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BIOGRAPHIES OF NOTABLE RESIDENTS OF LAKE COUNTY, INDIANA

From the "Encyclopedia of Genealogy and Biography of Lake County, Indiana" from 1834-1904

Submitted by K. Torp and B. Ziegenmeyer


MRS. KATHARINA EINSPAHR.

The women of a community are oft times the most enterprising factors in its activity, and extend their influence far beyond their supposedly legitimate sphere of work. There is no citizen of West Creek township more highly esteemed for enterprise and worth in the business and industrial departments of Lake county as well as for large qualities of heart and mind, than Mrs. Einspahr, who resides on the fine estate in this township which she and her husband by indefatigable labor and honest industry and wise management built up to extensive and valuable proportions.

This worthy representative of the ladies of West Creek township was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, June 26, 1852, being the eldest of three children, all daughters, and her two sisters being: Christine, wife of George Walker, a retired resident of Chicago, and who has one child; and Mary, wife of James Nott, engaged in real estate business in Chicago. The parents of these three daughters were T. Baldanzer and Maggie (Albus) Frank. Her father was born in Frankfort on the Rhine in 1823, and died in 1887. He was educated in the German tongue, and followed farming throughout life. In 1857 he set sail from Germany with his family, the port of departure being Bremen, and, on account of the heavy storms which the sailing vessel encountered, they were three months and nine days in reaching this side of the Atlantic. He at once brought the family out to Blue Island, Illinois, where he began his active career as a farmer, poor but honest, and at his death could say that he had always made his own way and had enjoyed the high regard of his neighbors and friends. For a time he was a watchman in the Union Depot at Chicago, and he died in that city. He was a Republican in politics, and he and his wife were members of the Lutheran church. His wife was born in Nassau, Germany, in 1817, and died in 1895, having lived, after her husband's death, with her daughter.

September 20, 1871, Miss Katharina Frank was married to Mr. August Einspahr, and the ten children born of this union are all living at the present writing, as follows: Fred, who is a farmer of Odebolt, Iowa, and is married; William, a prosperous farmer of West Creek township, and a married man; August, a farmer of the same township; Maggie, wife of Otto Sutton, one of the prosperous men of West Creek township whose histories appear in this volume; Martin, who resides with his mother and conducts the farm; Emil, who is a farmer of the same township; Emma, wife of Joseph Carl, who is in a greenhouse at Crown Point; Walker, a farmer of West Creek township: Alfred, who makes his home with his mother; and Katie, the youngest, who is in the sixth grade of school.

Mr. Einspahr was born in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, May 2, 1843, and died February 11, 1894. He was ten years old when he accompanied his parents to America, their residence from the first being at Blue Island, Illinois. He was thus trained and educated in both the German and English languages. His parents were Frederick and Anna K. Einspahr, both deceased. Mr. Einspahr gave almost a year of loyal service as a soldier to the Union during the Civil war, and then received his honorable discharge. After his marriage he and his wife began life on eighty acres of land in West Creek township, the property being incumbered with twenty-two hundred dollars' debt. But they were industrious, shrewd managers, and had early learned the lesson of making both ends meet, so that it was not long before the indebtedness was cleared off and they were free to add more to their estate.

Mr. Einsphar was a stanch Republican, and all his sons follow his example. He was a solid man, reliable and of unflinching integrity, and all men respected him for his sterling worth. He and his wife were both members of the German Methodist church. Since her husband's death Mrs. Einspahr has erected her comfortable residence in the township, and has supervised the placing of the many improvements and the tiling of the land. She is a lady who is held in the highest esteem by all her acquaintances, and her hospitable home is a place of rest and comfort for all who enter therein.


HENRY BRANDT.

Henry Brandt, the prosperous and well known farmer and stockman of West Creek township, belongs to that fine class of German-American citizens who have been such praiseworthy factors in the upbuilding of the material and intellectual resources of Lake county. He is a native son and a life-long resident of the county, and therefore his interest in the county is deep-rooted and sincere. The history of his career shows that he has accomplished a more than ordinary success, and it may be said that in every relation of life he has merited the esteem of his fellow citizens.

Mr. Brandt was born in Lake county, April 2, 1856, and is the fifth in a family of nine children, four sons and five daughters, born to Dietrich and Anna (Bischop) Brandt. Eight of this family of sons and daughters are still living, as follows: John, who is a farmer of Benton county, Iowa; Mary; wife of David Locker, a farmer of Greeley county, Nebraska; William, a farmer of Lyon county, Iowa, and married; Henry; Anna, wife of George Sautter, a Nebraska farmer; Lena, wife of William Bahr, a farmer of Lyon county, Iowa; Emma, wife of Casper Gross, a tile manufacturer of Benton county, Iowa; and Herman, a farmer of Lyon county, Iowa.

Dietrich Brandt, the father of these children, was born near the free city of Bremen, in Hanover, Germany, was educated in the German language, and followed farming pursuits throughout the active part of his life. He was married in Germany, and three of their children were born in the fatherland. About the year 1848 he decided to come to America to seek his fortune, and he accordingly embarked his own on board a sailing vessel at Bremen, and after thirty-six days arrived in New York. He came out to Lake county, thus being among the early settlers, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of rather wild land. The first home was a log cabin, and the hazel bushes were standing thick around and over the present highly cultivated place. He was a successful man in his work, and besides providing well for his family he accumulated two hundred and ninety acres in West Creek township, his estate containing some of the choicest land in the community. He was a Republican in politics, and he and his wife were members of the Evangelical church in West Creek township, he having assisted in the building of the church edifice. His death occurred about 1880, and his wife, who was also born in the vicinity of Bremen, passed away in 1893.

Mr. Henry Brandt received an education in the English public schools of West Creek township, and from his earliest years of active labor to the present time has been identified successfully with farming and stock-raising pursuits. He remained at home with his parents until he had reached his majority, and when he started out independently he was possessed of a capital of fifteen hundred dollars.

January 18, 1882, he married Miss Emma Sastrow, and of this happy marriage eight children have been born, seven of whom are living. Ernest, the eldest, received his diploma for completion of the common school course in 1900, and is at home; Elsie, a graduate of the class of 1902, has also taken music; George is a graduate in 1903; Dora is in the fifth grade; and Harry, the youngest, is in the second grade of school. Mrs. Brandt was born in Cook county, Illinois, June 28, 1860, being a daughter of Charles and Henrietta (Steiner) Sastrow. She has one sister, Carrie, wife of William Brandt. Her parents came from Prussia, her father being a native of Pomerania and her mother of Holstein, and her father is still living, being a resident of Lyon county, Iowa.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Brandt settled on a farm of one hundred and sixty acres within half a mile of their present homestead. They have been thrifty and good managers, and as the years have gone by their prosperity has manifested itself by an accumulated estate of three hundred and ninety-nine acres, all finely cultivated and as good land as lies within the confines of West Creek township. They also own three hundred and twenty-acres in South Dakota, near Salem, the county seat of McCook county. Mr. Brandt is a good judge of fine stock, and keeps good grades of Norman horses, Durham cattle and Chester White hogs. He has the best of improvements on the farm, consisting of large and commodious barns, granaries and other outbuildings, and in 1896 he erected a comfortable country residence which is a credit to the community. He is a Republican in politics, and, from the time of casting his first presidential vote for James A. Garfield, he has been a loyal upholder of Republican principles. Fraternally he is a mem-ber of Lodge No. 14, of the Independent Order of Foresters at Brunswick, Indiana.


LOUIS LARSON.

Louis Larson is a prominent and enterprising farmer of Lake county, residing on section 17, Ross township, where he has a well improved property that in its beautiful appearance indicates his careful supervision. A native of Sweden, he was born on the 20th of November, 1860, and was a son of John Larson, who was also born in that country, whence he came to America, landing in New York in 1866, and then spent two years in Chicago. Two years afterward he came to Lake county, Indiana, establishing his home in Hobart township in 1868. There he remained for seven years and then removed to Ross township, but later he returned to Hobart township, where his death occurred in 1898, when he was in his sixty-sixth year. He was a life-long Republican, having firm faith in the principles of the party and giving to it his stalwart support. Both he and his wife are members of the Swedish Lutheran church at Hobart, and he was deeply interested in all that pertained to the moral and educational advancement as well as to the material upbuilding of his community. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Ellen Olson, is also a native of Sweden. She still survives her husband and now makes her home with her son Louis. She has been twice married, and by the first union she had two daughters, while the children of the second marriage are two sons.

Louis Larson, the younger son, was but five years of age when his parents left Sweden and came to the new world, while since seven years of age he has made his home in Lake county, Indiana. Here he was reared and educated, attending the Hobart schools and also the Ainsworth school in Ross township. To his father he gave the benefit of his services through the period of his minority, working in the fields throughout the summer months or from the time of early spring planting until crops were harvested in the late autumn. He remained at home to the time of his marriage, which occurred on the 3d of January, 1885, the lady of his choice being Miss Hilda Strom, a native of Sweden, who came to the United States when fourteen years of age. To Mr. and Mrs. Larson have been born three children: William, Edwin and Herbert.

After his marriage Mr. Larson rented his father's farm for about four years and then purchased the place upon which he has since carried on general agricultural pursuits and stock-raising. He now has eighty acres of good land here, well improved with substantial buildings. There is a comfortable house and large barn, and other modern improvements which indicate the owner to be a man of progressive and practical spirit. His land is arable, and the well-tilled fields yield to him a good return for his labor. In his political views he is a stanch Republican, and his religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Swedish Methodist Episcopal church at Hobart. Almost his entire life has been passed in Lake county, and those who have known him from boyhood esteem him highly because his life has been honorable and upright.


