W. Wallace. Nehemiah Brooks, William H. Hiembles. John Kinneman, Jeremiah Sherman, Joel R. Woods.


John G. Dunbar, major.

Company B.

John G. Dunbar, captain; John G. Dunbar, first lieutenant. Privates— George W. Ashcraft, James M. Boyce, Alfred Brock. James B. Gapen, Thomas Glass, Dudley Hudson, Charles W. Killenbarger, William Morgan, John Pope, Ralph Robertson, Bayan Sheets, Clay Willett, Jesse Black, Nel-son Boyce, Thomas J. Carr, William Gapen, George Hall, William Hutton, Jacob Leonard, David Muth, Joseph B. Richey, George Robertson, Isaac Stutsman, William H. York, Alfred P. Boyce, Martin Breece, James M. Elliott, Daniel Beeson, Samuel T. Hook, Francis M. Jones, William H. Lucas, August Muth, Isaac Richey, George Shaw, William Tague.

Company C.

Sydney Moore, William Reynolds, sergeants; Ransom R. Alvey, Cor-nelius Mingle, George H. Jackson, James M. Jarrett, corporals. Privates— Ransom R. Alvey, Andrew Brown, John W. Cooper, Enos Denny, Andrew J. Eakes, James Frazier, Peter Hudson, Huander Jackson, John G. Loomis, Lewis Price, Samuel Steele, William Wallsmith, Samuel Torrence, Thomas J. Brinegar, Philander Cox, Benjamin T. Cooper, Tunis Dangler, Richard Foster, Robert Faucett, Charles Harvey, James M. Jarrett, Benjamin Loomis, William H. Roberts. William Torrence, James S. Walker, John Blanton, Isaac Chappel, Cornelius Collins, Joseph R. Eakes, William J. Franklin, William H. Hunt, George H. Jackson, Hiram Leonard, Francis M. Pardue, William Reynolds, William Valentine, Neal McCole.

Company D.

Ezra Buchanan, first sergeant; William Richman, corporal. Privates— Christian Brier, Amos Deshong, James A. Eastes, Fred Knoop, George F. Langenberger, Samuel McDuffey, John P. Murphy, Samuel Roney, Jacob Sewell, Henry Sumwalt, William C. Wright, Charles H. Burris, James Dillman, F. M. Eastes. William Knoop, John L. Lynch. William Miller, Henry Philpot, John Stanley. Joseph H. Snider. Leroy Vanlaningham, William Collins, Michael X. Dunn. Henry Eikman, George Kuntz, Christian F. Meyer, Cyrus P. McCord. Anton Rabe, Martin V. Stanley, Christian.Spilker, Anthony Wishmever.

Company G. John Allen, John C. Beeson, Nathan Catt, Charles W. Cook, John H. F. Fouty, David Harrison, James H. Lewis, John McBane, Samuel Richey, Sylvester Barrett, Harmon W. Boles, John N. Cline, Daniel Copeland, Jacob H. Gibbons, George W. Johnson, Nimrod Low, Solomon Richardson. John H. Scott, Amos C. Beeson, John W. Boles, Benjamin F. Conner, Warren Cross, Fleming Glass, William Langford, William T. Miller, John W. Richey.


Company B.

James H. Carr, George Tague, Robert P. Andis, Isaiah Curry, captains; George Tague, Robert P. Andis, Isaiah Curry, John M. Alley, first lieuten-ants; Robert P. Andis, Isaiah Curry, Henry Miller, James R. Brown, second lieutenants; Isaiah Curry, first sergeant; Thomas Holland, John M. Alley, Perry McQuerry, sergeants; Thomas J. Collins, John B. Herrod, Larkin Potts, Henry C. Tyner, Amos Milner, Tilghman Collyer, Richard J. Barrett, William Shipman, Lewis F. Richman, corporals; Andrew Curry, musician (fife); William R. Curry, musician (drum); Thomas P. Mealis, wagoner. Privates—John M. Alley, Richard Allen, Richard J. Barrett. George W. Blakely, James Bussell, James R. Brown, Joseph H. Boman. Tilghman H. Collyer, Wesley S. Catt, George H. Allen, Henry B. Ashcraft. Joseph Baldwin, Nathaniel Blakely, Loran Butterfield, Garrett Baldwin, Zachariah B. Curry, Andrew Curry, William Catt, Samuel D. Allen. Sakm C. Ashcraft, Augustus M. Barrett, Smith Bright, John L. Butcher, Jonathan Baldwin, Thomas J. Collins. James W. Cass, John H. Collins. William Curry. Jacob Davis. John N. Flowers, George B. Hudson, Samuel Gard, Abram Hedges, Amos Miller, Joseph T. Milner, Joseph B. Morford, George S. Morris, Charles Myers, Harrison Nibarger, William H. Power, Xevil Reeves, George Roland, William R. Shaw, William Siddell, Charles W. Scott, Francis M. Shipley, Seward Vandyke, William Wilson, Madison Winn, Michael J. Youse, James A. Cook, William Fletcher, John B. Herrod, Samuel H. Harlan, Alonzo M. Gibbs, Riley Kinghan, Thomas McGuire, William Milner. John A. Morford, James Murphy, John Nibarger, Thomas J. Nibarger, Michael Redman, William W. Reeves, Lewis F. Richman, James J. Shipman. Levi Slifer, James Q. Sample, Henry Tibbetts, Robert H. Vernon, William M. Wilson, Vinton Withurst, Nimrod Davis, James Flowers, Charles B. Hamilton. John M. Harlan, James Gard, Perry McQuerry, Thomas J. Miller. Job Milner, Elisha Morford, Henry Miller, Lemuel I. Nibarger, Christian Ortel, Oliver Reeves, Riley A. Reeves. William Shipman, Isaac P. Shaw, Edward C. Smith, Reason Shipley, Henry Trice, Samuel VV. Waters. Jere-miah Wood, Henry W. Wright.


Company K.

John P. Armstrong, David L. Anderson, David O. Bennett, John Bogg. Jacob Everson, Levi M. Kennedy.


Company F. Henry Heller. Company I. James M. Berry. Robert Reynolds, Henry M. Edmunds. Mark Thomp-son, Thomas W. Dickev.



Company K.

Cornelius Bartlow, Eli Black, William Chapman, Edward Coffin. Wilson Catt, Jeremiah Oldham, Isaac Wyant, Isaac Waller, Henry H. Bevel, Joseph Burk, John Drake, Allen Curry, Richard Frost, Newton C. Reeves, Robert W. Wood. James Jack, John Barr, George W. Dugan, Francis M. Cooper, Wesley Carroll, William P. Lacey, Joseph Steffey, Vanes Virgin.


Company E.

Henry Ash.


Company F.

Richard McCorkle.

Company H.

W. H. H. Rock, second lieutenant. Privates—Cornelius Bartlow, George J. Dille, Andrew Ormsten. William C. Watson, Henry Barr, Perry Lynam, Ira Shaffer, Asa Allison, Phillip Denny, James C. Pratt, Joseph Steffey, Eli Gordon.


Company A.

William Rozel.

Company C.

Lee O. Harris, John B. Howard, first lieutenants. Privates—Oliver Andis. William Bracken, Charles W. Basey, John D. Carmichael, Milo Dickson. John A. Gross, Fred C. Keft, Robert Johnson. Riley Madden, William Myers, Samuel T. Patterson, William R. Shirley, Asa Smith. James I.. White, Calvin Bennett, Martin Coble, Oliver P.. Cochran, David Bixler, George W. Bennett, Elijah Hunt, Wesley Kinder, Gilman Lane, Robert Morical, William H. McFadden, Aaron Reitsell, Addison Soots, Christian Wishmeyer, Hamilton Welling, John W. Hunt, Lansford Clements, David Carson. William Curry, James M. Baker, Henry L. Dawson, Jacob Hook, David Gray, Thomas W. Lankford, Isaac Miller, Eli X. Marshall, Cornelius Ramsdell, Oliver Strahl, Morris Whittaker, Leven T. Young. Company F. John A. Sandy, Solomon Stranbrough, John Courtney, John Welsby.

Company G.

Thomas L. Purdue.

Company L

Adam Bird, Francis M. Christian, David Clark, Anthony Hansing, Robert M. Dunlap, Henry Hensing, Thomas W. Lankford. Reuben Pardee. James E. Reynolds, Elijah White, Lewis H. Brown, William H. Smith, Joseph Fetron, William Woodall, Jacob Miller, Oliver Squires, Jacob Volmer.


Company F.

Henry Snow, captain. Nelson Hunt and Junius Hunt (colored).

The soldiers from Hancock county were, in the main, kept in the western theater of the war during the early part of the struggle.    Many were in Arkansas, Missouri, with Grant along the Mississippi, with Thomas, Rose-crans and Buell, in Kentucky and Tennessee, and a very large number were with Sherman on his famous march to the sea. In the latter part of the war these troops were, of course, with Sherman and Grant in the eastern field. But what the veterans of the Civil War have done has been written large on the pages of the nation's history, and no attempt will be made to detail that story here.

It was a common practice for the men at the front to return their sav-ings to their families from time to time. Frequently a number of them who had come from the same locality sent their monev in one amount to some person in whom all had confidence. In February, 1863. for instance, the men of Company B, Eighth regiment, forwarded to Capt. A. K. Branham one thousand, eight hundred and twenty dollars to be distributed to persons in various parts of the county. We cannot know at this time just whose money was included in this amount, but after a large part of it had been distributed Captain Branham inserted a notice in the Hancock Democrat that the money belonging to the following persons would be sent as directed by them: William Everson, Abram Hanes, Thomas Lake, Mrs. Mary A. Snell, New Palestine; Samuel Fuller, Cordelia Shelton, Catherine Jones, Julia Scotten, Philadelphia; Hamilton Welling, Christian Kreager, Cumberland; John M. Miller, Rebecca Davis, Cleveland; John Jackson, Pendleton; John Roney. Mt. Comfort.

In October, 1863, Andrew T. Hart received a package containing one thousand, one hundred and thirty-seven dollars from Company B, Ninety-ninth regiment, for the following persons: Benjamin Reeves. Lysander Sparks, Rosannah Hamilton, James Milner, Phoebe True, Jesse Allen, Louise E. Shaw, Mary C. Curry, William Wjatts, Thomas Bright, Margaret Milner, Sarah Curry. Sarah Milner, Elizabeth Reagan, J. H. Curry, Daniel Butterfield, Susanna Redman, Eleanor Hudson, L. J. Youse, Elizabeth Cass, Catherine McGuire, Joseph Morford, Martha Tibbits, Willard Lowe.

These instances might be multiplied, but they illustrate the practice of the soldiers in sending home their money, either for the use of their families, or to be saved until their return from the war.

Some of the personal experiences of the boys, however, and something of their military life, is reflected from the following letters. The first two letters, from Lee O. Harris and R. A. Riley, give the experiences of the company of "three-months men" who went to the front from Hancock county. The third letter, from Samuel A. Dunbar, gives a good idea of the campaigning of Company B, Eighth regiment, in Arkansas, while the last one, written by a member of Company B. Ninety-ninth regiment, comes from the field of heavy fighting around Missionary Ridge.

"Camp Benton, Va., June 25, '61.

"Editor Hancock Democrat and Friends at Home:

'I am now writing in the shade of a tree, in Camp Benton, which is situated on one of the highest hills in Western Virginia. Below me lies a beautiful valley, stretching between the lofty hills. A beautiful stream winds its way through it, while at the foot of the hill on which our camp is situated, lies the town of Clarksburg, the capital of Western Virginia. It has a beautiful site, situated here on the summit of this lofty hill, the valley lying in quiet beauty below me. and mountain on mountain piled to the clouds and stretching away in every direction as far as the eye can reach. Both regiments are encamped upon this hill, and are now busy fortifying it. A wall, breast-high, is now almost completed, extending entirely around the hill, and a battery of six cannon is stationed on one side. Our position is one of the strongest natural defenses I have ever seen and commands the whole of the surrounding country. The enemy have no access to the town except over the mouths of our cannon, 'a hard road to travel/ I believe.

"A regiment of the Ohio troops arrived in town today; there was a regiment here before we arrived, and another picketed aiong the railroad from Parkersburg to Grafton. The boys are all in fine spirits and eager for the fight, though I do not anticipate an attack at this point, now that we are all so well prepared. It is reported that ex-Governor Wise is on Laurel Ridge, about thirty miles from here, with five thousand men, yet, in this position we do not fear twenty thousand. Several secessionists have been captured and brought into camp, but released on swearing allegiance to the government. Having given you a general description of our camp. I will go back and tell you how we got here.

"On Wednesday morning, June 19, I was awakened about three o'clock by the blowing of trumpets, rattling of drums and shouting of men; such a noise I have never heard before. It sounded like the howling of fiends or the midnight orgies of devils. On inquiring the cause I learned that we had received our marching orders and. not with standing I am a quiet man in the main, I was infected with the general joy and shouted long and loud. I ran to the door of my tent and saw soldiers running, jumping, turning hand-springs and summersets, and making the most extravagant demonstrations of joy. They were considerate enough to leave off, however, as soon as all were completely exhausted, and the longest winded could not shout above a whisper. Shortly after breakfast we began to take down our tents and pack our baggage, and before noon we marched to Indianapolis, where we embarked on the cars, and taking the Lawrenceburg & Cincinnati railroad, we were soon flying on our course on the wings of steam, followed by the shouts of hundreds who had collected to see us off. Everywhere along the road it appeared as if the whole community had collected along the track and greeted us with shouts and waving of hats and handkerchiefs. At Greensburg the patriotic citizens were awaiting us, and as soon as the train stopped, the cars were surrounded by detachments armed with well charged baskets, buckets and pitchers, and immediately began the attack, filling our haversacks with provisions of every imaginable kind. Our men faced the music like heroes and pitched into the eatables with a will. Long life and great happiness to the noble hearts of Greensburg! May heaven bless them as they deserve! At six o'clock we arrived at Cincinnati. Here we were met by the city military, amounting to nearly two thousand, who escorted us tc the Fifth street market house, where we were regaled with a splendid supper. All Cincinnati was alive with excitement; the streets were crowded from one end of town to the other, and at every turn the cry was, 'Huzza for the Indiana troops! Huzza for the Eighth and Tenth!' On the corner, near the market house, was a banner with this inscription, 'Cincinnatians' Welcome to the Noble Sons of Indiana; may God bless and preserve you!' We marched from the market house to the Marietta & Cincinnati railroad and embarked on the cars, where we lay all night, and on the next morning started for Marietta, a town about two hundred and fifty miles up the river. Through Ohio we were met and welcomed with the same demonstrations of joy that we witnessed in Indiana. At Chillicothe we were welcomed with another attack of provisions and good things. We arrived at Marietta about dark, when we were marched on board of steamboats, where we lay all night. Next morning we sailed down the river to Parkersburg, where we remained until Saturday night, when we embarked on board the cars on the Baltimore & Ohio railway and started en route for this place, arriving here on Saturday about noon, where we are likely to remain for some time. You shall hear from me again soon if my life is spared to write.

