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Source: Lake County, Indiana, 1884 : an account of the semi-centennial celebration of Lake County, September 3 and 4, with historical papers and other interesting records prepared for this volume
Authors: T H B; E H Woodard; Tuthill King; Charles W Cathcart
City of Publication: Crown Point, Ind.
Publisher: Printed at the Lake County Star Office
Date: 1884
Transcribed by K. Torp



Fifty years ago Lake county had neither schools nor school-houses, for the simple reason that there were no white people to support them, or white children to be educated. Then Lake county was the home of the Indians. They were the "children of nature.'' Their intellects were not sufficiently enlarged to appreciate the value of books or education. They were content to live in huts, to subsist by hunting and fishing. Their only education was derived from nature and experience. Their history, as far as it went, was perpetuated by tradition. When the whites came then came the desire for improvement. The first school of the county was taught by Mrs. Harriet Holton, in the winter of 1835 and 1836 in a private house, near where the Pan Handle depot is now situated. The next school in the county, as far as I have been able to learn, was commenced in the fall of 1837, in what was then known as the Bryant settlement, in Pleasant Grove. It was taught in a part of the log dwelling house of Samuel D. Bryant, by a man by the name of Collins. A citizen of Crown Point, who in his early boyhood attended the school says that his recollection is that Mr. Collins was a thorough teacher, though quite severe in meting out punishment to his young "hoosier " scholars.

The next school-house of which we can find any record, was built by Mr. Hervey Ball, at Cedar Lake, in the year 1838. A school was started then that was kept up most of the time for a number of years, and as Mr. and Mrs. Ball were very competent teachers, their school for a number of years was by far the most interesting and useful school in the county. At and after this period, as the settlement increased, schools were started in different parts of the county. As may be imagined the schools of those early days were mostly inferior to those of a later date. A description of one might to a great extent be applicable to all. One of the first school-houses built in the south part of the county, was built of unhewn logs, chinked with pieces of wood and "daubed " or plastered on the outside with mortar made of clay. The fire place was made of compressed mortar, supported by pieces of wood, and the remainder of the chimney was built with pieces of wood resembling lath, laid in common mortar. The roof was made of long shingles or clapboards, supported by logs and held in position by poles laid across each tier. No nails were used in the roof. The internal arrangement was as "crude" as the outside of the building. The floor was made of "puncheon" split out of logs. The seats were made of slabs with the level surface upward, supported by wooden pegs, and of course were without backs. The houses were generally warm in winter, and comfortable enough for the kind. The teachers "boarded around " with the parents of the scholars, the time of boarding at each place being in proportion to the number of scholars. When the school was out the teachers would make out their bills and collect them at their leisure. The present school system, which is not inferior to that of any state in the Union, has grown up since the adoption of the new State Constitution in 1861. "Our system today," says one writer, "differs in but few particulars from the ideal school system as recently adopted by the National Superintendents' Association."

Prior to this date, however, there were several schools of a superior grade. I mention those taught by Rev. Mr. Townley, commenced about the year 1848, continuing for a number of years: one taught by Miss Mary E. Parsons, one by Mrs. Sarah J. Robinson. Also, at a later date, schools were taught by the Misses Knight, William W. Cheshire, Rev. T. H. Ball, and others, of whom our limited space forbids our making mention. Up to the year 1857, there were but few school-houses in the county which were worthy of the name. The greater part were temporary in their character, and poorly adapted to the purposes for which they were intended. Since the year 1854, the number of school buildings has been gradually increasing, both as to number and quality; and the grade of the schools, since about that time, has been making constant advancement. Each year the number of log school-houses became less, frame and brick houses rapidly taking their place.

One of the reasons for so marked a change in the improvement of the public schools during the two or three past decades, we believe to have been the beneficial influences arising from the county institutes. These having been held in different parts of the county, and the teachers having been required to attend so that they could compare views upon the different methods of teaching, and each being benefited by the views and suggestions of the others, and all being benefited by men of superior talent and of great experience as tutors, who are frequently employed to attend the institutes, have been of great assistance in bringing up the public schools to their present condition.

Another beneficial influence has been the uniform plan of the examination of the qualifications of persons for teachers.. This plan has been the means of influencing teachers to more fully qualify themselves for the work of teaching, the rule being imperative that their qualifications reach the designated standard in order to secure a license for teaching. Another very well known cause may be mentioned. That is, the benefits derived from the county superintendency, whose councils and supervisions extend over all the schools in the county, and all being equally benefited by his instructions. The teachers are paid liberal wages. The expenses are paid by public funds and as the schools are free, every child in the county may receive a good common school education.

To further show the great advancement that the schools have made in the last half century we hereto append extracts from Superintendent Cooper's recent and last school report, he having kindly furnished us with a copy of the same, and given us permission to make such extracts as we saw proper. Number of school-houses in the county, brick twelve, frame ninety-one. Total, one hundred and three. Estimated value of school-houses including grounds and seats, $133,500. Estimated value of school apparatus, viz, globes, maps, etc., $7,000. Total estimated value of school property, $140,500. Number of teachers employed in the schools, male forty-five, females one hundred and twenty-nine. Total, one hundred and seventy-four.
The following are the names of the several county superintendents in the order of their election or appointment; also county examiners: David K. Pettibone, appointed June 6, 1861, held office three years; William W. Cheshire, appointed June 7, 186-4, held office nine months; Zerah F. Summers, appointed May 11, 1865, held office nine months; William W. Cheshire, appointed December 6, 1865, held office two years and six months; James H. Ball, appointed June 4, 1868, held office five years; Thaddeus S. Fancher, appointed June 1873, held office two years; James McAffee, appointed June 12, 1875, held office three years; William W. Cheshire, appointed October 14. 1878, held office three years and six months; Frank E. Cooper, appointed April 13, 1882, still in office.


Thirty-two years ago, in November, 1852, was held the first teachers' institute in Lake county, at least the first of which any records have been found. In this so called, progressive, in many respects truly progressive, age, it is not safe to suppose that steady progress is made in every direction and in every particular. It is very unsafe to deal much in superlatives. The young need sometimes to be reminded that the world's acknowledged masterpieces in many lines lie back of us, and were wrought out by master minds long centuries ago. Even in those things in which, like the Egyptian magicians, we, Americans, deal "proudly," it is not safe to suppose a constant, year by year improvement; and in our education and its appliances it is not sure that we constantly improve; in even our teachers' institutes, it is quite possible that some of those held years ago were fully equal to those of the present, and that the modes of education of the past, though tedious and now antiquated, produced results not even now surpassed.

The writer of this paper proposes to institute, so far as he is concerned, no comparisons, which so often become "odious," but to present statements clear, exact, impartial, as words and expressions should be that go to make up what is sometimes called "frozen history," the style of which is so different from the present style of puffs and of advertisements. He proposes however, as one of the objects of true history is that those in the future may know what was actually said and done in the past, to give a quite full report of some one institute as held by each of the examiners' and superintendents since the year 1866, the institute of that year being considered the first as held in accordance with Indiana state law. The following county officers have had official charge of these institutes: James H. Ball, T. S. Fancher, James McAffee, W. W. Cheshire, and Frank E. Cooper.
The first and second institutes, held by W. W. Cheshire, and the third, held by James H. Ball, are referred to in "Lake County, 1834," pages 133-135. A full record is at hand of the fourth, held in 1869, and it is here given from that record.


On Monday, December, 20, 1869, the exercises of a Teachers' Institute were opened at Crown Point, in the south hall of the Public School Building. Only a few were in attendance on Monday, but the number continued to increase, until some seventy names were entered upon the roll. J. H. Ball, Esq., School Examiner, acted as President of the Institute; Mr. L. B. Williams as Secretary, assisted by Miss Kenney and Miss Thomas.