THOMAS GRANT.

Thomas Grant, numbered among the wide-awake and progressive business men of Lake county, Indiana, is now engaged in merchandising in Lowell and is also filling the position of township trustee, being active and influential in community affairs. He was born in Lowell on the 13th of September. 1865, and is a son of Thomas Grant, who was born in Scotland and came to America when a young man, locating in Chicago. Subsequently he removed to this county, settling in Lowell in 1860. He assisted in building the mill here, but his business career was early terminated by death. He died in the south when his son Thomas was but nine months old.

Thomas Grant was early thrown upon his own resources, for when a youth of only nine years he began working by the month as a farm hand. He also worked as a section hand for three years on the Monon Railroad, after which he learned the carpenter's trade and followed that pursuit for ten years. As time passed he prospered in his undertaking because of his economy and diligence, and on retiring from active connection with carpentering- he invested the capital he had acquired in a mercantile enterprise in Lowell, becoming a partner of his brother James. This business connection was formed in 1900, and they now carry a large and well selected line of general merchandise. Mr. Grant of this review is also a stockholder in the Lowell National Bank and his efforts are an important factor in promoting commercial activity and prosperity in his town.

In 1893 Mr. Grant was united in marriage to Miss Gracie Nichols, a daughter of W. C. and Mary Nichols. They have one son, Byrl. Mr. Grant is a stanch Republican, taking an active interest in the work and success of his party, and in 1900 he was elected township trustee, which position he is now filling. Fraternally he is connected with the Knights of Pythias lodge No. 300, at Lowell, and with the Masonic order. Having spent his entire life in Lowell he is well known in this portion of the county, and his life history is as an open book which all may read. His friends entertain for him warm regard, for he has ever commanded their respect and confidence, and because of his prominence in public and business affairs he well deserves mention as one of the representative citizens of this part of the state.


ALBERT FOSTER.

Albert Foster, ex-trustee of West Creek township, for many years actively engaged in agricultural affairs and now a resident of Lowell, belongs to the well-known Foster family which for two-thirds of a century have been conspicuous in the development of the county's material resources. The landed possessions in the Foster name are among the largest single estates in the county. Besides being accumulators of property, they have been producers of wealth, and from the time of the father who located here during the pioneer days the influence and works of the family members have always been on the side of progress in social, intellectual and institutional affairs. What has been accomplished by this family will always remain as a test and mark of their merit and worth as citizens, and Mr. Albert Foster has not been one of the least of the name in conferring great good upon the county of his nativity.

Mr. Foster was born in West Creek township on Christmas day of 1856. His parents were George L. and Lucy Jane (Hathaway) Foster, and he was the fifth of their ten children, five sons and five daughters, nine of whom are still living, as follows: Edwin L., who is married and engaged in the oil business at Jacksonville, Illinois; Volney, married and a farmer in prosperous circumstances in Wrest Creek township; Edson, married and a resident of Chicago Heights, Illinois; Albert; Eliza, wife of Arthur Farley, a farmer of Lowell; Emeline, wife of F. E. Nelson, the banker at Lowell; Martha, wife of Frank L. Smart, who is principal of the Dubuque, Iowa, high school, and who was educated at Valparaiso and in Harvard College; Marillia, wife of S. A. Richards, of Valparaiso; and Julia, wife of George Bailey.

George L. Foster was born in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, April 10, 1821, and died in Kansas, May 12, 1877. He was a farmer and stockman and for some time was a cattle drover. He was a self-educated man, gifted with a retentive memory, and had great individuality and force of character. His active career began at the early age of fifteen, when he left his father's home and went to work on the Erie canal. He came home at the end of nine months and gave his parents, in addition to his regular wages, twenty dollars that he had picked up as extras. His father returned to him this twenty dollars, and thus capitalized he started out on foot for the distant destination of Lake county, Indiana. When he arrived in this county, in 1836 or '37, he had eleven dollars in cash, so that he began at the foot of life's ladder. For ten years he was a wage earner. About 1841 he entered a tract of eighty acres in section 7, West Creek township, consisting of pure virgin soil, and his first domicilium was a log cabin, the material for which was cut from the Kankakee swamp trees. Not to enter into details, he prospered to the extent that he owned over one thousand acres of land in this county, all in one body, besides eleven hundred acres in Kansas. This land has never passed from the family, and the descendants instead of selling any of it have added much more to it.

Mr. George L. Foster was a very remarkable man in many ways, and he was uniformly successful in all his undertakings. During the California gold excitement he started for the Eldorado, but got only as far as Pike's Peak. Later, however, he went on to the coast, returning by way of the Isthmus. Politically he was an old-line Whig and then joined the Republican party at its birth, being a warm admirer of Abe Lincoln. In official capacities he served as county commissioner of Lake county during the war, 1861-65, and was a strong supporter of the Union. He had a decision of character and a firmness that elevated him above the rank and file and gave a distinctive stamp to both word and action. He and his wife were both members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he assisted in the erection of both houses of worship of that denomination in West Creek township, the last one being built in 1867. His wife, Lucy (Hathaway) Foster, was born in the Hudson river valley of New York, April 20, 1828, and she died November 30, 1876. Both the Foster and Hathaway families were of pure English stock, and grandfather Elijah Dwight Foster was one of the famous minute-men of the Revolution.

Albert Foster was reared in western Lake county, and his early education stopped with the common schools, after which he trained himself mainly by personal application. He was only twelve years old when he left the parent nest and tried his young wings in independent flight. He was imbued with the desire that comes to all vigorous-minded boys, to travel and see the world. As he says, when he should have been at home under his mother's care, he was far in the west in New Mexico and Arizona, and spending two years in the silver mines of Colorado. He later returned and had already got quite a start in life by the time he reached his majority and was in the mind of settling down in life.

On December 30, 1877, just after he had passed his twenty-first birthday, he was married to Miss Mary E. Sponslor. They have been happily wedded for more than twenty-five years, and six children, three sons and three daughters, have been born to them. Clyde D., the eldest, graduated in the class of 1896 from the Lowell high school, secured his teacher's certificate, taught in his home township two years, was principal at Shelby one year, principal of the Franklin school at Hammond two years, and then entered the literary department of Northwestern University and is still carrying on his studies: he is a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity and is a member of the Masonic lodge at Lowell; during the present scholastic year of the university he was unanimously elected president of the class, which honor conferred on him was graciously yet modestly received. Emma Stella graduated in 1901 from the Lowell high school and is now taking the teacher's course at the Ypsilanti (Michigan) Normal, being especially interested in elocution. Hattie L., a graduate from the high school in 1903, is also at Ypsilanti. Arthur Lyman graduated from the Lowell high school in 1904 and pursuing normal studies at the Valparaiso College is now a teacher in Lake county. Mr. and Mrs. Foster have not spared means or effort in giving their children the best of training and educational advantages, and they should be congratulated on the excellent results already apparent.

Mrs. Foster was born in Hardin county, Ohio, December 29, 1852, and was reared in that state and educated in the ladies' seminary at West Geneva. She was a teacher for a number of years in her native state and also in Kansas. Her parents, both now deceased, were Jacob and Margaret (Slonacker) Sponslor, and she has five brothers living.

For twenty-one years after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Foster resided upon their homestead in West Creek township, where they have a fine estate of three hundred and ten acres, besides some property that Mrs. Foster owns in Ohio. In 1898 they moved into Lowell, where they erected one of the most pretentious homes of the town, and have been citizens there ever since. Their home is finished in hardwood and Georgia pine, is heated by furnace, is prettily furnished, and, best of all and its chief charm, is the abode of hospitality and a place of welcome for their many friends.

Mr. Foster has been prominent in civic affairs in his township, and is one of the leaders in matters pertaining to the general welfare. He is a stalwart Republican, having cast his first vote for Garfield. In August, 1895, he accepted the office of trustee of West Creek township, and during the five years and three months of his tenure of this office many of the most important public improvements effecting the people and material progress were brought about. He caused the erection of several of the fine modern school buildings in the township, which would be a credit to any community, and during his official career, also, the West Creek high school was organized, and education in general received a most stimulating influence in all directions. In 1900 he was appointed by Judge Gillette as drainage commissioner in Lake county. He has often been selected as delegate to his party's county, district and state conventions. Fraternally he affiliates with Colfax Lodge No. 378, F. & A. M., and served as worshipful master one year. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, No. 300, at Lowell, and belongs to the uniform rank of that order.


THOMAS J. STEARNS.

From an early period in the development of Lake county Thomas J. Steams has resided in this portion of the state and is now living at Lake Station. His interest in public affairs has been manifested in active co-operation in all movements for the general good and he has long been a witness of what has been accomplished in this county as it has emerged from pioneer conditions to take its place with the leading counties of the commonwealth.

Mr. Steams was born February 28, 1842, upon a farm in Porter county. Indiana, about six miles west of Valparaiso. His father, Joseph Steams, was a native of Rhode Island and was reared in New York, whence he went to Porter county, Indiana, about 1838. In 1852 he came to Lake county, casting in his lot with the early settlers of Hobart township, where he performed the arduous task of developing a new farm from wild and unbroken land. He served for several terms as trustee of Hobart township and in public affairs took an active and helpful part. He was also an interested and zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and his labors promoted the cause of Christianity in his neighborhood. He died when in his seventy-ninth year and left behind an untarnished name and a most honorable record. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Rhoda Wilson, was a native of Ohio and was of Irish descent, while Mr. Steams was of English lineage. She was reared in the Buckeye state and lived to be about sixty-nine years of age. To them were born thirteen children, nine of whom reached years of maturity, while two are yet living, Thomas J., and Mrs. Rhoda Toothel, of Hobart.