"Yours truly,

"L. O. Harris, U. S. A."

"Beverly, Va., July 14, 1861.

"Mr. Editor:—Dear Sir:

"Since our march from Indianapolis, such has been the constant hurry and bustle, care and toil, that I have never had time to write when I could command paper and ink, that I have not written you before.   We first set toot on "Virginia's sacred soil' at Parkersburg, the third day from Indianapolis, from thence two days after to Clarksburg by railroad through tunnels of pitchy darkness and over dizzy precipices.   The road was guarded all along.   At Clarksburg (the capital of western Virginia)' we took possession of a hill about three hundred feet high, immediately south of the town, commenced to fortify it, and about I o'clock A. M. Capt. Loonies' flying battery six pieces arrived.   It was hauled to the foot of the hill, and there we took it apart, attached long ropes, and piece at a time, with two hundred men to a piece, pulled it up to the top, and by daylight had cannon, ammunition and all in position on the hill, and commanding the whole surrounding town and country within its range.   We then resumed work on our fortification, and by night had a breastwork from six to ten feet high, for nearly a mile, in an oblong circle.   The traitors had prepared to burn the town, and expel or hang all Union men there, the day after our arrival.   We were too quick for them, and they fell back to a pass called the 'Valley of Death/ in the Rich Mountain, within five miles of Beverly, where they were strongly fortified at a pass called Camp Garnett, one and one-half miles further on the Beverly road, and at the Valley of Death they had breastworks of logs and rocks, probably 400 yards in length and two pieces of artillery (that we captured).   I think they had three.   At 4 P. M. on the 10th, six companies of the 8th and 10th Indiana Volunteers marched to the advance, on hearing that they were coming to give us battle.   We took our position in advance of our encampment—consisting of eight regiments—in line of battle but the rebels went back to their holes again.   The 8th regiment, that is, six companies of it. held their position on the field for the night, and Company I, consisting of 53 men, rank and file—33 of Company I, and 20 of Company E—took the picket guard, running a chain of sentinels within two hundred and fifty-nine veards of their fortification, and then transversely with the same, and remaining sleeplessly vigilant the entire night. Just after daylight on the morning of the 11th. six companies of the 8th, ioth, and 13th Indiana, and the 19th Ohio regiments filed right leaving the road, without cutting one for their access, and climbed over Rich Mountain, through heavy woods, barrens, thickets, among the laurel and huckleberries, among rocks, cliffs and precipices, on dizzy heights and sightless depths, a distance of from 12 to 15 miles, entirely flanking and surprising the enemv in the Valley of Death.

"We arrived on the battlefield at about half-past 1 P. M.. when the picket fired on our advance guard led by Capt. Chris. Miller, of the 10th. severely if not fatally wounding him, and also wounding severely in the arm one of his men. The .skirmish then commenced, on our side, while round shot, bombs. and spherical-case shells hissed and bursted over our heads. We continued skirmishing for over an hour, waiting for the Ohio regiment to come up, to get our positions, and for the cessation of one of the heaviest rains I have ever seen fall. Thus drenched and chilled the Ohio regiment came up the mountain in sight and the rain ceased, when the 10th Indiana regiment engaged their left wing out of good range of their artillery. The left wing of the 8th lay right in line, view and range of their artillery, when they fired a shell that exploded directly over them (the 8th). then a round shot that went through a tree about 12 feet over the heads of the 8th. I told Col. Benton that the enemy had a point blank range on the regiment, and to let the regiment lie down. The command was given and the boys dropped, when instantly a charge of grape poured over them, about breast high but harmless. The enemy cheered, thinking the regiment was cut to pieces (as they afterward told me) while indeed the boys were lying like crouching tigers, waiting for the command to pounce upon them. We remained there for about half an hour, when the word came, and the boys went down the hill over rocks, logs and brush, firing and advancing, without much order—for that was impossible, from the nature of the ground—but with terrible precision, shooting with direct aim at every moving object distinguishable in the smoke before them. Then followed the most sublime and terrible concerted regimental firing that ever waked the echoes of that old mountain. Com-pany I, commanded by Lieut. Walls, directed their fire upon the gunners of their artillery, and leaving but one standing, and him wounded in the hand and side. Then the rush from the cannon from both sides, when our men hoisted one poor fellow off of the cannon with their bayonets. The enemy ffave way. and the retreat commenced, and firing after and pursuit. Neither of the latter continued long.  Then came the congratulations over the victory, mixed with the groans and cries of the wounded and dying, then the searching and care for the wounded. Then a collection and burial of the pale and bloody dead. The busy and bloody-handed surgeons, with lint, chords, bandages, saws, scalpals, probes and bullet forceps were busy bandaging and dressing what could be saved, and amputating hopelessly shattered and lacerated limbs. I walked over a part of the battlefield that evening, and I hope never again to witness such a sight of blood and carnage. At one large rock about 30 feet long behind which the enemy had concealed, shooting over, there laid piled upon and across one another, sixteen men. every one of whom was shot through the brain.   I will not further attempt to describe the carnage. The enemy had between 1.800 and 2,200 with two pieces of artillery which we captured. The six companies of the 8th. 10th, and 13th Indiana Regiments, amounting to about 1,500 to 1,700 men, did the fighting, the Ohio being held mainly in reserve, and coming in just at the close.

"The counted dead of the enemy on the field is 131 and is doubtless more than double that number, as many were seen carried off. Some were found in the bushes and coal banks and among the rocks over a quarter of a mile from their breastworks. We have about 900 prisoners, six pieces of artillery, a large amount of small arms, seventy-two wagons, and from $60,000 to $100,000 worth of captured military property. Upon the rebels being so terribly defeated, slaughtered and routed at the 'Valley of Death' they fled into the mountain—they abandoned their arms, camp tents, ammunition and fortifications at Camp Garnett, one and a half miles distant and in the night left all. some even throwing away their blankets and coats and fled to the mountains. They also fled from Beverly, five miles distant. The next clay a flag of truce was sent in and seven hundred who had been in the battle, came in a body, stacked their arms, and surrendered themselves prisoners of war. They, with those taken in the battle and since swelled their numbers to about 900. as before stated.

"I am informed, by a messenger from there, that General Morris cap-tured 1,800 rebels at Laurel Hill, together with their cannon, arms, and mili-tary stores, on the next day after the battle. Yesterday a detachment was sent from here to Stanton, twelve miles from here, and a messenger came back today saying they had fled panic stricken from there.

"The war in western Virginia is ended for the present, if not forever.

"None of Company I were killed or missing. Sergeant M. M. Stepheneon was severely wounded by a musket ball a little above the right knee, the ball passing below the bone without breaking it. The hemorrhage was great, but upon its being staunched, reaction took place, and lie is now doing well, and will probably recover without material lameness or injury. James Buchanan was wounded in the fleshy part of the hip, just above the hip joint, but got up. straightened his leg. tried it. cursed the traitors, and fought on with redoubled energy. Andrew Stutsman was wounded on the knee by a fall on the rocks while making the charge. Charles Weaver had his wrist bruised and sprained by the bark and splinters knocked from a tree near which he was, by grape shot. All who were in the battle were brave to a fault. Our boys were much fatigued and exhausted by hunger, cold, rain, watching, marching and fighting, but are getting rested and ready for more work if needed soon.   The health of most of them is tolerable, some are suffering with diarrhoea and some with flux. Three or four are in the hospital, none dangerous I think.

"While I have been telling of the enemy's heavy losses, etc.. I had almost forgotten to speak of our own. Thirteen cf the Indiana troops were killed, and about forty wounded.

"My own health is poor and broken down. Five days ago I was taken with diarrhoea, and from weakness, loss of sleep, hunger, and the long, toil-some march over the mountain, and the sudden cold and heavy rain, I sat down, cramping and exhausted, by a tree, in the midst of the battle, delivering the command to Lieut. William R. Walls, who gallantly led the boys through the balance of the fight. Shot, shells, grape, musket and rifle balls were bursting and hissing over and around me. There is an excitement and sublimity in a well contested battle, that can neither be appreciated or realized by any one who has not witnessed it and participated in it. Our boys who were left behind to guard the camp, and too sick to make the toilsome march, are filled with regret and chagrin because circumstances forbade their participation in the fight.

"We expect to be 'home again' in a few'weeks, bringing Company I back without the loss of a man. My paper is exhausted. My compliments and love to all. R. A. Riley"

"Helena, Ark., July 14. 1802.

"Dear Mitchell:—

"Having had no opportunity for a long time to write to you, or anybody else, and supposing that our friends are anxious to hear from us. I hasten to write you. I joined my regiment at Sulphur Rock, on the 11th of June, and on the 22nd we left there for Clarendon, on White river, to join our gun boats. We approached said point by easy marches, until the day we entered Augusta, when we inarched eighteen miles. The day after we arrived, at 2 o'clock in the morning. Companies A and R of the 8th, under command of Maj. Thomas Rradv. and a Battalion of cavalry, commanded bv Col. Raker of the 1st Indiana, by special order, went in search of a regiment of rebels, mostly conscripts, under Col. Matleck. After a march of ten miles we came upon their camp, freshly evacuated. The infantry deployed as skirmishers in the cane brake, which is the hottest and hardest work ever the lot of man to perform. We remained thus for two miles, rallying at a point on the river, three miles above a ferry where the butternuts were crossing. Col. Raker hastened forward, arriving a little too late, but in time to fire one of his mountain howitsers. killing two and dispersing them in every direction.    He took their camp equipage and provisions. While this was going on Maj. Brady heard of a train concealed four miles above our position in the cane brake, and of course we made for it. We found five wagons richly laden with the good things fixed up by the special friends for palates of the traitors. They didn't get it. We eat our supper, saved our breakfasts, and turned the balance over. This was on the Fourth of July. On the 5th we returned to camp, arriving lired and worn out. The next morning at two o'clock we left camp and marched sixteen miles, halting 011 the hank of Cache river. The road on each side of the stream having lieen blockaded by the rebels cutting timber across it,—a game they have played until it is played out. When our advance arrived at this point a small party of them, concealed in the blockade, fired upon the guard, hitting nobody. Our men killed one, who fell into our hands, and knocked seven off their horses, but they got away badly wounded or dead. Lieut. Hill, who commands the pioneers of the brigade, went to work on the blockade and in two hours had a road cut through and the troops passing over. In the morning a portion of the nth Wisconsin and 1st Indiana Cavalry went out upon the road in advance to feel for the Texas Rangers, who we knew were in the neighborhood. About noon they came upon about two thousand of the gentlemen King along the side of the road. Our toys went into them with fury, both sides fighting like fiends. More cavalry and the 33d Illinois were ordered forward first, and then the 8th. We arrived upon the ground and drove the rebels five miles, when night came on, and they got away from us. News of this fight spread like wild fire through rebeldom, and upon our arrival here we found that transports had been sent from Memphis to Clarendon, to gather up the remnant of our army, supposed to be cut to pieces and in a starving condition. The rebels everywhere throw it in our faces, and crowed loudly. Poor, deceived fools, why did they not know the true result of the engagement? We found nearly 200 of their dead upon the field, and their wounded filling every house along the road.   Our loss was between forty and fifty,—eight killed and the balance wounded. The night after the fight we encamped beyond Cotton Plant, on a bayou. The next day we marched to Clarendon, a distance of 35 miles, under the hot sun of this climate, and through the deepest sand and the thickest and most suffocating dust. For miles we had to inarch without water, and when we did get any it was swamp water, the filthiest you ever saw in any swamp. This march beats everything in our military history, and had we not been ironclad we never could have stood it. On our arrival at Clarendon we found that our boats had from some cause or other given us out and retired.   Duvall's Bluff, above Clarendon, was evacuated bv the rebels. they retiring to Little Rock. On the nth we left that point for this, and by some management not in army regulations our wagons, provisions and camp equipage were started upon one road, and we upon another. Our suffering would have been extreme had it not been for 4 crackers to the man which we found in a wagon belonging to Curtis' quartermaster. On this scanty allowance we traveled 18 and 23 miles a day until last night. Our train arrived this morning, we having lived from the time we started until this morning on four crackers to each man. We are now encamped on the bank of the Mississippi. Helena is a beautiful little town, clean and neat. Shortly after our arrival a trading boat came down and you should have seen the effect it had upon the men. So long shut up in the darkness of Arkansas hills and swamps, cut off from all correspondence with friends and the world, exposed to danger and disease, almost naked, and but a few days' rations of crackers left, you can imagine how exhilarating the sight of a boat would be. We are below Memphis about 100 miles. Last night was a moon light one, and Lieut. Hill and myself, after the camp had become still, seated ourselves upon the bank of the river and looked upon a scene as beautiful as I ever saw. At this point the river is one and a half miles wide. Mississippi forming the other side.

"The Indiana troops are almost naked, having drawn but few clothes since leaving Otterville, and but few uniforms can be found among them. We will get a new suit here and cut a stiff. Lieut. Bill Hill, with his pioneers attended the train and through the most desperate swamps building and cutting roads with an energy and celerity that drew from General Benton a very high compliment. This morning the camp is all gayety and life. The boys are enjoying the highest spirits. Resides the prospects for bread, meat and clothes, we have a faint hope of being: ordered out of Arkansas.

"Col. Baker and his cavalry are covering themselves with glory. They fear nothing; fight any force, no matter how large, when or where they find it.

"Gen. Hindman lives here. Gen. Curtis occupying his mansion, with the stars and stripes floating above it. The health of our company continues excellent, much to our surprise. Our friends can rest assured that for the present we are all doing well.

"Yours respect fully.

"S. H. Dunbar,

"8th Indiana Regiment.

"N. B. In the fight T have spoken of. at one time the rebels were in the woods, but in hearing distance.   The Wisconsin boys were supporting the Indiana howitsers, when they heard the command given by the rebel commander, 'Take the gun!' Our boys came to a 'ready/ and the line of rebels came rushing forward. Wisconsin waited until they came within fifty yards, when they poured a desperate volley into them, charging bayonets immediately, and throwing the enemy into confusion. They rallied again, after which one of our boys yelled out to them: 'Here is that gun, why in the hell don't vou come and take it?''