Mr. H. Sasse conducted a reading exercise. Mr. Cheshire made some remarks on corporal punishment. He alluded to the agitation of his subject through the country, especially in our neighboring cities of Cincinnati and Chicago. He did not wish to be understood as entirly disapproving of it. Sometimes as needful to inflict physical punishment in a school as to enforce the penalties of civil law in a State. It should be, however, the last resort after words and grass fail. Should be administered with discretion and care.
Mr. Williams conducted an exercise in mental arithmetic. Prof. Wilcox, of Valparaiso, spoke of the moral and intellectual qualifications of the teacher. He recommended to the teachers the procuring of books and pencils for taking notes during the week. Adjourned till evening.
At the evening session remarks were made by teachers Williams, Barney, Bacon, Prof. Wilcox, Mr. Cheshire, and others, on their methods of opening and conducting a school, but principally on teaching orthography. Various interesting methods were named and explained. Some, it was ascertained, gave two recesses, one for the boys, the other for the girls. This, the old custom, ought still to be observed, situated as are most of our district schools. Prof. Wilcox gave some interesting incidents showing how ignorant some are of spelling. A knowledge of the notation of the spelling book he thinks is too much neglected. Teachers and scholars should know the marks for the various sounds of the letters, should know these sounds, and be able to give them. Spelling lies at the foundation of an education. The hardest thing to learn is to spell. We learn by the eye. Teachers must not suppose their pupils have already learned to spell. It won't do to suppose anything in regard to teaching. To keep the close attention of a class let them be in continual uncertainty as to the order in which they will be called upon to recite. Carry out this uncertainty in other respects.

After the reading of the minutes, Mr. Hadley, of Chicago-firm of Hadley, Hill & Co.-gave a geographical exercise. He said: A teacher should go at his work with determination and enthusiasm. Should keep up in his pupils an anxiety to learn. Should be a whole man on each subject taught. Geography "by many teachers not well taught. Authors on the subject generally require too much to be committed to memory. It is not usually taught scientifically. This globe a great machine. All the natural divisions of vital importance in the work of the whole. The surface of the country controls the wind, and the wind the soil, and the soil the vegetation, the vegetation the animals, these the pursuits of man, and his different pursuits control the prosperity of cities and the country generally.

Prof. Wilcox then spoke on a teacher's duty. The child the father of the man. The character of the man depends on the principles inculated during his childhood. Tardy, lazy pupils will make poor paymasters. Teachers should be careful, diligent, and manifest good taste in the school-room. Should not chew tobacco. Should be earnest, just and courteous toward their pupils, and always recognize them in public.

Miss F. H. Churchill was then introduced to the Institute, and made some remarks on elocution and a teacher's work. She first expressed her sympathy with the institute, and spoke of the importance of being good thinkers, and being able to express thoughts acceptably. Stated that good speaking depended very much on distinct enunciation and bending the voice to the expression of the emotions.

She said: Pupils will be what their teachers train them to be. Discouraging to a teacher for the school training to be neutralized by the home training. Parents should not speak disrespectfully of teachers in their children's presence. Some persons so foolish as to regard a teacher's calling somewhat low. It was, in fact one of the noblest and most responsible on earth. To the teachers of common schools a great debt of gratitude is due. Teachers should appreciate their position. The idea of reproducing themselves in the children was a splendid idea. The human soul, the grandest marble upon which ever an artist worked. Not Italian or any other would compare with it. She would rather train one human soul to a full development than to carve all the marble the quarries of the world ever produced.

Elocution, she said, was an art, like other arts. Monotony always tiresome. One who reads well will talk well, who talks well will read well. If we talk about a book we remember it. Should cultivate the power of talking well. All good reading and speaking comes out from about three or four grand rules. Vowels in a language are to give light and heat. Like a stove without fuel, so a language without vowel sounds. There is a different tone for every emotion. When we hear great singers we think their power of expression wonderful. We forget the years they have spent in toil to acquire that power. In the light of that toil it is no longer wonderful. The limit of capability is seldom, or never found. Muscular development is the result of effort, so of mental development. There must be persistent effort to train the vocal organs to their highest effects.
Mr. Hadley next gave another exercise in geography which closed the morning session.

Miss Churchill conducted an exercise in impromptu composition. Mr. Hadley made some remarks and read a composition written by a pupil in fifteen minutes. Prof. Wilcox also offered some remarks encouraging such an exercise.

Mr. Hadley again presented the subject of geography. He advocated the text books and maps arranged and designed by Prof. Guyot. He evidently made a good impression on the teachers present.

A lecture was given by Mr. Hadley, at the Presbyterian meeting house. Subject: School Buildings- Teachers' Salaries." Our reporter has furnished no notes.

Opened with prayer by Prof. Wilcox. Minutes read and approved.
Prof. Wilcox spoke on teaching. Teachers should teach principles as well as rules. Should not only impart knowledge, but draw forth knowledge from the pupils. Should not be ashamed to acknowledge errors if fall in g into any. Should be so thoroughly informed as to secure the respect of the community.
Miss Churchill. Reading.

All teachers should have sufficient cultivation of voice to be able to suit tone to sentiment. An exercise in articulation was given; also specimens of various tones.
Prof. Wilcox. Physiology. Illustrated in an instructive and interesting manner the necessity of teachers understanding this subject-as our laws now contemplate-that they may guard their pupils against injurious habits, and aid them in case of accidents causing personal injury.
Mr. Cheshire then conducted a written spelling exercise according to one of the ways named on Monday evening. Twenty-five words were written. A judicious selection was made of words in common use, yet testing well one's ability to spell. The result of the spelling gained from the visitors present, some fine compliments for the members of the Institute.

Mathematical Geography.- Prof. Wilcox. He illustrated the methods of finding latitude by the north star and by the sun showing how a rude quadrant might be made and the latitude of a heavenly body measured. Mr. L. B. Williams then conducted an exercise in gymnastics.
Miss Churchill gave instructions in gestures exercising a volunteer class on some general principles. She then recited Barbara Fritchie.

Mr. Ventress, of New York, representing the house of Sheldon & Co., addressed the Institute for a few minutes on civil government as a branch of knowledge to be taught in schools. He said: One has no right to ask or claim attention unless he has something to communicate worth being heard. Good government is necessary, because we are created for society, and we cannot have society without government Teachers feel its necessity in their schools. Government rests on the intelligent consent of the governed. Teachers have a great work to do in training the children of this country to recognize and appreciate the principles of our civil government. Had these principles been well understood by the millions, been taught in all our schools, there had been no late rebellion. As yet our children are not learning these principles, Too much ignorance among us all as to. the peculiarities of our civil polity. Teach children the history, changes, and peculiarities of our institutions, avoiding politics, and they will grow up to be intelligent, liberty-loving citizens.

Mr. Ventress left in the county for examination and introduction, a nice little work, by Sheldon & Co., on this subject.

Chemical experiments now followed by Prof. Wilcox. He remarked, by way of introduction, that teachers ought to know much more than they do, and illustrated this in different directions. Also observed that men of fine culture can find plenty to do in any place, in any country school. Culture never lost if one knows how to use it. He also offered some illustrations show-in g that the world is wonderfully made.

The experiments were: Burning magnesium in the air; combustion of sodium on water; and combustion of chloride of potassia under water, by means of sulphuric acid. The experiments were quite successful, and the accompanying remarks instructive. Indeed the experiments may be characterized justly as beautiful and striking, and exemplified finely the twofold object of the present Institute, which seems to have been, or to have become this, to increase the range of knowledge, and increase the desire for knowledge, among the teachers of Lake county. If this be not accomplished it cannot be the instructors' fault.
Several interesting1 Questions from the Query Box were next read and answered. A mathematical-geograhical one elicited considerable discussion.