Thomas J. Steams was the next to the youngest in the family, and he was brought to Lake county, Indiana, when but ten years of age. His education was acquired in the old time district schools, and in the summer months he worked at farm labor until he had gained broad and practical knowledge concerning every department of agricultural work. He continued at home with his parents until 1861, when, feeling that his first duty was to his country, he donned the blue uniform and enlisted in the Fourth Indiana Battery as a private. He served for three years and one month, and six months of that time was spent in a rebel prison. He was first incarcerated at Libby and afterward at Belle Isle. He took part in the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Perryville and many other engagements, but never received a wound, although he was often in the thickest of the fight.

After being honorably discharged at Indianapolis, Indiana, Mr. Steams returned to Hobart, Lake county, since which time he has continuously resided in this part of the state, living a part of the time in Hobart, where he was engaged in conducting a hotel and also in the grocery business. He has likewise followed farming, and he was a guard in the Northern prison for a year. He has manifested energy and enterprise in every work that he has undertaken, and he is now engaged in the real estate and insurance business at Lake Station.

In 1864 Mr. Steams was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Crowthers. They became the parents of two children, but both are now deceased. In 1871 Mr. Steams married his present wife, who bore the maiden name of Ella Stilhvell, and was a native of New York. Her birth occurred in Schoharie county, August 3, 1845, and she is a daughter of Smith T. and Hannah (Banks) Stilhvell. She was nineteen years of age when she came to Lake county and here she has since resided. Mr. Steams has firm faith in the principles of the Republican party and is a recognized leader in its local ranks. He is now serving as township assessor, and for twelve years he was justice of the peace. He is also notary public and has acted in that capacity for twelve years. He belongs to Hobart Post, No. 411, G. A. R., and to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. During fifty-one years he has made his home in Lake county, so that he is very familiar with its history and has been a witness of nearly all of its growth and development.


CHARLES C. GIBSON.

Charles C. Gibson, who is acting postmaster of Tolleston and is proprietor of the Hotel Gibson, was born in Chicago, September 25, 1835. His father, Thomas Gibson, was a native of Columbus, Ohio, and became a resident of Chicago in 1834, three years before the incorporation of the city. It was then but an embryo village, and the most farsighted could not have dreamed of the marvelous development and growth which awaited it. Thomas Gibson conducted a hotel on the beach called the Lake House. He remained there until 1838, when he removed to Lake county, Indiana, and here again engaged in the hotel business at what was then known as Grass Ridge. He was one of the first settlers of that place and kept a stage house, for there was no railroad through this part of the country at that time and, in fact, few wagon roads had been laid out. Mr. Thomas Gibson afterward opened a hotel one mile east of where Tolleston now stands, and he there remained until his death, which occurred in the year 1850. His widow afterward conducted the hotel until 1860, when she opened the first hotel at Tolleston. In 1879 she sold that property and enjoyed a well merited rest up to the time of her death, which occurred in 1900. Mrs. Thomas Gibson bore the maiden name of Maria Neil, and was born in Ireland, whence she came to the United States as a maiden of thirteen summers. By her marriage she had six children, two sons and four daughters, all of whom reached mature years, but only three are now living, the sisters of our subject being Mrs. Elizabeth Baird, who resides at Hunnewell, Shelby county, Missouri; and Mrs. Julia B. Follette, who is living in Chicago.

Charles C. Gibson, the eldest of the children and the only one now living, was reared under the parental roof and was but three years old when brought by his parents to Lake county. After his father's death he assisted his mother in the hotel business and later entered the service of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad Company, with which he was connected for about seventeen years. He entered the service as a brakeman and was afterward promoted to the position of conductor. He was also for a time with the Michigan Central Railroad Company and also with the Northwestern Railroad Company, and throughout his railroad service proved himself a most capable, efficient and faithful employee. Mr. Gibson is also engaged in farming, having carried on agricultural pursuits in Lake county for about six years or until 1900, when he opened Hotel Gibson, at Tolleston. He has since conducted this hostelry and has made it one which is creditable to the town. He has a thorough and practical training concerning the best methods of carrying on the hotel business, and his earnest desire to please his patrons has secured him a continuance of a liberal patronage.

On the 2d of September, 1860, Mr. Gibson was united in marriage to Miss Henrietta Combs, a native of Canada, who was born in Hamilton on the 18th of September, 1844. She is a daughter of David and Eliza (Woodruff) Combs. Mrs. Gibson was reared in Chicago, to which city she was taken by her parents in her early girlhood days. By her marriage she has become the mother of three children, two sons and a daughter: Walter, who follows farming in Lake county, Indiana; Florence, who is the wife of Harry Miles, of Michigan City, Indiana; and George, a blacksmith by trade, who is now engaged in business along that line in California.
Mr. Gibson has spent the greater part of his life in this county and is the oldest living resident of his portion of the county, his connection therewith covering sixty-seven years. He is therefore well known, and the circle of his friendship has broadened as the circle of his acquaintance has been extended. He is a man of many strong characteristics, and his good qualities have won for him the regard of his fellow men. His political allegiance is given to the Democracy, but he has never had time nor inclination to seek
public office.


STEPHEN MEYERS.

A native of Germany, Mr. Meyers was born in Prussia, on the 22d. of June, 1842, a son of Mathias and Elizabeth Meyers, both of whom were natives of Germany, where they resided until 1858, when they crossed the Atlantic and established their home upon a farm in Hanover township, Lake county, Indiana, the father there carrying on agricultural pursuits for a number of years.
In the public schools of Germany Stephen Meyers acquired his education and when sixteen years of age he accompanied his parents to the new world. The remainder of his minority was spent on the old homestead farm in Hanover township, and practical business methods became familiar to him through the assistance which he rendered his father in the cultivation of the fields and the sale of the crops. In 1886 he engaged in the saloon business at Hanover Center, and for thirty-two years he actively continued that business in Hanover township. He also became the owner of a farm. As the years passed he added to his financial resources and he is now loaning money and buying commercial paper.

On the 28th of August, 1866, Mr. Meyers was united in marriage to Miss Catherine Bechtloff, a native of Germany, who came to America in April, 1866. They have four living children: Mathias, Stephen, Katie and Frank.

Mr. Meyers has been somewhat prominent in community affairs. He was elected assessor of Hanover township and filled the position for five years. He was also chosen by popular suffrage to the office of trustee and served for six years. He has been a resident of Lake county for forty-six years, his family locating here in pioneer times. He and his family are members of the Catholic church and are well known in the county. Leaving Hanover Center, Mr. Meyers established his home in Crown Point, and is well known in the city and throughout this portion of the state where he has so long resided.


ALBERT J. SWANSON.

Albert J. Swanson, who is filling the office of township trustee and is engaged in the hardware business at Hobart, Indiana, is a worthy citizen that Sweden has furnished to Lake county and in his business career and private life he displays many of the strong and commendable qualities of the Swedish race. He was born April 6, 1868, a son of John and Beatrice Swan-son. He was only two years old when his parents crossed the Atlantic to America, establishing their home in Moline, Illinois, whence they came to Lake county, Indiana, in October, 1871. Mr. Swanson was then only three years of age. He pursued his education in the public schools of Hobart and in a Swedish school at that place, and when fifteen years of age he started out to earn his own living, working for George Stoker in a general store in Hobart. There he remained for two years, and at the end of that time accepted a clerkship in the store of J. E. Mander, with whom he continued for three months. His next employer was J. J. Wood, a general merchant of
Hobart, with whom he continued for two years, and later he was a salesman in the general store of B. W. Stratton. In 1891 he embarked in merchandising on his own account in partnership with his brother, F. P. Swanson. They purchased the grocery department in the store of B. W. Stratton, and after a partnership of three years Albert J. Swanson bought his brother's interest and continued in the grocery trade until 1900. He then sold out and purchased the hardware store of A. Mealin. He has since added to his stock and is now conducting a well equipped hardware, tin shop, and plumbing establishment. He has secured a good patronage, and his constantly growing trade is now bringing to him a very desirable financial return. He is also engaged in dealing in coal in partnership with William Jahnke, their yards being situated along the line of the Nickle Plate Railroad track.

In 1891 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Swanson and Miss Margaret Cooke, a daughter of M. J. and Elizabeth Cooke. They have four children: Beth, Margaret, Geraldine and Pliny. Beth is in the seventh grade, Margaret in the sixth, Geraldine in the third, and Pliny in the second. Both of the two elder children have taken music.

Mr. Swanson is a public-spirited citizen who has manifested an active interest in many measures pertaining to general progress. In politics he is a Republican, and in November, 1900, was elected township trustee, which position he is now filling. He is the youngest trustee that has ever served in Lake county, and he was chosen to the office by one of the largest majorities ever given a candidate for the position. Mr. Swanson is the only trustee in the county of Lake who has introduced a special teacher of music for the schools of the township, which is highly commendable, as an educative element. The teacher in charge, Miss Cleo Z. Barnes, visits each school each week. Mr. Swanson has also introduced typewriting in the public schools of Hobart, and it proves a successful venture.

Fraternally he is connected with the Masonic lodge, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, No. 333, the Knights of Pythias, No. 458, and the Knights of the Maccabees, Tent No. 65, and he has filled all the offices in these various lodges with the exception of the Masonic. He is well known in the county for his business ability and political activity, and he has made for himself a most creditable record. He started out in life empty-handed, and all that he possesses has been accumulated through his own persistent purpose, capable management and progressive business methods.


GEORGE L. CASTLE.

