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1884 LAKE COUNTY INDIANA HISTORY

Source: Lake County, Indiana, 1884 : an account of the semi-centennial celebration of Lake County, September 3 and 4, with historical papers and other interesting records prepared for this volume
Authors: T H B; E H Woodard; Tuthill King; Charles W Cathcart
City of Publication: Crown Point, Ind.
Publisher: Printed at the Lake County Star Office
Date: 1884
Transcribed by K. Torp



III. HISTORICAL PAPERS
(continued)

OUR SUNDAY SCHOOLS.

A noted Roman matron when asked once to display her jewels presented her children. They were her jewels.
Paul, the great apostle to the Gentiles, once wrote to his Thessalonian brethren, "What is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing?" "Ye are our glory and joy." Combining the uninspired classic idea with the inspired classic statement, and we may well call the children of our Sunday-schools the glorious jewels in the crown of Lake.

To our public schools and to our Sunday schools we must largely look as the great means for promoting the intelligence and virtue of the coming generation.
Faithful family training connected with these will secure this result. And well do we know that intelligence and virtue combined are needful to perpetuate our free institutions. The true patriot will cherish the Sunday-school.

Sabbath-schools from the eastern centers moved at first slowly and then rapidly westward, until now they reach across the continent, from the Atlantic states to the very shores of the Pacific. In 1820 the first school was organized in what is now the city of Cleveland on Lake Erie. In the summer of 1832 the first Sunday-school was commenced, with about a dozen children, at Fort Dearborn on Lake Michigan, in a log-house, where is now the city of Chicago, Philo Carpenter of Chicago, being one of the first teachers. Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois are now among the "banner " and the leading Sunday-school states of the Union.

Unfortunately we have no records preserved that fix definitely the organization of the earliest schools in our county. The First Annual Report of the Secretary of Lake County Sunday School Convention " presented at Crown Point in August, 1867, contains the following:
"Before presenting the report of the present, it may be of interest to review and to place upon this record some facts in regard to the first Sabbath-schools in the county, which facts, unless thus recorded, will soon lie where their fellows already are, covered in the oblivion of the past." The facts as there recorded are: that Mrs. Russell Eddy, having come as a member of a. Baptist church in Troy, New York, from Michigan City, Indiana, gathered at her home, which was where the house of J.B. Peterson, Esq. now stands, a few children around her on Sunday afternoons and instructed them in the Scriptures. On account of the prejudices or indisposition to religion of her neighbors this little gathering of children was not called a Sunday-school; but her name no doubt has a right to stand among our Sunday-school workers as the first. The date to be placed here is probably 1837.

Also, that Baptist families from Massachusetts and New York settling at Cedar Lake and on Prairie West, and Methodist families in Pleasant Grove, began to hold religious meetings in their neighborhoods in 1838.

The Baptists formed themselves into a church June 17, 1838, which church was recognized by a council May 19, 1839; and they soon commenced at Cedar Lake a Sabbath-school. Also, that the Rev. J. C. Brawn from Valparaiso, then on his first mission exploring tour in this county, preached at Cedar Lake January 5, 1840, and soon commenced regular missionary labors at Crown Point, where, in the old log-court-house, in connection with the labors of the Baptist pastor from Cedar Lake, the Rev. Norman Warriner, a union Sunday-school was soon organized. It thus appears that two regular Sunday-schools were established at about the same time, one at Cedar Lake and one at Crown Point; but which was first, neither that report, nor any known records, nor yet the memory of the writer who was a member of both the schools, can enable any one now to determine. Nor can the date of the organization of either be certainly given. The probable date for Crown Point is 1840. This school was carried on by the Baptists and Presbyterians, and also by the Methodists after the settlement at Crown Point of the Rev. M. Allman in 1843. The school was removed to the Presbyterian church, when that was opened for religious services, and dropping the name of Union about 1856 it became the Presbyterian school which has continued until now, holding its last session in the old church building July 10, 1884. The date for Cedar Lake may also be 1840, or it may be some later. In a diary kept at Cedar Lake there is a record of the opening of the Sunday-school May 4, 1845, which is now supposed to have been are opening after an adjournment for winter. Perhaps nothing more definite than the forgoing can, in this fiftieth year be determined. This much seems to be certain: that the Baptists, having a church organization in the county some years earlier than the Presbyterians, united with them at Crown Point in the first regular, permanent Sunday-school, and organized at Cedar Lake at least the third school, the Methodists organizing the second. The founders of this Methodist school at Crown Point, whether it be counted as second or third, were the Rev. M. Allman and Cyrus Hathaway. The date is 1843. This school continues, "evergreen" as are all our town and village schools, unto the present time. The Cedar Lake school was removed to the prairie neighborhood southeast of Cedar Lake, Hervey Ball being its superintendent nearly all the time until 1867, and it is now the Creston school.

Leaving these three as the earliest known schools, there is next to be named the South East Grove school, organized in 1845, and the Deer Creek school in 1846; the former probably a union school for a time, now a prosperous Presbyterian school, one of the best in the county for contributing to the county work; and the latter, at first probably as now a Methodist school, small at present, having been more flourishing in former years.

There was organized July 14, 1846, at the house of Mrs. Farwell, in the present Hanover township, on the west side of West Creek, a very interesting little neighborhood school, Elder B. Sawin of Laporte being present, the teachers of the school going over from Cedar Lake; and four other schools were afterwards held along that narrow strip of our territory bordering on the state of Illinois and on the west side of West Creek. All of these however, as the population has so largely, almost entirely changed, were some time ago discontinued. In the extreme west of the county we have no school between Hammond and Dyer, and none south of Dyer except Reformed Lutheran and Catholic. In fact, but seven of our schools at present are situated west of that line that passes through the center of Red Cedar Lake.

The Orchard Grove school dates from 1849, and the Cedar Lake German from 1850. These both are Methodist schools and both are prosperous; the latter being an "evergreen " country school, and one of the large ones of the county. One of the Hobart schools dates from 1851, and the Plum Grove school from 1852. The Lowell Union and Lake Prairie schools both bear the date 1857, and the Crown Point Baptist was organized in 1860.

Besides these named above, there was a school at the Methodist West Creek church, in the Hayden neighborhood, perhaps as early as 1843, but that locality, like several other early centers of religious influence, has suffered from changes of the population. So that school has not been kept up. At Pleasant Grove, an early center of Methodist labors and influence, where resided along the years of 1846 and 1847 the families of the Rev. S. B. Lamb, the circuit preacher, and of the Rev. G. W. Taylor, a local preacher, there was at this time a Sabbath-school conducted by William McCarty, himself an earnest public school teacher and zealous Methodist. The first prepared public address to a Sabbath-school, which the writer of this paper, then a young Baptist, remembers ever to have given, was delivered before this school, in either 1846 or 1847, at the request of his young friend, W. P. McCarty. He has addressed a good many schools in his own state and in Illinois, in New England and in the South, in his thirty-eight years of active Sunday-school work since that beginning in his youth.

At Hickory Point, another of those early centers of Methodist influence, where a church building was erected, perhaps, in 1844, there was probably a Sunday-school organized, but its records do not seem to have reached our time. On Center Prairie, yet another early Methodist center, where lived the Payne and the Foley families, the home of the former being the place where the circuit and class meetings were held, and where once, if the memory of this writer is not at fault, a Methodist bishop preached, there was another early and quite primitive Sunday-school. This must have been between 1840 and 1844. It was a short-lived school. "In 1847 there was a school on the east side of Cedar Lake." Of other early schools, if there were any, I am sorry that records have not reached my hands. Although an active member of Sunday-schools in this county since 1840, and an attendant of Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic, Lutheran, and various other meetings since 1838, I do not claim to know the entire Sunday-school work.

Of the schools thus far mentioned none, probably, has in two respects such a record as the school at Plum Grove. Organized as a union school in the fall of 1852 by the Rev. William Townley, Joseph Bray of South East Grove Superintendent, afterwards Dr. Brownell, and later Allen Hale, about 1856 the main charge of the school devolved upon Mrs. M. J. Dinwiddie, who until within two or three years has generally been Superintendent and also a teacher, and this is now its peculiar record,-the attendance of all the members of one large family, the mother, the children, and the grandchildren, sixteen in number, at one time at this school. It is believed that no other school in the county has such a Sunday-school family as the Dinwiddie family, now numbering in all twenty-seven members, but never likely to be again members of one school. The other particular in which it is believed the record of this school is peculiar, is in sending out so many active Sunday-school workers into, other neighborhoods, in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska, and elsewhere in the West. Numbering sometimes eighty and even a hundred members, this school stands first in the county for its annual contributions to the county work, and it has continued through all its thirty-two years to be, as it was organized, a union school. For a number of years it was "evergreen."

Passing now beyond 1860, the following records are at hand. "Center Sabbath-school was organized 1864 by Mrs. Bell Mitchell. Re-organized 1869 by Joseph Bray." This school was afterwards carried on for a time by Miss Melissa Hain; and of late years it has been kept up largely by the efforts and influence of Mrs. Lizzie V. Pearce, one of the earnest and faithful Sunday-school workers of the county, who came to Crown Point in her girlhood, then Miss Lizzie V. Foster, in 1854. This Center school-house was formerly called Bryants, and in "Lake County, 1834," page 170, its date of organization is given as 1869, which, as appears from the above official record, furnished by the school secretary, J. P. Downs, was the date of re-organization. It is supposed, if a record could only be found, that a similar correction could be made, on that page 170, for Cedar Lake.

The following are the dates of organization of a few other schools: Lowell M. E. 1871; Hammond M. E. 1873; North-Street Baptist, German Methodist, German Evangelical, all at Crown Point, 1875; Free Methodists at Crown Point, January 30, 1881. In addition to the discontinued schools already mentioned, the four or five west of West Creek, two east of Cedar Lake, the Pleasant Grove, West Creek, and probably Hickory Point schools, the following may here be named as discontinued because of changes in population: Buncombe Union of 1861, Prairie View, Eagle Creek, Sand Ridge, Vincent, Ensign's, Fuller's, Clark's, Livingston, Underwood, Adam's, Hessville, and Robinson's Prairie. The last named school will probably be revived next spring.
The first Sunday-school celebration in the county was held at Crown Point about 1847. Its programme and records are not at hand. It comes to us by tradition.
There were, then, very few schools in the county, and this celebration was probably held by the Union School and the Methodist School of Crown Point.

CELEBRATION AT CROWN POINT 1854.

As the pastor of the Presbyterian church at that time, the Rev. William Towley, was a Sunday-school worker, it is probable that he arranged this celebration. Mrs. M. J. Dinwiddie, perhaps a few others, who yet remain among us, attended these exercises.

The first annual report says: "In the south part of the county, a small settlement of Christians from New Hampshire having been commenced on Lake Prairie, ANNUAL CELEBRATIONS were a few years ago commenced, held in the month of August, which were held at Lowell, Crown Point, and Cedar Lake." That celebrations were held each year after 1854 cannot be affirmed; nor can the date of the first one in this last and historic series be determined.-The date of the first flames celebrated at Olympia is not certain, although the First Olympiad begins B. C. 776.

The Lowell Union and the Lake Prairie schools date 1857; and leaving a blank beginning we start with these recorded celebrations thus:
Celebration at ---- 18--
Celebration at Lowell in August, 1863.
Celebration at Crown Point 1864.
Celebration at Cedar Lake 1865.

At this celebration, held on the east side of Cedar Lake, near Cedar Point, an arrangement was made to form a county organization, to be called a Convention, and a call was issued for a meeting to be held at Crown Point Sept. 16, in order to perfect that organization.

That organization was formed, September 16, 1865. The constitution provided, among other things, for holding "an annual union celebration of the Sunday-schools of Lake county."
It provided that a committee of arrangements should each year have charge of the grounds, on which the anniversary was held, and "regulate the exercises, recreations, and refreshments." That constitution was afterwards revised, and provision was made for holding quarterly meetings "in different parts of the county in February, May, and November," the anniversary meeting being held always, as a mass convention, "on the last Wednesday in August." Some trouble and anoyance being caused at some of these celebrations by persons desiring to introduce horse swings in order to make money, as is done at the county fairs, and to furnish refreshments for money, it was then determined by special enactment that no such form of recreation should be introduced upon the grounds on anniversary day, and that no refreshments of any kind should be offered for sale upon the grounds where the Convention met; and the custom was established that each school, or family, or group of friends, should bring such refreshments as they chose, and thus have on the grounds a basket dinner, the committee of arrangements of the school, with which
the Convention met, furnishing water and ice, if needful, free of expense, providing seats in some grove, and placing the grounds, for the time, under the charge of the officers of the Convention. The arrangement of the order of exercises for each year was left in the hands of the Secretary of the Convention. It was also enacted at an annual meeting at Lowell, that on important matters each school should have one vote, and as many more votes as the number of the school would allow counting twenty-five members for each extra vote. But this enactment, not having been carried out, can hardly be called now a a part of the written Or unwritten law of the Convention.

Having no recreations provided on the grounds, has, by the usage of many years, been thoroughly established, as has also the exclusion of sale of refreshments. The long noon hour is enjoyed by the children and teachers in eating and drinking and in social intercourse; the other hours are filled with various anniversary exercises.

The first officers of the Convention were, Hervey Ball, President; Rev. R. B. Young, Vice President; Rev. J. L. Lower, Secretary; M. A. Halsted, Treasurer.
First Anniversary, August, 1866, at Lowell. The constitution was revised. The President and Vice President re-elected. T. H. Ball was elected Secretary.
Second Anniversary, August, 1867, at Crown Point. Arrangements had been made for holding this year a two days' meeting, Tuesday being set apart especially for teachers. The following is a report in full.