"Headquarters 8tii Indiana Infantry.

"Near Vicksburg, Miss,, May 28, 1863.

"Dear Mitchell:—

"I wrote you from Port Gibson a day or two after the fight of the 1st Inst. I then informed you of the loss of Company E. and presume ere this you have published it to our friends. Since that writing we have engaged in the unfortunate engagement of 'Champion Hills' and 'Black River Bridge' not having a man hurt in cither. On the 19th inst. our artillery opened on the fortifications protecting Vicksburg. and skirmishing began. Our division once thrown forward, in rifle range of the rebel works, and a spirited fight at once began with the rebel sharpshooters. We soon discovered that we could effectually silence their artillery by keeping a storm of bullets pouring into their port holes. We played this game upon them without material loss, until the 22nd of May. when General Grant peremptorily ordered that at 10 o'clock A. M.. the whole line should charge, reaching from the Yazoo to Warrenton. Upon this announcement being made to the men, a gloom and hopelessness was visible on every face. All were fully convinced that it was a mad move, and that we would meet slaughter and defeat. Nevertheless, at the appointed hour, we fell into line and moved forward. The column had been in motion but a few moments when the enemy opened upon it from rifle pits and forts, with musketry, grape, shell and schrapnel. Confusion at once began. Men fell dead and wounded at every step. Many being wounded were afterward killed, and the slaughter was terrible. The 8th started in the charge with 446 men, losing in killed and wounded, 114. The 33d Illinois with a less number of men, lost the same, the 99th Illinois lost 170. And other regiments, so far as I can hear, suffered in the same proportion,—Company R started into the charge with 43 men, officers included.   Its loss was 13 wounded and 3 killed.

"On the 20th. while advancing our brigade from a hollow to one nearer the enemy, Alfred Wilson was killed by a grape shot striking him on the head.   He did not die immediately, and when assistance was sent to remove him to the hospital he would not be removed from the field until he laid hold of his gun. whicli he persisted in carrying with him. On the following morning while the company was sharp shooting. Richard Lamb was killed by a minnie ball striking him in the bowels, and George N. Black was slightly wounded in the shoulder. He did not leave the field, though in too much pain to load and shoot, but carried water from the spring to the boys while they fought.   On the day of the charge we lost as follows:

"First Sergeant, Frank Mays, killed. "Private, John Scotten, killed. "Alfred Lowder, died from wounds.

"Wounded. "Corporal, F. M. Miller, slightly in chin. "Corporal. Wm. W. Welling, severely in side and arm. "Corporal, Clark McDonald, slightly in hip. "Private, Thomas M. Martin, arm amputated. "Private, W. W. Alexander, severely in arm. "Private, Wm. N. Siplinger, slightly in foot. "Private, Charles Clapper, slightly in arm. "Private, Andrew J. Fuller, painfully in ankle. "Private. James N. LTnderwood, arm amputated. "Private, Wm. H. Morgan, collar hone broken. "Lieut. W. G. Hill, painfully in right hand.

"The wounded are doing as well as the circumstances will permit. They are generally cheerful and confident of recovery. I understand they will be sent north as soon as possible. We are reducing Vicksburg by seige, since to attempt to take it by storm is folly and madness. Our regiment is lying on Unprotected side of a hill, in four hundred yards of the rebel works.   Musket balls whiz harmlessly above us while our artillery keeps the air filled with the smoke of powder and the earth trembling. The enemy does nothing with its artillery. Today, for the first time, two or three fired a shot at one of our batteries. Scarcely had the report been heard when Capt. Klauss of the 1st Indiana let a shell fly and blew up the seccsh's caisson, killing a good many of them doubtless, besides leaving a tremendous moral effect. At night war ceases, except an occasional shot between pickets who stand within one hundred yards of each other. A Uw rlavs ago the enemy sent in a flag of truce, giving us an opportunity to bury our dead thai were left on the field after the fatal charge. The rebels came out of their holes by thousands, while the surrounding hills were covered with blue uniforms, gazing on the novel scene. Many of each side met. shook hands and conversed freely. Soldiers, both rebel and Union, were unanimously of the opinion that they in an hour like that could settle the war, if submitted to them. One rebel said he wished the truce would last forever. I heard of several instances where friend found friend, and in two or three cases, brother met brother. Desertions frequently occurred. The number no doubt would be double, did they not keep so rigid a guard. Two nights ago I was working in our ditches when two strapping Dutch boys who had escaped, jumped almost on top of me. After they were assured that it was all right, and got into the right place, they were the happiest fellows I ever saw. They give a dreadful account of the rebel rations and of the terror which our artillery and sharpshooters keep them in. If we succeed in keeping at bay the apprehended attack in the rear a little longer, Vicksburg will surely surrender. The mortar fleet I liked to have forgotten. It opens after dark and keeps up a terrible shelling during the night. The city has been on fire several times, but thev have succeeded bv some means in extinguishing the flames. The mortars surely scare them awfully, and I don't see how they help killing many. It is generally thought that hard fighting here is over, but nobody knows. The rebels before surrendering may come out and make a last desperate effort to escape. The nights are lovely and only when disturbed by the occasional crashing and bursting of shell, are so serene and still that we can hear the town clock in the city.

"Let. our ladies at home know that everything they do, no matter how little, for the comfort of our sick and wounded, is fully appreciated, and does much more good than they could imagine. Too great a quantity of the delicacies, and of clothes, etc.. cannot be sent here. The probability is that we will remain here sometime. Manv will be wounded, and many and many more will be sick in consequence of the climate and the way we have to live. Our men have but one suit of clothes, and that is deficient, worn and dirty. We have no time outside of the ditches to wash, and when a man falls sick or is wounded he can only look to the efforts of friends at home and the sanitary commission for clean clothes. Ladies, do all you can for us. We need your assistance.

"None of the Greenfield boys have been hurt, and without one exception have been in the fight and have done their duty manfully. Our company is sadly in need of recruits and must be filled up. There is no difficulty in getting into any company the recruit may designate.   Will not some of our young men make the break and come to our assistance? I will write again after, and perhaps before the fall of Vicksburg.


"S. H. Dunbar,

"8th Ind. Infantry."

Following is another letter from Mr. Dunbar, dated October 18, 1863. at Vermillionville, Louisiana:

"Dear Mitchell:

"Suddenly our Brigade has received orders to march. It goes alone, and starts tomorrow morning. Our mission is not for letters or newspapers, as we expect with all the secrecy that can be exercised, to have some warm work. I write merely that you may present to their friends the names of Company B, left in the hospital in New Orleans. They are. John W. Underwood. Amos W. Everson. Elijah H. Tyner (nurse), Henry McCorkhill (sent from Berwick), George M. Davidson. Francis N. C. Hodson. Albert W. Lake.

"I did not feel apprehensive of the death of any of them, even when they left, ague and diarrhea being the principal diseases. They had been sick but a few days, and with the excellent attention which I learn is bestowed upon the sick in hospitals in that city, I have no doubt they will soon recover.

"John Scott, a good citizen of Brandywine township, who had deservedly many friends throughout his neighborhood, died in hospital at New Orleans. September 11th. All must sympathize with his afflicted family and honor his memory for his good qualities.

"Searg. Cyrus Hanes and Elijah Tuttle of Company B, in company with four others, after receiving instructions from the General, left.—on a critical mission. They pressed an oyster boat, sallied out into the Gulf, and from thence through innumerable bayous, lakes, and bogs, far into the interior of Louisiana, passing themselves among the enemy for smugglers. They accomplished, to the full satisfaction of the power that sent them, all they were sent to perform, returning in ten days from the dale of their departure. They frequently saw and conversed with detachments of the enemy. Too much honor can not lie awarded the men who will brave every danger, take life into their hands, peril everything for their country, and in obedience to orders. Let the names of all such gallant actors stand out in bold relief, high on the scroll of honor.

"Yours respectfully,

"Sam. H. Dinbar."


"Scottsborough, Ala.

"Sunday. January 10, 1864

"Editor Hancock Democrat:

"On Monday. November 23d, our division rested quietly behind a range of hills, near the Tennessee River, waiting for the engineers and pontooniers to complete the preparations for throwing a pontoon across the river. The work was done, the attention of the rebels was drawn to the extreme right, where General Hooker was making some heavy demonstrations, and a favorable opportunity for our crossing presented itself; accordingly we were ordered to be ready to march at 4 o'clock next morning. Morning came, November 24, and we set off. The day was foggy and misting rain. We reached the river bank, which was lined with heavy cannon, ready to belch forth destruction to any one who might oppose our crossing.

"Our workmen had been busy, at work all night, and the pontoon was about half completed. The boats were used as ferry boats until ready to be placed in their positions in the bridge. We embarked immediately, crossed, stacked arms and waited for our artillery, ammunition wagons, horses and ambulances, which could not be brought over until the bridge was completed.

"All was over by 9 o'clock A. M., and we were ready to advance. A very short distance now' lay between us and the enemy on Missionary Ridge. Our artillery kept up a languid fire on them from across the Tennessee, besides which very little seemed to be doing in the way of battle. We prepared to advance. Our guns were loaded and capped. Skirmishers were thrown out to the front and flanks, four or five from a company. Serg't. George W. Watts, Wesley S. Catt. Charles Meyers, and Christian Ortle were detailed from Company B. All things being ready, we moved on slowly, at a left face, the thick under brush rendering it next to impossible to preserve a line of battle.

"Our skirmishers soon waked up the rebs. A brisk firing was commenced in front. We halted a short while, to give time to the skirmishers. We could now plainly see the summit of the first hill, but no enemy appeared thereon. We advanced slowly and halted near the top. when the rebs opened fire on us with their artillerv. Fortunately our Chief of Artillery was with us. and got the precise location of the rebel battery. He immediately ordered up Richardson's battery, and opened on the enemy with one twenty-four pounder and several guns of smaller caliber. The rebs, who had been overshooting, lowered their pieces and replied vigorously for a while, the balls shaving 'very close.' Our boys who were carrying balls from the caissons ran almost on 'all fours,' while the balls hissed over their heads, and showered the limbs of trees around them. One projectile knocked off the whole top of a tree and hurled it into a regiment of the second brigade; but owing to some expert dodging, no one was injured. The rebs having one gun dismounted, and fearing for the safety of the remainder, removed their battery from view, and were silent the remainder of the day.

"Our skirmishers were advancing down the opposite side of the hill, and driving the rebel skirmishers up the next ridge on which they were fortified. The night found us. We rested on our arms, expecting a vigorous renewal in the morning.

"The 1st brigade of our division lay on our right, and the second on our left, leaving us to occupy the center. Gen. Ewing, our division commander, ordered our brigade to fortify their position, and to remain as a reserve. We went at the work with energy, and, by midnight, had a row of rifle pits stretching for half a mile, and facing the rebel works.

"Gen. Ewing, Gen. Blair, our corps commander, and Gen. Sherman all established their headquarters with us; and also the signals were displayed near our regiment. This was very interesting to us, as we could witness the maneuvers, and hear the dispatches that were constantly coming and going. They kept the aids busy.

"The morning of the 25th dawned. The fog had cleared away, and the sun rose in his radiant splendor; all was yet quiet. Both armies had been maneuvering during the previous night, and now lay in plain view of each other. Gen. Hooker had advanced his lines far up the mountain, while strong batteries and earthworks lined the valley at the foot of Missionary Ridge. The operations of the day were opened by a broadside from Richardson's battery, aimed directly at the rebel works on the next ridge, plainly visible; and not more than half a mile distant. The rebel guns replied. Our guns opened from across the Tennessee, the rebs returned the compliment. The boom of cannon then came up from the battle below, and were only answered by the cannonical language of Missionary Ridge. The cannonading was now terrific along the entire line, from the summit of Lookout to the banks of the Chickamauga. The surrounding hills and mountains smoked like so many volcanoes, and the thunders of artillery rolled along the valleys of the Tennessee. Oh. how sublime! The reverberations among the hills reminded me much of the poets' beautiful description of 'A Thunderstorm on the Alps.' The noise of battle increased; the sound of musketry and of the charge was continually heard.

"Until this time, we were admiring the scene, and estimating the dis-tance of certain guns by the difference between seeing the flash and hearing the report. Some of the boys were mounted on trees to obtain a better prospect, but our admiration ceased when we saw our wounded come limping in, supported on either side by their more fortunate comrades, or borne on litters; some with heads bleeding, others with their shattered limbs dangling powerless by their sides. At first the sight was revolting, but when we could begin to count our wounded by scores and hear their stories of narrow escape, and hear their groans, we got mad and wanted to fight. If the 3d brigade had been turned loose, they would have stormed the very gates of purgatory; but 'No' said Gen. Ewing. 'you must hold this ridge'.

"Just then Brig. Gen. Corse of the second brigade was carried in with a severe wound in his thigh. He swore a 'blue streak' as he passed. Says he. 'If they had wounded me in the head, or some place in the body so that I could keep the field I would not care; but they have shot me in the thigh and I must retire.' Gen. Ewing started to go to him, but he shook his head, and Ewing returned.

"The first brigade now formed in the valley, and were ordered to carry that part of the ridge in their front. This brigade consisted of the 12th and 10th Indiana, and the second and 90th Ill. They made a brilliant effort, and carried the rebel works. Col. Loomis, their brigade commander, rode up to Gen. Ewing and informed him that he had gained the heights as ordered, but with severe loss, especially in point of officers. The Col. of the 90th Illinois fell mortally wounded; the Lieut. Col. of the 100th Indiana, was wounded; Capt. Brouse of the same regiment was killed, and many others. Hardly had Col. Loomis returned to his command, when the rebs charged and recaptured their old works, driving the first brigade entirely from the ridge. (I think, however, that this was a preconcerted arrangement, to daw the rebs into a trap.)   They retreated back across a piece of timberland, while the rebs poured in volleys of shot and shell at their glittering bayonets. The air was fairly vocal with the sound of exploding shells and hissing fragments. "About this time, Christian Ortel of our own company was carried in, severely wounded in the thigh. He was a noble young man. and had the love and esteem of all who knew him. His wounds proved fatal. He died December 17th, and now rests in the cemetery at Chattanooga.

"Stern is the decree of fate which hath bound him, And laid him to rest by stranger's hand; No loved ones near to weep around him, As he sleeps alone in a stranger's land. 'It is sweet to die for one's country.'