George L. Castle, now deceased, who was well known in Lake county, was born in Florence, Huron county, Ohio, February 18, 1839. His father, Squire Castle, was a native of Vermont, whence he removed to Berrien county, Michigan, from Ohio, in 1850. Two years later he came to West Creek township, Lake county, Indiana, arriving here in 1852. George L. Castle was then but thirteen years of age, and he continued his education in the district schools of West Creek township, while with farm work he became very familiar, gaining a broad practical experience as he assisted in the labors of field and meadow and in all departments of farm work. When the country became involved in Civil war, however, he put aside all business and personal considerations, for his patriotic spirit was aroused and he determined to aid his country in the preservation of the Union. Accordingly he enlisted in 1861, becoming a member of Company B, Twentieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which he served until 1864. He was orderly sergeant and took part in many hotly contested battles, displaying marked valor and loyalty upon the field. After being honorably discharged he returned to Lowell and took up the work of contracting, which he followed continuously in this county until June, 1882, when he removed to Chicago. There he engaged in dealing in sand, gravel, brick and lumber, and for twenty years was an active and enterprising business man of that city, his death occurring on the 12th of October, 1902, in Lowell, Indiana. In his political views he was a Democrat, but the honors and emoluments of office had little attraction for him.

On the 18th of December, 1866, Mr. Castle was united in marriage to Miss Laura P. Hull, who was born in Franklin county, Vermont, on the 11th of February 1847. Her father, Samuel P. Hull, was also a native of Franklin county and on emigrating westward established his home in Illinois, where he remained for two years. In 1867 he came to Lake county, Indiana, locating at Lowell, where he followed the occupation of farming. His death occurred February 3, 1898. Mrs. Castle's mother. Emeline Castle, was likewise a native of Franklin county, Vermont, and it was in the Green Mountain state that she was married. Mr. Hull was at one time the owner of the land on which occurred the birth of the late President Arthur. To Mr. and Mrs. Hull were born seven children, two sons and five daughters, namely: Jasper, Mrs. Mary Edmonds, Mrs. Joseph A. Clark, Mrs. Laura Castle, Albert, Mrs. William Sigler, and Mrs. Stanley Babcock, who is now deceased.

Mrs. Castle is the fourth child in the family, and was the mother of one daughter, Mrs. Jessie B. C. Riggs, who died February 13, 1893, leaving a daughter, Laura M. Riggs, whose birth occurred August 28, 1889. (See obituary.) Mrs. Castle still carries on the business at Chicago which was established by her husband, and in this enterprise has the assistance of the secretary of the firm. She also owns a farm in West Creek township, Lake county, to which she gives her personal supervision. She is a woman of business ability, keen foresight and marked enterprise and is capably conducting her varied business interests.

The following obituaries, while covering the main points sketched above, also further indicate the character and life of Mr. Castle and his only daughter and child :

George L. Castle was born in the town of Florence, Huron county, Ohio, February 18, 1839, and died at his home in Lowell, Indiana, October 12, 1902, at the age of 63 years, 7 months and 24 days. His sickness dates back nearly two years, in which time he has been attended by the best medical skill, but all to no purpose. In hopes of regaining his health he went to Florida last winter, but was forced to return without obtaining the desired benefit. Since his return from the south his disease has been of a dropsical nature and that was probably the immediate cause of his death.
When a lad of ten or twelve he moved with his parents to Michigan, remaining there about two years, when they again moved, coming to Lake county, Indiana, arriving here February 18, 1852, since which time Mr. Castle has resided in or near Lowell, with the exception of a few years in Chicago. He was among our best citizens: a man possessed of many noble traits of character, chief among which was his open-heartedness; no one ever applying to him for assistance was turned away empty handed, if within his power to prevent. He was a man very highly respected by all who knew him for his honorable, upright ways. When his country was in distress and needed his services he offered himself as a soldier, enlisting in Company B, 20th I. V. V. I., July 22, 1861, and from which he was discharged as corporal, July 29, 1864, after a faithful service of a little over three years.

December 18, 1866, he was united in marriage with Miss Laura P. Hull. To this union was born one daughter, Jessie, who became the wife of Howard E. Riggs. She died February 13, 1893, leaving a little daughter, Laura M.

The funeral, which was largely attended, occurred from his late home at 2 p. m., October 15. Elder John Bruce assisted by Rev. D. D. Hoagland, pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church, officiated. Funeral Director Clifford Stowell had charge of the burial service. Interment was made in the Lowell cemetery.

He leaves his wife, three brothers: John M. and Mortimer, of Lowell, and Charles E. of DeBorgia, Montana, one grand-daughter, Laura M. Riggs, together with a large number of relatives to mourn his death, to whom the Tribune extends sincere sympathy in their darkest hour of sorrow.

Died, at her home in Englewood, February 13, 1893, Jessie Bell (Castle) Riggs, aged 24 years, 4 months and 24 days. Jessie Bell was born in Kansas City, Missouri, September 20, 1868. She was the only child of Mr. and Mrs. George L. Castle, of South Chicago, and wife of Howard Riggs. She came with her parents to Lowell, Indiana, when about three months old, where she resided till she was fourteen years of age, from whence she moved with her parents to South Chicago, Illinois. She was married to Howard Riggs, of Cambridge, Ohio, September 20, 1888. To this union two children were born, a daughter and a son. The son preceded its mother to the Spirit Land about two years ago. Her funeral took place from the Methodist Episcopal church, Thursday, Rev. Bird, of South Chicago, officiating, assisted by Rev. Bruce, of Lowell, where a large concourse of relatives and friends gathered to pay the last sad tribute of respect to one who was loved and held in high esteem by all who knew her. Her remains were laid in the Lowell cemetery, there to rest until the morn of resurrection, from whence she will come forth and her garments shall be white. She leaves a husband and daughter, and father and mother, and other relatives and friends to
mourn her loss.


JOHN DWYER.

John Dwyer, whose intense and well directed activity in business affairs has won him success, is now living a retired life in Lowell and enjoys in high measure the respect and esteem of the community. He is an honored veteran of the Civil war, has served as auditor of Lake county and in all relations of life has been found trustworthy and loyal. A native of Knox county, Ohio, his birth occurred on the 26th of June, 1834. His grandfather, James Dwyer, was born in the north of Ireland, and on coming to America settled in Maryland. His father, John Dwyer, was a native of Maryland and settled in Knox county, Ohio, in 1808, becoming one of the pioneer residents of that portion of the state. He was a carpenter and joiner and also a cabinet-maker, and he carried on business at Mount Vernon, Ohio, along those lines. His remaining days were spent in the Buckeye state, where he died at the age of seventy-eight years. His political allegiance was given to the Democracy in early manhood, but in 1856 he joined the ranks of the new Republican party and voted for John C. Fremont. His religious faith was indicated by his membership in the Baptist church. His wife bore the maiden name of Sarah Martin and was a native of Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, where she was reared. She, too, spent her last days at Mount Vernon, Ohio, and passed away at the very advanced age of seventy-seven years, there being only a week's difference in the date of hers and her husband's death. This worthy couple were the parents of three sons and eight daughters, all of whom reached years of maturity.

John Dwyer, the ninth child and second son of the family, was reared in Knox county, Ohio, and pursued his education in Frederickton Academy and in Oberlin College. He learned the trade of a millwright in the county of his nativity, serving a full term of apprenticeship, but soon afterward gave up the business. He followed that pursuit for nine months in Iowa. In 1854 he removed to Lake county, Indiana, settling at Crown Point, and engaged in farming one mile east of the city, carrying on that pursuit for about three years.

In the meantime Mr. Dwyer was married on the 28th of December, 1856, the lady of his choice being Miss Cornelia A. Clark, a daughter of Jabez and Marrelle E. (Burrows) Clark, in whose family were seven children-, two daughters and five sons. Mrs. Dwyer, the second in order of birth, was born in Tompkins county, New York, June 27, 1837, and was but seven months old when she was brought to Lake county, Indiana, by her parents, who located at Lowell. The father was a farmer by occupation and, securing land from the government, at once began its cultivation and development, transforming the wild tract into richly cultivated fields. He continued to carry en farming up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1876, when he was sixty-eight years of age. His wife died in her eighty-eighth year. Mrs. Dwyer has one living brother, Perry D. Clark, of Lowell.

In the year 1857 Mr. and Mrs. Dwyer took up their abode upon a farm a half mile south of Lowell, and there he devoted his energies to general agricultural pursuits for about a year and a half. At that time they removed to a farm two and a half miles northwest of Lowell, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1861. Feeling then that his first duty was to his country he joined the boys in blue, enlisting as a member of Company B, Twentieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. He joined the army as a private, but was soon afterward made corporal, and he served from June, 1861, until May 5, 1864. He took part in a number of the leading battles of the Army of the Potomac and was wounded in the shoulder at the battle of Gettysburg by a minie ball. He was again wounded at the battle of the Wilderness on the 5th of May, 1864, being struck in the knee by a minie ball. This necessitated the amputation of the left leg above the knee, and on account of his severe injuries he was honorably discharged September 25, 1864.

Mr. Dwyer then returned to Lowell. He certainly made great sacrifices for his country and yet he has never regretted the part which he performed in the preservation of the Union. On again reaching Lake county he took up the work of school teaching, but after he had spent a month in that way he was appointed by Schuyler Colfax to a clerical position in the war department of Washington. Removing to that city he remained for seven years in that department, on the expiration of which period he resigned and returned to his old home in Lake county in 1871. In the same year he was made a candidate for the position of county recorder and was elected the following fall for a term of four years. During that period he made his home in Crown Point, and in the discharge of the duties of the office he was found most capable, efficient, prompt and faithful. On his retirement from official service he returned to Lowell and located on a farm a half mile southwest of the town, there remaining until 1882, when he sold his farm property and removed to Greencastle, Indiana, in order to educate his family. Not long after his removal to that place he was re-appointed to a position in the war department at Washington and remained as a clerk there until 1890, when he again resigned and returned to Lowell, where his family had previously located. He has since lived retired in the enjoyment of a rest which he has truly earned.