TUESDAY, 10 A M.
Members of the Convention met, according to arrangements made by their executive Committee, with the Presbyterian Sunday School of Crown Point, to hold a Teachers' Convention. Present, by invitation, Rev. O. Adams, brother M. Smith, and Rev. N. D. Williamson, all of Chicago. After a season spent in devotional exercises, the President and Vice President of the Convention being absent, T. Cleveland, Esq., was appointed President, pro tem. The constitution adopted last year was read by the Secretary. The question was then taken up for investigation "How can the churches be most effectually enlisted in the Sabbath School work?" Remarks were made by Hon. D. Turner, by the Secretary, and by brethren Smith, Williamson, and Adams.

The time allotted to this question having been filled up, brother Williamson next presented "The office and duties of Superintendents and Teachers." He placed on the blackboard the Superintendent's arch, Pray,. Study, Work, Govern; Govern, Work, Study, Pray. On these he enlarged. A teacher required to possess Piety, to make Preparation, to manifest Punctuality and Perseverance, to labor for Paradise. Brethren Smith, Moore, and Adams followed. A Superintendent, said the latter, should be a man of decision, able to say yes or no, so as to govern; a man of judgment, so as to select teachers. He expressed the view that the principal of any school should have the power of naming his associate teachers. Noon having arrived the Convention adjourned until 2 p. M.

AFTERNOON SESSION.
Fifteen minutes were spent in devotional exercises.
On motion, Judge Turner was appointed a Committee on Resolutions.
An address on "The Art of Teaching" was then delivered by Rev. O. Adams.

RECESS OF FIFTEEN MINUTES.
The subject of "Teacher's Meetings" was then discussed by brethren Williamson and Smith. Different methods of conducting them were mentioned.
Remarks were next made on " Library management," and a number of written questions were answered by brother Williamson.
Adjourned till evening.
At 7 P. M. met on the Public Square for street preaching. At 8 P. M. listened to an address by brother Williamson. Subject, "Claims of the Sabbath School on the whole community." Thus closed an interesting day. Attendance during the day and in the evening good.

WEDNESDAY MORNING. .
The day opened with brightness and beauty. The Crown Point Sunday Schools met at their Sabbath homes then formed in procession on Main Street, the other schools of the county coming in in crowded wagon-loads, and forming in the ranks, all proceeded to the County Fair Grounds with banners and with music, making a procession such as Crown Point had never seen before. Arriving at the grove, addresses to the children were delivered by brethren "Williamson and Smith; after which an hour and a half was spent in partaking of a Basket Dinner, baskets well filled, enlivened by conversation and fine music discoursed by the "Julius Band" of Crown Point. Assembling again around the stand instruction was given in blackboard exercises and object lessons, and every school advised to possess and use a blackboard. At the close of these exercises the Secretary's report was read, which contained some accounts of the earliest Sunday Schools of the county and its religious history, the origin of the present organization, and the annual reports of the schools. Thirteen Sunday Schools reported, twelve of them more or less fully represented on the ground. Among these the Lowell Union reported by far the largest number of scholars; the Lake Prairie school the largest number of church members; the Lake Prairie and Methodist Episcopal of Crown Point the largest number of volumes; the Crown Point Baptist school the largest number of conversions during the year. The Orchard Grove and Lowell schools displayed upon the grounds the most showy banners. The Plum Grove School with its four-horse team, banner, and "stars and stripes," appeared on the street as the strongest force.

SUMMARY.
Number of schools reported, 13
Number of Teachers, --- 110
Number of Scholars, --- 790
Number of Volumes, --- 2020
Number died during the year, --- 6
Number hopefully converted, --- 32
Number of church members, --- 133
The oldest schools in the county are the Cedar Lake and Crown Point Presbyterian, the dates of the organizations of which are reported blank. The third is the M. E. school of Crown Point, organized in 1843.

Three schools were named not reported, and the whole Sabbath School force of the county will thus count up one thousand strong.

After the report remarks were made by Rev. Mr. Clarke, of La Porte, on the best means of reaching the destitution of the county. Resolutions were pre-sented by Judge Turner, officers for the coming year elected, and the Convention adjourned to meet next August with the M. E. School of Crown Point.

The President, H. Ball, made a few congratulatory and farewell remarks at the opening of the morning exercises, but being unable to preside, that duty devolved upon the Vice President, Rev. R. B. Young.
M. L. Barber, D. Turner, and G. Krimbill discharged the duties- of finance committee.
At 7 P. M. an audience again met on the public square for street preaching, and at 8 P. M. farewell exer-cises were held in the house of the M. E. church. Sever-al addresses were delivered, and the audience dispersed feeling that the friends, of Sunday-schools had enjoyed two profitable days. Brethren Adams, Williamson, and Smith left the impression that Chicago, with all its wickedness, contains many hard-working, earnest, Christian laborers. Honor to whom honor is due, and praise to whom praise.

OFFICERS FOR THE COMING YEAR.
President-Hiram Wason, West Creek.
Secretary-T. H. Ball, Crown Point.
Vice Presidents-Rev. R. B. Young, Crown Point; Rev. John Bruce, Hobart; Rev. Mr. Wells, West Creek; Dr. A. Brownell, Orchard Grove; Mr. Meyers, Cedar Lake; J. S. Sanders, Winfield; H. B. Austin, Lowell.
Executive Committee-Rev. A. Y. Moore, Smith Tarr, T. Cleveland.

RESOLUTIONS.
The following resolutions were offered by Judge Turner:
Resolved, That we recognize in the Sabbath-school work one of the great instrumentalities of God for the regeneration of the world, very dear and precious to every lover of souls, every lover of his country, and every lover of humanity.
2. That the Sabbath-school is among those causes that have the highest claims upon the substance, the labor, and the heart of every member of the community.
3. That the Sabbath-school has especial claims upon every Christian, and the times and land in which we live make it imperative upon every Christian to engage as teacher or scholar in the Sabbath-school as the Lord gives opportunity.
4. The great work of the Sabbath-school is the conversion of souls and their training in the activities and joys of Christian life.
5. That the work of the Lake County Sunday School Union is the establishment in every school district in the county of a Sabbath-school, for winter as well as summer, furnished with blackboard and all suitable requisites.
6. That we in dependence upon the Lord, will attempt this work and that as one means to its accomplishment we will seek the organization of auxiliary societies m every township.
7. That the executive committee be empowered to employ a laborer in the Sabbath-school work as soon as the way can be opened and funds raised for the payment of such laborer.

The following were offered by Rev. T. C. Stringer:
Resolved, That we tender our thanks to brothers O.D. Williamson, O. Adams, M. Clarke, and M. W. Smith for their presence and earnest, efficient labor among us during our Convention, and that we will pray that the blessing of God may rest upon their work wherever they may go, and that the same devotion to the Sabbath-school cause that characterizes them may rest on us.
That we are much pleased with the manner in which the "Julius Band " performed its part in the exercises of the day, and that we hereby tender its members our thanks.

Third Anniversary, August 1868, at Crown Point. Former officers re-elected.
Fourth Anniversary, August, 1869, at Crown Point.

E. Payson Porter of Chicago was present, and by request, spoke concerning the Newsboys' and Bootblacks' Mission of Chicago. Extracts from report. "The three Grove schools, Orchard, Plum, and South East, seem deserving of special notice for their four horse teams, banners, and large representations. Surely our Sabbath schools are no little part of the true glory of Lake. According to townships our schools are distributed thus: Hobart 2; Ross 2; Center 4; West Creek .5; Cedar Creek 2; Eagle Creek 3; Winfield 1; Hanover 1; in North and St. Johns none."
" Officers elected: President, EL Wason; Vice President, R. B. Young; Secretary, T. H. Ball."

Fifth Anniversary, August 1870, at Plum Grove.
"The gathering at Plum Grove was very large. Thirty schools were reported, and thirty places of Protestant Sabbath preaching. Officers of the former year re-elected. The report of this year says that " our county gathering dates back at least to 1854, when several small schools met in the Presbyterian meeting-house with the then Union Sunday-school of Crown Point, the Plum Grove School with its present superintendent but probably with few of its present scholars being one of those there gathered." "Five banners," that report further states, stood that day inside of those church walls. The report referred to the many young gentlemen and young ladies attending the Center school, then superintended by Miss Hain; to the religious statistics of the county, and predicted a fierce conflict that must soon be waged between the friends and the foes of the Bible and the Sabbath. Anniversary held this year August 31. Sixth anniversary, August, 1872, at Crown Point.

For the first time a dark and rainy morning. Meeting held in the Presbyterian church.
The Secretary reported that he had between September 3 of last year and August 25, of this year visited nearly all the schools of the county. He reported that the Lowell Union school, was closed in 1871, denominational schools taking its place. He reported in Deer Creek school fifteen conversions, "also reporting the number of children in each township of the county, and number of families classified according to their church relationship." Addresses were delivered by the Rev. M. M. Stolz, Judge Turner, the Rev. J. Bruce, and the Rev. S. Fleming. Officers elected: "President, Rev. R. B. Young; Secretary, Rev. T. H. Ball; Vice Presidents: Hobart, O. R. Spencer; Ross, J. Underwood; Center, C. L. Hannaman; Winfield, J. S. Sanders; Hanover, H. Frevert; West Creek, Rev. H. Wason; Cedar Creek, G. W. Handley; Eagle Creek, E. M. Robertson."
Eighth Anniversary, August 27, 1873, at Crown Point.
"The Secretary reported twenty-seven schools and whole number of members 1162." "Election of officers. Rev. Dr. Fleming, President. Rev. T. H. Ball, Secretary. Vice Presidents, Rev. H. Wason, J. L. Worley."

Ninth Anniversary, August, 1874, at South East Grove.
"Hon. D. Turner was elected President, Vice Presidents, Rev. H. Wason, Rev. J. Bruce."

Tenth Anniversary, August 25, 1875, at Crown Point.
Extracts from Secretary's report. "One decade of years has thus passed away, and as the years have passed a few of the prominent Sabbath-school laborers have ceased from their earthly toil. Some have sought other homes and entered on new labors. Many of the children have grown up, and, as they leave the ranks of childhood, too many of them also leave the great Sabbath-school Army. It is true that others come in and take, their places, as children throng the passage ways of life in this world; but for them, for their best interests, it would be well to enlist for life in so great and good a cause."

"Thirty schools reported. In North township 3; Hammond, Ridge, and Tolleston, German Lutheran. In Hobart township 1; Hobart Union. In Ross township 5; Ross, Merrillville, Hickory Grove, Vincent's, and Hurlburt's. In Hanover township 1; Cedar Lake German Methodist. In Center township 8; Prairie View; Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Evangelical, German Methodist, Lutheran, North Street, in Crown Point. In Winfield township 2; Deer Creek, Leroy Union. In Eagle Creek township 4; South East Grove, Center, Eagle Creek, and Plum Grove. In Cedar Creek township 6; Orchard Grove, Robinson's Prairie, Pleasant Grove, Cedar Lake, Lowell M. E., and Lowell Union. In the county Catholic cathechetical classes 8." A new Lowell Union school had now been organized, a union of the "Christians" and Baptists.

"Population of the county, in round numbers, 15,000. Public school children 5,000. Sunday-school force 1,800. Instructed Catholic children about 1,500. S. S. children not reported about two hundred. Without regular religious instruction 2,000."

Another extract. "On the youth of cultivated minds of this generation, in this land, resting or soon to rest responsibilities greater than on any other equal number of mankind. In the public schools religion is not to be taught. In the Sunday-schools the children are to learn to love right, to understand the laws of the two primeval institutions, the Sabbath and marriage, and to avoid intemperance, thus diminishing the three great evils of our land, Sabbath desecration, violation of the marriage covenant, and the use of intoxicating drinks. To these evils the public school teaching offers but little resistance. The great bulwark of defence the teachings that come directly from the Bible."

Extract from the records. "The Leroy Union school, from Cassville, arrived first in Crown Point. Soon after came the Plum Grove and Robinson Prairie schools. Next in order arrived the South East Grove and Center schools. These schools came in strong force, the Leroy School procession led by a six-horse team, the Plum Grove banner wagon being drawn by four horses and carrying twenty-four persons, the Prairie school having two four horse teams."
"Election of officers. President, H. Boyd; Vice President, Dr. W. B. Andrews; Secretary, T. H. Ball."
Eleventh Anniversary, August 30, 1876, at Crown Point.

Number present estimated at one thousand. "Officers re-elected. A heavy rain-fall in the afternoon broke in upon the exercises."

Twelfth Anniversary, August, 1877, at Lowell.
J. L. "Worley elected President; O. J. Andrews, Secretary. No records at hand. A shower again.
Thirteenth Anniversary, August, 1878. at Crown Point.
No records. Officers probably re-elected. A shower.
Fourteenth Anniversary, August, 1879, at Cedar Lake, at Cedar Point.
J. L. Worley elected President, Rev. T. H. Ball, Secretary,. Rev. H. Wason, Treasurer.
Fifteenth Anniversary, August, 1880, at Crown Point.
As this year was celebrated by the Sunday-school world as their first hundredth year, the following from the Secretary's book is inserted in full.

ANNIVERSARY EXERCISES OF THE CENTENNIAL YEAR.
The following was the order of exercises at the North Street concert Monday evening, August 23.
1. Opening words, among which the Saviour's teachings from the lilies and the birds were named. A Beautiful lily from the green-house of the variety called amaryllis, with five flowers in full bloom, with large boquets of beautiful flowers, adorned the room.
2. Prayer.
2. Singing.
3. A Scripture exercise, Ps. 136 and 107 read by four voices.
4. A recitation by Miss Addie R. Woodard, "The Old Story."
5. A poem read by Miss Cynthia Wood, "ComiIng"
7. Singing
8. An article from the Sunday-school Times, "Tempted to give up," read by Rev. T. H. Ball.
9. A recitation by Miss Alice Palmer, "The Land of Light."
10. A recitation by Miss Ella Clay, "All in Bloom."
11. A song by Miss May Saylor.
12. Recitation by Miss G. E. Ball, "The Seen and Unseen."
13. Singing.
Closed with prayer by Rev. O. C. Haskell.
A good and appreciative audience was present; and the exercises, occupying one hour and a quarter, were of choice selections, well prepared, and well rendered.