"The stars and stripes were now unfurled from Point Lookout and the sound of battle died away as the shadows of evening covered the hills and valleys; all hushed to quiet; we retired to rest and ere morning's light Gen. Bragg with all his army was hurrying toward Atlanta.

"Yours truly.

"M. A., Co. B."

The above letter was evidently written by Marshall Alley, whose name appears on the muster roll as John M. Alley.


In addition to the three-months men and the veterans of the Civil War, the Legion of Indiana was organized for home protection. Companies of the Legion were known as "Home Guards." During the Civil War several of these companies were organized in Hancock county, known as:

Fortville Guards, organized June 4, 1861. James H. Perry. P. Bond, captains: John K. Faucett, first lieutenant: Charles Doty, second lieutenant.

Hancock Guards, organized June 10, 1861. Alexander K, Branham, Henry A. Swrope, captains; Henry A. Swope and William E. Hart, first lieutenants; William E. Duncan, William Lindsey. George H. Walker. Joshua Edward, second lieutenants.

Brandywine Guards, organized August 26. 1861. Robert Andis, cap-tain; Ezra Fountain, first lieutenant; John M. Dixon, second lieutenant.

Anderson Guards (New Palestine), organized September 13. i86t. Thomas C. Tuttle, captain; Conrad Shellhouse, first lieutenant; George W. Stineback, second lieutenant.

Vernon Township Guards, organized. 1863. Sylvester Gaskins. captain; Thomas J. Hanna, first lieutenant; Perry J. Brinegar. second lieutenant.

Union Hancock {Cavalry), organized, 1863. Taylor YY. Thomas, captain; Solomon F. Kauble, first lieutenant; William E. Henry, second lieutenant.

Jackson Guards, organized, 1863. John A. Craft, Joseph H. McKown, captains; Joseph H. McKown, John M. Davis, first lieutenants; Asa H. Allison, second lieutenant.

The last three companies were organized during the excitement of the Morgan raid in 1863. At this time these companies were organized and known as the Hancock Battalion.   Its officers were: Alexander K. Branham, Lee O. Harris, majors; Solomon F. Kauble, adjutant; Orlando M. Edwards, assistant surgeon.

A company was also organized in Buck Creek township. Another company of about forty German boys was organized and drilled at New Palestine by Dr. Buchel, a German physician. Greenfield boys, too young for service, were organized as the Greenfield Union Cadets, with the following officers: Hamilton Dunbar, captain; James W. Knight, first lieutenant; James Gapen, second lieutenant; Oscar Thomas, third lieutenant.

The Home Guards, however, were continually changing because the boys were constantly enlisting in the volunteer companies. Dr. Buchel's company at New Palestine finally disbanded because practically all of its members had enlisted in the active service. Some of the other companies maintained their organizations throughout the war by continually filling their ranks with recruits.

Each company had its own drill ground. In the smaller towns the school grounds or commons were appropriated or the boys drilled on the streets. Adjoining the town of Greenfield on the northeast lay a large blue-grass pasture. It included a tract lying east of State and north of North streets, and was owned by Benjamin Osborne, a resident of Kentucky. Here the Hancock Guards gathered once a week, usually on Saturday afternoons. The drilling of the company on the slope and hill north and east of the branch in the region of Grant and East streets, was a very familiar sight in those days.

Two of these companies, the Hancock Guards, under Capt. A. K. Branham, and the Anderson Guards, under Capt. Thomas C. Tuttle, were in the active service about a week during Morgan's raid. Captain Branham's company was mustered in on July n, 1863. as Company E of the One Hundred and Fifth regiment of Indiana Volunteers. The company at that time was composed of Alexander K. Branham, captain; William E. Hart, first lieutenant; George W. Walker, second lieutenant; John Hatfield, first sergeant; Joshua Edwards. Freeman H. Crawford. William Mitchell, Samuel W. Barnett, sergeants; Samuel E. Duncan, Jacob Wills, Nathaniel Snow, James L. Dennis, corporals. Privates—Fred Alliman. Asa A. Allison, Daniel Acker, A. J. Banks, Calvin Bennett, N. F. Burford, J. M. Baker. Thomas M. Bedgood, N. B. Ballenger. Samuel Boyer. David Bixler, George Bennett, J. L. Burdett. Lerov Bush. Milton Catt. N. N. Church. D. B. Chittenden, Charles Cliff. S. T. Dickerson, Ephraim Duncan. Odell Despo. William Evans, John Egger, David S. Gooding, Lemuel W. Gooding, G. W. Glass, Charles Hook, Q. D. Hughes. James Hood, Ferdinand Hafner, Vincent Hinchman, Samuel Jones, Hiram Kern. A. B. Lineback, John P. Laird. John McCordhill. Stephen R. Meek. Matthias Martin. John Porter. Benjamin Porter, William Porter, B. H. Pierce. B, T. Rains. T. C Rardin. M. A. Sleeth. Alfred Skinner, H. A. Swope. Hugh Short. Samuel Thomas. Ezekiel Thomas, A. D. Wills, David W. West. J. M. Williams, William H. White. John Walker. Sr.. Isaac Waller, Thomas Wellington. John Dailev. Charles G. Offutt.

After reaching Indianapolis the One Hundred and Fifth regiment, of which this company formed a part, was ordered to the southern part of the state. The adjutant-general's report gives the following facts concerning the trip: "After Morgan had left Indiana it was reported that he was returning to capture Lawrencehurg. The regiment moved out to check him, and while getting into position an indiscriminate firing took place among the men, resulting in killing eight and wounding twenty." Among those killed in the action were Ferdinand Hafner and Tohn Porter. William E. Hart died later of his wounds. Among the wounded who recovered were Captain Branham. David S. Gooding and Benjamin T. Rains. The company was mustered out on July 18. 1863.

On July 10. 1863. the Anderson Guards, under Capt. Thomas C. Tuttle, were mustered in as Company D of the One Hundred and Sixth regiment of Indiana Volunteer. The members of this company were: Thomas C. Tuttle, captain: Conrad II. Shellhouse, first lieutenant; G. W. Stineback. second lieutenant: James G. Boyce. first sergeant: James T. Rice. F. M. Tattinan, William M. Moore. John M. Toon, sergeants; Henry Gates. Eh. L. Toon. David N. True. G. H Kirkhoff, corporals. Privates—Samuel Burk, T. J, Belor. M. P. Davis. Bluford Eaton, Charles W. Eaton, John W. Eaton, John England. A. C. Bowler. George W. Gray, John Gundrum, Thomas J. Hohhs, T. W. Higginbotham. William Kitchen. G. F McNamee. Stewart Nichols, E. H. Richardson, Oliver P. Swift, Pressley H. Stirk, Ashley Sutherland, Jefferson Olrey, George Wright. George Baily, Moses Conner, John Dorman, Leland M. Eaton, Lewis Eaton. Joseph Everson. John Elliott. Francis Furry, David Gray, G. W. Harris, Adam Hawk. John Johnson, John Manche, Andrew MeHaughy. Perry E. Rice. John Russell. C. W. Shellhouse. Andrew Stutsman, Oliver H. Tuttte, Roland Vest. L. B. Belor. G. W. Carr. W. T. Eaton, Thomas S. Eaton. Charles Eaton, ]. M. Ely, Benjamin Fowler. John H. Gray. W. T. Gibson. William Harris. Edward Hudson, John Kingery. H. M. Mc Roberts. Lewis R. Murphy, H, W. Richardson. John Stewart. H. A. Scbreiher, H. G. Stutsman. Andrew Thompson. H. B. Ward.

This company went as far as Cincinnati, then returned and was mustered out on July 17. 1S63. without having been in any engagements. Excitement ran high during Morgan's raid and everywhere the soldiers received ovations. Companies were marched into Indianapolis, and several passed through this county over the National road. It was a common occurrence for people who lived along the road to call for three cheers for Abra-ham Lincoln when a company inarched past. Of course they were always given lustily. But even under the most serious conditions a little amusement and nonsense were mixed with their patriotism. The cheers were frequently followed by a call for three groans for John Morgan. The response of disconsolate discords would sometimes have done credit to a company of oriental mourners.


At the outbreak of the Civil War the patriotic sentiment of the county expressed itself in the attitude of those who had to stay at home, as well as in the enlistment of the men. Oratory flourished in the county. The eloquence of the speakers was surpassed only by the irresistible sentiment of patriotic songs sung by groups of girls in every community. The forms of David S. Gooding, R. A. Riley. W. R. Hough and others as they spoke from goods boxes on the street or at picnics and other patriotic meetings in the townships, are still familiar to those who lived through that period. But no less clear lo memory's eye and ear are the choirs and groups of young ladies and the songs they sang in patriotic support of those who felt the weight of the nation's burdens. They were kept busy learning songs. They learned them during the day to sing them in the evening. Though at first there was more or less enthusiastic excitement about the war. after the great armies began lo face each other and the newspapers reported the heavy tolls in human life, then anxiety for those at the front filled the hearts of those who were left at home. Then the papers were not scanned with idle curiosity; these were the hours "that tried men's souls." And who now even among those who understand the power of music over the minds and hearts of men. can measure the moral effect of the loyal attitude of those girls, and who will attempt to say to what degree their songs, and the eloquence of speakers, strengthened the hearts of fathers and mothers and brothers during that great struggle? work of women anooiri.s.

The women and girls of the county gave more than moral support to the Union cause. In practically every community a society was organized that sewed, scraped lint, solicited, etc., and prepared such articles as could be used by the men in the field.   These societies usually worked under the directions of the Indiana branch of the United States Christian Commission or the State Sanitary Commission.

During the early part of the war some of the societies made "comfort bags." A "comfort bag" consisted of a piece of cloth with a number of pockets sewed on one side, into which stamps, combs and other small articles could be placed. The "bag" was made to be rolled together and tied so that the articles could not be lost. Often the girls slipped their names and addresses into one of the pockets, and many of them later received letters from the recipients, thanking them.

Underwear, shirts and socks were made in quantities and sent to the front. In some communities the older ladies cut out garments and the girls sewed them.   The sewing societies generally had a regular day for. meeting.

At Greenfield a number of ladies met at the Christian chapel on October 15, 1861, and organized the Greenfield Military Aid Society. Mrs. Lot Edwards was elected president and Mrs. P. A. Thayer, secretary. The society appointed a soliciting committee of three, also a committee of two for cutting clothes. Other societies were also organized, of one of which Mrs. Morris Pierson was president and Mrs. R. E. Barnett, secretary. Among the girls who took an active interest in the work of these societies were Alice S. Barnett, Frances S. Pierson, Inez L. Gwinn, Estella Bailey, Mary A. Oakes. Julia Mathers, Malinda Ogle, Amanda Barnett and Cerena Martin. Possibly a better idea of the work that was accomplished by these societies may be had from a notice given by the Ladies' Military Aid Society, calling a meeting at the court house at Greenfield on September 17, 1862, at two o'clock p. m. The following is a portion of the call that was printed in the local paper:

"It is desired, hoped and expected by those active in the good work that all the ladies of the town and county will l>e promptly present at the time and place appointed. Every lady attending is expected to bring all the old cotton and linen she can conveniently spare for the purpose of making bandages and lint. Those who have none of these desirable goods are expected to bring with them a little 'change/ as it will not go amiss in securing necessary articles for the sick and wounded. This is the crisis of the war, and preparations should be made for the wounded of the impending battles."

In response to a call of the governor of Indiana for clothing and blankets for the soldiers, a citizens' mass meeting was held at New Palestine on Tuesday evening. October 15, 1861. A large number of people were present. Thomas Tuttle addressed the meeting for a time, whereupon a committee of sixteen (two in each school district) was appointed to receive what the people had to contribute for this purpose.   The committee solicited articles from the people and deposited them with R. P. Brown, at New Palestine. These articles were then boxed by Mr. Brown and forwarded to Indianapolis. In the issue of the Hancock Democrat of October 23, i86i,.also appears the statement that the ladies of Hancock county responded nobly to the above call of the governor.

The old Masonic Hall at Greenfield came to be a regular meeting place for the workers. One day each week was "open day" at the hall, when young ladies, and young gentlemen, too, gathered there to scrape lint. For this purpose old linen was collected, cleaned perfectly, and then cut into strips about one and one-half inches wide. The strips were then laid on clean boards and scraped with clean knives. The lint had to be prepared very carefully so that no thread at all remained in it. Many boxes of it were sent from this countv to the above named commissions, from whom it was sent to the field hospitals to be used in stanching the flow of blood.

In addition to this work funds were raised by giving suppers, entertainments, tableaus, etc. On Christmas night, 1862, the young ladies of Greenfield gave a tableau party at the Masonic Hall. The price of admission was ten cents and the proceeds were given to the Ladies' Soldiers' Aid Society. The local papers made a very favorable report of the party, making special mention of the singing of Flora Howard and Alice Pierson and others, and of the music rendered by Professor Eastman's band.

On July 16, 1863, a supper was given at the Masonic Hall by the ladies of Greenfield. Cakes, pies, chickens, bread, etc., were solicited and a sumptuous repast was served. An admission fee of twenty-five cents was charged, and the proceeds were used for the benefit of the societies.

This is merely illustrative. The following letters also indicate what was done by the women and girls, not only in Greenfield, but in all parts of the county:

"Office of State Sanitary Commission,

"Indianapolis, Indiana, Jan. 3, 1863.

"Mrs. Cath. Edwards:

"Madam:—Yours of the 31st Ult. is at hand. The Package of socks came to hand this morning. No contribution could have been more acceptable than socks.   We have great difficulty in keeping a supply. "Please tender the ladies of your society our thanks for the very liberal donation to the suffering of our army.

"Yours truly,

"Wm. Hannaman."

The package referred to above contained fifty-six pairs of socks which had been purchased with money from concerts given by the young ladies. The following letter is also self-explanatory:

"Indiana Branch United States Christian' Commission.

"G. W. Clippexger, Pres.

"James M. Ray, Treas.

"J. H. Croll, SecY.

"Charles N. Todd. Cor. Sec'y. and Gen. Agt.

"Miss Fannie Pierson:— "Your letter and two boxes of nice things came duly to hand. The articles are very acceptable, and in behalf of the Commission I wish to thank you and all your associates for their generous contribution to the cause of the country and the good of the soldiers. We hope you will continue on the good work as long as it may be necessary. In the midst of rejoicing at the prospect of returning peace, our hearts are filled with gloom and mourning at the sad news that our gocxl President is dead! What a terrible calamity! One of the purest and noblest of men has gone. "Yours truly. "Charles N'. Todd."