Wednesday evening was set apart for an Institute Social. It passed off pleasantly, closing with The Raven, read by Miss Churchill.

Devotional exercises conducted by Mr. Sutton.
Miss Churchill gave instructions on the reading of Brutus and Cassius, and introduced remarks urging teachers to maintain their individuality, to be themselves, free from affectation and disguise; also to cultivate independence of thought. Remarks on individuality also thrown in by Prof. Wilcox. He referred, as an illustration, to steel and putty. Urged the importance of writing. It seems hard at first. Efforts should be encouraged. Easy subjects should be selected, or write in the form of letters. He suggested the following plan. 1st. Definition; 2d. Origin; 3d. Antiquity; 4th. Extent; 5th. Advantages; 6th. Reflections. Grammar followed.

Prof. Wilcox thought this should not be taught to children under twelve, and at first orally. On no branch was there a greater diversity of opinions. A sentence written by Mr. Cheshire, on the board, was parsed and analyzed.
Question box again opened.
Gymnastic exercises closed the forenoon session.

A recitation was given by Miss Churchill, illustrating different manners of speaking. Mathematical Geography. The revolution of the earth, was illustrated by a simple piece of apparatus in the hands of Prof. Wilcox.
English Composition.
The President of the Crown Point Institute, Rev. T. H. Ball, offered some remarks to incite the teachers to cultivate more fully the power of writing. He said: The first sentence in the preface of a certain work is, "To most young persons composing is an extremely irksome task." In my experience, with others, this seems to be too true. The same preface states an oft-repeated fact that the power of thinking- and of communicating thought constitutes the dignity and glory of man. It is the improvement of this power more than anything else, more than everything else, that raises man above his fellow man, nation above nation, and man above himself.

A great part of the business of education then should be production and communication of thought. In too many schools this is sadly neglected. Students seem to dread to hear about writing essays, to hear of composition day.

I count no one educated who cannot write. Said a teacher of experience and position in reply to a suggestion I made concerning an essay, "I can't write." As well might she have said, I am not educated. There are needful for writing these two qualifications: A. Knowledge. B. Skill. You cannot write concerning that of which you know nothing. Knowledge is acquired by 1. Observation, 2. Conversation, 3. Correspondence. 4. Study or Reading, 5. Reflection.
Says Upham, there are fountains of knowlege within. One must reflect, must think, must meditate, to come at this knowledge. Skill is to be acquired by practice. If you would learn to sing, sing; if you would learn to teach, teach; if you would learn to skate, skate; if you would learn to write, write. Well has some one said: Language is not a musical instrument into which if a fool breathes it will make melody. And also, to appreciate language is partly to command it, and to command beautiful and forcible language, is to have a key, with which no one who is to rule through opinion can dispense to the heart and mind of man. Would you hold such a key? Learn to write.
1. Writing disciplines the mind.
Mental powers are not like bodily organs. They are not distinguishable from the thinking principle, or really different from each other. Says Hamilton, a philosopher of note, "It is the same simple substance which exerts every energy of every faculty, however various, and which is affected in every mode of every capacity, however opposite." "He classes the intellectual faculties thus:
Presentative, or preception and self-consciousness.
Conservative, or memory.
Reproductive, or suggestion and reminiscence.
Representative or imagination.
Elaborative, or Comparison. Faculty of relations.
Regulative, or intelligence proper, common sense, reason.
In writing", all of these are more or less called into exercise, especially the reproductive, representative, elaborative, and regulative faculties. Our reason and imagination should be cultivated together, and when one blends the highest exercise of the one with the highest power of the other, "brightness shines in the midst of brightness like the angel of the Apocalypse in the sun."
2. Writing cultivates the power of attention. An act of attention is an act of concentration. It is not a special faculty, says Sir William Hamilton, but consciousness acting under the law of its limitation. It doubles the efficiency of all our faculties. It is the primary condition of their activity. The greater the capacity of continuous thinking, the greater is the power of attention; the greater also will then be the result of labor. We resort for materials, in illustrating and adorning our writings, to memory and to imagination. These do not at first proffer us their aid. There must be a rousing up of the attention. What is produced in this aroused state of mind is different from the flow of thought during the mind's ordinary workings.
On this important subject of attention, hear a few words more.
The difference between an ordinary mind, and a Newton is said to consist principally in the power of a more continuous attention. Newton himself said, with his characteristic modesty, that, if he had made any discoveries it was owing more to patient attention than to any other talent. Mrs. Siddons attributed the superiority of her acting to the more intense study which she bestowed upon her parts.

Socrates is said to have been seen by the Athenian army a whole day and night in fixed, attentive thought. This may be stretched, but it shows what Plato thought was a requisite of a great thinker. Again, Descartes, the great French philosopher, referred for his success to the superiority of his method, not to the power of his intellect. Bacon praises his method, "in that it places all men with equal attention upon a level, and leaves little or nothing to the prerogatives of genius." In fact genius itself is analyzed into a higher capacity of attention. Says Helvetius, genius is nothing but a continued attention. Says Buffon, genius is only a protracted patience. Says Cuvier, in the exact sciences, at least, it is the patience of a sound intellect, when invincible, which truly constitutes genius. Says Chesterfield, the power of applying an attention, steady and undissipated, to a single object, is the sure mark of superior genius. Malebranche, one of the most profound thinkers of France, seems to call this power force of intellect, and Hamilton, certainly one of the most thoughtful and well informed philosophers of our day, says, attention constitutes the better half of all intellectual power. It must be of great importance for the young to acquire this habit of attention. It is to be acquired by early and continued exercise. Writing exercises this habit. It requires for success a continuous thought. At first it may be irksome, it may be painful, but continued successful efforts will make it pleasant. Says Buffon, that distinguished naturalist, of time spent in composing-composing perchance those living pages, which while they will transmit knowledge will transmit his- name also down into the future-"these are the most luxurious and delightful moments of life-moments which have often induced me to pass fourteen hours at my desk in a state of transport-this gratification more than glory is my reward."
Then write, and thus learn to write. And though you may not be able to say with Horace, I have founded a monument, more lasting than brass, more durable than the site of the royal pyramids, which not the wasting shower, nor the destroying west wind will be able to tear down, nor an innumerable flight of years or series of ages; nor even with Wordsworth; I perform it in full consciousness that it will be unpopular, yet in the full consciousness that it will be immortal; you may say at least with the poet Tupper, "my mind to me a kingdom is;" you may experience that gratification which Buffon valued above glory.
Query box again opened. Questions read and answered.
Selections read by Miss Churchill and an address by Prof. Wilcox.

Devotional exercises.
Tardiness taken up. Suggestions how to prevent, made by Prof. Wilcox and Miss McDonald. A review lesson in elocution followed.
Grammar. Mode of teaching conjugation of verbs presented by Mr. Cheshire. Subject continued by Prof. Wilcox. Analyzing before parsing. A sentence parsed by members of the institute.

Committee on resolutions reported.
(Thirteen resolutions were presented by a committee which consisted of L. B. Williams and H. Sasse; Misses S. J. Turner, M. E. Merrill, and L. R. Thomas.
The resolutions, as was to be expected from such a committee, are well written and worthily express the sentiments that were at that time appropriate to receive approval by the Institute.
- T. H. B.)