TUESDAY AFTEROON EXERCISES.
A number met for Sunday-school institute work at the M. E. church.
The President of the county Convention, J. L. Worley, occupied the chair. Rev. H. Sheeley, pastor of the Presbyterian church of Lake Prairie was present; also Mrs. Dinwiddie and Miss Mary Dinwiddie from Plum Grove. Three of the schools in Crown Point were represented by teachers present. After a season spent in devotional exercises, an essay was read by O. J. Andrews. Remarks were made by Rev. H. Sheeley.

The following question was then presented: What means can we employ to secure more conversions among the children?
Remarks were offered by Judge Turner, Mrs. Wood, and others. The discussion was earnest and instructive.
The question of uniting with the State Union was deferred till Wednesday.

TUESDAY EVENING
An essay was read by Rev. M. Carson, and questions concerning the creative days, the first man, the deluge, and the work of the Holy Spirit, were discussed by Judge Turner and Rev. T. H. Ball.

WEDNESDAY, MASS CONVENTION EXERCISES.
1. Opened with Singing, Ps. 24 and 23, and prayer by Rev. O. C. Haskell.
2. Address of welcome by Rev. T. H. Ball, in the absence of others, with a response from the President.
3. Singing by the Lowell M. E. school.
4. Report of Secretary.
5. Singing by the Crown Point Schools.
6. Basket Dinner.
7. Singing by the Cedar Lake German school and the Handley school.
8. Ps. 121 and 122 and the Lord's Prayer by the North Street Baptist school.
9. Address by Rev. Mr. Doering, German Methodist pastor.
10. Singing by Plum Grove school.
11. Catechetical exercise on the first twelve most noted men of the Bible narrative. The following were named as these men:
Adam, because he was the first man;
Abel, because his name stands first in the eleventh of Hebrews as eminent for faith;
Enoch, because he walked with God and was translated ;
Noah, because he was the one righteous man when "the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished;"
Abraham, because he was the father of the faithful, with whom the great covenants were made;
Melchizedec, because he was the priest of the most high God, the king of Salem, greater than Abraham, the one priest after whose order Jesus Christ as an everlasting priest was made;
Isaac, because he stood next to Abraham in receiving the Messianic promises;
Jacob, because he received the same promises, the land grant being confirmed to him "for an everlasting covenant;"
Judah, because he was the head of the kingly tribe, in whose line came the Messiah;
Levi, because he was the head of the priestly tribe;
Joseph, because he became ruler of Egypt and his sons Ephraim and Manasseh were adopted by Jacob to become the heads of Jewish tribes;
Moses, because he was a great prophet, the leader chosen to deliver his nation from Egyptian bondage, with whom God spake face to face as a man speaketh to his friend.
12. Singing by the Cedar Lake German school.
13. The question in regard to becoming auxiliary to the State Union was referred to the superintendents of the county, to report to the Secretary.
14. The present officers were re-elected.
15. Singing by Crown Point schools.
16. Appointed the next anniversary to be held at Cedar Lake, the next quarterly meeting to be at Merrillville.
17. A vote of thanks to Mr. Prier, for the use of the old Fair Ground, was passed. Adjourned.

Sixteenth Anniversary, August, 1881, at Cedar Lake, in the south-west or Nitchie grove.
Record extracts. "August 29, 30, and 31,1881." "On Monday night a fair audience was present at the North Street Baptist church, and the programme, as previously announced, was, for the most part, carried out. Sixteen girls and young ladies took part in the exercises. On Tuesday morning, afternoon and evening, something was done in inaugurating 'institute work." On Wednesday the 'mass-meeting' of the Convention was held at Cedar Lake." "Most all of the older members of the- Convention now in the county were present. * * * *

It was indeed a reunion of Sabbath-school friends, some of whom had not been able to attend such a meeting for nine years." The Secretary reported twenty-five schools, eighteen of which he had visited when they were in session. He reported the largest infant class in the Methodist school at Hobart, numbering eighty-five, and the second at Lake Prairie, numbering thirty-three. Officers re-elected: the following being added as Vice Presidents: West Creek, Rev. J. H. Dueringer; Cedar Creek, J. Curtis; Eagle Creek, Mrs. Dinwiddie; Winfield, Orson Bacon; Center, H. Farmer; Hanover, H. Meyer; Ross, Amos Homer; Hobart, Mrs. Kean; North, A. Winslow. Arrangement was made at this anniversary for holding annually, a Sunday-school institute in the second week of September. The institute was to be held, until further arrangement was made, at Crown Point.
Seventeenth Anniversary, August 30,1882, at Lowell.
The Secretary reported twenty-six schools. Officers re-elected.
An institute was held the second week in September this year, according to arrangements made at Cedar Lake. Quite a number attended, and the exercises seemed to be interesting and profitable. Considerable interest was elicited at the public meeting Tuesday evening in examining the following ten questions on some of the women of the Bible:

1. Of how many women of the Bible narrative do we know the full age?
2. Of how many women is the burial in the cave of Machpelah recorded?
3. How many women and what women are especially mentioned in the Messianic genealogy?
4. How many of these were Gentile women ?
5. Which women in the Messianic line were noted for personal beauty?
6. Which woman in this line was noted especially for her virtues?
7. What Marys are mentioned in the New Testament, and how are they distinguished from each other?
8. Who was the mother of the sons of Zebedee?
9. Who were five early most noted female Christian workers? perhaps what are now called lay preachers.
10. To what women mentioned in the New Testament did angels appear?

Eighteenth Anniversary, August 29, 1883, at Crown Point.
Extract from the record.
The representatives of the schools composing this organization met in their annual Convention on Wednesday, August 29, 1883, at the Fair Ground. The day was delightful for a large public gathering. The abundant shower of Monday night had removed all the dust; the wind and sunshine of Tuesday had sufficiently dried the surface of the ground; and the cool northern air and bright sunshine of Wednesday were all that could be desired for out-of-door enjoyment.
Many of the schools were present with large delegations, the Hammond school representatives numbering 170. Among the others may be named: the Plum Grove and Orchard Grove, the South East Grove and Center, the Lake Prairie, the Cedar Lake, the Crown Point Methodist and Presbyterian, the Merrillville and Butler, and the Lake Union. Other schools were represented by smaller numbers. The entire assembly numbered over a thousand, perhaps amounting to fifteen hundred. Some estimated the number at two thousand. Fine banners and large excursion wagons were, as usual on this day, prominent and attractive sights. Brethren Winslow, Patten, Griggs, and Witherell, of the Methodist school, deserve special commendation for their zeal in taking back and forth large loads of children, some of the loads numbering between thirty and forty persons.
The Lake Union and Hammond schools were present for the first time.
The large and interested assembly, the number of schools represented, and the Secretary's report, all indi-cated the prosperous condition of the Sunday-school work in the county.
An institute was held again in September of this year, preceded by a Children's Meeting of which the following is a report.

A children's meeting was held at the Methodist church on Sunday evening, September 9, as introductory to the S. S. Institute. The house was nearly filled with an attentive audience. The following questions were proposed to the children:
1. Why do we need a Saviour? Answer. Because we have all sinned.
2. Why did God provide for us a Saviour? Answer. Because he loved us.
3. Must we do anything, or nothing, or what must we do in order to enjoy the salvation provided? Answer. Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ.
4. How may we find out whether our names are in the Lamb's Life Book? Not answered.
5. Who are Christ's Lambs? Not fully answered.
6. Who are Christ's sheep? Not answered.
7. Ought everybody to pray? Answer. Yes.
8. Do you know the Lord's prayer? Answer. Yes.
9. Did you ever hear the petition, "forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us?" Answer. Yes.
10. Where did we get the petition, that form of words? Not answered. Some thought it came from the Bible. Some thought it was not in the Bible.

The 13th chapter of 1st Corinthians had been read by Rev. E. Schell, from the Revised Version, in the opening exercises. After the questions, addresses were made to the children on Faith, Hope, Love, by Rev. B. E. S. Ely, Rev. T. H. Ball, and T. Cleveland, Esq., after which was given, question 11. Compared with faith and hope, why is love called the greatest? Answer. Because love makes us the most like God. See 1 John 4: 16. The following pieces were sung as found in Gospel Songs. No. 1, Nos. 41, 29, 68, 72, 62, 29.

Nineteenth Anniversary August 27, 1884, at Crown Point.
The Sunday-school gathering was this year, as usual, large and attractive; the last Wednesday in August having -become one of the great days of the year for us in Lake; and as in a few days was to be held, in the same grove, our semi-centennial celebration as a county, unusual interest was felt by some in this anniversary. A large extract is made from the Secretary's Reports.
The sixtieth anniversary of the American Sunday School Union has this year been held; the fourth International Convention has met; our State Union has held its twentieth anniversary; and we, as an organization, have now reached our nineteenth; but the thirtieth year in fact of our meeting together as schools. For our records state that we have met as Sabbath schools with more or less regularity since 1854, when several small schools met in the Presbyterian church at Crown Point, five banners, it is said, standing that day within those walls. Those walls are no longer standing; that house with all its many associations, dear to other hearts, besides those of the Presbyterian congregation, associations that go back nearly forty years, was taken down two weeks ago to give place to a larger building; but the Sunday-school force of the county has been growing year by year, as a building cannot grow, until now no walls in the county of Lake can hold the assembled multitude. And the Sunday-school army of the world has been growing year by year, month by month, until it numbers now of scholars 15,775,093, of teachers 1,883,431, nearly 18,000,000 in all, about one half of all being in the United States of America. Our exact figures are 98,303 schools, 7,668,833 scholars, and 1,043,718 teachers, an army large enough, if thoroughly disciplined and drilled, to take the land; to take and to hold for the Lord Jesus Christ. Well has some one lately said, "There is no reform so sure of success as that which finds its enthusiasts among the children. The girls and boys of tgday are growing up to be the sovereigns of tgmorrow; and their thoughts and their theories will then rule the world." And well said Senator Miller of New York, addressing the public school teachers of his state, "The future of all legislatures, judiciaries, and executives is in the keeping of the educational department; whether they shall wisely provide for the public good, honestly interpret the laws, and faithfully execute them, depends upon the honesty of the work done by our teachers.

The three hundred thousand teachers, with more than ten millions of pupils under their charge, reaching into and taking hold of the heart strings of every family in the land, constitute a power which, when directed toward the achievement of any reform in society or government, cannot be successfully resisted by any opposition or combination of opposing forces." What is thus stated in regard to the public schools ought to be abundantly true of the Sun day-schools. We have three-fourths as many children in the Sunday-schools as in the day schools: we have more than three times as many teachers; but I fear that many of these teachers are not one third as well drilled and fitted for their work, and therefore are not accomplishing one half of what they might accomplish. In our county the Sunday-school teachers do not, to any extent, attend teachers' institutes, they are not making their conscious and their unconscious influence all tend to leading the children to virtue and to God. Yet the one million of Sunday-school teachers are in this land and for good a mighty force, one of the greatest moral forces in the land. They believe in the Bible, they teach the Bible, a book that has in this land many opposers, but the stoutest of these must pass away. A few years ago Ralph Waldo Emerson died, a man influential above any other in leading young men into skepticism. This year the last meeting, it is said, was called for that school of infidel philosophy. The distinct utterance of the Sunday-school world is,
" We wont give up the Bible, God's holy book of truth, The blessed staff of hoary age,
The guide of early youth;
The lamp which sheds a glorious light
O'er every dreary road,
The voice which speaks a Saviour's love,
And leads us home to God."
Taught in this ever-living book, Christianity must go forth conquering and to conquer. He who finds himself losing his confidence in the Bible is also losing his living faith m the Saviour. Hope for one, then, rests in a deeper fact, that the Saviour himself holds fast to the doubting and darkened soul. Glad and grateful should we all be that we live in a world of remedies; where poisons and diseases have their antidotes and cures; especially where there has been established by infinite wisdom a great moral and spiritual remedial system. Let us look at our individual schools.

ABSTRACT OF REPORT.
The names of the schools will be first given with the number of scholars, and teachers and officers, in each.
South East Grove, 60.7; Plum Grove, 80.7; in Eagle Creek township. Orchard Grove, 65.6; Lowell Union, 85.12; Lowell M. E. 75.10; Creston, 55.7; in Cedar Creek township. Lake Prairie, 70.5; Pine Grove, 55.8; in West Creek. Cedar Lake German, 63.13; in Hanover. Red Cedar, 30.5; Crown Point Evangelical 25.7; North Street Baptist, 30.6; Crown Point German M. E., 25.8; Crown Point Free Methodist, 30.9; Crown Point Presbyterian, 85.16; Crown Point Baptist, 80.8; Crown Point M. E., 143.18; in Center. Deer Creek, 23.6; Winfield, 28.6; in Winfield. Handley, 25.6; Hurlburt, 60.10; Ainsworth, formerly Hickory top, or Hickory Grove, 50.8; Merrillville M. E. 72.10; Butler, 25.5; in Ross. Dyer, 45.7; in St. Johns. Sheffield, 28.5; Hammond, German M. E., 20.5; Hammond M. E., 200.18; in North. Ross, 40.6; in Calumet. Lake Home, 112,10; Hobart German M. E., 40.8; Hobart Christian, 80.10; Hobart M. E., 125.12; in Hobart.