General subscriptions were also made to support the work of the com-missions, and in the issue of May 14, 1863, of the Hancock Democrat, we find the following: "Subscribers to the sanitary fund who have not paid are requested to call on W. R. Hough, who is authorized to receive the same."


The patriotic sentiment of the county asserted itself further in expressions of loyalty and in the measures taken to support the government. Just after the election of Lincoln, when the dark clouds of war were gathering, the following editorial appeared in the Hancock Democrat, from the pen of its editor, David S. Gooding:


"In the dark hour when clouds lower around us. and gloom hovers over the land: when fearful forebodings of terrible disaster and final overthrow of our government are weighing down and saddening the hearts of patriotic and intelligent men, North and South. East and West, our duty as watchman upon the walls of our political Zion impels us to cry aloud and spare not. and tell our people of their political sins. This we will endeavor to do. Our people must not expect us to cry Peace, zchen there is no peace. Within the next four months, one or more states of this Union will have gone from among us to return no more forever. God onlv knows what results will follow. Perhaps Civil War, with all its horrors, and the separation of the free and slave states, with the final disruption of the best government on which the sun ever shone. The handwriting is upon the wall—Mene. Mene, Tekel, Upharsin! In the madness of the hour, the people seem to have forgotten the God of their Fathers, and to have spurned Heaven's favors to them.

"The cloud, which in the davs of John C. Calhoun was hut the size of a mans hand, has spread until it now overspreads the heavens above us. We will not deceive vou. fellow citizens: Northern Abolitionists and Southern Disunionists have fanned the flames of civil discord and sectional hatred until the fiery volcano is about to burst forth, and with it destroy the hopes of the world. There is but a faint hope, a mere possibility, that the union of these states can be perpetuated and maintained inviolate. For this, while there is hope, however faint, let us, if possible, awake the people to the danger, and labor for'the desired end. Let us not forget to look to the God of our Fathers, to calm the agitated sea of public mind, and drive away the black, lowering, tempestuous clouds of disunion and treason."

The following editorial taken from the issue of January 1861, of the Hancock Democrat, also reflects the feeling and state of mind of the people at that time:

The following' editorial taken from the issue of January 1861, of the Hancock Democrat, also reflects the feeling and state of mind of the people at that time:

"We hope the citizens of the town and vicinity will turn out on Saturday next to see and hear what the Hancock Guards will have to do and say. 'Grim visaged war,* with its attendant horrors, is brewing in the distance, and the strong arms and stout hearts of our citizen soldiers will be in requisition to sustain the honor and glory of our Nation's flag, and the authority and supremacy of her Constitution and laws.

"Judge Gooding will certainly entertain the Guards, and those who may be present, with an address.

"The Greenfield Sax-Horn Hand has consented to be present and enliven the occasion with our national airs and other music."

The report of this meeting made in the issue of January 16. 1861, is also interesting for the spirit it reflects:


"At a meeting of the company on Saturday last, held pursuant to notice, being participated in by a respectable number of citizens irrespective of party, of which Col. George Tague was chosen president, the following resolution was unanimously adopted: "Resolved, By the Hancock Guards and the citizens here assembled, that in view of the present imminent danger to the perpetuity of our country the constitution and laws are our only safety; that we pledge ourselves to stand by those in power who faithfully maintain the one and execute the other; and that in the language of General Jackson, 'this Uunion must and shall be preserved.'

"Before the adoption of the resolution, the meeting was addressed by Judge Gooding and Major Riley, in appropriate and eloquent language."

Notices like the following appeared almost weekly in the local papers: "attention, guards!

"You are hereby commanded to appear at your armory in full dress on Saturday, January 12, at two o'clock, P. M. The Hon. David S. Gooding will address the company, and such others as may be present, immediately after parade, in the court room.

"By Order of the Captain,

"Wm. Mitchell, O. S."

The following editorial, taken from the issue of January 16, 1861, of the Hancock Democrat, shows that the feeling of the people in relation to seces-sion was becoming more clearly defined. It also reflects the arguments then current among those who were opposed to a vigorous prosecution of the war. This is another editorial from the pen of Judge Gooding:


"Much is being said and written by the sympathizers with South Carolina in her treason to the government of our fathers, against 'coercion' and 'war on the South.' We know' of no sane man who proposes to make war on the States or people of the South, to compel them to remain in the Union, but we do know patriotic citizens who are in favor of all public officers doing their sworn duty, not excepting the President of the United States, whose duty it is to 'take care that the laws be faithfully executed' and who regard it as the duty of all good citizens to aid and assist in the execution of the laws if necessary. In the faithful execution of the laws, no war is made on any state or section. There can be no war growing out of the faithful execution of the laws, unless resistance is made to the lawful authority of the government. If such resistance is made, the responsibility and consequences will be on those who resist and defy the government. Our government always has 'coerced' lawless men to obey the laws or submit to the punishment. When-ever it ceases to 'coerce' it will cease to be a government. All governments 'coerce' obedience to the laws. A government without this power would be impotent for good, and a miserable delusion. Only such persons as commit treason or resist the execution of the laws must be subdued. Men in the South who are patriots, must be protected in person and in property as fully and completely as any others are protected. In short, treason and resistance to law must be put down whenever they occur, and by whomsoever committed in any and every part of the country. When law-defying men seize the property of the government, some men cry out, 'Don't coerce them to yield it up, let southern ultraists get "mad'' and make civil war.' We are disgusted with such miserable stuff. If we are men let us talk and act like men. If we are patriots, let us show it by taking the side of our government in a war with traitors."

On February 20, 1861, a county Union mass meeting was held at Greenfield for the purpose of appointing delegates to the 22d of February mass meeting at Indianapolis. The people assembled elected Jacob Slifer, president; Landen Eastes and James Collins, vice-presidents, and M. G. Foley and William Mitchell, secretaries. At this meeting every citizen of the county favorable to the Union and the Constitution was appointed a delegate to the state mass meeting. Dr. Hervey, Judge Gooding, W. R. Hough and James L. Mason addressed the meeting, after which Judge Gooding offered the following resolution, which was adopted unanimously:

"Resolved, that as citizens of Hancock county, we are in favor of any reasonable and honorable compromise that will restore peace, harmony and prosperity to the country, and that to make such compromise effective, we are in favor of maintaining the Union, the Constitution, and the Laws."

The quality of the loyalty of the citizens assembled at this meeting is further evidenced by their refusal to adopt the following resolution. It was fabled with hardly a dissenting vote:

"Resolved, that we are opposed to what is termed 'coercion/ but are in favor of an honorable and peaceable adjustment of the present difficulties."

On Monday, April 12, 1861, there was a patriotic demonstration of the people at Greenfield, at which the principal feature was the raising of the flag on the cupola of the court house, "to wave until peace is restored." The Sax-Horn band was in attendance, and the people were addressed by James P. Foley, Judge Gooding and W. R. Hough.

On April 16, 1861, a meeting was held at the court house for the purpose of making arrangements for a county mass meeting to express the feel-ings and sentiments of our people in regard to national troubles. A. K. Branham was called to the chair. R. A. Riley made an eloquent and soul-stirring speech, instilling into the minds and hearts of the audience venera-tion for the constitution, obedience to the laws, and love for the flag. A committee was appointed to make arrangements for a county mass meeting to be held on Saturday, April 20. 1861. On this committee were placed the names of David S. Gooding, E. I. Judkins, M. W. Hamilton, George Barnett. William Mitchell. R. A. Riley. Dr. J. A. Hall. A. T. Hart. A. R. Wallace and Morris Pierson.

On April 20, 1861, a citizens' meeting was held as had teen planned. James Tyner was elected president of the meeting: Robert A. Barr and James P. Foley, vice-presidents, and Thomas Bedgood and William Frost, secretaries. The people were first addressed by Judge Gooding and Capt. R. A. Riley, after which the following resolutions were adopted:

"Whereas, war exists bv the rebellious act of the so-called Southern Confederacy in attacking and capturing Fort Sumter, a government fortification, occupied by government troops, under the command of the gallant Major Anderson; and whereas, the city of Washington is in immediate and imminent danger of being attacked bv forces from said rebellious confederacy, therefore.

"Resolved, that as patriots and loyal citizens of the state of Indiana and of the United States, we will sustain and defend the proper authorities of said government in all constitutional and legal efforts to maintain the Union and defend the rights and honor of the country.

"Resolved, that the public good and national honor requires a vigorous prosecution of the war, to a speedv and honorable peace. "Resolved, that our senator and representatives in the State Legislature be requested to co-operate in the appropriation of men and means, with the friends of the vigorous prosecution of the war now existing by the act of the so-called Confederacy."

After the adoption of the above resolutions the people listened to \V. R. Hough. Rev. S. Mood, Elder A. I. Hobbs and Rev. J. C. Taylor.

On Saturday, May 4. 1861. a Union meeting was held at New Padestine for the purpose of organizing a company of Home Guards. B. F. Stewart was elected chairman of the meeting, and John C. Shockley, secretary. Speeches were made by Samuel Shockley and Rev. Rol>erts. The sentiment of the gathering was "strong for the Union and the Stars and Stripes at all hazards."    David M. Dove, Benjamin Freeman and Rev. Roberts were appointed as a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. The company became known as the Anderson Guards, and was under the command of Capt. Thomas C. Tlittle during the Morgan raid.

On August 5, 1861. the citizens of the county gave a reception to Captain Riley's "three-months men" who had just returned from western Virginia. The address of welcome was made by Judge Gooding. Captain Riley responded on behalf of his company giving an interesting account of how they bad passed the time after leaving Camp McClellan. He also gave a description of the battle of Rich Mountain. The reception was given in Piersoirs grove, which adjoined Greenfield on the southwest and which was located west of Pennsylvania street and south of the railroad. At the noon hour dinner was spread on the green in various places to suit the convenience of the immese crowd. All feasted sumptuously and in the afternoon patriotic addresses were made by Rev. Hill and Judge Gooding.

About the same time Captain Carland from Connersville was marching over the Brookville road with a company of volunteers. On August 8 1861, they reached Xew Palestine. The New Palestine band and an escort of horsemen marched out to meet them. About three miles east of town the colors of Captain Craland's company became visible. From this point the procession was headed by Henry Mickle. carrying the stars and stripes, guarded by two men from Captain Riley's company. At seven o'clock p. m.. Union Hall (the second story of the old school house) at New Palestine was filled to overflowing. B. F. Stewart was chairman of the meeting, and addresses were made by Captain Carland, Rev. B. F. Jones, Rev. Ward and Capt. Thomas C. Tuttle to encourage enlistments.

The citizens of Buck Creek township, without reference to party, gave expression to their feelings at a grand Union picnic near Mt, Comfort on Saturday. August 10, 1861. A basket dinner was enjoyed at the noon hour. The military company of the township was present, and in the afternoon patriotic addresses were made by Dr. Hervey. Judge Gooding and Captain Riley.

The sentiment of the people of the county was again appropriately voiced in the following editorial in the Hancock Democrat, on the occasion of the boys of Company B of the Eighth regiment taking their departure from Greenfield, about the middle of August, 1861 :

"On Monday last Captain Walls left for Indianapolis with a company of Hancock boys to enter the service of the United States for a term of three years or during the war. It will be a part of the Eighth regiment as reorganized, and will retain its former position in regiment.    The scene at the depot as the boys passed through, the large number of men, women and children who had gathered in from all points of the county to witness the departure, was sad and sorrowful in the extreme. God bless the noble-hearted boys, and preserve and protect them in the patriotic and hazardous duties they have voluntarily taken upon themselves! May they all safely return at the expiration of a term of service to receive the warm embrace of mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, and kind friends left behind.''

On December 21, 1861, another great Union meeting was held'at Greenfield, and resolutions were adopted similar to many others that are given herein. The first year of the war closed with our county stanch and loyal in the support of the Union cause. Whenever an occasion presented itself, expression was given by the people to this feeling of loyalty, and to no one in the county was more credit due for his fearless and outspoken loyalty than to Judge Gooding, whom our younger generation remembers simply as an old man. But the expressions which were so generously made at the opening of the conflict did not become fewer as the war progressed, and as the strain and the burdens became heavier.

During the summer of 1862 the citizens of Brandywine township gave a Union picnic near Rigdon's in that township. A very large gathering of people, estimated at three thousand, was present and listened to the stirring and patriotic appeal of Judge Gooding in the afternoon.

The citizens of Fortville and vicinity held a Union mass meeting at Fortville on April 24, 1863. Robert Faucett was elected president of the meeting and E. W. Thomas, secretary. The Hon. Thomas C. Stillwell, of Anderson, made an address, after which the people assembled adopted the following resolutions:

"Resolved, that it is an undisputable fact that all political parties, of whatsoever name, have heretofore avowed their unalterable attachment to the Federal Union;

"That we hold every man who is now in favor of its dismemberment, as false to all former professions of attachments to it, and a present enemy;

"That as we cannot individually have the conduct of the war, each his own way, we feel it our duty, as good and loyal citizens, to leave its direction to those who have been legally chosen to direct;

"That resistance to law is revolutionary in its tendency, and that any attempt to embarrass the government in the execution of the revenue, conscription, or any other law of the United States, will be promptly met and suppressed by the loyal people of Indiana;

"That we are in favor of all measures adopted by Congress for the suppression of the present unrighteous and causeless rebellion;

"That we are in favor of all the measures adopted by the President with the view of sustaining the government and carrying on the war;

"That we tender Governor Morton our sincerest thanks for his arduous and untiring effort in behalf of the soldiers, the state and the nation, and we feel that he richly merits the enviable title of the soldier's friend;

"That the miscreants in our midst, who attempt to create dissatisfaction in the ranks of the gallant soldiers, and induce them to desert the colors made glorious by their valor on repeated battle-fields, are meaner traitors than the armed rebels of the South; that they are entitled to, and will receive, the scorn of all honorable men;

"That we cordially endorse General Burnsides' order, transporting northern rebels beyond the Federal lines, where they legitimately belong;

"That we deeply sympathize with our soldiers now in the field, and pledge them our cordial support and earnest prayers, until this ungodly rebellion is crushed, and our flag shall triumphantly wave over our once glorious Union."