The following was also adopted:
Resolved, That we return our hearty thanks to Mr. Williams for his labor in reporting the proceedings of this Institute.
After the discussion and adoption of the above resolutions, some closing remarks were offered by Prof. Wilcox, a few words were spoken by the editor of the Castalian, and a beautiful good bye address was delivered by Miss Churchill. She spoke of the privilege and honor of being an American, of the probable greatness of our future, of our responsibilities, and closed with a pretty and touching little poem, "Good Bye at the Garden Gate."

Thus closed an interesting session of the Lake County Teachers' Institute. Those who failed to attend lost much. While a law of the state provides for such instruction, real teachers will strive to make diligent improvement of such golden opportunities.
(The following editorial note from the Castalian in regard to Miss Churchill may fittingly be given: T. H. B.)

"Miss Churchill, originally of Boston, having made the city of New York her headquarters for some eight years, having read in various places to accomplished audiences in the East, in the British Provinces, in South America, and in some of the American islands, came a few months ago to the West, making Chicago her present headquarters. Her agent in that city is Rev. O. Adams, firm of Adams, Blackmer & Lyon. She has devoted much time to the cultivation of her voice, and having fine native endowments has attained to great effect-iveness and excellence as a reader. Her voice is flexible and powerful, possessing at the same time much softness and sweetness. It seems fitted alike to express the humorous, the pathetic, the gay, the sad; the deeply tragic, the solemn, the majestic, the sublime. She seems indeed to exemplify what so many of us have read, but what so few of us can prove; "The voice all modes of passion can express, That marks the proper word with proper stress.
"Up to the face the quick sensation flies, And darts its meaning from the speaking eyes; Love, transport, madness, anger, scorn, despair; And all the passions, all the soul is there."

Miss Churchill has a fair complexion, expressive blue eyes, in which the light of genius shines, and is evidently well informed, a genuine American lady, believing in our institutions, anticipating for the nation a grand future, yet not carrying her views of woman's work and position to the extreme of the radicals of this age. May she ever keep the golden mean! One with a voice so cultivated, possessing so much refinement and culture, has never before visited our county. Perhaps some day she may come again. While with us for a few days she so bore herself as to win golden opinions. May her future career, in a trying pathway, be fair and prosperous."

The fifth institute opened January 2, 1871. The in-structors were Prof. Wentworth, of the Cooke county Normal School, Prof. Shurtliff, of the High School department at Englewood, and Miss Paddock, Principal of the training department. Also, Prof. Rolph, of St. Charles, editor of Rolph's System of Penmanship.
Expended $94.50. Proceeds of Poetic Readings, $44.50. County fund, $50.00. Paid to Miss Churchill, $30.00.
The sixth commenced September 11, 1871.

The seventh commenced December 30, 1872. Prof. Wilcox was again present. Chemicals and chemical apparatus were obtained, and one evening was devoted to chemical experiments.
The eighth and ninth were held by T. S. Fancher. At the time of the eighth travel on the cars was suspended for a few days. The following is the report.

The eighth Annual Teachers' Institute of Lake County, Indiana, opened at Crown Point on Monday, December 29, '73, with forty-nine teachers in attendance.

The house was called to order by the Superintendent, Mr. T. S. Fancher, who, after making, some practical and well-directed remarks in regard to making the Institute a success, and appointing Jennie Livingston Secretary and H. Allatt Assistant Secretary, introduced Prof. W. W. Cheshire to address the teachers.
Special point of remarks: that teachers should thoroughly understand that which they wish to teach.
Rev. Dr. Fleming then discussed many important points in Geography in such a way as made the topic instructive to all present.
A full explanation of the division of a State into civil and congressional townships, giving the starting point or base, and showing how a certain point can be located, by giving township north or south, range east or west, and number of section-also further subdivisions of sections, was rendered in a clear and concise manner, by Mrs. L. G. Bedell. Closing remarks by Superintendent.

Singing by choir. Prayer by Dr. Fleming.
An explanation of Higgins' Dissected Maps by the Superintendent.
Best method of teaching History, by Mrs. Cheshire.
Prof. Cheshire then gave instructions in Grammar, in a plain, practical style, especially for the benefit of young teachers, followed by the Superintendent with valuable hints on teaching and exciting a wholesome interest in all present.
Roll call closed the session with ninety-seven teachers enrolled.

Penmanship most admirably conducted by O. J. Andrews.
Mr. Sasse explained his method of teaching Orthography in common schools.
Lecture on Anatomy of the Bones, by Henry Pettibone, Principal of the Brunswick Graded School.
Dr. Fleming then gave a short discourse on The Duty of Teachers.
Primary principles of Arithmetic by Mr. Truax.
An entertaining essay on The Gifts of God to Man, by Mrs. O. J. Steward.
Critic's report.
In the evening an interesting Chemical Entertainment was given by T. H. Ball.

Singing by choir.
Mathematical Geography very well handled by Prof. O. J. Steward, Principal of Lowell Graded School.
Fractional Arithmetic by Superintendent.
History, an examination by Mrs. Cheshire.
Remarks on corporal and moral punishment, by David McKinney, followed by Prof. W. W. Cheshire on Grammar.
Closed with roll call; one hundred and twenty-seven teachers present; number of visitors unusually large.

Shortest method of Addition by the Superintendent.
Ratio, by Mr. August Knechter.
Dr. Fleming gave a very able discussion on the subject of the English Language, presenting this subject by diagram.
Mr. Andrews read a carefully prepared essay; subject-Common Schools.
A noteworthy, timely lecture on Physiology, by H. Pettibone.
Interesting and instructive methods on short com-position, to improve small children, by Miss S. J. Turner.
Remarks by Rev. T. H. Ball, on the Self-Restraint and General Responsibilities of the Teacher.
Critic's report.

" Happy New Year," by the Choir.
Remarks on instruction in Reading, by Miss Jennie Livingston.
Remarks on School Government, by O. J. Steward; responded to by Jennie Livingston and Henry Sasse.
Method of teaching History, by Mrs. Cheshire.
" Origin of the Umbrella," a brilliant essay, by C. Wird.
Grammar continued by Mr. Cheshire.
Roll call.

Prof. H. B. Brown, of Valparaiso Normal School, en-tertained the teachers for one hour on Decimal Fractions.
Much interest is manifested in the Institute by the citizens.
Prof. H. A. Ford, of South Bend, was then introduced. His remarks were on the too general neglect of instruction in reading.
Geography, by Prof. Brown, advocating map drawing in all grades.
Critic's report.
In the evening Prof. Ford addressed a large and attentive audience on "Education in the Good time Coming." After a short discussion of the resolution that Church property should be exempt from taxation, the Institute resolved itself into a grand social reunion. Music, conversation, charades, etc., made the evening pass pleasantly, our worthy Superintendent being everywhere present to see that all were having a good time.

Decimal Fractions and Commission explained by Prof. Brown.
History by Mrs. Cheshire.
Prof Ford then lectured on Primary Reading and Arithmetic, and also gave a very pleasing method of interesting young children in school, recommending the Kindergarten system.
Roll call-one hundred and seventy-five teachers en-rolled.

Remarks by Superintendent.
Compound Proportion, Longitude and Time, by Prof. Brown.
General remarks on all the common school branches.
Prof. Ford read an essay, showing what to use in expanding the faculties of the mind of young people and the education of mankind.
It was then decided that the next Institute should be held during the next holidays.
Closing address, by T. S. Fancher.

Our Superintendent's capital organization of the Annual Institute was rewarded by a large attendance of wide-awake teachers. It was the largest ever held in Lake county.
(The names of one hundred and seventy-three persons are here given; but as the list includes both visitors and teachers, the actual number of teachers, in attendance cannot be determined. T. H. B.)