In all 33 schools, 2029 scholars, 284 teachers. Largest infant class at Hammond, Miss Alice Sohl teacher. Number in class reported 75. (Now, December 1884, numbering 104.) In addition to these we have, Unitarian school at Hobart, 120; Lutheran school, German, at Hobart, 60; Lutheran, Swedish, at Hobart, 40; Lutheran, German, at Tolleston, 50; Lutheran, German, at Crown Point, 65; Reformed Lutheran in Hanover, 50; Hollanders, 80; arid, Catholic schools, Crown Point, 70; Dyer, 96; Schererville, 90; St. Johns, 80; Hanover Center, 50; Klassville, 39; Turkey Creek, instructed but not a church school, 40; Lowell, instructed but not a church school, 30; Hammond, no school, 100. Also Lutheran children at Hammond, 30; and in Center, 25; and Reformed Lutheran in Center, 20.
The number of children as enumerated for the public schools this year is 5530. The number of these in the different townships is the following, the other number attached shows the number of public school houses: Hobart 537, 8; Calumet, 354, 6; North, 941, 9; Ross, 420, 15; St. Johns, 594, 8; Winfield, 175, 7; Center, 1057, 14; Hanover 319, 6; Eagle Creek, 210, 7; Cedar Creek, 559, 10; "West Creek, 364, 12. Putting together the figures that have been given above and we have for children receiving religious instruction in schools of some kind the following, the other number attached showing the number of Sunday-schools in each township: Hobart 537, 5; Calumet, 90, 1; North 458, 3; Ross, 272, 5; St Johns, 345, 1; Winfield, 51, 2; Center, 663, 8; Hanover, 203, 1; Eagle Creek, 140, 2; Cedar Creek, 255, 4; West Creek, 125, 2. Taking these numbers from the others and we have, for the number of children in each township without religious instruction in any schools, the following:
Hobart, 00; Calumet, 264; North, 483; Ross, 148; St. Johns, 249; Winfield, 124; Center, 394; Hanover, 116; Eagle Creek, 70;-(some of these probably attend the schools of Hebron, in Porter county;) Cedar Creek, 304; West Creek, 239. Total 2400.

As Hobart township alone contains according to these figures, no children without religious instruction, and as it is certain that in the north part of the township there are such children, it would seem that either the schools of Hobart count the same children twice, or that they report a larger proportionate number than the other schools of those who are over twenty-one years of age and under six. As nearly all the schools report some of these two classes, the numbers given above are too small rather than too large for those who are not in any of the schools. It appears that Center, North, St. Johns, and Winfield, contain two more than one-half of all the enumerated children of the county, and in these four townships there are but fourteen schools. Crown Point contains (740 or 738) twgfifteenths of all the children of the county, and reports seven schools. The entire population of our county may be placed at. 16000. Counting now our 2029 scholars, 284 teachers, and 1030 for the Catholic, Lutheran, and Hollander children, and more than twenty per cent, of our population receive religious instruction in schools or classes. Eighteen and one-fourth is the average for the state of Indiana.

EXERCISES OF THE DAY.
Returning now to the anniversary exercises, these were arranged largely for the interest of the children and not for the teachers. The motto for the programme was, WHAT WE ARE DOING.
After the devotional exercises an address of welcome was given by the Rev. L. A. Clevenger, songs were given by many of the schools, and various class exercises. Three recitations were given by young ladies: "This shall be Immanuel's land," by Miss Minnie Chapman of Sheffield school; "The Great Famine Cry," by Miss Alice George of South East Grove: and the "Two Banners," by Miss Bertha Edgerton of Creston. The little children of the various infant classes, gathering in one band, joined in singing "What a Friend we have in Jesus," and then united in the Lord's Prayer. It was beautiful to see that large band of little children from different parts of the county, the voices of so many of whom had never united in song and prayer before. And perhaps some of them never will again till they meet "around the throne."

The weather was very pleasant. The basket dinner was enjoyed as usual. The estimated number present was two thousand. The following officers were elected: President, J. L. Worley, Vice President, Rev. H. Wason, Secretary, Rev. T. H. Ball, Treasurer, Perry Jones. And so, amid the enjoyment of one more large and interesting gathering, the nineteenth anniversary ended.
The twentieth is to be, Providence permitting, next August at the city of Hammond.

CONCLUSION.
It is time for this paper to close. A full view of our more than fifty schools, as opened and carried on in these fifty years, would include a notice of very many delightful gatherings around Christmas trees; of many pleasant and instructive concerts held; of many picnics, held by our northern schools on the shore of Lake Michigan, and by the southern and central schools in our groves and on the banks of the Lake of Cedars; and, better still, of the thousands of hours spent in the quiet study of the Sacred Scriptures, those Scriptures which are able to make even children "wise unto salvation," of the sweet melodies and beautiful words of the school songs, especially sweet and beautiful as breathed forth by child voices into the ears of the angels and of God, as into human ears and reaching surely human hearts; and, richest and best of all, of the young hearts that through these teachings have been drawn heavenward m thought and love, and with love and obedience springing up within have gone from our homes to Paradise. But of all these no record is kept on earth; of the best of these the only true record is above. Let us hope that many will have cause, in the world of light, to give praise to God for the Sabbath songs and Sabbath teachings, for the Sabbath-schools and Sabbath-school teachers, of this county of Lake. Their best record is on high.


THE CATHOLIC HISTORY OF LAKE.

It will appear from the Report on page 9, that this subject was assigned to GEORGE GERLACH of St. Johns, a leading business man of that town and township, and an intelligent Catholic member. He, however, had reasons which required him to decline the appointment; and the compilation of the facts has fallen into the hands of the editor of this volume.

So far as our records show the first Catholic settler in Lake county was JOHN HACK, who was born in one of the Rhine provinces in 1787, and settled with his family on Prairie West near the present St. Johns, in 1837. He died in 1856. One of his sons and five of his grandsons are now prominent business men and manufacturers in Crown Point. A beautiful incident occurred, in which he was an actor, in connection with the burial, on that little mound at the head of Cedar Lake, of the remains of the first wife of Henry Sasse Senior. The latter was the first Lutheran pioneer as the former was the first Catholic. At the time of the death of Mrs. Sasse, Lutheran or Catholic minister or priest, or church even, there was none near, and the pioneer American neighbors assembled, as usual, to bear the remains from the house to the little neighborhood burial spot. The grave had been dug, the body was deposited, and there seemed to be need for some religious service. Then the tall, dignified form of John Hack, the Catholic," stood by the grave and he read, in the German language, we the Americans supposed, for his Lutheran neighbor and friend a burial service. It mattered little in that wild, and to that gathered group, either to the living or to the dead, whether that service was Catholic or Lutheran in its form; it was enough, then and there, that it was CHRISTIAN, that it recognized mortality and immortality, human need and a Saviour. So far as may now be learned this was the first burial of a Lutheran in the county, and that such religious services as these were should have been conducted by a Catholic layman, was creditable surely to the religious principles of both. This was in 1840, in the month of June. The next Catholic families settling near the spot chosen for a home by John Hack were those of Joseph Schmal, Peter Orte, Michael Adler, and Matthias Reeder, in 1838. Other families followed these, and soon quite a German Catholic settlement was formed. As the years passed along settlements were made by other German immigrants in other parts of the county, principally in the western and northern parts. Each large neighborhood soon required a church building, a resident pastor or priest, then a cemetery, for death comes everywhere, and at length a school, for life also is everywhere and children come into most all of our homes.

The following are the churches of this denomination in the county.

1. Church of St. John the Evangelist, at St. Johns. The first chapel was built in 1843, being the first in the county, and on land then owned by John Hack and near his home. The present brick church was built in 1856. Number of families 110. Pupils in school 80. The pastor of this church, the Rev. A. Heitmann, has been at St Johns since 1870. He is an estimable Christian gentleman, with whom the compiler of this paper has had for many years a pleasant acquaintance.
2. Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, at Turkey Creek.
The first log church or chapel was built about 1852. The present church built of Joliet stone in 1864. Families about 40. No church school. Children 40, taught in public school.
3. Church of St. Anthony, at Klassville. 1861. Number of families about 40. Pupils in school 39.
4. Church of St. Peter and St. Paul at Lake Station. 1861. Number of families 7. No church school.
5. Church of St. Joseph, at Dyer. 1867. Number of families 100. Pupils in school 96.
6. Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, at Crown Point. 1867. Number of families 80. Pupils in school 70. Among the pastors here at Crown Point the compiler of these statistics takes pleasure in naming two with whom he became specially acquainted and found them to be very scholarly gentlemen, who made the impression upon him as being also brethren in Christ. These were the Rev. H. Meissner and the Rev. Aegidus Hennemann. The former is now at Peru, Indiana; the latter died at the Hotel Diew in New Orleans, December 24, 1883. With others here and in other parts of the county, except at St. Johns, this writer has become but very slightly acquainted; but he believes that all who have ever read "In His Name," a story of the Middle Ages, and all who share in the noble spirit which in that thrilling narrative is exemplified, will feel that it would be well if ministers of different churches knew each other better. All who are truly worthy would surely respect and love each other more.
7. Church of St. Martin, at Hanover Center. 1869. Number of families about 60. Number of scholars in school 50.
8. Church of St. Michael, at Schererville. 1874. This church building is one hundred feet by forty-four, the building costing $5,000, the altar and furnishing and inside finish $3,000. Total cost, $8,000. Number of families 100. Pupils in school 90.
9. Church of St. Bridget, at Hobart. Number of families 25.
10. Church of St. Edward at Lowell. 1877. Number of families 28. No church school. Children 30.
11. Church of St. Joseph at Hammond. 1879. Number of families 125. No church school. Children
100. Cost of church buildings $3,500. One acre of ground belongs to this church.
Whole number of Catholic families seven hundred and fifteen.
Since the above was written the folio wing full record of the church at Lowell has been furnished, prepared by a zealous, well informed member of that church. It is therefore added here.

ST. EDWARD'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
In the year 1866 the Rt. Rev. John H. Luers, Bishop of Fort Wayne, came to Lowell to visit the few Catholic families residing in the town and country. During his visit he spoke of the necessity of building a church, and on the 14th of May he actually bought a lot of Mr. J. Clark, situated in the northeast part of the town, comprising nearly two acres. For said lot the sum of $200 was paid. The Rt. Rev. Bishop donating $100, Mr. W.

Russell signing a note for the other hundred, which was subsequently paid with interest of $19. At the same time Mr. W. Russell was appointed by the Rt. Rev. Bishop to put up a frame church.
Nothing however was done in the matter till in February 1869 when subscription was taken up by Mr. Russell to buy the material for the church, whilst Mr. Russell promised to put up the building free of charge. The money was paid in and the building of the church began that spring.
Meanwhile, the church being put up, Rev. Father Miser, from Crown Point came down and had service in the brick building at the time vacant, but now known as Specker's mill. The first service held in the new church was in May 1869.

It seems as if Father Miser came to Lowell four times in four months, holding service twice in the factory and twice in the new church.
The congregation at that time numbered ten practical families.
There was no service in the church from May 1869- May 1878 when Rev. Father Siegalac from Cedar Lake paid a visit and held a sort of three day mission. This was the only time he came to Lowell.

Another year passed away while the Catholics of Lowell were left to themselves without any service, namely up to May 1871 when Rev. Henry Meissner from Crown Point was sent to see about church affairs in Lowell. He had divine service in May and once again in June, but probably not thinking that anything could be done failed to come any more.
There seems to have been no service till December 1873, Rev. F. H. Deimel taking charge of Cedar Lake and Klassville, agreed to come over to Lowell once a month. During his time from December 1873-August 1877 the church was finished, the roof covered, inside lathed and plastered, seats put in and gallery made, besides other small jobs. In order to cover the expenses a collection was taken up which amounted to $237.05 with which amount material and work was paid. Even non-Catholics took an interest in seeing the church progress and contributed to the collection. It was quite a sacrifice for the congregation to make up such a sum, considering that at that time it consisted of fourteen families. The first trustees appointed were Warren Russel, William Buckley, and Peter Klein.

In 1865 a piece of land was bought to be applied as a graveyard, for the sum of $150; $75 was paid down and notes given for the balance.

Rev. Father Deimel though very sickly, exerted himself very much in behalf of the congregation, as often as he came, he was obliged first to have service at Klassville and then ride fasting the distance of nine miles to Lowell, where he would arrive sometimes at half past eleven almost exhausted, not being able then more than to say Low Mass. The salary he received for all his trip amounted to a little over $30.

In 1875 the congregation received some help in spiritual affairs, Mr. Warren Russell giving instruction in Christian doctrine to the children.