On June 6, 1863, a large Union mass meeting was again held at the court house in Greenfield. A feature of the day was a long procession under the command of Captains Walls and Tuttle. Capt. Thomas C. Tuttle, of Sugar Creek township, was elected president of the meeting; James P. Foley and Thomas Collins, vice-presidents; David C. Priddy and Henry B. Wilson, secretaries. The speakers of the day were Capt. R. A. Riley, General Dumont, Judge Gooding and Captain Tuttle. Strong appeals were made for the support of the government. Before adjournment Judge Gooding offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

"Resolved, that this large meeting of Union men and women is devotedly attached to the Union and the Constitution, and for the purpose of perpetuating the former and maintaining the latter, we are in favor of the vigorous prosecution of the war to suppress the rebellion and reassert the authority of the government over every foot of its territory, and that in our opinion the rebellion and the war ought to cease at the same time.

"That all former party divisions ought to be ignored for the common purpose of saving our imperiled country.

"That we are proud of the gallant Union army in the field against the rebellion, and that we most heartily sympathize with the families and friends of such as have been slain in battle, or otherwise, lost their lives in the service.

"That our honor is pledged that the families of the soldiers from this county shall not want in the absence of their husbands and fathers, and that we hereby demand of our county commissioners and gents that our pledge be honorably, faithfully and fully kept; and that the honor and patriotism of Hancock county be not tarnished by a single act of bad faith."

July 4. 1863, was celebrated in many parts of the county with picnics, where people listened to patriotic addresses. Greenfield celebrated at Pierson's grove. Music was furnished by a choir, and W. R. Hough made and eloquent and patriotic speech in the afternoon. After speaking, the young people engaged in cotillion dancing until late in the day.

Immediately following this celebration came the news of the fall of Vicksburg, which was the occasion for another celebration. The following report from the local papers reflects the feeling that w'as aroused in the hearts of the people of the county by the success of the Union army:

"The fall of Vicksburg, though long expected, when officially announced to the country, causing every loyal heart to leap with joy and brought renewed hope to the wavering and doubtful mind of a speedy determination of the present causeless and unnatural fratricidal war, and a closer, more perfect, and fraternal union of all the states at no distant day. Our own people partook of this joyous feeling and gave vent last evening to their outpouring patriotism by illuminations, bonfires, speeches and all manner of rejoicings. People from the country for miles around quit their harvest fields and came to town to participate in the grand reunion of loyal hearts. All life was animation, and everyone, young and old, seemed pleased with himself and 'the rest of mankind.' It was a grand day, or rather night, for Greenfield, and will long; be held in memory by all who love their country and venerate iis glorious institutions. All honor to the noble and gallant armv, that by its patience, endurance, skill and bravery, under the scorching rays of a southern sun, overcame almost insurmountable obstacles, and gained the most decisive victory of the war.

"During the evening speeches were made by D. S. Gooding, W. R. Hough, William Martin. Drs. flail and Ballenger, S. T. Kauble and H. J. Dunbar."

Another mass meeting of peculiar significance was held by the citizens of the county on February 13, 1864, after the draft orders for three hundred thousand volunteers and two hundred thousand volunteers respectively, had been made by the national government. Possibly the firm loyalty of the people never found a nobler expression than in the adoption of the following Resolutions by the people assembled at Greenfield on that day. It must be borne in mind that in many counties of the state there was opposition to the draft, and in some of them open resistance. This resolution was offered by Judge Gooding and unanimously adopted by the people:

"Whereas, this country is still involved in civil war; and

"Whereas, traitors in arms, and their sympathizers not in arms, persist in their purpose of overthrowing the government of the United States; and

"Whereas, it will require all the power of a united, loyal people to sup-press the formidable, wicked and causeless rebellion, and therein- restore a permanent peace, so desirable to all Union men; therefore.

"Resolved, that we will still continue to give to the government of the United States, through its legitimately constituted authority, our unhesitating and hearty support in its efforts to suppress the rebellion, and conquer a peace."

The fall of Richmond and the surrender of Lee were announced in large headlines in the local papers, and the news was received with great rejoicing by the people. The issue of the Hancock Democrat of that date gives the following description of the general celebration of the event in the county :

"The reception of the news of the surrender of General Lee and his rebel hordes, in our town early on Monday morning last, was the occasion of great and lasting joy. Bells were rung, bonfires were built, powder was freely used, and all business was suspended for the day. Men. women and children thronged the streets and greeted each other as they had not greeted each other before. The dark hours were past; the day began to dawn and all was safe. The country, in spite of rebel sympathizers at home and abroad, and difficulties that can not be told, was redeemed, regenerated and disenthralled, and stood up among the nations of the earth, more powerful than when the great struggle began.   And our patriotic people rejoiced as became the sons and daughters of freemen—as became the fathers and mothers and sisters and brothers, the wives and children of the brave and gallant men who went out from the midst in the dark hours of our peril, to do or die in the effort to save the country from its then impending ruin. Appropriate, eloquent speeches were made by several of our public speakers.

"At night a large number of houses along the principal streets, business as well as private, were beautifully illuminated. Martial music paraded the streets followed by a mass of patriotism of either gender. A stand was extemporized at Walker's corner, and a crowd gathered around to hear the speeches. Messrs. Hough, Judge Gooding. Ralleuger. Riley, Hall. Colonel Gooding, Mason. White, and others spoke to the crowd."

But hardly had the morning of peace dawned with such glorious splendor filling the hearts of the people with gladness, when the day was overcast with the dark clouds of horror and sorrow* at the news of the President's assassination. The great headlines with the picture of a booming cannon which joyfully announced the surrender of Lee in the local papers, gave way to heavy lines of mourning in the following issue.

The remains of President Lincoln passed through the county at 5 147 a. m. on Sunday, April 30, 1865. A pilot engine, with one car attached, led the way about one mile in advance. The train carrying the state officers and some of Governor Morton's invited guests brought up the rear, being about one hour behind. Many citizens from all parts of the county were at the depot at Greenfield, hoping to get to see the coffin in which the martyred President lay, but the train did not stop. The cars were decorated and heavily draped in black and looked solemn and sombre.

During the summer of 1865 the soldiers who had enlisted were welcomed home in squads and companies. No one knows quite so well as those who lived through it all how good it seemed to meet with friends and loved ones and to resume the quiet, prosperous life that our good county offers.


As soon as Ft. Sumter had fallen, and the first call for volunteers had been made, our board of county commissioners took action. At the June session of the board, 1861, the west room of the west wing of the court house, which had been built in 1845, was set apart as an armory for the storing of arms and military equipage of the companies of the legion of Indiana. The sheriff was ordered to remove everything from the west room to the east room of said wing, and the auditor was ordered to notify all persons who owned property in the west room to remove the same within thirty days. On the same day that this room was set apart as an armory the board also made the following order for the proper


"Ordered, that the township trustee in each township in the county be. and he is hereby appointed, authorized, and empowered to ascertain the names, ages and conditions of the wives and families of all soldiers resident in his township, in the service of the state of Indiana and of the United States, and to procure the necessaries and reasonable comforts of ordinary life for such "of them as are now or may hereafter be in actual need during the said service of said husband or father as the case may be, and to distribute the same as circumstances and the necessity of the case require, economically, impartially and honestly, and each of said trustees is requested to procure a record and keep a strict account of all his doings, together with the names, ages and conditions of the beneficiaries herein, and to supply only such families as have no other source of supply; and in all purchases, whether upon written orders or otherwise, the seller must accept county orders in payment, to be issued at the next succeeding term of this court upon the certificate of the proper trustee as to the justice of the claim. And it is further ordered that before proceeding to the performance of the duties hereinbefore enjoined and ordered, each of said trustees respectively shall take and subscribe an oath, honestly and impartially to discharge the duties hereinbefore required of him; and it is further required of each of them to report to this court at its next regular term a full and perfect account of all his doings under oath."

Other men were also appointed from time to time as "agents" to aid in giving proper care to the soldiers' wives and children. Their duties were the same as those designated in the order above. In the main these men were conscientious and made bona fide efforts to give proper care and comfort to those who were then without other support. Sometimes, however, dissatisfaction arose. Several "agents'' were removed by the board. In one instance a petition was filed by the wives of twelve soldiers, asking for the removal of the certain "agent" on whom they were dependent for the necessaries of life. The causes for which they asked his removal were set out in the following petition:

"To the Board of County Commissioners:

"We, the undersigned, soldiers' wives, respectfully ask the board of commissioners of Hancock county to remove the present agent pretending to furnish assistance to soldiers' wives and families; we ask it for several reasons: his wife has abused and insulted some of us at different times and he himself has been niggardly and mean in his allowance to us, and has invariably required us to buy our goods at one certain house when we believe we could have done better at other places; this is only a part, but we think sufficient to ask his removal and the appointment of some good man in his stead," etc.

(Signed by twelve soldiers' wives.)

The evidence in the above matter seems to have sustained the allegations of the petition. The agent was promptly dismissed by the board and another appointment made.

At the January session, in 1863, of the board of commissioners, the following order relative to furnishing houses for the families of enlisted men was made:

"Ordered by the board that the agents heretofore appointed to aid in furnishing necessaries for soldiers' families are hereby instructed that in case when the furnishing of a house becomes necessary and proper, that the agent make a reasonable allowance in such cases, but avoid in every instance the making of a contract or proposition to rent any property whatever as such agent'

The large number of claims allowed during the war in the execution of the above orders made by the county commissioners shows that the county government made a bona fide effort to relieve those at home of as much suffering and hardship as possible. Each month from one to twenty claims were allowed, aggregating sometimes several hundred dollars per month. The manner in which the relief orders were drawn shows that the commissioners were generous, yet careful to guard against imposition on the county. Theirs was not a work nor an attitude of charity; it was patriotism operating from a business viewpoint.


By September I, 1862, the county had furnished thirty-three and one-fifth per cent, of its fighting strength. The following table shows the number  of men enrolled in the service, also the number subject to draft:

No. Enrolled Militia No. Volenteers Enrolled No. Exempt by Physical Disability No. Exempt by conscientous scruples No Volunteer in service No Subject to Draft
Blue River 185 56 27 46 51 118
Brown 184 69 16 1 68 167
Brandy wine 139 60 18 00 60 121
Buck Creek 151 86 17 00 84 134
Center. 371 259 44 00 216 327
Green 152 56 21 00 55 131
Jackson 279 108 22 00 99 257
Sugar Creek 245 111 21 00 97 224
Vernon 213 113 27 00 98 186
Total 1,919 918 207 47 828 1,665

The county offered bounties to volunteers that the quota might be filled without having to submit to the draft. At the July session, 1862. the board of county commissioners ordered, "that the sum of twenty-five dollars be appropriated out of the county treasury to each and every citizen of Hancock county who may volunteer in the United States service for three years or during the war under the call of the President of the United States.''

In the fall of 1863, when President Lincoln made a call for three hun-dred thousand volunteers, it became evident that larger bounties would have to be offered if the county was to escape the draft. The county commissioners did not want to take upon themselves the entire responsibility of so great a matter, which involved so heavy an indebtedness upon the county, without knowing pretty definitely how the people of the county felt about it.

A citizens' mass meeting was held at Greenfield on Saturday, November 8, 1863, to give an expression upon the propriety of giving a bounty through the county commissioners to volunteers under the late call of President Lincoln for three hundred thousand troops. Captain Riley was chosen president, and Robert P. Brown, secretary. Dr. B. F. Duncan offered the following resolution:

"Whereas, the President of the United States has recently issued his proclamation for three hundred thousand volunteers to infuse new life and vigor into the prosecution of the war for its suppression; and

"Whereas, it is desirable that the quota allotted to Hancock county should be raised by volunteers prior to the 5th day of January, 1864, therefore.

"Resolved, that as an inducement to our fellow citizens to volunteer in the common defense of our country, and in addition to the bounty offered by the general government, the board of county commissioners of Hancock county are hereby authorized and instructed by this meeting of citizens and taxpayers of the county to cause an order upon the county treasurer for the sum of one hundred dollars to be issued to each and every person who shall or may volunteer under the present call for three hundred thousand volunteers, and be accepted as a recruit in the United States service, and be accredited upon the quota allotted to Hancock county. This bounty to be continued until the quota shall have been filled.

"Resolved, that the secretary present the action of this meeting to the board of commissioners at the meeting of said board on Monday, November 9.1863."

After a general debate the resolutions were adopted by a unanimous vote. A resolution to appoint a central committee of five to aid and assist in the volunteering, with authority to appoint additional committees for each township, was then adopted. The president appointed William Mitchell, Morgan Chandler, George H. Walker. John W. Ryon and John C. Rardin as such committee.

After an excellent and appropriate speech by Captain Riley the meeting adjourned.

The above resolutions were duly presented to the commissioners on Monday, November 9. 1863, and the board received them with due courtesy, but having been called for a specific purpose could transact no business other than that for which they had been called. A special meeting of the board of commissioners was called for Saturday, November 21, 1863, to determine the matter.

In order to satisfy and assure the county commissioners of the feeling of the taxpayers upon the matter of the bounties, petitions were circulated in each of the townships for the signatures of taxpayers asking for the allowance of such bounty.

The following form of petition was used and signed by persons irrespective of party affiliations:

"We, the undersigned, citizens and taxpayers of Hancock county. Indiana, hereby request the board of county commissioners to give a bounty of one hundred dollars to every person who volunteers, and shall be accepted as a soldier in the United States service from this countv under the last call of the President for three hundred thousand volunteers to prosecute the present war, provided that no bounty be given after the quota of the county is filled."

The following gentlemen were appointed as township committees to circulate the petitions and report to the central committee: Blue River, James P. New, N. D. Coffin; Brown, Dr. William Trees, W. L. Garriott; Buck Creek, Thomas J. Hanna, James Collins; Brandywine, Alfred Potts, John Roberts: Center, William F. Pratt, William Mitchell; Green, Edward Voluntine, Robison Jarrett; Jackson, John Barrett, George W. Sample; Sugar Creek, Robert P. Brown, Dr. William Dye; Vernon, Nimrod Lightfoot, Rev. William Anderson.

Satisfied with the showing thus made the board of county commissioners at a special meeting on November 21, 1863, made another order allowing a bountv of one hundred dollars on countv orders "to each volunteer who may be accepted from this county under the call of the President of the United States for three hundred thousand volunteers.

"Under said call in making this allowance the county commissioners would appeal to the citizens of the county to take up these orders when issued at par upon the following terms and conditions to-wit: If the quota of the county was proportionately divided among- the townships the following would he the result: Blue River, 12: Brown, 13; Brandywine, n; Buck Creek, 12; Center, 33; Green, 13: Jackson, 21; Sugar Creek, 17; Vernon, 18.