The tenth and eleventh were held by J. M. McAffee. Of the latter the following report is at hand:
The regular annual meeting of the Lake County Teachers' Institute was held in the Presbyterian Church in Crown Point, commencing August 28, 1876, and continuing the remainder of the week. The County Superintendent, J. M. McAffee, called the Institute to order and made the following appointments: Recording Secretary, Miss Philinda Ousley; Enrolling Secretary, Charles F. Griffin; Committee on Resolutions, J. H Ball, H. H. Ragon, and Mrs. R. C. Wadge. Mr. Ragon and Mrs. Wadge being absent their places on Committee were supplied by William T. Northrup, and Miss Jessie Spray.

The Institute, everything considered, was a success. Great disappointment was felt by the teachers and friends, caused by the non-appearance of Superintendent, Smart and Profs. Smith and Laird, who were expected to be with us to instruct. Their places however were very well supplied by Mr. C. W. Ainsworth, of the Register, who is, perhaps second to none in Northern Indiana in experience, knowledge, and general ability to discuss educational matters. Mr. Youche, of Crown Point, also gave the Institute a short lecture on the Origin and Permanency of the Common School Fund. An evening lecture by Mr. C. W. Ainsworth-Bad Boys-was excellent. But to the teachers of the county, who so earnestly and willingly worked during the week to make the Institute a success, belongs, extra praise. The enrollment reached one hundred and sixty-two names, sixty-eight of whom were actually engaged in teaching.
The following Resolutions were reported by the committee, and adopted after which the Institute adjourned sine die:-

Resolved, 1st. That it is with grateful feelings that we have been permitted by the Great dispenser of events to pass another term of our annual Teachers' Institute in profitable intellectual and professional culture and research and pleasant intercourse. And as on this Centennial Year we look back to the earlier condition of our teachers we can but recognize the superior advantages, we enjoy and that our profession is becoming more and more a compensation, honorable and pleasant occupation.
2d. That we recognize the importance and responsibility of the Teachers' profession and that we will embrace every opportunity presenting itself for better preparing ourselves for the work.
3d. That in such preparation we recognize the advantages of attending Teachers' Institute Associations, Normal Classes, and the reading of educational Journals.
4th. That we recommend the reading of the Indiana "School Journal" the official Organ of the State Super-intendent by every teacher in the county.
5th. That the Township Institutes as provided by our laws can be made particularly profitable to us, but the inclemency of the winter season, the difficulty of travel, and the finding of ways of conveyance from remote districts in a township make it so inconvenient, especially for female teachers, that we hereby memorialize our township Trustees to view with leniency failures of attendance arising from such causes, provided an equal number of days has been spent by the teacher in a Normal School or class during the year.
6th. That teachers should discard as far as possible in all branches practicable the use of text books for themselves during the recitations.
7th. That we respectfully request of the township Trustees of the several townships to pay the teachers of schools at the rate of 2 per cent, on the average of their certificates and for professional abilities.
8th. That a uniformity of text books is very desirable in our schools inasmuch as " Watson's" Independent Readers have been introduced in a portion of the county, we recommend their being replaced by "McGuffey's Series" which we at the present time regard as the better of the two series.
9th. That the thanks of the members of this Institute are due to the Trustees of the Presbyterian Church and Society in so kindly permitting us to occupy their place of worship for our sessions.
10th. That we heartily thank all who have taken a , part in attempting to interest and instruct us.
The institute of 1877 commenced December 31. Number reported to the State Superintendent as attending ninety-six. Expense $85.00.
The fourteenth institute was held in 1879. Number of teachers reported as in attendance one hundred. Expense of the institute $142.35.
The following report has been furnished.
The Lake County Teachers' Institute met in Cheshire Hall, December 29, 1879, and was called to order by the County Superintendent, and opened with prayer by Rev. E. H. Brooks. Frank Cooper was appointed Secretary. The; instructions given during the week were as follows:
Prof. W. H. Banta, Geography, Arithmetic, History, and Zoology; Prof. Bosworth, Grammar and Composition; Superintendent Cheshire, Spelling and Surveying; Rev. T..H. Ball, Lecture on Geology; William Esswein Orthography; N. F. Daum, "Teachers should prepare lessons;" A. A. Winslow, Moral Culture; Theresa Reibly, Primary Reading; J. H. Ball, Winds; Frank Cooper, Compound proportion; Eugene Farley, Observations at Institutes; O. J. Andrews, (Ill.) General Remarks; John Q. A. Sparks, Select Reading; Miss Libbie Allman (South Bend), Primary Work; Ed. Schell, Devotional Exercises, in School; D. B. Stancliff, Writing.
Teachers' Social was held on Monday evening.
On Tuesday evening, the distinguished poet, Will Carlton, grave a lecture on the "Science of Home."
On Wednesday evening was given a lecture on Conversation by Prof. Dale.
On Thursday evening elocutionary entertainment, by Prof. Dale.
All these entertainments were well attended and seemed to be fully appreciated by the teachers and citizens.
Moved by Frank Cooper, that we tender to Prof. Banta our thanks for his instruction and sociability during the Institute.
Carried. Mr. Cooper also moved that the next Institute be held during Christmas or New Year's week, and that the County Superintendent designate which Carried.
Moved by J. H. Ball: 1. That we most heartily tender our thanks to Prof. Dale, whose elocutionary instructions have added so largely to the interest and profit of the institute. 2. That the thoughtful and liberal appropriation recently made by the Board of Commissioners to the Superintendent's office for scientific charts and apparatus, is a valuable and useful acquisition to the cause of education, wherefore we tender our earnest thanks for such appropriation.
After some general remarks by the Superintendent the Institute adjourned, Friday, January 2, 1880, to meet again at the call of the Superintendent. Whole number enrolled, two hundred and forty.
F. E. COOPER, Secretary.

The fifteenth and sixteenth were also held by Superintendent Cheshire. The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth were held by Superintendent Cooper. In 1882 the receipts were $119.20 and the expenses the same.

Of the eighteenth, held in 1883, the Superintendent has furnished the following report:
The Institute of Lake county convened at Griesel's Hall, Crown Point, December 17, at 10 A. M., and was called to order by Superintendent Cooper, who explained the objects of the Institute and the law appertaining thereto. The music committee favored us with a piece entitled "O Where are The Reapers," Owing to the non-appearance of State Superintendent Holcomb, Mr. Cooper took occasion to mention several matters which he had observed during his visitations, among which were the proper use of the dictionary, use of charts and maps, and sweeping of school rooms. Mr. Arthur H. Griggs was appointed by Mr. Cooper, as assistant secretary. Mr. Ragon, who. was to have spoken next, not having arrived, Prof. Dim on occupied an hour in explaining a method of diagraming and analysis. Mr. Fred Ewer followed with a very appropriate and practical lesson on advanced reading.
Upon calling the roll it was found there were forty-seven teachers present. State Superintendent Holcomb having arrived he was introduced to the teachers by Superintendent Cooper, and made a ten minutes speech, in which he expressed a desire to become well acquainted with all the teachers and hoped they would feel socially inclined. The morning session then adjourned to meet at 1:15 PM