Mr. and Mrs. Dwyer are the parents of seven children, but John Byron died at the age of three years and twins died in infancy, while Bessie Eliza died at the age of seventeen months. The others are Cassius C, Schuyler C, who is an attorney at Lowell; and Sylvia May, the wife of Roy M. Abrams, of Indianapolis, Indiana.

Mr. Dwyer has been a life-long Republican, never faltering in his allegiance to the party, which stood as the defender of the Union in the dark days of the Civil war and which has ever been the champion of progress, reform and improvement. He is a member of the Grand Army post at Lowell, and thus maintains pleasant relations with his old army comrades. He has a wide and favorable acquaintance in Lake county, and during his residence elsewhere he has felt the keenest interest in the development of this portion of the state. In all life's relations he has been true to duty and in matters of citizenship is as loyal today as when he followed the old flag upon battlefields of the south.


MAHLON HATHAWAY.

Mahlon Hathaway is one of the representative agriculturists and stock-raisers of West Creek township, and is a man whose success in life and prominence as a citizen well deserve mention in such a historical record as this present volume. He is a native of Kankakee county, Illinois, where he was born November 17, 1856. He is the eldest of the three children, two sons and one daughter, born to Bethuel and Lucinda (Hayden) Hathaway. His brother Henry, next to him in age, is an agriculturist of West Creek township, a successful man, and is married and has a family. Janie, the sister, is the wife of Charles Belshaw, a farmer at Lowell. The father of this family was born in New York state about 1818, and died in Lake county, Indiana, when about seventy years old. He was reared to manhood in his native state, and received his public school education there. He was a pioneer of Lake county, being among those who came in 1843, and he purchased a hundred and sixty acres of land in West Creek township and was a successful farmer during the remainder of his active career. He acquired an estate of two hundred and seventy-five acres, all situated in West Creek township. He was an energetic personality, and in business affairs was aggressive and prosperous. He was an out and out Republican in politics, and he and his wife were members of the Methodist church.

Mr. Hathaway was reared to the age of ten years in Kankakee county, and since then has been a resident of Lake county. He was educated in the common schools, and gained much of life's training by personal application. He had only a small capital when he arrived at majority, and his subsequent success has been almost entirely by his own efforts. He married Miss Julia Smith, by whom he had three children, two living: Blanche completed the eighth grade of school, and Carrie is at home and in the ninth grade of the Lowell high school. The mother of these children died in 1886, and for his second wife Mr. Hathaway married Miss Barbara Grimes, who is the mother of four children, as follows: Leslie, who is in the eighth grade in school, and a bright lad in his studies; Gladys, in the fifth grade; Lucille; and Archie, the youngest.

Mrs. Hathaway was born in Kankakee county, Illinois, in 1866, and was reared and educated in her native county. She was a student of the Valparaiso College, and was also engaged in teaching for several years. Mr. Hathaway is a stanch Republican, and cast his first vote for the lamented Garfield. He has been chosen as a delegate to the county conventions, and has in various ways been active in practical politics in this county. Mr. and Mrs. Hathaway are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, in West Creek township. Their homestead is in this same township, where they possess one hundred and forty acres of good land. The buildings about this farm are first class, and in 1898 he erected a modem residence and one of the most charming homes in the neighborhood. He was formerly engaged in the milk business, shipping all his product, but he has of late years bought a De Laval separator and begun the making of butter at home, which he finds a more satisfactory enterprise. Mr. Hathaway is one of the successful men of the county, and has won a large degree of material prosperity and attained the recognition and esteem of his fellow citizens through his well directed efforts and honest endeavor.


AMOS BRANNON.

Amos Brannon, a retired farmer of Lowell, who was dependent upon his own resources for a living from an early age, is a self-made man, whose record is creditable and well worthy of emulation. He started out in life empty-handed, and, realizing that labor is the basis of all success, he worked diligently and persistently for many years and is now the possessor of a very comfortable competence. Moreover, he has advanced far on life's journey, reaching a stage in which nature seems to have intended that man should put aside active business cares and spend the evening of life in quiet.

Mr. Brannon was born in Summit county, Ohio, on the 4th of September, 1821. His father was William Brannon, whose parents were natives of Ireland. The mother bore the maiden name of Lucina Loveland, and was born in Vermont. William Brannon died in Ohio in 1828 when his son Amos was but seven years of age, but the mother lived to be more than eighty years of age. In their family were eight children, seven of whom reached mature years. Of this number Amos Brannon was the third child and second son. After his father's death he remained with his mother, but worked out for a living until twenty-two years of age. He then came to Indiana, locating in Porter county in the spring of 1843, and in the fall of the same year he came to Lake county. Here he engaged in farming, purchasing a small tract of land in West Creek township. This was wild and unimproved and covered eighty acres. With characteristic energy he began its development and continued the work of improvement until he sold the property and purchased an adjoining farm of two hundred and forty acres. This he also improved, breaking the prairie and transforming wild land into rich and productive fields. He continued agricultural pursuits there until 1885, when he retired and removed to Lowell. He has since built a good residence in the town and is now comfortably situated in life. During the early years of his residence in Indiana he bravely faced all the hardships and dangers of frontier life and performed the arduous task of developing two new farms, but as the years passed by excellent results attended his efforts, making him one of the substantial farmers of the community.

On the 18th of September, 1844, Mr. Brannon was united in marriage to Miss Sallie Taylor, who was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, April 6, 1827, and is a daughter of Calvin and Mary Ann (Nugant) Taylor. They came to LaPorte county, Indiana, in 1834, casting in their lot with the early pioneer settlers. Subsequently they removed to Porter county, Indiana, where the mother died, while the father's death occurred in Lockport, Illinois. In their family were five children, of whom Mrs. Brannon is the eldest. She came to Lake county when but fourteen years of age, and has lived here continuously since. The home of Mr. and Mrs. Brannon has been blessed with eleven children, seven of whom yet survive, while four have passed away, namely: Willia, Amos, Calvin and James M. Those still living are Mary Ann, Amelia, Ida, Milo, William J. and Lucian and Lucina, twins. All were born in West Creek township, Lake county, and the living children are married and have established comfortable homes of their own. Both Mr. and Mrs. Brannon hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church, and take zealous and active interest in its work. He has long been a Republican, voting for Fremont on the organization of the party, and twice supporting Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. Mr. Brannon has traveled far on life's journey and can look back over the past without regret and forward to the future without fear, for his has been an honorable, active and useful career. He has never been known to take advantage of the necessities of his fellow men in any trade transactions, but has been just and considerate of others, and in his business life as well as in social circles has gained warm personal regard and respect.


HENRY SUPRISE.

From an early period in the development of Lake county Henry Suprise has been numbered among its residents, and is now a prominent old settler well deserving of mention in this volume. He lives on section 18, Cedar Creek township. A native of New York, he was born on the 1st of December, 1830, and is of French lineage. His father, Peter Suprise, was born in France and came to America when about thirty-five years old. He located in Lake county among its pioneer residents, being one of the first settlers of Cedar Creek township, and there he lived to the very advanced age of about one hundred and nine years. In early manhood he married Rosina Taylor, who was born in Canada and was reared and married there. They removed to New York, where they remained one year, and then came to Lake county, Indiana, where Mrs. Suprise died when about eighty-three years of age. They were the parents of four sons and three daughters, who are now living.

Henry Suprise, the third child of the family, was only six months old when brought to Lake county, o Indiana. His educational privileges were extremely meager, for he began to work as soon as old enough and assisted his father in the arduous task of developing a new farm and continuing its cultivation. He became familiar with every department of farm labor and continued to aid his father on the old homestead until he had attained his majority and afterward cared for his father until the latter's death.

In 1855 occurred the marriage of Henry Suprise and Miss Elizabeth Hill, a daughter of James and Mary (Skinner) Hill. She was born in Decatur county, Indiana, near Greensburg, July 12, 1841. The young couple began their domestic life in Cedar Creek township, where Mr. Suprise engaged in general farming, and he has since followed that pursuit. In the winter he buys and sells cattle, and he is widely recognized as one of the most successful farmers in the county and one of the most extensive landowners, his realty possessions now aggregating about one thousand acres. He worked hard and persistently in the early years of his married life, and as his financial resources increased he made judicious investment in property until to-day he is one of the leading land-holders of this portion of the state. He also owns stock in the Lowell National Bank at Lowell, and is one of its directors, and to a greater or less extent he has engaged in loaning money in Lake county.

To Mr. and Mrs. Suprise have been born three children who are yet living: Jasper, Albert and William, all residents of Lake county. They also lost one child. Since the organization of the Republican party Mr. Suprise has given to it a stalwart and unfaltering support, where matters of state and national interest are involved, but at local elections he votes independently, giving his ballot for men and measures rather than for party. In matters of citizenship he is public-spirited and progressive, and his patriotism stands as an unquestioned fact in his career. He has, therefore, co-operated in many movements for the general good and has been particularly active in the agricultural development and progress of northwestern Indiana.


MRS. SARAH E. NICHOLS.

The ladies of our state and .nation play a most conspicuous part in the affairs of home and community, although "the happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history," their lives and influence being among the "silent forces" which effect great works without display or heralding abroad. Among the worthy, noble and esteemed women of Lowell is to be numbered Mrs. Sarah E. Nichols, who has lived in this county a number of years and has made her influence felt through her family and in whatever relation she has touched the society about her.