"It is recommended that the citizens of each township take up these orders to an amount equal to the number of volunteers each would have to furnish, where the volunteer does not take the orders himself. And further, that when the citizens of a township fail to take up the orders within fifteen days after the issuing of the same any citizens of the county may have the privilege of taking the same/*

Though a very earnest effort was made during the latter part of the war when the heavy calls for volunteers were made to replace the men whose terms were expiring, to fill the county's quota by volunteers without having a man drafted, the endeavor did not wholly succeed. Loyal men gave of their time and energy, and the young men came forward and enlisted, so that when the drafts were made the numbers still required were small.

The amount of money expended by the people of Hancock county to aid the government in suppressing the rebellion and in giving relief to the families at home was enormous, as shown by the reports of the county auditor and the adjutant-general of the state of Indiana. The amount under the head of "Bounty" includes what was paid for substitutes. No report on relief was made by Brown, Brandywine and Buck Creek townships. The following is a statement of the amounts expended:

Townships. Bounty. For Relief.
Blue River $ 27,030.00 $ 100.00
Brown 12,404.00
Brandywine 26,604.00
Buck Creek 30.000.00
Center 20,000.00 5.000.00
Green 26,896.00 1,270.00
Jackson 35,814.32 3,247.00
Sugar Creek 30,100.00 250.00
Vernon 27,950.00 210.00
Total Townships $236,798.61 $10,077.80
County proper $15,000.00 $57,804.22

$251,798.61 $67,882.02

Total $319,680.63


It is impossible to arrive at a proper appreciation of the fine loyalty of the people, or form a correct estimate of the strength of southern sympathy without viewing this phase of the county's history in its relation to the state as a whole.

It became a notorious fact soon after the outbreak of the Civil War, that not only Indiana, but that Illinois, Missouri and other Northern states were honeycombed with a secret organization known as the "Knights of the Golden Circle," and later as the "Sons of Liberty." The purpose of this organization was to give aid to the South. At the trial at Indianapolis, in 1864, of Harrison H. Dodd, grand commander of the "Sons of Liberty," on a charge of treason, the evidence showed that forty-five counties in the state had been fully organized by this secret order; that local lodges or "temples" had been organized in other counties, and that its membership consisted of more than eighteen thousand men. The evidence adduced in that trial further showed that members were sworn to secrecy and to the performance of acts designed to aid the South and embarrass the North. Among the obligations taken were those of supporting Jefferson Davis, North and South; of aiding in the release of Confederate prisoners in the North, and of aiding the Confederates when they should invade the northern states. To weaken the Union arms it was the plan of the order to encourage desertions and to resist recruiting. To this end township organizations were effected for the protection of deserters from the Union army, and open resistance was made to the enforcement of the draft in some counties. The evidence further showed that well defined efforts were made in various ways to cripple the work of the state authorities in sending reinforcements to the field. These efforts were directed toward securing the passage of legislative acts and resolutions unfavorable to the Union cause; toward securing expressions of popular disapproval of the war, and toward disseminating a disloyal feeling among the people. The Union men in the Legislature had to be on their guard constantly to prevent harmful legislation. The following excerpts taken from resolutions adopted by the citizens assembled in mass meetings in six different counties in the state, also illustrate the degree to which these efforts found a response. Many more could be added to the list:

"We declare the proposed draft for five hundred thousand men to be the most damnable of all outrages perpetrated by the administration upon the people.

"Our interest and inclination will demand of us a withdrawal from the political association in a common government with the New England states.

"We regard the lives of white men as of more value than the freedom of the negro, and we have given the last man and the last money we are willing to give for the present abolition war.

"We are opposed to the war under any and all circumstances, and we are opposed to the further continuance of this unholy and unnatural strife.

"The further prosecution of this war will result in the overthrow of the constitution, of civil liberty, of the federal government, in the elevation of the black man and the degradation of the white man in the social and political status of the country.

"That we are unqualifiedly opposed to the further prosecution of this abolition war; and believing that in its continued prosecution there await us only the murderous sacrifice of legions of brave men, ignominious and disgraceful defeat, shame and dishonor at home and abroad, public ruin and the serious endangerment of our liberties, we unhesitatingly declare that we are for peace, the cessation of hostilities, an armistice, and the peaceful settlement of existing difficulties by compromise or negotiation, through a national convention.

"We are unqualifiedly opposed to the further prosecution of this abolition war. and, believing that in its further prosecution there awaits us only the murderous sacrifice of our national honor * * * * we solemnly declare that we will not furnish another man or another dollar to carrv on this abolition war."

As set over against the alxwe resolutions, the following were adopted by the citizens of Hancock county, assembled at Greenfield in mass meeting, January 16, 1861:

"Resolved, by the Hancock Guard and the citizens here assembled, that in view of the present imminent danger to the perpetuity of our country, the Constitution and laws are our only safety; that we pledge ourstelves to stand by those in power who faithfully maintain the one and execute the other; and that in the language of General Jackson this Union must and shall be preserved."

February 3, 1864: "Resolved, that we will still continue to give to the government of the United States, through its legitimately constituted authority, our unhesitating and hearty support in its efforts to suppress the rebellion and conquer a peace/'

Though we have these splendid expressions of loyalty the county also had its Southern sympathizers. They made known their attitude toward the solution of the problems then before the government by wearing the "butternut*' colors.   Men and boys wore "butternut" suits, and women and girls wore butternut garments and decorations. Among the decorations worn, the "butternut pin," made of a cross section of a butternut,—and which, by the way, when polished makes a very pretty pin,—was one of the most popular methods of giving expression to Southern sympathy. Because of the use of the "butternut" colors and pins for such purposes the sympathizers with the South were known as "butternuts.*' Bv the abolitionists or radicals who felt that circumstances demanded the application of a stronger term, they were called "copper-heads." The men and women who lived in the county during that period have very clear recollections of the extent to which the butternut colors were displayed.

It was never proven in any court that the Knights of the Golden Circle or Sons of Liberty ever organized a "temple" in Hancock county. There was a very deep-seated conviction, however, in the minds of a vast majority of the people, whether right or wrong, that such an organization did exist, and that among its sworn members were included some of the most prominent families of the count\\

Open and combined resistance by overt acts was never offered in the county to the work of the national government. Meetings, however, were held in the countv, attended by men who were lukewarm in the Union cause, if not in open sympathy with the Confederacy. Many of them supplied themselves with firearms. Union men also had their meetings, sometimes behind locked doors and in rooms where arms were stored. These conditions gave great concern to the people of the county. Acts of open violence occurred in nearby parts of the state, which intensified this feeling of uneasiness. The "Battle of Pogue's Run" the discovery of arms packed in boxes marked "Sunday School Books," and the efforts, or at least the rumors of efforts, to release the Confederate prisoners at Indianapolis, are still fresh in the memories of the people then residents in this community.

Though open resistance was never offered to the national government, feeling, as stated above, was very intense in the county and frequently found expression in fistic encounters and street brawls. Stones and other missiles sometimes came flying out of the darkness, and people, especially those most active, felt the insecurity of life and property during those years. An instance is still recounted of a stanch Union man who stood in the light of a bonfire listening to a Union speech, and who was unceremoniously awakened from his reverie by being hit on the head with a brick. Another incident is also told of a radical Union man who came down the street and threatened to drive his wagon over the body of a "copperhead" who had been knocked down in a brawl, unless his friends should drag his body out of the way. Frequently attempts were made to snatch the butternut pins or other emblems. from the persons of men and also of women and girls. These little encounters sometimes led to good-natured scraps and sometimes to bitter fights. Such instances, and they could be multiplied, illustrate the mental and nervous strain to which the county was subjected during those years. To appreciate the terribleness of this strain more fully than it can be portrayed here, one needs but to converse with the men and women who lived through it.

Though there were "butternuts" in the county, and though there was a strong conviction current that many of them were also sworn members of the Knights of the Golden Circle, these matters do not seem to have affected the social relations of the people. Families attended the same church, ladies were members of the same clubs and societies, men engaged in business together, and all people maintained their neighborly relations, to all outward appearances at least, about the same as before the war. Yet, to the minds of the stanch, loyal. Union people the wearing of the "butternut" during that hour of the nation's peril savored of treason. This same attitude toward the Southern sympathizers also found expression in the mass meetings of the citizens of the county. The following resolutions adopted by the people assembled at Fortville on April 23, 1863, must be viewed in this light or their significance is lost:

"Resolved, that the miscreants in our midst, who attempt to create dissatisfaction in the ranks of our gallant soldiers, and induce them to desert the colors made glorious by their valor on repeated battlefields are meaner traitors than the armed rebels of the South; that thev are entitled to and will receive the scorn of all honorable men.

"That we cordially endorse General Burnside's order, transporting Northern rebels beyond the Federal lines, where they legitimately belong."

The following preamble to the resolutions adopted by the citizens assembled in mass meeting at Greenfield, February 13, 1864, contains the same thought:

"Whereas, traitors in arms and their sympathizers not in arms persist in their purpose of overthrowing the government of the United States." etc.

The feeling, excitement and experiences of the people of the county may be viewed from several angles from expressions in letters written at the time. Following are a few illustrations:

"All is excitement here, but thanks to Him who rules the hour, we are not alarmed and exasperated by the arising as yet of one dark monument of infamy, disgrace and shame—a traitor.

"Although the report of political feeling and difficulty a short time ago would have plainly implied the reverse, old Hancock stands almost as a unit for the stars and stripes, the Union with the constitution and the admin-istration. Democratic and Republican parties are for the time erased from the face of sentiment and now we have but one party and that standing bravely for the stars and stripes of the United States of America, for the protection of our great national fabric of liberty, for the enforcement of our laws and for the maintenance of our national dignity. Truly old Hancock is alive and for the first time in her life united in a common cause." (April 23, 1861.)

"The greatest excitement prevails here. Union meetings are being held almost every evening. Patriotic speeches are being made and troops raised to defend our country. The second company in this place was filled out yesterday.   The first one to Indianapolis last Saturday evening.   The others are ready to go at any time they are called.   Your brother-belongs to the second company.

"I parted with some very near friends on Saturday, two dear teachers and several class mates. It was hard indeed to part with them, but I could bid them Godspeed for I knew they were engaged in a glorious cause—the cause of liberty, and what more could they fight for? It wras really a distressing sight to see parents parting with sons—perhaps the only one—sis-ters with brothers, and friends with friends, but it was most affecting to see husbands and wives parting. Mr. R. A. Riley is captain of the company. A company of the ladies intend going out to the camp today."   (April 28, 1861)

"Your letter and another was brought me; the moment my eyes fell upon them I recognized them as from ____ and my brother-in-law, whom I heard had fallen at____.   I held them for some time before I could determine which to open first, but as sister was anxious to hear the news T tore brother s open and read far enough to find that he had not yet repented of his treachery. I then threw it down and took up yours, which I knew to be from a true-hearted loyalist."    (July 12, 1861.)

"Each night as I lie down to rest the question naturally comes up, "Where is_____tonight?"  Then I can but contrast your condition with mine: I, here at home surrounded by kind friends and all the blessings of life, while you are in a strange land, exposed to every imaginable hardship and danger, surrounded by enemies who are seeking your life, and not knowing when you lie down at night that you will be permitted to behold the dawn of another day. Although such thoughts are continually revolving in my mind I would not have you for a moment think that I wish you to abandon the cause. No. _____, duty calls loudly upon every loyal citizen to aid in suppressing this rebellion and I hope and pray that God will give you health and strength to continue your efforts.

"Much as I would like to see vou I would not have you neglect vour dutv a single day to gratify my desire." (From a young lady to her soldier friend, September 22, 1861.)

"Tell ___ that I will be at home bye and bye and she and I will organize the Home Guards, then those vile copperheads must square themselves to the American eagle or leave the country. Saw the boys in Taylor Thomas' company—all looking hearty."   (From a soldier, March 31, 1863.)


The all-absorbing topic of conversation at the outbreak of the Civil War and during the war was the Union. Would the Union prevail or would disunion triumph? Everywhere, on the street corners, in the country stores, at the meeting places, and in the homes, people were discussing the state of the Union. "Union" and "Dis-utiion" could be heard on all occasions. They became catch words. Though conditions were serious, people did not lose their sense of humor. The following advertisements taken from the local papers of the county showr how the advertisers took advantage of the use of these words to attract popular attention:

Second Grand Annual Sale
Fall and Winter Dry Goods, etc.
W. S. Morton & Co.

New York Store removed!
E. B. Holliday having removed his Xew York Store
to the Masonic Temple, etc.

Greenfield, Hancock County, Nov. 17, i860. Auditor's Office.
Those indebted to the School Funds of the Countv who have failed to pay their installment of interest due, etc.
L. Sparks, A. H. C.


"At the Burk Allen house, on the evening of the 24th. by Rev. J. Hill, Mr. D. McCarter, M. D., to Miss Cornelia Thorpe, of Anderson. Thus has another single state seceded, not from but into the union. May the union be perpetual and blissful and may no 'irrepressible conflicts' arise to disturb it,"


The decoration of soldiers' graves was not generally observed in this county for several years after the close of the war. The first definite steps, it seems, were taken in 1869. A petition was circulated on which about fifty names were secured, calling a meeting of the citizens at the court house at Greenfield on Tuesday evening. May 25, 1869, at the ringing of the bell. The purpose of the meeting was to make arrangements for decorating the soldiers' graves. This petition was published over the following names in the Hancock Democrat: Lot Edwards, George W. Dove, C. C. Mays, James H. Carr, Benjamin F. Rains, Andrew J. Banks, Robert E. Barnett, Henry B. Wilson, Thomas Kane, William Wilkins, Nelson Bradley, C. F. Lockwood, M. Marsh. William R. Hough, Hammet J. Williams, John C. Dunbar, Phil H. Boyd, A. Hough, R. A. Riley, M. L. Paullus, Amos C. Green. John C. Rardin, Lionel E. Rumrill, D. S. Gooding, Henry A. Swope, A. K. Branham, Hamilton J. Dunbar, William Mitchell, Andrew T. Hart, William S. Wood, Thomas Carr. Stephen D. Lyon, Noble P. Howard. R. P. Brown, John Tague, F. B. Grose, John A. Riley, Pressley Guymon, J. A. J. Martin, Henry C. Chapman, Samuel W. Barnett, F. H. Crawford, Frank Hafner, O. D. Hughes, John A. Hughes. M. M. Adams, Charles G. Offutt, Jacob T. Barnett, J. Wiard Walker.