After music by the committee, Mr. W. C. Belman, Superintendent of Hammond school, introduced the subject of Grammar, from an Etymological standpoint, and spoke mostly upon the noun and its inflections. A discussion arose as to whether 3d is an abbreviation, which was participated in by Messrs. Gerlach, Belman, Superintendent Holcomb, and others. Mr. Holcomb thought custom favored that it should not be called an abbreviation. Mr. Belman gave Webster as authority that it was not an abbreviation. Mr. H. H. Ragon opened his course of instruction by a lesson in mathematical geography, illustrated by the Tellurian. After a recess of ten minutes, Mr. Holcomb addressed the teachers, first speaking at length upon our school system and its progress, the benefit arising from licenses and the earnest work of the County Supterintendents. He considered an important advance in school work to be the thorough graduation of the country schools and congratulated the teachers upon their work in this direction. At the conclusion of his remarks he offered to answer any questions relative to school work they might desire. Mr. Belman offered the following question. Has a trustee a right to retain twenty-five per cent, of a teacher's wages until the final settlement? Superintendent Holcomb re-sponded that the object of the law was to secure the proper reports. By the wording of the law the trustee undoubtedly has a right to retain twenty-five per cent of each month's salary, but in his opinion it would be sufficient to withhold the month's salary. Superintendent Cooper asked if a trustee had a right to include the week a teacher spends at the County Institute as a part of the time for which they have contracted to teach? Mr. Holcomb thought the legality of such a step would be questionable. All the tuition fund was to be spent by each trustee each year in the running of the schools and they were to be kept in operation as long as possible. The closing1 of a school to attend an institute would hardly meet the requirements of the law. Mr. Belman asked if a teacher must have a valid license covering the entire term of the contract? Mr. Holcomb replied: If a teacher holds a valid license at the time of making his contract or the opening of his school, he may continue to teach out that term, even should his license expire before the term was out. The trustees, however, could limit the term to the end of the school year, viz.: 1st July. Mr. Fred Ewer asked if a parent has a right to say what a pupil shall study. Mr. Holcomb replied that the law required the eight branches to be taught and such additional branches as the patrons may desire, but such desire must be expressed by a majority of the patrons and in writing and signed. It has been held by decisions of the court that a prescribed course of study can be enforced. It would be better perhaps to let the pupils sustain the loss, if the parent insists than to encourage a spirit of opposition, in small schools. In reply to a question, proposed by Mr. Gerlach, who has a right to vote at a school meeting? He said "The impression that patrons have to elect a teacher is an error. An election of a teacher is not binding upon the trustee. The trustee is responsible for the school and it is his duty to appoint the teachers. Patrons in school meetings may protest against the appointment of a certain teacher but they have no right to select teachers. To the question what would be a legal notice of an institute he replied, 1st, a verbal notice at time of contract; 2d, a notice of stated meetings in the manual; 3d, in cases where, for cause, there has been a cessation or omission of the meetings a day's notice would be sufficient. Upon calling of roll, seventy-two teachers were found to have been present, and twenty-six visitors.

The Institute opened at 9 A. M. with music and reading of the minutes. Mr. J. Q. A. Sparks, of Whiting, told how he would teach without apparatus, occupying about ten minutes, and was followed by Charles Strong, in a very able talk upon the value of Grammar. Mrs. Foster brought in a class of boys and girls and gave a recitation in language, which was very fine and highly appreciated. After Mr. Gerlach's remarks on teachers' duties, a recess was given. The roll call showed seventy-two teachers present. The remainder of the forenoon was occupied by Mr. Belman considering the points in pronouns, enlivened at times by the questions and discussions of various teachers.

The Institute was opened by music, followed by a continuation of Mr. Dimon's work in analysis. In the mean time the committee on resolutions retired for deliberation. Mr. Stevenson followed, introducing his work in physiology. After a recess of fifteen minutes, Mr. Ragon continued his work in geography, speaking principally of twilight and its causes. Mr. Cooper appointed Mr. Belman, chairman; Helen Cleveland, Agnes Dyer, Frank Doak, W. B. Dimon, as a committee to prepare for a social Thursday evening. Upon calling roll eighty-six teachers responded.

After the opening- exercises the following question which had been handed Superintendent Cooper was read and answered by him. "Should or may a teacher use any other book which may be in possession of a pupil whose parents are so poor as to be unable to provide him
with the proper books?. It is a hard matter to dispose of, when we know parents cannot possibly buy books without taking bread out of their mouths, yet, I say you may, where your school will permit, hear pupils in any text book they may bring. If, however, you have to neglect others, you need not do so. Mr. McKinney, whose subject was philosophy of history, spent some time in considering the benefits of memorizing, followed by an illustrative recitation. Miss Agnes Dyer, followed upon the subject of map drawing, urging that it should be made progressive, first drawing a map of the school room, then of the grounds, the village, the county, and finally the State and other States. Mrs. Foster gave another illustrative exercise in primary teaching with a class of small children. After recess, Mr. Porter, Superintendent of Porter county, explained the metric system in an able manner. To the call of the roll eighty-six teachers responded, after which the morning session adjourned.

Mr. Esswein entertained the audience with a very instructive and pertinent talk upon the subject of compositions which was followed by Mr. Ragon, who dwelt mostly upon meridians and methods of measuring the surface of the earth. Prof. Dimon continued his work on analysis, mostly upon copulative verbs, attributes, compound subjects and predicates and participal modifiers. Ninety-five teachers were found to be present upon calling the roll.
After recess, Superintendent Porter delivered an address entitled "How Shall We Succeed." He looked at the subject from two standpoints, viz.: For the good of the citizen; 2d, for the good of the teacher. He made a number of good points, among which we noticed him to mention the necessity of cultivating adaptability to your surroundings, that there were two classes of teachers: hearers of lessons, and genuine teachers; that our schools will be just what we make them, and this depends upon our energy. No teacher must expect to succeed who closes his mind with the school house door at four o'clock. Never be late. Be a pattern of neatness. Look constantly to the comfort of your pupils. Always wear a cheerful appearance and strive to make the school-room just a little more attractive to the children than their homes. Not to make a long list of rules, for each one broken weakens the power of government, and avoid memorizing, because it has passed out of date. His remarks were full of good things. After some miscellaneous business, the Institute adjourned.

Opened by music and reading of minutes. The first ten minutes was occupied by Mr. Church upon the art of questioning, illustrating the topic of legal practice and suggestive questions. His remarks were good and much appreciated. He was followed by a few remarks on reading by Miss Helen Winslow. Mr. Truesdale illustrated proportion by analysis, and Mrs. Anna Brown gave a pleasant talk on rhetoric. Mr. Porter completed his work on the metric system. After recess Mr. Brown, of Valparaiso, took the floor, considering percentage and its applications, making his principal point on discount. During the morning- session there were ninety-one teachers and one hundred and twenty-three visitors present.

Mr. Stevenson continued his lessons in physiology, resuming the subject of the skeleton concluding with the eye. Mr. Brown then explained arithmetical and geometrical progression. After recess Mr. Belman spoke upon the verb and its inflexions. A discussion arose as to whether dreamed is always an intransitive verb. Mr. Brown finally decided that it was sometimes transitive. There were ninety-three teachers present. The Institute was honored by the presence of Prof. Swearingen and his three assistants from Hebron. After some announcements the Institute adjourned.

After the opening exercises Mr. Dimon concluded his work on analysis and was followed by Mr. Ragon upon tides. After recess Miss Anna Koupal gave a short talk on methods of spelling. Miss Cynthia Wood spoke of a method of introducing literature into recitations of advanced reading classes. Mr. Porter then gave some illustrative examples of methods in teaching numbers.