Mrs. Nichols was born in Barnston Corner, Lower Canada, February 24, 1845, being the third of four children, one son and three daughters, born to Hiram and Elvira (Sprague) Wheeler. Her two sisters are still living, Matilda, a widow, being a resident of Arkansas City, Kansas, and Laura the wife of Alexander McNay, of Lowell, Indiana. Her father was born in Canada about 1818, and followed the occupation of farming. Mrs. Nichols' mother was also" a native of Canada, and her death occurred when the former was about seven years old.

Mrs. Nichols being left an orphan was reared by her grandmother until she was fourteen years old, and her education was received in the common schools. March 29, 1862, she married Horatio J. Nichols, in this county. They became the parents of ten children, four sons and six daughters, and six of them are still living: Laura was educated in the Lowell schools and still resides in this town; she wedded Sigel Hayden, and has two children: Harry S., in the second year of high school, and Harold J., in the sixth year of Lowell schools. Wheeler J.. a stock buyer and farmer at Lowell, married Miss Cora Davis and has three children, Dilwyn and Ruth and Ruby, twins; his wife was educated in the Crown Point high school and was a successful Lake county teacher; he is the owner of a nice farm in this county and also of real estate in Lowell, and in politics is a Republican. Sadie Nichols is a successful teacher, and has studied music. Pearl, who graduated from the Lowell high school in 1896 and has shown considerable ability as an artist in crayons, is now the wife of Emil Ruge, who was engaged in the mercantile business at Lowell. Calhoun, one of the popular young Republicans of Lowell, married Miss Lona Flynn, who is a daughter of an ex- soldier of the Civil war and who spent three years in the high school at Rensselaer, Indiana; they have two children, Halbert and Vilmer. Huron, the youngest, is a bright pupil in the eighth grade of the Lowell schools. Mrs. Nichols' deceased children have the following record: Edna, who died in 1894, was the wife of William Bruce and had two children, Carrie and Bertie. Albert, who was killed by lightning in June, 1896, had by his wife, Amma Pinkerton, now a resident of Lowell, four children, Fern, Guy, Beulah and Bertie. Jessie, deceased wife of Bert Holshaw, passed away February 1, 1897, she being a well educated and most lovable young woman. The boy Fay is in the third grade.

Horatio J. Nichols was a native of Lake county, born January 4, 1841, and his death occurred September 12. 1898. He was reared and educated in this county, and being trained on his father's farm he early took to farming pursuits, and he followed that occupation and dealing in stock for his career. He lost his father when he was young, and he remained with his mother and was her mainstay and principal support for many years. He was a student in a log-cabin school, and his early life in Lake county was spent among pioneer conditions. He and his wife began their married life without much capital, and their success was due to their happy combination of energy and good management. The first land he bought was forty acres in Cedar Creek township, and he went in debt for part of it, but their diligence soon paid off all the incumbrance. and after selling it they bought land in Cedar Creek and West Creek townships, and at his death he was the possessor of over four hundred acres of land, an estate which is still held by the family entire. It was in 1887 that they erected their pretty residence in the western part of Lowell, on Commercial avenue, and it still retains its reputation as a home of genuine hospitality and good cheer.

Mr. Nichols was an ardent supporter of the Republican party, and his first presidential vote was cast for Abe Lincoln, and he continued to uphold the party doctrines and candidates from that time till his death. He was a man of generous nature, offering his philanthropy to those in need; and being a man of the strictest honor and integrity, his word was always considered as good as his bond. In his death the community lost a most worthy citizen, and his family lost their best friend, for he was a lover of home and fireside and found his chief delight when among his family.

In 1895 he and his wife made an extended trip to the east, to Boston, and on the return visiting Mrs. Nichols' old home in Canada. His remains rest in the Lowell cemetery, and a beautiful monument stands sacred to his memory. Mrs. Nichols resides in her pleasant Lowell home, surrounded by children and friends, and her family record forms a most important addition to this history and genealogy of Lake county.


JOHN G. ROBINSON.

The Sage of Concord, Emerson, has said "there is no history; only biography," and in the detailed life sketches that appear in this work will be found the most authentic facts concerning the life and growth of Lake county as a social, industrial and political organization of the state of Indiana. The life of Mr. Robinson, of West Creek township, for long one of the foremost citizens and representative men, adds additional facts to the completeness of this work, for most of his active career has been passed in this county.

He was born in the old Bay state of Massachusetts, April 12, 1846, a son of John G. and Adeline (Thayer) Robinson. There were six children, four sons and two daughters, in the family, and he is the second oldest of the five now living, the others being as follows: Sumner T.. now residing in Sac City, Iowa, was formerly a farmer and later a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, and during the Civil war was a member of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry, as part of the Army of the Potomac, and during a skirmish was shot through the shoulder. Ellen, who was a successful teacher in Porter county for a number of years, is now the widow of Anthony Smith and resides in Valparaiso. Emily, who also taught for some years, is the wife of Lemmon Cain, a farmer of Porter county. William is an agriculturist of St. Joseph county, Indiana.

Mr. Robinson's father was also a native of Massachusetts, had a common school education, and followed the vocations of shoemaking and farming. For three years he followed the Union flag as a member of Company H, Twentieth Indiana Infantry, and at the terrible battle of the Wilderness, on May 12, 1864, gave up his life for his country. Of the one hundred and one men of his company who went into that memorable engagement, only four came out unscathed, the dead and wounded being piled up five tiers deep. He had been an ardent Republican and an admirer of Lincoln. He had come to Porter county, Indiana, in 1854, and purchased land on which he made his home until going to the war. His wife was also born in Massachusetts, and the Robinsons and Thayers were both of English origin.

Mr. Robinson was eighteen years old when his father died, and he lost his mother also when he was a boy. Even while his father was away in defense of the flag the care and responsibility of the home devolved in great measure upon him, so that he has been serious-minded and practical from an early age. He has made farming his life vocation, and his early education was obtained in the common schools. He is of the constantly decreasing number who can look back to a log-cabin school as the scene of schoolboy-days. Over in Porter county he daily for several months in the year attended a school held in a sixteen by sixteen foot, round-log building, with roof of shakes, and furnished inside and out in the most primitive pioneer plainness. Ray's arithmetic and the elementary spelling book formed his intellectual pabulum, and from these facts it may be understood how far education has advanced since the youth of Mr. Robinson.

On Christmas day of the year 1869 Mr. Robinson married Miss Sarah T. Evans, who became the mother of seven children, four sons and three daughters, five of whom are living: James W., a farmer residing east of Crown Point in Center township, was educated in the common schools and by his marriage to Miss Laura Kobelin had two children, John L. Hannon and Victor William. John Melvin, who was educated in the common schools and is a prosperous farmer in West Creek township, married Miss Ella Surprise. Kittie is the wife of William Futhey, who is a practical farmer and also managed the construction of the water-works systems in Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana. Frank Evans, now of Lowell, was educated in the common schools, a graduate of the township high school in the class of 1900, took the teacher's course at the Valparaiso normal, and was a successful teacher in West Creek township for four years: he wedded Miss Ina Klein, daughter of John Klein. Louisa, the youngest of the family, completed the eleventh grade in the high school, graduating from common school in 1899, taught for two years, part of the time in Kankakee county, Illinois, took her second term in the Valparaiso normal, and is now teaching in her home district. The daughter Nellie died at two years of age, and Charlie died when one year old.

Mrs. Robinson was born in Miami county, Ohio, December 29, 1848. being the fourth of seven children, two sons and five daughters, born to James and Mary (Wait) Evans. She has a brother and a sister still living; Robert Evans, who has been employed in the Chicago city postoffice for the past eight years, and was a teacher in Lake county eight years, finished his education at Valparaiso, and is a married man; her sister Mary is the wife of Oscar Kitcheil, a mechanic residing in Englewood, Chicago, and she taught successfully in Porter and Lake counties. James Evans, her father, was a native of Ohio, of Welsh origin. He was a farmer, and about 1849 settled in LaPorte county. He was a Democrat in politics, and he and his wife were members of the Baptist church. He died in West Creek township of this county September 21, 1877, and his wife in Porter county August 11, 1886. Mrs. Robinson's great-grandfather Wait was a hero in the Revolutionary war, and her grandmother's name was Goble. Mrs. Robinson has spent most of her life in Porter and Lake counties, and her education was received in the common schools.

For the first five years of their wedded life Mr. and Mrs. Robinson resided in Porter county, and then came to Cedar Creek township, Lake county, which was their home for thirteen years, and in 1888 they took up their residence in West Creek township. They have friends throughout the county, and are universally esteemed for their worth and upright lives. Mr. Robinson is a Republican, having cast his first vote for General Grant. He and his good wife were formerly members of the Baptist church denomination, but now belong to the Christian church at Lowell, and contribute to all worthy benevolences according to their means.


JOHN SPRY.

John Spry, of West Creek township, is a progressive and prosperous farmer of this part of the county, and during the years of his residence has commended himself to his fellow citizens by his capable industry and integrity of character. As a tiller of the soil he is one of the solid and substantial units from which the strength of the nation is formed, and he is the more highly esteemed as a citizen and a man because he has gained his own success in the world, being both a self-educated and a self-made man.

Mr. Spry is a native of the old blue-grass state of Kentucky, and was born August 7, 1846, being the seventh in order of birth of the nine children, four sons and five daughters, born to John and Melvina (Kimbrell) Spry. He has two brothers living, Enoch, a farmer at Momence, Illinois, and Green, a farmer of old Kentucky, both these brothers being older than Mr. John Spry. The father of the family was born in South Carolina in 1807 and died about 1856, when John was ten years old. He was by occupation a farmer, and adhered to the Democratic party. His wife was born in Kentucky about 1811. and died in 1865. Both were members of the Methodist church.