The meeting at the court house was well attended. On motion of Judge Walker, Monday, May 31, was selected as the day for decorating the graves. Capt. M. L. Paullus was appointed marshal for the day, and Capt. Adams L. Ogg and Maj. Lee O. Harris, assistant marshals. The following committees were appointed:

On Battle Flags—A. P. Williams, William Mitchell, H. A. Swope.

To Place Flags on Graves—William M. Johnson, Thomas Carr, Shelton Oshorn.

On Flowers and Evergreens—First ward, Mrs. E. P. Thayer, F. H. Crawford, F. B. Grose; second ward, Mrs. M. L. Paullus, A. P. Williams, Nelson Bradley; third ward, Mrs. J. Ward Walker, George Y. Atkison, O. D. Hughes, L. W. Gooding; fourth ward, Mrs. H. J. Williams, S. W. Barnett. J. L. Mason; fifth ward. Mrs. II. B. Thayer, Lot Edwards, A. J. Banks, M. M. Adams.

To Carry Flowers and Strew Flowers on Graves—Maggie Galbreatli, Hattie Stitz, Alice Chittenden, Emma Lineback, Lizzie McGregor, Sallie Dove, Sallie Walker, Lou Offutt, Mollie Carmikle, Minerva Dennis, Anna Tague, Ella Crawford, Fannie Foley, Jennie Sloan, Emma Boyd, Pet Guy-mon, Clara Preston, Ella Barnett, Lizzie Dunbar, Dollie Skinner, Vira Good-ing, Linda Ogle, Mollie Price, Annie Hammel, Annie Thomas, Sue Wilson, Alice Barnett, Fannie Pierson, Mellie Ryon, Rose Bedgood, Maggie Barnett, Linda Osborn, Mollie Oakes, Cinda Gebhart, Fannie Branham, Ella Barnett, Cassie Rardin, Bell Gorman, Laura Brown, Vessie Montfort, Pauline King, Alice Winn, Fannie Carr, Bell Reed, Fannie Kiefer, Eliza Chandler, Minnie Sebastian, Mittie Carr.

The following order of formation of the procession was adopted:

Battle Flags
Wounded Soldiers
Families of Deceased Soldiers
Young Ladies Carrying Baskets and Evergreens
Soldiers of War of 1812 and Mexican War
Soldiers of War of 1861-5
This service was largely attended. Decoration day. however, did not become established at once as it is now, and judging from the newspaper reports not much interest was taken in it for several years. In 1877 a number of soldiers again called a meeting of our citizens at the court house to arrange for a decoration service.   This call was as follows:

"We. the undersigned soldiers of the late war, desire that the 30th of May be observed in memory of our fallen heroes, and request the citizens of Greenfield and Hancock county, irrespective of party, to meet at the court house next Saturday evening, the 19th inst. to make necessary preparations. (Signed) W. T. Snider, Edmond P. Thayer, J. Andrews, Harrison D. Spangler, Henry C. Rumrill, E. C. Duncan, J. C. Meek, T. W. Thomas, Alonzo Ford, David Bixler, James Mahan."

We have no report of the number of citizens attending this meeting, but various committees were appointed and arrangements were made for the observance of the day. In giving a report of the exercises, however, the writer in the Hancock Democrat said:

"Yesterday was Decoration day and we are sorry to say it was not generally observed by our citizens. The ceremonies at the graveyards were solemn and interesting. The speech of our young friend, Mr. James A. New, at the new cemetery, is well spoken of by all who heard the address. At the old graveyard, Captain Riley entertained the people with a few of his eloquent remarks. Mr. Martin, who was appointed to deliver the oration, was absent from the city. If these ceremonies are to be kept up in the future, it would be well for all citizens to meet and pay a proper tribute to the nation's honored dead."

The day was observed by the soldiers of the county from year to year after 1869, but it was not until fifteen or twenty years after the war that the general public took such an interest in the ceremonies as the day deserved. Usually a patriotic address was made, and either a choir or a band furnished music for the occasion. The following is the program that was followed at Greenfield in 1879:

Old Cemetery:

Music by the Band
Singing by Choir
Oration by George W. Duncan
Singing by Choir
Poem by Lee O. Harris
Music by Band
Firing Salute
Decoration of Soldiers' Graves.

New Cemetery:

Music by Band
Singing by Choir
Oration by Capt. A. L. Ogg
Singing by Choir
Poem by J. W. Riley
Music by Band
Firing Salue
Decoration of Graves

In 1884 the following was the program on Decoration day: Marshals of the day, E. P. Thayer, Joseph Baldwin; members of the Grand Army of the Republic met at their post room at one o'clock p. m. sharp, and at half past one o'clock formed in front of the court house in line of march in the following order:

The Greenfield Comet Band
Officers and members of the G. A. R. Lodges
of the City and County
The Citizens' Band
Mayor and City Council
County and ex-County Officers
The Philadelphia Brass Band
Sunday Schools
Ex-Soldiers and Citizens on Foot
The Dobbins Band
Citizens in Carriages
March to the New Cemetery


Vocal Music, Greenfield Musical Club
Prayer, Rev. D. R. Love
Vocal Music, Greenfield Musical Club
Poem read by Mrs. Ephraim Marsh
Decorating Graves by Comrades of the G. A. R.
Music by the Band
Salute the Dead
Reformed in same Order. Marched to the Old Cemetery
Vocal Music, Greenfield Musical Club
Poem read by Mrs. Ephraim Marsh
Decorating Graves by Comrades of the G. A. R.
Music by the Band
Salute the Dead
Reformed in same Order. Marched to the Old Cemetery
Vocal Music, Greenfield Musical Club
Prayer, Rev. William Anderson
Vocal Music, Greenfield Musical Club
Essay, Mrs. I. P. Poulson
Decorating Graves by Comrades of the G. A. R.
Music by Band
Salute the Dead

The above are typical of the programs that were given for a number of years.

During the first ten or fifteen years of the observance of this day it was the custom at Greenfield to have addresses made at both cemeteries. In fact it seems to have been the custom in most parts of the county to have the address given at the cemetery, or in a grove near the cemetery, if the weather permitted. This was continued for a number of years until the soldiers became advanced in years and were unable to endure the strain of standing while listening to an address.

On May 31, 1915, fifty years after their return from the front, the decoration of the graves of their heroes was observed at Greenfield in the usual manner. Committees had been appointed as follows: Flowers and evergreen. John A. Barr, E. A. Henby; Outside cemeteries, Philadelphia, William Hutton ; Sugar Creek, Squire McKinzie: Mt. Lebanon, Alexander Osborn; Curry's Chapel, Joseph Martin. Edward Martin; Caldwell, George Crider: Hinchman. Daniel Wirtz; Marking graves, John A. Barr, Jerry Ferrin, George W. Johnson; Finance, W. W. McCole, Harry G. Strickland, Hays Smith, Frank Lynam; Publication, Marshall Winslow, Elmer T. Swope; Program, Henry Winslow, Dr. J. M. Larimore; Conveyances, Stephen D. Jackson, John H. Duncan; Music, John Barr, Taylor Morford; Marshal of the day, James Shelton.

The line was formed at the court house, led by the marshal of the day: the Greenfield band, followed by the soldiers; Sunday school children marched single file on either side of the double column, carrying small American flags. The procession was followed by the Relief Corps, civic orders, citizens and vehicles.

The veterans and citizens met at the court house at one o'clock and proceeded to the Christian church at 1 :45 There a patriotic address was delivered by William A. Hough. Following the services at the church the procession formed on East street, marched to Main, thence west to State, thence south to cemetery, and thence east to the mound in Park cemetery. At the mound the usual services were observed, including the reading of the general order for the observance of Decoration day, parts of the ritual of the Grand Army of the Republic, and the firing of the salute. Following the services at the mound the graves of the soldiers were decorated with flowers that had been gathered by the veterans or that had been contributed by patriotic citizens. After these services the line reformed and marched north on Meek street to South street, thence east to the old cemetery, when the salute was again fired and the graves decorated. At the close of the services at the old cemetery the procession moved north to Main street, and thence west to the court house.

The above is typical of the manner in which the day has been observed at Greenfield for the past fifteen or twentv years. It is also typical of the manner in which the day has been observed for many years in different parts of the county.

Just a half century has passed since the men returned from the front. Their number has grown small, and the survivors no longer tread with the firm step with which they once advanced. Many of them are no longer able to "fall in" and march with their comrades on this hallowed day. Patriotic and loving friends are glad to attend ihem. Children march with them and carry flowers for them or wave their little flags in patriotic salute. When another half century shall have passed away the memory of these things will have become sacred to them. That they saw the veterans of the great Civil War and participated in their ceremonies will be one of the sweet stories to tell their children's children.


During the eighties the soldiers were inspired on several occasions to live over again the experiences of the Civil War in so far as that could be done without harm to anyone. On October i, 1884, a sham battle was planned for Boyd's grove, just north of the city of Greenfield, which has since become known as the fair grounds. This event was "written up" in the issue of the Hancock Democrat of October 2, 1884, as follows:

"Although the soldiers' reunion was throughout a very enjoyable affair, the sham battle on Friday was perhaps the most interesting part to most of our citizens, especially to the young people, giving them a very good idea of actual war. The fight took place in the field north of the grove and was in plain view of the crowd. At two o'clock the rebel forces, under command of Comrade Jefferson C. Patterson, repaired to the west side of the field, posted a piece of artillery and awaited the attack. The Union forces, led by Capt. E. P. Thayer, also accompanied by a piece of artillery, marched from the camp east through the woods and entered the field from the east. A rebel picket, under charge of Comrade G. W. Watts, was posted at the southeast corner of the field and opened fire as soon as the Union forces were descried. Commander Patterson at once ordered a skirmish line under command of Capt. Lee O. Harris, which deployed in front of the advancing forces and the fight began between these and a picket line on the Union side under command of Comrade A. J. Bridges. The Union line continued steadily to advance, and as soon as they reached the brow of the hill opened with their artillery. This was the signal for the skirmishers to fall back, and the rebel line advanced to the attack under command of Capt. J. H. Carr, assisted by Col. R. A. Black, while Comrade G. W. Duncan led on the Union line. The two commanders. Thayer and Patterson, were ubiquitous, galloping here and there over the field where their presence was most heeded.    Marshall Gooding served Commander Patterson as a volunteer and did valiant service. The first advantage was gained by the Union forces, who came near turning the left flank of the rebels, but reinforcements were promptly sent and they were driven back. Then the same maneuver was tried bv the rebels on the Union left flank, hut without proper support, and Captain Thayer promptly threw forward a force and captured it. A countercharge was made, however, and. after a sharp fight the rebels recaptured their guns. After the fight had progressed, with varying success, for some time, the Union gun became exposed without sufficient support and was captured, but was promptly retaken. Finally, as per program, the rebel gun was captured and held. Their force was outflanked and surrendered and were marched as prisoners into camp amid the general shouts of everybody, including the prisoners themselves. And so ended one of the most enjoyable affairs ever witnessed in Greenfield. Persons who had seen numerous sham contests of this kind declared this the best they ever saw." Other sham battles were fought in the county, and of course they always aroused a great interest among the people.


When General Grant died in 1885, services were held in different parts of the county in his memory, and tributes were paid to his patriotism and his great leadership. At Greenfield a meeting was held August 8, at the Masonic Hall. Alexander K. Branham called the meeting to order, after which the funeral service of the Grand Army was read. Capt. R. A. Riley made a few appropriate remarks and Hon. William R. Hough, chairman of the memorial committee, offered a series of resolutions which was adopted. A large number of people attended this meeting.

At New Palestine services were also held, a report of which appeared in the Hancock Democrat as follows:

"A week before this memorial took place a number of our citizens met at the Methodist Episcopal church for the purpose of making arrangements in appointing committees for the different purposes. Some of these committees were composed of fire and brimstone and the composition was thought a mistake, but they all harmonized and tried to do the best they know how to make the affair creditable in honor to the deceased General Grant. The arrangements were completed and the day came. At five o'clock in the morning the roar of the cannon announced that the day set apart for the burial service of the nation's loved one was at hand. This was followed by the tolling of the different church and school house l>ells in town.   Many of our citizens went to work and draped their residences and business places in mourning, and some were profusely and exceedingly fine and attracted much attention. Arrangements had been made, if the weather was favorable, to hold the services in the grove, which looked discouraging for a while, but the day turned out the best that could be expected. At one o'clock the church bells commenced ringing, which was the signal for forming a procession to march to the grove; and the same was composed of all classes and nationahies, and men who fought under Grant and under Lee marched by the side of one another. A citizen of this township served in Lee's army from the beginning to the surrender, and he marched with the lx>ys in blue in this procession. The procession was marshaled by James Greer, an old soldier, with the New Palestine Military Band at the head, which played several melodies and funeral dirges as they passed through the streets; next, the veterans of the war, who were represented in large numbers; next, the Sunday schools, citi-zens on foot, and next the vehicles. They marched west on Mill street, south on Walnut to Main, east on Main to Bittner street, thence south to Joseph Fritts' grove. The procession eclipsed everything ever witnessed heretofore. Arriving at the grove appropriate arrangements had been made in the way of seats, and the speaker's stand draped in mourning, which gave a mournful appearance. Some one thousand and five hundred people had congregated to pay the last tribute of respect to the nation's illustrious dead'. David M. Dove acted as president on the occasion, and the ceremonies were carried out according to program, which consisted of vocal music by the choir, prayer and reading Scripture by Rev. Lowden. Hon. Charles G. Offutt was orator of the day. He delivered an eloquent oration, eulogistic of the life and achievements of General Grant. He lauded Grant as a military leader, and said he was one of those who thought General Grant made a mistake when he left the army. He showed that General Grant was a man of a noble character. which he exhibited at Lee's surrender. Offutt's address was well received and one and all whom we have heard speak of it were much pleased with the same and spoke of it in the highest terms of praise. Rev. Lowden. A. Black and James Greer followed in short addresses, which were all appropriate and eulogistic in honor of the great captain of the age. The presiding officer, in the name of the citizens assembled, thanked the orators of the occasion and the New Palestine Military Band for their kind attendance. A universal solemnity, well fitted for the occasion, prevailed, and thus ended the service in New Palestine in honor of America's dead heroes, such as the people of our town had never seen before.   Business was entirely suspended.

Source: History of Hancock County Indiana by George J. Richman, B.L. 1916

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