Mr. Belman completed his work in grammar during the first hour. Mr. Stevenson, chairman of the committee on resolutions read their report, as follows:
Whereas, We, the teachers of Lake county, Indiana, assembled in annual session for the purpose of improving our methods of instruction and of diffusing among ourselves that knowledge so requisite to our success as teachers and having passed a week of pleasant and profitable work do therefore,
Resolve, That we heartily approve the efforts of our worthy Superintendent in making this Institute a success by securing the best instructors at his command.
Resolved, That we gratefully recognize the kindness
shown us by the leading educators of Porter county.
Superintendent Porter and Brown, of the Valparaiso Normal, assisting in the instruction of our body of teachers. We express our sincere thanks to these gentlemen and hope for further cultivation of pleasant and neighborly relations.
Resolved, That a vote of thanks be tendered to the ladies and gentlemen who participated in the programme at the social Thursday evening, thereby rendering the occasion pleasant and entertaining for all.
Resolved, That we encourage and approve the payment of the sum of fifty cents by each applicant for a license during the coming year, the fund so derived to be known as the Institute fund and applied in securing the best instruction at our next annual session.
Resolved, That the Institute he held at Lowell next year, (this was lost by a vote of thirty against twenty-six.-Secretary.)
Resolved, That we respectfully protest against the custom of having one-fourth of each month's wages withheld until the close of our term of school and that, unless we are allowed a fair compensation for the fund so withheld, we request a discontinuance of the practice.
Resolved, That we believe the average pay of teachers in the county not in conformity to the standard of instruction required.
Resolved, That we notice with pleasure the effort-made by our County Superintendent regarding the grading of our schools and that this effort meets with a hearty response from all teachers of Lake county, who are striving for the highest aim in education.

All the foregoing resolutions, except one, as noted, were passed without a dissenting voice.
Mr. Cooper then addressed the meeting for a few mo-ments, thanking the teachers and friends for their attendance and interest taken. After the reading of the minutes, Prof. Dimon having obtained permission to speak about the educational column very adroitly turned his remarks into praise of the work of our county Superintendent and concluded by presenting Superintendent Cooper with a gold watch and chain in the name of the teachers of Lake county. Mr. Cooper was completely surprised, and for a moment speechless. "When he rose to respond the teachers rose in a body. He thanked the teachers, and among other things said whenever he looked upon the face of that watch he would see the faces of the teachers. After a song the Institute adjourned, and every one satisfied with the week's work. Respectfully submitted.
W. B. DIMON, Secretary.
A. H. GRIGGS, Asst. Sec.

Webster says, "Normal school, a school whose methods of instruction are to serve as a model for imitation; an institution for the education of teachers." Such schools, established many years ago in the East, have of late years sprung up abundantly in these North Central States. The first formal instruction of the kind, given in this county, was by T. H. Ball, who after the close of the Crown Point Institute opened a Normal school August 19, 1872. The first class was small. The session continued thirteen weeks. At the opening of that course of instruction three objects were proposed to the young teachers, which the course was designed to accomplish. These were: to increase the amount of their knowledge; to increase the amount of their culture; and to give instruction in regard to methods and ways of teaching. In carrying out this course, besides the special instruction in physiology and English analaysis, the special notes on orthography and the writing of a thousand carefully selected words, with some little text-book recitation, an outline was given and written out of United States history, and thirty short lectures were dictated, written, and, to quite an extent, committed to memory. These lectures included the different departments of Geography, and, as included in Physical Geography, Geology, also Botany, Zoology, Philosophy, Language, the English Language and its characteristics, Taste, Style, Varieties of Writing, Figurative Language, Read-ing, Chemistry, Mythology, Meteorology, and School Government.
For this outline of subjects the writer of this paper is largely indebted to Miss Emma Sherman of Crown Point, who was a member of that first normal class.
In indicating still more the design of this course the following extracts are given as taken from the teacher's opening address. "In doing this"-referring to the culture to be sought "with the increase of knowledge- "in some of the thirty lectures proposed in this course, I may give you some ideas concerning the whole range of the sciences, some knowledge of ail the liberal arts, some divisions and brief outlines of universal history, something concerning the rhetoric and logic, as well as the grammar of language, some account of the Roman and Grecian mythology, allusions to which are so common in some of the fine arts and general literature."

One other sentence from that address is also here quoted. "You are aware that in a school room a thing may be done negligently or carefully, awkwardly or gracefully, blunderingly or accurately, in a way which betrays ignorance or in a manner which is called scholarly."

Other terms followed this, year by year, the school taking for a time the name," Lake County Gymnasium and Normal School," in which, besides the special training of teachers, boys and young men were fitted for business pursuits, this school closing in 1879. In these seven years none of the classes were large; but quite a number who are now prosperous business men, and many who are now wives and mothers well situated in life, a few still continuing to be teachers, received in this school a portion of their training, and they will doubtless remember the first normal school of Lake.

The next normal schools were held by the county Superintendents, commencing in 1876. Superintendent McAffee held the first. He was assisted, during one term, by O. J. Andrews, who had attended the Normal at Englewood conducted by Prof. Wentworth. Dictated lectures were employed largely by Superintendent McAffee in giving instruction. An outline of his course of lectures is not at hand. His term commenced July 17, 1876, and continued six weeks. The rate of tuition was one dollar per week. The number enrolled was fifty-six, the average attendance was forty. One evening lecture was given.
His second term, or second school, was held in 1877, and his third in 1878.

W. W. Cheshire, who was the next Superintendent, held his first normal school in 1879. He employed mainly the method of topical recitation, reviewing the different branches required by the state law for elementary instruction, in which applicants for license were required to be examined. The pupils prepared their lessons from any text books at hand. Prof. Boone, of Frankfort, assisted Superintendent Cheshire in 1879, conducting the reading exercises, giving instruction in U. S. history by means of topical diagrams given for ' each lesson in advance, and teaching physiology in the same manner. Superintendent Cheshire gave each day written exercises in spelling, reviewing the words each week. Prof. Boone gave talks, or informal lectures, on general subjects, thus increasing the range of the knowledge of the members of the school. He advised them all to keep abreast with the general current of the important matters of the day. Prof. G. "W. Dale, an elocutionist, gave instruction in his department;" and also Prof. Eli B. Miller, another elocutionist. An agent for a publishing house at Cincinnati, visiting this school, offered two prizes which created considerable interest. The one was to the young man who, by the vote of the young ladies, should be declared to read in the best manner the extract from Shakespeare's Shylock on Mercy. The other was to the young lady who by the voice of the young men should be pronounced the best reader of Tennyson's Bugle Call. The latter prize was adjudged to Miss Lovina Stafford; the former to F. E. Cooper, the present Superintendent of schools in Lake county. Superintendent Cheshire held two normal institutes this year. The one, of which the foregoing notice treats was at Crown Point, commencing July 7, and the other at Lowell commencing September 2. The two were held fourteen weeks. Number enrolled in both one hundred and two. Number of instructors nine. Tuition per week seventy-five cents. Evening lectures three. See State Superintendent's Report for 1880.

Two other normal institutes or terms were held by W. W. Cheshire, both at Crown Point.
In the summer of 1880 Prof. Boone assisted for a short time, and by request of Superintendent Cheshire there was added to the course a series of short lectures on the Dark Ages, given by T. H. Ball.

Prof. Boone gave some instruction again in 1881, adding each year to the impression which he first made as a gentlemanly, cultivated scholar.

The next schools of this kind were held by Superintendent Cooper. Of the last one the following notes are at hand.

Superintendent Cooper opened on July 7, 1884 "a review term of eight weeks" in the public school building on North street in Crown Point. "He employed as assistant W. C. Belman, Principal of the Hammond school. The work to be covered was a review of the common branches and algebra together with instruction in theory of teaching." The Superintendent in the forenoon conducted recitations in arithmetic, geography, history, theory of teaching, and orthography. Principal Belman's work was in the afternoon of each day in grammar, reading, physiology, penmanship, and algebra. "The work was taken up by subjects and not by page or lesson."