Mr. John Spry was reared in his native state, and he is one of the men yet living who passed their school days in the now out-of-date log-cabin schoolhouse. The one he attended was about twenty by forty feet in size, was heated by a fireplace, and had one long window in the end. And the text-books were Webster's speller and McGuffey's well known readers, grammar and geography. He has also used the goosequill pen, and seen it fashioned out by the master's hand. When he entered upon his career of independent activity at the age of eighteen his material capital consisted of a horse, a cow and one bed, but he had plenty of energy and determination, which are, after all, the principal factors in acquiring success, as he has experienced it.

On October 27, 1864, he married Miss Catharine White, and eight children were born of this union, seven of them now living: Bessie is the wife of James Little, a prosperous Lake county farmer whose history appears elsewhere in this work; Sadie is the wife of Don Cadwell, a barber of Crown Point; Mollie is the wife of Emil Larrison, a farmer of West Creek township; William C, a farmer of Cedar Creek township, is married and has two children; Solomon is a farmer of West Creek township and is married; Clarence, of West Creek township, is a farmer and married: Earnie is at home with his parents. Mrs. Spry was born in Clarke county, Kentucky, in 1847, and six of her children were born in that state.

About the year 1879 Mr. Spry brought his family to Kankakee county, Illinois, and followed farming there as a renter for six years, after which he located in West Creek township, this county, and continued tenant farming for some years. He was prosperous and a good manager of his affairs, and in 1894 he purchased one hundred and forty-nine acres in West Creek township. At the present writing he lives on and farms his nice estate of eighty acres, and he has surrounded himself with many of the comforts of life, besides doing his full duty by his children and seeing them all well started in the world. He is a Republican and has supported the principles of his party since casting his first vote. He and his wife are members of the Christian church, and are generous of their means and efforts in advancing any worthy cause.


A. B. CHIPMAN.

The enterprising agriculturist is the factor who plays the most conspicuous part in the records of a state or nation, and really furnishes the groundwork upon which all other classes of citizens stand. West Creek township of Lake county has long been noted for the excellence of its soil and the worth of its farm lands when properly cultivated, and one might travel all through the township and not find a farmstead which he could more easily pronounce a model in all respects than that owned by Mr. A. B. Chipman. He is not an old resident of Lake county, but makes up in enterprise and public-spirited interest in local affairs what he lacks in length of citizenship, so that he and his worthy family hold high rank in the esteem of their friends and associates.

Mr. Chipman was born in Kankakee county. Illinois, November 20, 1867, being a son of Ansel B. and Laura (Sanger) Chipman, six of whose children are still living. His father was a native of Canada and of English descent. He was born about 1820, and died when sixty-eight years old, having spent his active life in farming pursuits. He left Canada when a young man and came to the United States, where he was married. He owned a farm in Yellowhead township, Kankakee county, and he passed away in that township. In politics he was a stanch Republican. His wife was born in the state of Ohio, and is still living at the age of seventy-one years, bearing the weight of years with singular brightness. She makes her home with her children, whose homes are always open with filial love to receive her.

Mr. A. B. Chipman made the beginning of his active career with very little capital. He received a common school education, but is in the main a self-educated and self-trained man. From his own early experience it has become his ambition to give his own children as good an education as is possible.

He made his home with his parents until he was twenty-one years old, and on December 29, 1888, he was married to Miss Laura E. Kelsey. Of this happy marriage there are three children, one son and two daughters: Mildred has received her diploma for completing the eighth grade of school and has taken instrumental music; Edith has also completed the eighth grade and has taken musical instruction; and Albert, the son, has reached the fifth grade of school. The children are very bright in their studies, and their parents may be very proud of their auspicious start in life. Mrs. Chipman is a native of Kankakee county, Illinois, and was born October 27, 1864. She was educated in the public schools and was a teacher in Illinois for one term. She also had an excellent training in music and taught that art for some time.

Mr. and Mrs. Chipman began their married life as renters in Kankakee county, where they remained some four or five years. Mrs. Chipman bad forty acres in her own right, and they afterward purchased eighty acres. They continued with increasing success in Kankakee county for four years. In 1900 they purchased the beautiful farm known as the A. Brannon estate, from William Brannon, located just two miles from the prosperous town of Lowell, and the farm is convenient to business, markets and the schools. The farm contains two hundred and forty acres of as fine land as there is in West Creek township. The cosy and comfortable residence and the convenient outbuildings are also among the best to be found in the township. The land is fairly well tiled, and this work of improvement is still progressing, Mr. Chipman having placed about ten thousand tiles during 1903 and 1904. Mr. Chipman is a stanch Republican, and cast his first vote for Benjamin Harrison. He has been selected as a delegate from his township to represent his party.


F. RICHARD SCHAAF, SR.

Whether the elements of success in life are innate attributes of the individual, or whether they are quickened by a process of circumstantial development, it is impossible to clearly determine. Yet the study of a successful life is none the less profitable by reason of the existence of this uncertainty, and in the majority of -cases it is found that exceptional ability, amounting to genius, perhaps, was the real secret of the pre-eminence which many envied. Thus it appears to the student of human nature who seeks to trace the history of the rise of F. Richard Schaaf, Sr., a typical German-American of the best class.

Mr. Schaaf was born in Saxony, Germany, on the 26th of March, 1857, and is a son of Ferdinand and Catherine Schaaf, who were also natives of the same country. The son was reared in that land and pursued his education in the public schools of Germany. He also attended college there and was educated for the army in order to enter military service as a veterinary surgeon with the rank of lieutenant. He volunteered to enter the army and by reason of this he was honorably discharged after two years six months. It was his desire to come to America, and for that reason he secured his release from the army.

Mr. Schaaf was but fourteen years of age when left an orphan by the death of his parents, and when about twenty years of age he was married in the fatherland. He came to America about 1880 and the same year located in Chicago, where he became an employee in the tool department of the Electric Construction Company. He was a representative of that house for five years, at the end of which time he rented the American House, which was located at the corner of Twenty-second street and Archer avenue. This he conducted until 1889, when he came to Whiting and built the Berry Lake hotel. He continued as its manager and proprietor until 1893, when he sold out and removed to Robertsdale, where he established a grocery store. Later he turned his attention to the insurance business, and he now represents the Queen of America, the Hamburg, Bremen, the Norwich Union, the Hanover and the Scottish Union & National insurance companies; also is notary public. His policies represent a large amount of insurance each year, and his business has grown to profitable proportions. In his political allegiance Mr. Schaaf is a Democrat, and has been a member of the Hammond city council since 1894, covering a period of ten consecutive years. He has been very active as a representative of this body, has taken a deep interest in the city's welfare, has exercised his official prerogatives for the general progress and improvement and has done much in this way for the upbuilding of the city. He has been particularly active in locating school-houses, in opening and improving streets and he advocated the opening of Wolf river for harbor purposes; and located Lake Front Park in Robertsdale, Hammond. He is a strong believer in this harbor measure, and if it is carried into effect it will undoubtedly prove of great value in community interests. Mr. Schaaf is also deputy assessor of North township.

In 1877 occurred the marriage of F. Richard Schaaf and Miss Catherine Schlueter, a native of Germany, and they have become the parents of seven children, namely: F. Richard, who is mentioned elsewhere in this volume, being well known in business circles in Whiting; Clara; George; Elizabeth; Catherine; Martha; and Edward. Socially Mr. Schaaf is connected with the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Waldeck Lodge No. 674, F. & A. M., of Chicago. He is likewise a member of Moltke Lodge, I. O. O. F., of Hammond. A public-spirited citizen, his efforts in behalf of Lake county have been far-reaching and beneficial. He is one of the best known men of his locality, having resided here since the establishment of the towns of Whiting and Robertsdale. Recognizing the possibilities of these places he has contributed to general progress and improvement, and no man is more loyal to the best interests of this portion of the state. In his business career, too, he has made for himself an enviable name, and his life history shows what can be accomplished by determined effort and strong purpose.


WILLIAM CHARLES BELMAN.

William Charles Belman, cashier of the First National Bank of Hammond, is one of the leaders in business and financial affairs of this city. He is a self-made man, and has been dependent on his own exertions since he was fourteen years old. By hard labor and diligent application he became a successful teacher, and for many years was at the head of the Hammond public schools. From that profession he entered business, and for several years has taken an active part in the financial matters of Hammond.

Mr. Belman was born in Detroit, Michigan, May 1, 1860, a son of William F. and Matilda H. (Sabine) Belman, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Detroit. There was one other child of these parents, Lettie, wife of C. E. Cummins, of Putney, South Dakota. Mrs. Matilda Belman died in Detroit in 1866, at the age of twenty-nine years. She was a member of the Methodist church. Her father was John Sabine, a son of John and a native of England. He came to America about 1827 and settled in Detroit, where he followed his trade of harness-maker. He is still living at the age of eighty-eight years. By his wife, Maria Hagell, he had nine children. The father of William F. Belman, John Belman, was also a native of England, whence he became an early settler of Pennsylvania and later of Detroit, where he spent the remainder of his life, dying at the age of seventy years. He was a shoemaker. His wife was Hannah Creighton, and they had nine children. William F. Belman learned the trade of harness-maker, and when a young man moved to Detroit, where he lived for many years and plied his craft. In 1869 he moved to Perry, Michigan, and bought a farm, on which he still resides. He married for his second wife Amanda Rowell, who died the following year. His present wife was Miss Elizabeth Gibbs, who is the mother of six children: Stella, wife of W. A. Tucker, of Des Moines, Iowa; Vidi, of Perry, Michigan; Burchel, of Perry; Sarah, of Perry; Job, of Perry; and Bessie, of Perry. The parents of this family are both Methodists, and the father is a Republican.