In August 1877 a change was made, Rev. Father Deimel being removed from Klassville, receiving as his successor Rev. J. H. Bathe, who came to Lowell once a month from Klaasviile where he was now pastor. At his arrival the congregation numbered about sixteen families. In 1878 a mission was held by the Redemptorist Fathers, which renewed the congregation spiritually, many members also coming back to the church who had not performed their duties for years. Though nothing was done during his time to the church building he labored more anxiously to bring the people to a sense of their religious duties and give them a good instruction in their holy faith, which was very much wanting, owing to the fact that many grew up without ever hearing anything about religion. The salary was collected by subscription which never exceeded one hundred dollars. Some misunderstanding arose in which the fault, though on both sides, was the greater on the part of some members, and Rev. Father Bathe asked the Rt. Rev. Bishop to be removed, which request was granted. Rev J. H. Bathe had charge of the congregation from August 1877 -January 1882. As successor followed the present pastor, Rev. C. A. Granger, residing at Klaasville, under whose pastorate the congregation has lost and gained some families. The congregation now numbers about 28 families and has made considerable progress. A few months after he had taken charge of Klassville and Lowell, the Rt. Rev. Bishop decreed that Lowell should have service on Sunday twice a month. A subscription was taken up to repair the church and buy the necessary articles in the church for service. So far nothing had been bought. The sum of $322.50 was collected. Later on a Fair was held at which very many non-Catholics took a great interest. At that occasion also some $300 was cleared. With these amounts repairings were made such as: sacristy built, church sided and painted, tower built. Articles furnished: a bell of 350 pounds, an organ, four sets of vestments, ornaments at altar, etc.
In 1884 the salary was collected by subscription which amounted to $290.
From January 1883, the pews were rented and up to this year, the same amounted to over $400. The fixed salary of the pastor for visits to Lowell is $40, which obliges him to keep a horse to come. Up to date the congregation is in pretty good condition, possessing a small church which will seat 150 people, no debts, and money in the treasury. If the congregation increases only a little more it will be necessary to build a new church in the course of two years. There is a service every 2d and 4th Sunday of the month and every other holiday. Peace and unity in the congregation amongst themselves and with their pastor. With this and a good will to support the church, St. Edward's Roman Catholic church has a bright future.


THE LUTHERAN HISTORY.

As in Europe so in our county, there are at least two varieties of Lutherans. The old or the regular Lutherans, hold, as nearly as may be, the doctrines which Luther taught; while the Evangelical Lutherans, or Reformed, as sometimes called, have adopted to some extent the teachings of Calvin and Zuinglius or Zwingle. Of the latter variety there are two churches in the county. The first is in Hanover, on the west side of West Creek and near the Illinois state line. This church, called Zion's, was established by the labors of the Rev. Peter Lehman, in 1857, with twenty-six members. A church building was soon erected and a church school commenced. The church and school have both been kept up until the present time. The membership is about forty; the children in the school number fifty. The other church of this variety is in the southeastern part of Center township, not far from the north-west corner of Eagle Creek township. The building was erected in 1883. There are about twenty members and twenty children. They have a resident pastor, but no church school.
Of the Lutherans proper, or the regular Lutherans, there are five churches, having houses for worship, and five other congregations without church buildings.
The churches are the following:
1. Trinity Church at Crown Point, on North street. Number of members sixty. Children connected with the congregation about eighty. The pastor besides his other parochial duties teachers a church school. Of one of the five congregations mentioned above he also has charge, St. Paul's church at Deer Creek, where are about twenty Lutheran families.
2. Lutheran church at Tolleston. Pastor Rev. H. Wunderlich. Number of families sixty-five. About fifty children in the church school.
3. Lutheran church at Hammond. The building here was erected in 1883. Supplied at present by the pastor at Tolleston. About twenty-five families. Some thirty children in the congregation, but as yet no church school.
Another of those five congregations is at Hessville.
Seven families make up this congregation, holding meetings once in four weeks in the school house. Also supplied by the pastor from Tolleston.
4. Evangelical Lutheran Trinity church at Hobart. About eighty families. Two hundred communicants. A church school of fifty children. Value of church property $2.000. The third of the five congregations is at Lake Station. Number of communicants thirty-five. The pastor at Hobart, the Rev. E. H. Sheips has charge of this congregation at Lake. The fourth congregation, with no house for worship is at Whiting. Number of families seventeen.
5. Swedish Lutheran church at Hobart. Building completed about 1873. Number of members thirty-two. Value of church property $2,000. Children in Sunday school twenty-two. Number of Swedish families at Hobart about fifty.

The fifth of the congregations is at Millers Station. These members, in number about thirty, are also Swedes. Families at Miller's Station about fifty. These five congregations would, in some denominations, be called churches, thus making ten Lutheran churches. Four of them meet in school houses. The one at Lake meets in the village church.

Whole number of Lutheran families, Germans and Swedes four hundred and thirty-four.
It thus appears that the Lutherans form a large, as they are a valuable portion of our population. Their industrious habits and their economy lead to the yearly accumulation of property. With "two of their pastors, the Rev. H. Wunderlich of Tolleston and the Rev. G. Heintz of Crown Point, both of whom have been in this county since 1871, the writer of this has been for many years acquainted. He has seen them in church life and has visited them in their homes; (for each has, as Luther had, a wife and children;) and he can speak highly of them as kind, accommodating, courteous, Christian pastors. A brother of the Rev. P. Lehman, who was pastor for about ten years in Hanover, John Lehman, is editor of the Crown Point Freie Presse, a German newspaper published in Crown Point.


THE FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH OF HOBART.
BY W. H. RIFENBURG.

In presenting to the Old Settlers' Society of Lake County a History of the First Unitarian church of Hobart, it will be necessary for me to go back some years previous to the date of the church organization to find the germ that finally crystalized in the church proper.

In the summer of 1868 the Rev. Mr. Livermore (the husband of the now famous lecturer, Mrs. Mary Livermore) preached the first Liberal sermon ever preached in Hobart. He spoke at Centerville in the morning and in the afternoon at Hobart.

His subject was "The ultimate and universal salvation of all mankind." He had a good hearing and the sermon was universally accepted as a true and rational conclusion of the future destiny of mankind.

Mr. William Lymre, who had established himself in our town in the hardware and florist business, had given the community an impetus in literary pursuits never before known. He was instrumental in organizing Sunday discourses of a semi-religious nature; and the winter following, m connection with others started a subscription paper for the purpose of building an Independent church. Several hundred dollars were subscribed.

That winter the Methodist Episcopal church effected an organization and succeeded in inducing the committee to turn over the subscription to them with the understanding that the church building should be free to all denominations. This was done however, under the protest of Mr. Lyne. The result was the erection of the present M. E. church building in the year 1869, and a suspension for the time being of the liberal church movement.

In the summer of 1874 the Rev. Carson Parker, a Unitarian clergyman of Valparaiso, gave a discussion on "The Theory of the Unitarian church," which was so well received that notices were posted asking all that were favorable to Unitarian Christianity to meet in the school house on Sunday, August 23, 1874.

I copy the following from the church record:

HOBART, Indiana, August 23,1874.
Pursuant to announcement a portion of the citizens friendly to the religion theory taught by Unitarians, convened in the school house at ten A. M. on the above named day, and after listening to an able and interesting discourse from the Rev.. Carson Parker, W. H. Rifenburg arose and stated the purpose of the meeting as being the organization of an Unitarian church society for the public worship of God, the advancement of morality, the practice of charity; in short to get good by doing good.
Articles of association and a bond of union were then read by W. H. Rifenburg and members solicited. The following signed their names as members. (Here follows a list of forty-eight names.)
Five trustees were elected viz: M. W. Jory, W. H. Rifenburg, Carrie Meister, Augustus Wood, and Horace Marble.
Thomas Harrison was chosen treasurer and C. O. Johnson secretary.
This completed the organization of the church.
The trustees organized by electing W. H. Rifenburg president.
Rev. Carson Parker was engaged to preach one Sabbath of each month until April. A committee was appointed to procure a place for meetings and also to raise funds to furnish the hall.
At the next meeting the committee reported that they had raised the sum of three hundred dollars, had rented hall of George Stoker for one year, bought an organ, two hundred chairs, stove, lamps, etc.
October 25th the church occupied the new quarters all neatly furnished and paid for, with a good choir, Mrs. R. C. Wadge acting as organist.
Services were held every two weeks. Some one of the congregation alternating with the Rev. Carson Parker, reading a sermon or writing a lecture. We had several temperance lectures during the winter.
At the regular meeting in February the church instructed the trustees to see what could be done toward building a church edifice and to report at the next meeting.
In March the trustees reported through their chairman that fifteen hundred dollars had been subscribed. It was then resolved that a brick church be built. J. B. Albee, Joseph Nash, and John Mathews were appointed as a committee to act with the trustees and let the contract. I do not deem it necessary to follow the committee in their trials and troubles incident to church building; but suffice it to say that the church was built and that it cost about twice as much as intended.
The church was dedicated to the Worship of God and to the service of Humanity on the 27th day of January 1876, Rev. Robert Collier officiating. The church had a debt of six hundred dollars.
Mr. Parker was asked to send in his resignation as pastor which he did.
The Rev. J. W. Fall was called for one year one half of the time. His pastorage ended June 1, 1877.
From this time to May, 1778, we had occasional preaching; but always had service of some kind every two weeks.
On September 28, 29, and 30, the Indiana Conference was organized and held at the church, at which money was raised to Day the church indebtedness.
On the 11th day of May, 1879, W. C. Litchfield was ordained and installed as pastor, W. W. Cheshire making the response for the church.
Mr. Litchfield was instrumental in founding the parish library, and in many ways improving the social life of the church. He remained with us fifteen months, when on account of
the poor health of his family he resigned the pastorate of the church and returned to his home in Massachusetts, carrying with him the good wishes and respect of the entire community.
From this time until September, 1882, the pulpit was supplied by different persons, but the semi-monthly meetings were always kept up.
In September the Rev. A. G. Jennings was called and has filled his place faithfully and well ever since.

The church is independent and congregational in its government as all Unitarian churches are. No assent to any dogma or creed is required of its members; but simply the expression of a desire to get good by doing good, and to contribute to the current expenses of the church.
The church record shows a membership of one hundred and eighteen.

LIBRARY.
The church has a free circulating library of over seven hundred volumes. The library is open every Sunday from 11 A. M. to 1:30 P. M. W. H., Rifenburg librarian.
The social side of the church is in charge of the Ladies' Aid Society. They have afternoon socials every Thursday of each week, and evenings socials (public) every other Wednesday.
The charitable work of the church is in charge of a committee of three. A collection is taken up the first Sunday evening of each month for charitable purposes.

SUNDAY SCHOOL.
The Sunday-school of the church is held each Sabbath at 11 A. M. The average attendance is about eighty-five.

The Sunday-school is the oldest in the village. It has a library of three hundred volumes.


THE HOLLANDERS
BY T.H. BALL.

Among the nations of Europe "the Hollanders or Dutch have been noted for patient industry, for indomitable resolution and endurance, for great devotion to business pursuits, for a strong love for religious freedom, and for artists and scholars.

It has been well said, "Holland is itself a poem." To reclaim their now fertile meadows from the waves of ocean, as the sturdy Hollanders have done, "and to retain the possession in the face of a foe who never flags and seldom slumbers," may well be called " one of the most wonderful achievements in the records of human strength and patience." To wage, as did the Hollanders, a war for civil and religious freedom, for eighty long years, from 1568 to 1648, required no little endurance. Well has one said, "Never has there been a contest, in all its features, comparable to that war of liberation."

Among the early settlers of the North American wilderness, the Dutch were among those noted for the qualities that make good colonists; and in New York, especially, their stamp upon our institutions still remains.

While not among our pioneer settlers, Hollanders direct from their old busy cities and densely populated acres, found their way into our county, and settled along the little Calumet, where they found low, flat lands, and, in some parts of the year, plenty of water, to remind them of the flats of Holland. Their settlement here commenced in 1855.

There came across the ocean in the summer of that year, reaching Lake county in August, Dingeman Jabaay, with his family, among the members of which were three sons: Arie Jabaay, Leendert Jabaay, and Peter Jabaay. Also Antonie Bonevman, and his son-in-law Eldert Monster, with his two sons, Jacob Monster and Antonie Monster. The Monster family came from Stryen, nine miles from Rotterdam. These all came in the ship "Mississippi," landing at New York. The same year there came, and in the month of August, probably in the same ship, Cornelius Klootwyk, now an aged man still living. Also Giel Swets, the same year came into this region, but not settling in this county till 1864. His wife, a somewhat aged, intelligent, pleasant woman, is living near the Hollander church, and three sons live in the neighborhood, B. Swets, T. Swets, and S. P. Swets. Among the grandchildren is a sprightly, intelligent young girl, Henrietta Swets. Leendert Jabaay and his father are both dead. A son of the former, bearing his grandfather's name, Dingeman Jabaay, now lives on the homestead. Arie Jabaay is still living, sixty-six years of age, and his two sons, Fop Jabaay and Dingeman Jabaay. His wife, who was Sara Dekker, born in Holland Aug. 11, 1820, died here May 25, 1881. In the same burial ground, which is near the church and not far from the State line, was buried the body of J. Vinke, born in "Gelderland," January 16, 1793, who died March 23, 1876.

Peter Jabaay, mentioned above, is also living and has three sons. Four families coming about thirty years ago may be called the pioneer Hollanders of our county. In 1857 came Peter Kooy. Others have year by year been added to the number, and now there are about fifty Hol-lander families in our county, their settlement lying along the Calumet for about five miles, and connecting with quite a Holland settlement along the same river in Illinois. Number of Hollander children in Lake county, about one hundred and forty. They have one church, which is near the State line, on that grand sand ridge and that pleasant, shady road extending from Highlands to Lansing. The building was erected about 1876. Estimated value of property, $1,500. Membership seventy. Church is "Reformed." A small Sunday-school is kept up at the church.

The children of this settlement attend three public schools, and, like the children of other nationalities, are learning the English language. One of these schools is opened in the morning with pleasant devotional exercises. The teacher reads a few verses of Scripture, teacher and children then join in singing, the teacher then offers a short, simple, earnest prayer, the children uniting at its close in the Lord's prayer. Of course devotional exercises in our schools vary with the character and training of the teachers; but no children could be expected to be more truly devout than the children of these Reformed Hollanders. Industry and thrift characterize the homes of these Lake county representatives of an old, sturdy, patient, hardy, accumulative race.