The enrollment on the first-day was thirty-five, and reached eighty-nine during the term. Average daily attendance sixty-five. Of those enrolled nineteen were males and seventy females."
In the school of 1883 the assistants were W. C. Belman and H. H. Ragon. The course of instruction was somewhat similar to the course pursued in 1884.
The tuition for the school of 1884 was five dollars per term, and one dollar per week.
All the later normal schools have been held in the summer vacations.

1. Crown Point Public School. Gr. L. Voorhees, Superintendent, Miss L. Adams, Principal of high school department. In all ten teachers.
2. Hammond Public School. W.C. Belman, Superintendent. Miss Cynthia Wood, Principal of high school department. Number of teachers seven.
3. Lowell Public School. A. L. Stevenson, Principal. Teachers four. (This was the first school in the county to have a large two story building with ample rooms and well furnished. The township trustee was then M. A. Halsted, who is accustomed to do things on a large and generous scale.)
4. Hobart Public School. H. Church, Principal. Teachers four.
5. Tolleston Public School. L. M. Bassett, Principal. Teachers three.
6. St. Johns Public School. A. Gerlach, Principal. Teachers two. (The principal of this is a graduate of the "Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle," which provides a plan and a course of reading, covering, it is said, "the college curriculum," which course of study "over sixty thousand people are now engaged in prosecuting.")
7. Dyer Public School. William Esswein, Principal. Two teachers.
8. Shererville Public School. Michael Kolb, Principal. Teachers two.
9. Merrillville Public School. Silas Zuvers, Principal. Teachers two.
10. Brunswick Public School. W. G. Haan, Principal. Teachers two.
11. Lake Station Public School. Lee Shuman, Principal. Two teachers.
12. Whiting Public School. J. Q. A. Sparks, Principal. Teachers two.
Of course only five of these schools can be very thoroughly graded; and one only, the Crown Point school with its ten teachers, has as yet all the departments belonging to the American system of graded public schools. It may be added here also, that in the judgment of the writer, in all the schools in the county the natural sciences are too much neglected. Our State laws do not require as much in this department as do the laws of some other states; but teachers who will keep fully up with our age will go sometimes a little beyond mere state requirements.
The writer of this record hopes that the time will soon come when the various branches of study connected with the natural world will receive in the graded schools of his county much more attention.
Of the schools named above the most rapid in its growth has been the school of Hammond. The place itself as a town, now called a city, dates back about eleven years. In 1879 a small two story building was sufficient, with its two rooms and two teachers, to accommodate all the children that attended. The school was at that time graded as far as grading was practicable with only two teachers.

In 1881 the population increasing and the number of school children also, M. M. Towle, township trustee, erected a much larger two story building, seventy-five feet long by seventy wide, a building nearly square, on the corner of Hohman and Fayette streets. For a time three teachers occupied this building, and, the number of children increasing, a fourth was added. Miss Agnes Dyer was the first principal, Floyd Truax the second, and D. McKinney the third. In the fall of 1883 seven teachers were employed, W. C. Belman, Principal, now called Superintendent. In the fall of this year, 1884, the number of teachers remains the same: Total enrollment for the last year was four hundred and fourteen. Average weekly enrollment two hundred and forty-four. Average daily attendance, two hundred and twenty-six. The total enrollment for the coming year is expected to reach nearly five hundred.
For the facts above, in regard to the graded schools, I am mainly indebted to the county Superintendent, Frank E. Cooper, and for some of the facts in regard to the Hammond school, to W. C. Belman.

1884 Teachers

Crown Point School Statistics

Fall of 1884




Mrs. B.E. Foster

1st Primary


Miss Helen Cleveland

1st Primary


Miss Belle Livingston

2d Primary


Miss Mattie Dresser



Miss Frankie Doak



Miss Martha Haste



Miss Mary Martin



Miss Lizzie Adams

High School





Miss August Kopelke

German Language


George L. Voorhees

Supt. and Prof. of Nat. Science



The Teachers of 1884

L.M. Basset, Morgan Banks, W.C Belman, Fred Blaeser, Bernhard Boecker, R.W. Bacon, NJ. Buchanan, Asa Bullock, Fred Borusky, Harry Church, W.W. Collins, James Collins, John Daum, W.T. Dickinson, W.B. Dimon, Julius Echterling, Fred A. Ewer, William Esswein, E.E. Flint, Adam Gerlach, George Gadsby, C.C Griffin, W.G. Haan, Arthuur Hayes, Charles Harter, H.E. Kern, Michael Kolb, John Love, Thomas Lyons, Daniel McKinney, J.H. Mitchell, WW Northrup, George Norton, Joseph Portz, H.H Ragon, A.L. Stevenson, A.E. Swaine, Levi Spalding, Lee Shuman, J.M. Sholl, Charles Strong, C. J. Schmitt, George B. Sheerer,  John Spindler, I.L. Siegel, John Sparks, Joseph Sterling, Charles Spencer, Floyd Truax, George L. Voorhees, Joseph Weber, Benton Wood, Harvey Wood, James Westbay, H. Wunderlich, W.L. Weems, Silas Zuvers.  Also Charles Gadsby and Wesley Spencer.


Lizzie Adams, Abbie Austin, Dorcas Adams, Tillie Beattie, Lizzie Braginton, Annie Beattie, Rosa Brown, Carrie Bettes, Anna Brown, Mary Boyd, Mary Barnard, Hattie Bryant, Mattie Cox, Nettie Collins, Anna Collins, Minnie Chapman, Helen Cleveland, Lizzie Cornell, Letha Dickinson, Emma Dumond, Mattie Dresser, Frankie Doak, Agnes Dyer, Allie Driscoll, Mary Davidson, Jennie Davis, Bertha Edgerton, Lina Frazier, Luella Fessenden, Luella Fuller, Rose F. Fox, Lois Foote, Emma Fuller, Allie Falconer, Louise Gromann, Alice George, Annie Gromann, Nettie Gadsby, Inez Gibson, Alice Goodwin, Martha Haste, Pearl Holton, Clara Halfman, Eva Haskin, Theresa Helbich, Sale Hughes, Clara Irish, Mary Koch, Kate Knight, Augusta Kopelke, Helen Kobelin, Ida Keiser, Julia Krimbill, Mae Knight, Phebe Kelsey, Anna Kelley, Adeline Laible, Clara Lambert, Maggie Lennon, Madeline Laible, Jennie Lang, Belle Livingston, Kate Marble, Josie Maack, Belle McLeof, Mary Martin, Addie Meeker, Nellie Moburg, Nora Morgan, Mary McLaughlin, Susan McLaughlin, Alice Moloney, Rose Northrup, Ida Nicholas, Linnie Ousley, Amanda Pattie, Etta Parker, Annie Patten, Lovina Rankin, Ella Rollins, Sallie Routh, Lizzie Reeder, Effie Robbins, Fannie Roman, Alice Rollins, Lida Stiff, Lida Smith, Clara Spindler, Nettie Stone, Bertha Stillwell, Nettie Smith, Myrtle Spencer, Jennie Stewart, Sadie Starr, Della Spray, Mary Schulte, Mary Sullivan, Sister Sophia, Jennie Spindler, Mary Teely, Sylvia Underwood, Ruby Underwood, May Williams, Helen Winslow, Nina Ward, Effie Wilson, Anna Willis, Cynthia Wood, Henrietta Watts, Minnie Wilson, Etta Warner, Mary Welch, Maggie Williams, Clara Webb, Ervilla Young.  Also Mrs. Burdett Foster, Mrs. Minnie Ells and Mrs. Anna Thornton.


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