Early and Late Public Men

The subject, " Early and Late Public Men " of Lake county, was assigned to Dr. L.G. Bedell. The following communication, from her ready and graceful pen, addressed to the Historical Secretary, will account for the absence of that paper. Perhaps there are others of us who also hope to make yet in life a little "history worth mentioning," when, in 1934, one hundred years of white occupancy here will close, and a centennial volume will make some record of both our Public Men and Public Women.

I regret exceedingly my utter inability to prepare a paper on "Our Public Men " for the half century book. The few gifts I have do not lie in the lines of either history or biography. I have accurate knowledge of only two important dates 1492 and 1776.

My life and thoughts are so utterly absorbed in the work in which I am engaged, and have become engrossed, professional and philanthropic-that I am obliged to forego many desirable things for want of time and strength.

I should have liked very much to have made some sort of a mark in the Half-Century book, but I must content myself to wait for the Century book, at which time I hope to have made some history worth mentioning of the daughter of two of Lake county's first settlers.
Yours Very Cordially,
L. G. BEDELL.


MAN AT THE RED-CEDAR LAKE.
BY T. H. BALL.

The city of Chicago is known throughout the English speaking and perhaps the civilized world. Its growth from a little hamlet in 1831 to a city of half a million in 1881, its great fire in 1871, its immense trade, its intense life, have made it famous. The little corner of Indiana, now called the county of Lake, across a strip of which, nine miles in width, are now running (1881) the following roads: the Baltimore and Ohio, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Pittsburgh and Fort Wayne, the Michigan Central, the Joliet Cut Off, the Grand Trunk, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, and across which are soon to be built the Atlantic and Chicago, and the New York, Chicago, and St. Louis, is cast quite into the shade by the commerce and manufactures and thronging life in and around this lake city and railroad centre. But the time has been when mile for mile and acre for acre what is now Lake county, Indiana, was quite as noted and fully as valuable as what is now Cook county in Illinois; and the footman who will start from the monument near the shore of Lake Michigan and travel southward on the state line will find very little difference in vegetation or soil or value between the visible portion of Cook on his right hand and of Lake on his left. And in the early days, the days of Indian occupancy, the peculiarities of Lake, the Calumet River running across it almost twice, the Kankakee bounding it on the south, Lake Michigan with its sand hills and pines and cedars and rich wild fruits on the north, its groves, its islands of timber in the broad Kankakee marsh lands, its combination of prairie and woodland, must have made it much more desirable than the low prairie, the wet "sag," the short Chicago River written at first Chekagou, and the Des Plaines, and the low lake shore of what now is Cook, from which the open prairie extended to the Mississippi River.

In the days of the French explorers the same peculiarities of this region made it a fur and trading region of large value. But what was it in still earlier times, before even Columbus had crossed the Atlantic, or the men of the North had reached Iceland, Greenland, and Labrador? The remains and the proofs of ancient art and civilization, of man's presence and works, are found on various parts of this continent, not alone in Peru and Central America and over the old Mexican empire. Man trod, it may be, every mile of surface on this broad .continent before Europeans crossed the Atlantic. It is not proposed in this article to show any proofs of ancient civilization in the northwestern corner of Indiana, but to present some traces of man's presence along the centuries past. Besides the natural features of that region already mentioned, there is another winding stream bearing the name Deep River, and there are four creeks which are called Turkey, Eagle, Cedar, and West. There is also, four and a half miles from the state line and seventeen and a half miles from Lake Michigan, a small, beautiful, sunny lake, sunny because no dense forest shade surrounds it, called the Lake of the Red Cedars or Red-Cedar Lake, now most commonly known as plain Cedar Lake. At this lovely lake, skirted by woodland on the north and east, fringed by trees on the west, let us camp and look round for traces of man This land was purchased from the Pottawatomies in 1832, it was visited by whites in 1833, it was laid out into townships and sections by United States surveyors in 1834, it was settled up rapidly in 1835 and in 1836, Lake county " was erected out of the counties of Porter "and Newton" by act of the Legislature in January, 1836,
and was declared to be an independent county, by act of the Legislature after February 15, 1837, and m the same year some New England families settled at Cedar Lake, the Cedar Lake Baptist church was constituted in 1838, the land of the county was put into market in 1839, the sales opening in March at La Porte, and in 1840 Crown Point became of Lake county the county seat. These dates need not be continued further. Civilized man at the Red-Cedar Lake dates from 1835.
But there was then on the west side of the lake a well trodden foot-path, and early settlers and their children still saw around them many of the red children, whose homes had long been in the wilds of the prairie and the woodland, Pottawatomie Indians, and whose burial ground was on the north-eastern shore of the lake, in the sandy soil, under the shelter of a large bluff, a well wooded height. How long had these native Americans dwelt around this lake? There are no records and no traditions to answer. But on the first day of October, 1880, there was made a discovery. Two enterprising young men, Orlando Russell and Frank Russell, sons of Warren Russel who resides near Lowell had purchased some land at the exact head of the lake for the purpose of erecting a mill; a railroad was then in the process of construction on the western shore; and on that day excavations were commenced for the mill foundations. The spot selected was a little mound on the lake shore, sloping eastward, westward, and southward, and with a very gradual slope northward. It was a beautiful and sunny knoll, raised but a few feet above the wave-washed beach of pure white sand, and had been the camping ground the summer before, for many a day and night, of
a large pleasure party. On the edge of the southern slope, a few feet from the water line, a burr-oak tree was standing, not quite six feet in circumference. This was one of a winding line of about twenty old oaks along that part of the lake shore. The open space northward from this burr-oak without tree or stump was some eighty feet. This space was covered with a smooth, rich turf. The known Indian burial ground was ninety rods east of this mound. When the surface soil was on that October day removed it was found that the top part of this mound was artificial, and when the plow share cut the second layer of earth it struck very unexpectedly upon a mass of human remains. These were, until the plow share struck them, entire skeletons in a good state of preservation. Five were taken out at first, from a little space six feet long and two feet wide, and lying less than a foot beneath the surface. Soon some six other skeletons were unearthed and removed, lying less than two feet beneath the surface. "With these were found a few rodent bones and some large shells. Five days afterwards, October 6th, the writer of this article, the home of whose youth was on the west side of this lake, visited the excavation accompanied by his son. That son had returned from a long tour in the West, through Colorado, and New Mexico, and the great plains of northwestern Texas, where on Blanco Canyon he had examined human remains supposed to be three hundred years old, and was now interested in any new discoveries around the bright waters where he first saw the light. After examining what had already been found he commenced further search nearly under the burr-oak. Soon he found a piece of lead ore, bearing the marks of having been cut by some instrument, then a single arrow head, and next an entire skeleton. One large root of the oak passed over and seemed to press hard upon the skull, and another large root passed between the lower limbs.

The waters of the lake were flashing in the bright beams of the warm October sun, the leaves of the oak and hickory trees were just beginning to assume their gorgeous autumn hues, when the bones, the frame-work, of this human form were unearthed. When, and amid what circumstances, had that form been there laid in earth. The head of this skeleton was eastward. The tree was soon removed and under its roots was found another skeleton with the head toward the west. And not far away was soon afterward another unearthed. In all, according to the count of Frank Russell twenty were exhumed. From three counts of the rings of annual growth that scrubby tree was found to be about two hundred years old. The circumstances indicated that the burial took place before the tree began to grow. We find then man at the Red-Cedar Lake more than two hundred years ago. The size of the bones, the jaws well filled with teeth, indicate that these remains were all of men between twenty-five and forty-five years of age; not quite six feet in height; and from the want of order in the burial, the promiscuous heaping together of the bodies which seems to have been, from the absence of tomahawks, arrow-heads and other weapons, it is inferred that these were vanquished warriors, members of a tribe where lead ore existed, and who in a stem conflict fell before the valor of the dwellers by the lake. No drier soil, no more sunny spot could have been found for burial, and so the bones remained undecomposed. For forty-five years no spot around the lake had been supposed more free than this from human remains. How little we know in this old New World, with all the freshness of its so called virgin soil of prairie wild or of pathless forest, or on knolls of sunny lakes, when we stretch our limbs on camp beds or grassy or leafy couch for a night's repose, how close beneath us may be in a long repose what once was another living human form. Well does Bryant say of the continuous woods where rolls the Oregon "yet the dead are there;" and well did Sprague predict of the American aboriginees, " Ages hence the inquisitive white man, as he stands by some growing city, will ponder on the structure of their disturbed remains, and wonder to what manner of persons they belonged."

While now for hundreds of years back we find human dwellers by this lake, let us look at some evidence of European visitants, as we are camped now by the waters and are looking out for man. About 1850 there was taken from near the heart of a majestic oak growing on that bluff which has been mentioned, a little instrument called a nail. An outline of its form and size is here given.
It appears to be composed of steel. Outside of it in the tree were layers of wood counted one hundred and seventy. The shaft of this little instrument is round, the point end is edged, not pointed, " the head on the top is flat and very smooth, and besides this surface it has twelve small plane sides, each smooth and well wrought." This nail is of fine workmanship, and it takes us back to about 1680; it most probably therefore came from a European workshop. But who placed it in the young and thrifty growing oak? Shall we not infer, some white man? The explorers of this region two hundred years ago were French. Before 1665 a few adventurous traders had passed into the great wilds west of the Great-Lakes. In that year the first Jesuit missionary passed into these wilds; and in 1673 Marquette, Joliet, and five other Frenchmen, passed with two canoes down the Wis-consin river into the Mississippi.

In December of 1679, La Salle, with thirty-two persons and eight canoes, passed from Lake Michigan into the St. Joseph river, across the portage into the Kankakee, and passed down that river into the Illinois; and March 2, 1680 with three Frenchmen and an Indian hunter La Salle started on foot, to travel across the country over prairies and through woodlands, for the north-eastern limit of Lake Ontario, distant some twelve hundred miles. With the energy of a soul upon which despair never settled he shouldered his musket and knapsack and commenced, with his four companions, the long land journey. From his leaving an Indian village near the present town of Ottawa there is of hs journey no record. Our lake would seem to be exactly in his line of travel. It is not improbable that his party camped for a night upon that wooded height. But why insert the nail in the oak? It is recorded that before he, left the portage, in December, 1679, letters were fastened to trees to give information to other Frenchmen; and what more natural than that, camping here on the border line between prairie and woodland, before entering the dense dark forests," which, surrounding a few small prairies, stretched across Indiana and Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York, he should nail to a tree a record of his journey thus far eastward, a letter for some of his friends in case he should never reach his destination. The paper perished. The polished instrument remained in the wood for one hundred and seventy years. Of the presence here of La Salle, who spent most of the year 1683 in the Illinois country and around the great lakes, or of some other Frenchman, let us infer that it bears witness. To a document drawn up by La Salle in 1682 at the mouth of the Mississippi thirteen names are attached, and the coincidence may be named although it can have no significence that the head of this nail has thirteen faces. It is perhaps a little singular that this instrument, leaving as is here inferred, the hands of some Jesuit or some Franciscan Frenchman, is now in the possession of one born at the Lake of Red Cedars, a descendant of English Puritans and French Huguenots. Can we see any other men? In the same hands, in the same possession, taken from a wolf hole west of the lake, is an instrument of wrought copper, the size and shape of which are given in the following outline.

Its thickness is about one fourth of an inch. It bears the marks of a hammer. It has a rounded not a sharp edge. Its use is unknown. Whence came it? Who made it? The Pottawattomies do not seem to have worked in copper. But on the west side of the lake there is, or was in 1837, a fine mound, circular in form, some twelve or fifteen feet in height,- having then grow-ing upon it some large oak trees,, the mound evidently the work of human hands. At the foot of the lake there was also a circular artificial mound. We will naturally refer the construction of these to the Mound Builders, who worked in copper, who cultivated more extensively than their successors the fertile lands. The region around this lake was a desirable home for the Indians. Here roamed the buffalo or bison in the days of the first French explorers, elk were here, as their horns have been found in the lake and in the West Creek bottom, deer were found here in abundance by the white settlers and a few wild turkeys and black bears; and for small game, prairie chickens, water fowls, and for fish, as well as for fur bearing animals, no region could easily surpass this. But now, beyond the times of Indian occupancy, through the aid of the copper and the mounds, we look back, perhaps a thousand years, and see man around this lake, in the persons of the Mound Builders, peacefully engaged in the quiet pursuits of life. In this basin of clear water they bathed their symmetrical forms, across its surface they paddled their antique barks, here they lived and loved, here they enjoyed and suffered and died. They built no city here, they left here no ruined temple; their songs, their worship, their language, like their loves and their hates, have passed away.

Beyond them as dwellers here we cannot look. They may have been the first that from eastern Asia, having crossed the Pacific and the Mountains and the River, reached this then magnificent solitude. Perhaps less than a thousand years ago the descendants of that early east-ward migration were here. Now all is changed. The Indian tribes and the white visitors and settlers came. These white settlers, with the exception of Indian trails, of some garden spots, vine-yards, dancing floors, and burial places, found prairie and grove as new and fresh, and apparently as untrodden and uncultivated, as though creation's song had been but lately sung. The Indians beyond the "big water " passed. From December, 1837, until January, 1870, two localities on the west side of this lake were the home of the Ball family from West Springfield, Massachusetts. For the last few years this lake has been a growing summer resort for pleasure; in 1880 a railroad was constructed along its western shore connecting it with Chicago and the entire outer world; and now in this summer of 1881 the prospect is that in the summer time it will be entirely given up to fishing parties, and pleasure parties, and will be surrounded with the cottages and the tents of those who will break discordantly into the long sweet quiet of its Sabbath day repose. As the fishers and pleasure seekers are here from various towns and cities even now, we will leave this lovely spot, break up our camp, and return to busy life, taking one more, one parting glance, beyond these devotees of pleasure, beyond the transplanted New England life, beyond the red men, their conflicts and their pipes of peace, into the far away, dim, unrecorded, but actual, quiet, every day life of the Mound Builders, with herds of bison, it may be, for their domestic animals, when they dwelt securely around this lake, where even then, perchance, there grew red cedars.


OUR THREE COURT HOUSES.

The three buildings used as the places for holding courts in our county have been already named in this volume. It remains for the writer of this paper record some facts and figures not to be found elsewhere.

The old log court-house, a land mark of the early time, mentioned less or more in all our earlier records and writings, was built by Solon Robinson in the summer of 1837. No record of the month when it was begun or completed has been found, and none of those few now living, who saw it that summer can determine these particulars. It stood on the south-west corner of the square, about where the lines of posts marking out that enclosure now meet, the south-west corner of the building reaching, possibly, as far as the present cistern on that corner. The length of the building, extending east and west, is estimated to have been thirty-four or thirty-six feet, the width from north to south twenty or twenty-two feet. These are but estimates from memory, as no records of dimensions can be found. In May, 1838, it was made the temporary court-house of the county, by act of the county commissioners in accordance with an act of the state legislature, until a county-seat was permanently established. In either 1837 or 1838 the building was made two stories, which it does not seem to have been when first erected. In November of 1838 the county commissioners allowed sixty-four dollars to the sheriff for "fitting up the lower room of the court-house for a prison." The entrance to the upper or court room was by a flight of stairs on the north side of the building. The seat for the judge, which was also occupied as a platform and pulpit on frequent occasions, was in the west end of the room. The same piece, of carpenter work served for several years as "rostrum," "platform," "bench," and "pulpit," for the earlier citizens of the county. There were some good charges delivered to juries and some important civil and criminal cases tried; there some excellent sermons were preached, by ministers of fervent piety, of earnestness, and of eloquence; there lectures and addresses were given to interested and appreciative audiences; there with no mere common ability and success vocal music was taught; there pictured representations were given of the evils of intemperance and many a name was signed to a total abstinence pledge within those walls; and there some of those whose names may not soon be forgotten in the county made their "maiden" speeches, stepped for the first time upon the platform as advocates of reform. In that room was organized the first library association of the town and county, and there was organized the first, and, as yet, the last county literary society. Occupied for more than ten years for such varied purposes, when all the inhabitants of Crown Point took part in every thing that was good more fully than they do now, it may be safe to say that no room in our county, used by and for the public, has connected with it so many vivid associations as cluster around, "on memory's wall," this audience room in the old log court-house. Its cost was probably five hundred dollars. The logs were finally taken down and put into two barns, and at length became fire wood. Besides that part of the room fitted up as "a prison," there was an east room used as an office; and additions were made to the west end for other office rooms.. W. A. Clark remembers that the citizens of Crown Point, when the prison room was considered no longer useful, made a raid upon it armed with various implements, tore out the special jail appendages with no little difficulty, and transformed it into a temperance hall room, no public authorities interfering. This was probably in 1849. About 1851 the historic log- court-house ceased to exist.

The erection of the frame court-house had led to the removal of the other. It stood north of the public square and on or in the east and west street now bounding that square. On this ground, one east and one west of the court-house, stood two brick office buildings, all fronting the south. The building on the east contained the treasurer's and auditor's office; the one on the west contained the offices of recorder and clerk. The courthouse building was sixty-seven feet long, thirty-seven wide, and twenty-seven high. It contained one court room, a jury room and a sheriff room. It bore the date, for its construction, of 1849. It was not occupied till 1850. And the probate judge held court in the old building till the office was abolished in 1851. The entire cost of this house, perhaps including the offices, is put at ten thousand dollars. A frame jail building was erected just north of the offices of the treasurer and auditor. When, about the opening of 1880 or at the close of 1879, the frame court-house was no longer needed, having occupied one spot for thirty years, and having some associations connected with it as having been the place for many exciting public gatherings, for political and patriotic speeches, for some choice musical entertainments and some lectures, for those hurried, soul-stirring gatherings, when in the years of the war its bell called the eager throngs together, when tidings came of victory and defeat, having been a hall for the administration of justice, in the doubtful balances of right between man and man, where learned judges presided and eloquent forensic displays were made, having been also, like the former court room, the place for some quiet religious meetings,-it was sold to John G. Hoffman, removed, and transformed into an opera-house.
The present brick and stone court-house was commenced in 1878, the corner-stone having been laid with masonic ceremonies, in the presence of a large concourse of people, September 10th. There are in the auditor's office twenty pages of printed specifications, but the plans giving dimensions have been removed.
It appears from the data remaining that the cellar story is ten feet four inches in the clear between the joists, the principal story fifteen feet two inches, the second story twenty-two feet two inches, for court room and corridors and nineteen feet two inches for commissioners and other rooms. The flag pole is fifty-six feet high. There are twenty-six windows in the principal story. The outside dimensions are said to be ninety-six feet by one hundred and five. There are six good office rooms on the principal floor and several rooms on the second story, The entire cost was about fifty-two thousand dollars.


SOUTH EAST GROVE.

The finest if not the largest of our upland groves is the one known by the name that is given above. School Grove covers, probably, a larger area; but its surface is more broken, more of the land is low and marshy, and the tree growth is not as attractive to the eye. Yet School Grove contains some fine springs, some fine heights, and much of it is good woodland. Being on section sixteen, which is in each township the school section, it could not be taken up for claims, in the early settlement of the county, as could South East Grove. Of the latter this paper proposes briefly to treat.

It is situated five miles south and four miles east from Crown Point; the corner of sections one and two, and eleven and twelve, range eight, township thirty-three, is near the southern part of the grove, which covers an area of about one mile, and includes therefore parts of four sections. So far as has yet been ascertained Joseph Morris may be considered the first settler. Date of settlement is now uncertain. The place of this settlement was on the east side of the grove where is now the home of George S. Doak, who came to this county and became a teacher in April, 18f 5. George Parkinson became a settler in 1836, and in 1837 Orrin Smith, O V. Servis, George Flint, and, probably, William Ketchum. The latter settled near the north of the grove, making, it appears, a claim which was entered by William Clark of Crown Point, known as Judge Clark, in 1839. Judge Clark afterward removed from Crown Point to this grove farm, about 1841, and afterward returned to a farm on the prairie, two miles east of Crown Point, where he resided during the remainder of his life. In 1850 he sold that early settled grove place to J. N. Baldwin, and it was sold by his heirs in 1868, to John Nethery, the present occupant. The Flint place was near the south part of the grove, and is now the residence of Thomas George.

Other settlers were Rev. Thompson, a Methodist local preacher, a Scotchman, A. F. Brown and John Brown in 1840, the Wallace family and William Brown in 1843, John A. Crawford in 1844, and in 1850 Thomas and William Fisher. In 1849 when occurred the death of Alexander F. Brown, this grove community found it needful to set apart a place for the burial of the dead. Their further intelligent and business like action in the matter will appear from the following document copied directly from the original record.

"At a meeting of the inhabitants of South East Grove held at the" school house in said grove (notice having been given) for the purpose of forming a cemetery society, John Brown Jr. was chosen chairman and Hiram Kingsbury secretary. It was resolved,
1st. This society shall be known as the South East Grove Cemetery Society.
Resolved, 2d. Said Society shall be governed by three trustees who shall Hold their office until others are elected.
Resolved, 3d. It shall be the duty of the trustees to procure a deed for the lot now used as a burying ground; also to call meetings of the Society for the purpose of transacting any business they shall deem necessary.
Resolved, 4th. Said Society shall embrace the following territory towit: sections one, two, three; ten eleven and twelve; thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen; in township No. 33 north of range No. 8 west, in the county of Lake, State of Indiana.
John A. Crawford, F. C. Flint, and O. V. Servis were elected trustees by the following vote. Yeas, John Brown, John Cochran, Joseph Bray, T. C. Durland, J. E. Durland, F. C. Flint, William Post, E. E. Flint, William Ketchum. Nays, [none.]
H. KINGSBURY, Secretary."
South East Grove, April 1st, 1850.

A deed was obtained according to the third of the above resolutions, and the Cemetery Society, organized in 1850, is still in existence, and holds one of the most secure and best located burial places in the county. That the action indicated above was that of intelligent business men is further evident from the fact that the original document copied above bears upon its back the following official record: " Filed for record April 9, 1850 and recorded in Book D. page 583. Fee $0.50 Paid. M. Allman, Recorder."

Years before this date a school house had been found needful, and one was built of logs not far from the corner of the four sections mentioned above. Here the children of the neighborhood gathered to receive instruction; here was held a debating society, where men met foemen worthy of their steel; and here was commenced, about 1846, the grove Sabbath-school. About 1850 the same enterprising men, who provided for a permanent burial place for the dead, built, by subscription, a frame school house, just south of where the present school house is standing; the latter having been built by the township about twenty years ago. As is the custom in other parts of the county, these houses have been used not only for day schools and Sunday-schools, but for church purposes and for literary societies and for lectures.

A literary society was held here in the winter of 1869 connected with which was a memorable discussion, on Saturday evening, Feb. 5, 1870. The Orchard Grove Literary Society met that evening with the South East Grove Society for a joint discussion of the question Ought women to exercise the right of suffrage? A reporter in the CASTALIAN says: "Orchard Grove took the affirmative, represented on the floor by Messrs. Blakeman, Curtis, Jones, and Warner. South East Grove supported the negative, and was represented by Messrs. Benjamin, W. Brown, John Brown, and B. Brown. Each speaker was allowed ten minutes, the first on each side speaking twice. The house was densely packed, standing room being scarcely found for the crowds that assembled. Excellent order was observed nevertheless during the entire evening." The discussion was considered at that time one of the most interesting ever held in the county. But at Crown Point, at Cedar Lake, at Hobart, and at other places, there have been, in these fifty years, some very interesting discussions; and no one person has heard them all, and no one is qualified to judge concerning them all. In the discussion referred to the South East Grove members gained the decision from the judges. The Orchard Grove members afterwards challenged the South East Grove disputants to debate in Orchard Grove the question Is a republican form of government a failure? The South East Grove members, in this form of the question, again had the negative, and again they bore away the palm of victory. Another very interesting literary society was held at South East Grove in the winter of 1883, carried on by a younger generation of young people. Among these as active members were Charles Benjamin son of J. Q. Benjamin, Mat. Brown and William Brown, sons of William Brown, E. W. Dinwiddie, of Plum Grove, Thomas Nethery, John Wilson, James Turner and Thomas Turner, and R. Wilson; also Misses Amy and May Crawford, Miss May Doak, Miss Alice George, Miss Fanny Nethery, Miss Esther Donahua, Miss Jennie Stewart, and Miss Ruby Brown. Also taking part in this society were Monroe Temple, James Boyd, and Miss Mary Boyd.

The present inhabitants of what may be called the South East Grove neighborhood are the families of William Turner, James Boyd, Hugh Boyd, George Doak, John Nethery, William and Henry Cochran; Mrs. Maggie Brown, Mrs. Crawford, with whom resides John Brown, F. R. Donahua; F. Rickenberger, Thomas George, Robert Ross, William Brown, Mrs. Briggs, Alexander Nethery; also the Garvy, Abramson, and Warnhoff families.

An excellent Sabbath-school is kept up in this grove every summer. An intelligent congregation meets here for Sabbath worship, comprising a group of very interesting, orderly, courteous young people. The writer of this paper has found nowhere m the county a more interesting group of listeners to literary lectures, and none that seem to appreciate more their Sabbath worship. Sabbath services are held here once each month by the Rev. J. N. Buchanan of Hebron, and once each month by the Rev. T. H. Ball.


CEDAR LAKE AS A PLEASURE RESORT.
BY JAMES HERVEY BALL.

Whatever may be the conditions and qualities desired for personal enjoyments, recreations, and rest, each individual expects recreation and invariably finds it, in variety and change, and in relief from the increasing monotony of usual business cares, and the ceaseless routine of daily avocations, and more especially as such cares and avocations may have been tiresome and arduous.

Seeking the shade and the field,
The clear soft balmy air,
Beseeching of them to yield,
A panacea for care.

In the first days of Spring-time, when the zephyr winds float soft and balmy from the south, mellowing the air, and on every hand are the twittering, singing birds, while the frogs send up a musical chorus from every pond, in the heated, sultry summer, when the feverish winds, drying and parching, wave the fields of grain and grass; in the milder autumn and even later to the Indian summer days, when the fire red leaves are dropping from the sumach, and the silver and golden hues of all the foliage flash and glisten in the soft gladsome sun rays; water has an alluring attraction and fascination, that to nearly, if not entirely all of the human race is irresistible. The captive Jews sat down by the rivers of Babylon to meditate; and the social gatherings in oriental lands were mostly, in ancient times, by the lakes and streams. As anciently, so modernly during those seasons of the year, the ocean and the sea shore, the river side and the lake beach, are visited by all who are fortunately possessed of the opportunity, can afford the expense, and can spare the time.
It is not at all strange then, that from the earliest settlement of Lake county by the white race until the present, Cedar Lake has been a popular pleasure resort. What it was to the aboriginees is not now known. Their traditions have disappeared with them, and past away forever.
The white man did not seem to care for, and if he sought to learn, did not preserve many, if any, of the tales of heroism and bravery, the deeds of chivalry and daring, of the dusky race, however eloquently and full their aged patriarchs might have related them.
But the many sepulchres and burying grounds, as one after-another they are desecrated, if the term may properly apply, warrants the conclusion, and which can not reasonably be otherwise, that their race must have loitered often and long about its shore, and undoubtedly with delight paddled canoes over its waters.
The many bayous about the lake of an earlier time, where the waters are now entirely abated, and which formed a deeply indented coast line, were favorable for hunting, and must have been rich hunting grounds, from the quantities of game of all varieties which the pioneer settlers found there, as well as the fish with which the waters of the lake abounded.
As a sylvan lake, forest-girted, wood-hemmed, it was much more than now, and is now or until very recently, heavily shaded with the white, black, and yellow oak, shell-bark hickory, black and slippery elm, birch, black-walnut and cedar, and many of the trees leaning inward from the banks, with their projecting boughs sweeping its waters. Along their tops from branch to branch the wild grape vine profusely trailed and an undergrowth of plum and red haw, the thorn and crab apple, with the wild-gooseberry rankly growing from the sloping bluffs.
Backward from the table-lands were thick clusters of poplar, hazel, and alder thickets, dense and impenetrable.
So the aboriginees could not well have declined the inducement to have resorted here for council, pleasure, rest and food. But whatever the lake was to them, as it then was, and in the hallowed associations of their traditions, they left it for their successors the white people who, " Followed their trail-" left it, for the white race, to feast on the fish and the game, to row over its waters, and, gloating over the natural beauties, to rest by its quiet banks.
Nor have these successors failed to avail themselves of the rich bequest and that too proportionate to the increase of population, the development of the country the march of civilization, in such mould and form as it has popularly assumed.
Similar to the first settlers of the New England States the pioneers of Lake county were inured to toil and scanty fare, and frugal living, and quite unlike the well provided for modern settlers of the farther west, who with abundant means and supplied with every needful agricultural implement now make their homes where the prairies grow dotted with residences in a single summer and villages and towns spring up like magic. Fishing and hunting, however much a pleasure, were partly matters of necessity.
" For fish they used the hook and line, They pounded corn to make it fine, On johnny cake their ladies dined,' In this new country."
So, commenced fishing excursions to the lake, and not only from throughout the county, but from Porter and La Porte counties to the east, and from over into the state of Illinois from the west, fishing parties would come to the lake and fish with seines and otherwise, camping sometimes for days, or a week or two at a time, salting down the larger fish and leaving smaller ones in piles on the beach, or throwing them back into the lake. So numerous were the fish that for the first twenty years two thousand pounds was no unusual amount to take at one haul of a large seine, and at least one instance is vouched for by a most credible citizen now living, when one cord, or over three and a half tons was taken at one haul: and of such size too were some of these that it has been related, that a stick thrust through the gills and swung over a man's shoulder, the tails dragged on the ground.
Fishing parties went mostly in the spring, and it was a time of much jollification. They could make appropriation of a parody:

Lay by the plow handle and the hoe,
The corn is planted, now let it grow,
Take the seine, spear or fish hook and we'll go
To Cedar Lake and have a fine time, heigho!


It is a pity that it can, but perhaps need not be mentioned, that on such occasions, some carried a little brown jug, or a big brown jug, and while wading in the water all day believed that the more they drank the drier they were.

Spearing fish at night by hickory bark torchlight was a favorite pastime, and in dark warm spring nights various torches could be seen floating along the lake like 'Ignes Fatui,' one man at the stern of the boat poling it along and one standing at the prow with a spear on a ten or fifteen foot handle, and striking right or left far beneath the surface of the water would rapidly bring the fish into the boat. To strike a pickerel before it runs, as its motion when startled is very rapid, required caution and skill, and missing, to follow up and secure a second opportunity was very exciting. Many hundred pounds could be speared in a few hours. It is the most exciting method of fishing. Hook trolling has been very successful of late years, and while one person rows the boat another will find the time fully occupied in pulling in the line and removing the fish from the hook. It is mostly speckled or rock bass that seize the running hook. A hundred bass is a good catch for one hook in a day's boating at the present time; yet occasionally more than that, number have been caught in less than an hour, or as rapidly as they could be pulled from the hook. Still fishing is also found to be very successful. The 'wade-in-and-catch-them-by-hand' method has its peculiar interest, and the mud-cats or bull-heads are mostly the victims. The fisherman wades along cautiously in from three to four feet of water and when nearing the fish, they settle down into little holes in the grass and pond lily roots, and only the experienced can recognize the motion of the fish and its exact location which he profits by, in quickly pressing one foot down over the fish, which if skillfully done prevents it from escaping before he stoops and pulls it up with his hand, strings it on a long cord tied to his waist and dragging in the water behind, when he wades on for the next.
(The writer of this article has highly enjoyed this method of fishing and with great success.)

Besides the fishing parties to the lake, came occasionally pleasure parties for a ride, to see the lake and to row on it, if there was an opportunity; and so scarce were boats for a long time that from fifteen to twenty-five persons would often wait on the shore to take turns in riding in a single boat, carrying four or five, and that too so unseaworthy, that one person would be kept busy bailing with a tin basin or pail to keep it afloat. But a more unsatisfying condition of affairs existed when such parties frequently found no boat for which to await their turns to row and ride in, and bail water from !

So while only a very few boats were on the lake, excursion parties to it continued to increase, and very many went away disappointed of a ride on its inviting waters.

To meet such an apparent existing and increasing demand Mr. Adelbert D. Palmer, now of Creston, in the spring of 1859, contracted with Mr. Obadiah Taylor, a shipbuilder by trade and then on a visit in the county, to build a double masted schooner-style sail boat with cabin and upper decks and capable of carrying a hundred passengers. It was completed and launched the same summer, named the Young America, and cost four hundred and fifty dollars.

At its launching a gala day was observed and a large number of people assembled to assist. Speeches were made and a sumptuous dinner served. When the underpinning and stays were knocked away and the great vessel glided successfully into the water it seemed to be, as indeed it was, the opening of a new era for pleasure seekers at the lake. During the remainder of this and the two succeeding summers many large parties visited the lake to sail in the Young America.
The vesel grew unseaworthy and finally stranded off the coast of Cedar Point, and for a long while afterward, when the winds blew strong, driving the waves into mad breakers over its hulk, the distant notes of a brass horn could be imagined to be heard, as if the wreck was haunted by the spirit of the horn that during a voyage once, fell or was thrown from its deck and still lies at the lake's bottom, Down deep! down deep! Where mermaids keep, Their watery vigils, And laugh, and weep!

In 1872 Mr. Samuel Love, now of Le Roy, brought a smaller sail boat to the lake from Lake Michigan named the Lady of the Lake, a schooner, capable of carrying thirty passengers and costing a hundred and thirty-five dollars, which sailed on the lake much of the time with excursion parties during the succeeding five summers. About this time a club house was built at the outlet by some conductors on the P. C. & St. L. R. R. and supplied with ten or fifteen row boats, and Mr. Crip Binyon also opened a hotel at the same point which was well patronized.

All material things are subject to marked and rapid changes. Even the growth of vegetable and animal life is not uniform but at intervals acquires more vigorous and marked developments, the forces of nature producing new life and form and color largely disproportionate to the former conditions.

The discovery of a new continent transforms a world from a state of lassitude and inertness, to one of intense activity, awakening a spirit for wild adventure and daring exploits. The carrying out of an idea, the consummation of a plan or scheme, may revolutionize all the former relations of things, the agencies however simple in themselves producing radical variations and significant results, and occurring as upon a certain fulness of time.

So Cedar Lake as a pleasure resort reaches such a similar period of increased popularity in the memorable spring and summer of 1881, when its sylvan shores became no longer secluded retreats and their former comparatively solitary wildness swarmed with human life by hundreds and by thousands.

It was upon the completion of a railroad constructed close along its beach on almost the entire west shore and giving direct communication with the metropolitan city, Chicago, and also with other parts of the entire country.
Projected in 1867 as the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago R. R., it had been so slow in building that public confidence was not felt at times as to its being ever completed.

The location of the line had been secured through Lowell and at the lake by the enterprise of the citizens of the former place. Active work was not commenced until 1874 during which year much grading and some bridging was done through the county. The work was then suspended for a long while, causing many of the sub-contractors, and others, who had furnished supplies and materials, to suffer financially, and with no flattering prospects of compensation up to this present time. In the fall of 1879 Col. S. B. Yeoman, of Ohio, undertook the completion of the road. The President of the Company, Mr. John Lee, had been instrumental in the organization of a Company to construct a railroad from Brazil, Indiana, to South Chicago, Illinois, passing through Lake County, several miles east of Lowell and Cedar Lake, and a considerable amount of money was pledged by township aid and otherwise, to that enterprise, and the subject was canvassed by him whether it would not be good policy to consolidate the two interests, forming a junction at Rennselaer and having but one line north of that place, abandoning the Lowell and Cedar Lake route.
Col. Yeoman inspected the Brazil and South Chicago line from the proposed junction to South Chicago and caused a survey to be made.

The inducements financially were considered equal if not superior to the old line.
For a little while the interests of the conflicting lines hung in the balance, and there was uncertainty as to what would be the result, an unpleasant suspense resting in the minds of many.

Col. Yeoman's conclusions were finally expressed, "Whatever may be the interests elsewhere in the county as effected by the location, Cedar Lake is too beautiful to be left out, promising too much as a Pleasure Resort."

A survey and estimates were then made on another line from Lowell, passing on the east shore of the lake and making Crown Point, instead of St. Johns and Dyer, a point on the road; but not apparently meeting with the necessary encouragement from the citizens of West Creek and Cedar Creek Townships, that route was not adopted.
So as upon the organization of the county Cedar Lake failed to secure the location of the county seat, for which it was an applicant with weighty inducements, it can probably be safely stated as correct that upon its merits as a prospective popular pleasure resort it secured the permanent location of a railroad to the disadvantage commercially and otherwise of its former rival for the county seat.

The ownership and control of the road had passed to the Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago Rail Road Company, who pushed it rapidly to completion, and regular trains commenced running past the lake early in the spring of 1881. Immediately much inquiry was made for land with lake front, and prices correspondingly advanced, until in a few months it became apparent that very little of the land could be bought at any price, owners evidently fearing that they might not realize all the benefits that the new situation of things seemed to offer.

A very favorable locality on Cedar Point however was purchased by Stanley Bros, of Chicago, twenty-seven hundred and fifty dollars being paid for twenty acres, and a fine private boat house and afterward a summer residence were built at an expense of two thousand dollars and more.

Some smaller tracts of land at the south end of the lake were sold at two hundred dollars per acre, but on the west side offers from five to eight hundred dollars per acre were refused and the land is still witheld from the market.
In April, 1881, Captain Harper, experienced in sailing on Lake Michigan, brought a sailing vessel to the lake, afterward christened the Night Hawk by a Chicago camping party of the same name, and taking up a residence with his family in a cottage on Cedar Point he has since remained, sailing on the lake for the accommodation and to the delight of many parties.
The Night Hawk is a trim built sloop carrying about twenty passengers, and cost new a hundred and fifty dollars.
During the latter part of the summer of 1881 excursion trains were run and pleasure seekers came from distant and various parts of the country.

Numerous tents were pitched along the bluffs, and visitors and camping parties daily increased. The next spring Dr. Hunter built a hotel at Meyer's Park, on the west side of the lake, on leased ground, the land not being in the market, and put a steamboat into the lake, worth fifteen hundred dollars, capable of carrying forty passengers, and also a large number of row boats. Mr. Binyon enlarged the east side hotel to accommodate the rapidly increasing patronage.
Mr. Charles Sigler built a hotel at the south end, and Mr. Van Borstel another fine hotel on the west side. Large excursion trains ran with from six to twelve coaches.

During this same summer President Arthur, Secretary Lincoln, Postmaster-General Gresham, Lieut. Governor Hanna, and others of national prominence, passed the lake, tarrying a moment and saluting the multitudes assembled to greet them. A regiment of Chicago militia went into camp, remaining several weeks; and many times during the summer from three to five thousand or more were visiting the lake simultaneously.

In 1883 the Stanley Bros, put a steamer into the lake named the "Lady of the Lake," worth seven hundred dollars, carrying from ten to fifteen persons, and only for private use; and in 1884 Wardell and Hinkley, of Chicago, put in another steamer, the "Jesse," worth twelve hundred dollars, with capacity to carry twenty-five or more.
Two more sail boats were also put in the lake in 1883.

The number of new boats at Binyon's, Sigler's, and Hunter's docks, for public use, has increased to probably near two hundred up to the present time, while many other parties have boats for their exclusive use, among which are the Stanley Bros, five row boats elegant and costly, single boats ranging up to a hundred dollars apiece.

The management of the L. N. A. & C. R. R. Co. has been from the completion of the road favorable for the prospects of the lake
as a resort, making commutation rates from Chicago, running extra and special excursion trains, and obliging and accommodating as far as possible, virtually, if not nominally, establishing three stations along the shore.
At this closing of the summer of 1884 and the half century of development; the outlook at the lake is bright and pleasant. Often through the day, trains of cars wind along the beach, the several steamers ply its waters; the sail boats appear like great birds with white spread wings; the many row boats dot the waves, and tents adorn the coast line.
Groups of people are about the hotels and along the banks, and resting in the shady places.
To see this, and not so minute a world of pleasure-seekers either, who have found a day, or a week, in which to steal away from the cares of life to rest, and the reflection all unbidden comes, that while toil is a necessity of existence, existence is not of necessity all toil; that while in the measure of human life there may be many tears even, yet it is not all tears that fills the complement of the measure.

And while many through adverse circumstances and from pitiful conditions are bearing burdens, they cannot well lay down and for them,
" The road winds up the hill, all the way, Yes, to the very end!"

yet that there are some, and so many, who are possessed of the time, the means, and the convenience with which to drop their toil and care, and wear, and rest in the deep, cool shades, or bask in the full, sweet, soft rays of sunlight as they gild the banks, and dance on the sparkling waters of Cedar Lake.



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