Mr. William C. Belman lived in Detroit until he was ten years old, receiving his first schooling there. At the age of fourteen he left his father's farm and came out to Indiana, where for several years he was engaged in hard manual labor on farms during most of each year, and at intervals attended the Valparaiso College. He became a successful teacher, and for eighteen years previous to accepting the position of cashier of the First National Bank he was superintendent of the public schools of Hammond. He has held his present position for the past three years. He is also secretary-treasurer of the Lake County Savings and Trust Company and is president of the Hammond Building and Loan and Savings Association.

Mr. Belman is a Republican in politics. He is a Master Mason of Garfield Lodge. F. & A. M., and also affiliates with Hammond Lodge No. 210, Knights of Pythias, and with the National Union and Royal League societies. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church, and he is a church trustee and steward and for a number of years served as superintendent of the Sunday school. He resides at 130 Ogden avenue, where he built his pleasant home in 1889.

June 25, 1884, he married Miss Nettie Smith, a daughter of Thomas W. and Sarah (McCabe) Smith. Mrs. Belman was also a Methodist. She died in July, 1897, at the age of thirty-three, leaving two children, Charles and Edna. On August 10, 1899, Mr. Belman married Miss Emma Rork, a daughter of William Rork. They have a son, Creighton, and lost a daughter in infancy.


MRS. JOHANNA MEYER.

Mrs. Johanna Meyer, of West Creek township, has, since the recent death of her husband, managed with fine executive ability the affairs of her fine homestead and farm, and has again illustrated woman's capacity for controlling the weightier matters of the world when such burden devolves upon her. The Meyer family belong to the thrifty and esteemed class of German-American citizens who have prospered so well in this country and at the same time have added so largely to its resources and high grade of citizenship.
Mrs. Meyer was born in Westphalia, Germany, September 29, 1855, being the oldest in a family of six children, three sons and three daughters, born to Herman and Ann E. (Wilke) Krudup. Four of the children are still living, Mrs. Meyer being the oldest. Her brother, Herman C, is married and resides in Englewood, Chicago, where he is a salesman in a wholesale grocery establishment; William F., married, is a harness-maker in Gibson City, Illinois: and John, who has a mercantile business in Brunswick, resides on the old homestead in Lake county, and is married. The two oldest of the children, both daughters, were born in Germany, while the others, four sons and one daughter, were born in this country. Their father was born, reared, and married in Germany, and was trained to the life and pursuits of farming. He brought his family to America about 1859, coming in a sailing vessel from Bremen, and it was nine weeks before they landed in New Orleans. Will county, Illinois, was their first destination, and from there they came to Lake county, where the father purchased eighty acres of land which remained his home till his death, although he had increased his estate to one hundred and sixty acres. The farm was virgin soil when he first took hold of it, and all the improvements and system of cultivation he brought about by his own efforts. He was a Republican, and the family religion was German Lutheran.

The mother was born in the same part of Germany as her husband, and she preceded him in death.

Mrs. Meyer has spent all but the first four years of her life in Lake county, and she was educated in the common schools.. October 26, 1871, she was united in marriage with John H. Meyer, and they had a happy union of many years, during which time seven children, three sons and four daughters, were born into their household, six of them being still living, as follows: Henry D., who was educated in the common schools, is a practical farmer and stockman and conducts the home farm, and is a Republican in political faith. Anna M., who was educated in the common schools and also in music, resides at home. Emma M., a graduate in 1903 and also trained in music, is at home, as is also the daughter Ida C, who graduated in 1904 and a student in Lowell High School. Herman C. is in the eighth grade of school, and Bertha, the youngest, is in the fifth grade. All the daughters have received musical instruction, and are bright and intelligent young ladies and are being well trained by their practical mother for the serious matters of the world.

Mr. John H. Meyer, the father of happy memory, by whose death on April 16, 1900, the entire community as well as the family suffered a positive loss in character and worth of manhood, was born in Hanover, Germany, November 23, 1849. He was educated in the fatherland and was about twenty years old when he came to America with his father. In time he became recognized as one of the first-class farmers of West Creek township, although he began humbly and with little in the way of capital. He and his wife, after their marriage, made their beginning on one hundred and twenty acres of his father's estate, and by industry and frugality and good management between them they were enabled to build up a fine estate. They later purchased the eighty acres where the home residence is now located. This land had for some years previous been rented out, and was badly run down. He went to work fertilizing and increasing the productivity of the soil and also improving the land by buildings and the many facilities that marked the first-class agricultural property. The Meyer farm is now known as one of the model places of West Creek township, and one that any family might be proud to own. Since her husband's death Mrs. Meyer has for four years given her attention equally well to both household and outdoor duties of farm management, and with the assistance of her noble children has succeeded remarkably well in her enterprise. She is deserving of all credit for her capable direction of the farm as also for rearing such useful and worthy sons and daughters and providing well for their education and training in youth. Mr. Meyer enjoyed the respect and esteem of all in the circle of his acquaintance, and was a man of excellent ability and integrity of character. He was an ardent Republican. He and his wife were confirmed in the German Lutheran church at the age of fourteen, and the family house of worship is at Eagle Lake, Illinois.


MILES C. FRYSINGER.

Miles C. Frysinger, attorney at law of Indiana Harbor, has established himself in this town at the beginning of his career, and as a talented young professional man is making his influence felt in its development and general progress. He has shown much, ability and conscientious effort at the outset of his own career as a lawyer, and his thorough training and personal worth are sure to be determining factors in his success and progress to prominence at the bar of the state and county.

Mr. Frysinger was born in Adams county, Indiana, March 17, 1871, a son of Andrew J. and Phoebe (Cause) Frysinger. His paternal grandfather, Peter Frysinger, was born in Pennsylvania and was an early settler of Van Wert county, Ohio, where he followed the occupation of farming and died at the age of seventy-seven years. He held various county offices. He was of Pennsylvania Dutch stock. His wife was Catharine Bodey, and they had fourteen children. Grandfather Gause was a native of Virginia, whence he moved to Pennsylvania and later to Ohio, and died in Van Wert county at the age of seventy-five years. He was also a farmer. He had eleven children.

Andrew J. Frysinger, the father of Miles C, was a native of Ohio, and throughout his active career followed farming. He came to Indiana about 1860, settling in Adams county. He bought and improved a farm, and died there in 1885 at the age of forty-four. He saw active service as a soldier during the last three months of the Civil war. His wife, also a native of Ohio, died in 1892, at the age of forty-three. They belonged to the United Brethren church, that denomination having the only church in their vicinity.

They were the parents of fourteen children, as follows: Grant M., of Cabool, Missouri; Klell, deceased; Laura B., wife of William If. Winans, of Fort Wayne, Indiana; May R., deceased; Miles C, of Indiana Harbor; Audie, of Angola, Indiana; David F., of Van Wert, Ohio; Katy E. and Minta M., twins, deceased; Eva and Effie, twins, the former the wife of a Mr. Davis of Fort Wayne, and the latter also living in Fort Wayne; Maggie; and Iva, the wife of Walker H. Spayd of Van Wert, Ohio; Bertha L., deceased.

Mr. Miles C. Frysinger was reared on his father's farm in Adams county, Indiana, securing his first education in the district schools. He later attended the normal school at Middlepoint, Ohio, and Valparaiso College, at Valparaiso, Indiana, and in 1902 graduated from the Indiana State University with the degree of A. B., and in 1903 graduated from the law department with the degree of LL. B. He was admitted to the bar in 1903, and in November of the same year established his office at Indiana Harbor, where he has already gained considerable clientage and become identified with the progressive interests of the town. Mr. Frysinger is a Republican in politics. He has fraternal affiliations with the Knights of Pythias.

He was married to Miss Flora Wilmer, of Ironton, Ohio, October 10, 1904.


JOHN K. HAYDEN.

John K. Hayden was a resident of Lake county in early pioneer days and is numbered among the county's honored dead. He bore his full share in the work of early progress and improvement and was known as a reliable business man who never took advantage of the necessities of his fellow men in any trade transaction, but won success through unflagging industry, strong and commendable purpose and honorable effort. His birth occurred in Knox county, Ohio, on the 23d of October, 1835, and he was one of the thirteen children born to Nehemiah and Harriet (Kitchell) Hayden. He was only about a year old when brought to Lake county, and his boyhood days were passed in West Creek township. There he was reared in the usual manner of farmer lads, attending the district schools through the winter months, while in the summer seasons he worked at the plow or in the harvest field. To his father he gave the benefit of his services up to the time of his marriage, which important event in his life was celebrated on the 3d of March, 1859. He then located in Kankakee county, Illinois, near the boundary line of Lake county, and was there engaged in farming until 1896, when he removed to Lowell and retired from active business life. He was well known as an agriculturist who conducted his farm along modern and progressive lines, placing his fields under a high state of cultivation and equipping the farm with all improvements and accessories that facilitated its work and rendered his labor of greater value ins the acquirement of a competence. As his financial resources increased he added to his landed possessions, and at one time he owned in the neighborhood of six hundred and thirty acres of valuable land. The homestead farm comprised one hundred and twenty acres, and he afterward divided some of his property among his children.

Mr. Hayden was united in marriage to Miss Rachel Dodge, who was born in West Creek township, Lake county, Indiana, June 6, 1840. Her father, Henry Dodge, was a native of Vermont and died in Michigan in 1879. He had removed to the west in 1837 and was one of the pioneer settlers of northwestern Indiana, establishing his home in West Creek township, Lake county. He removed to Oceana county, Michigan, in 1871, and there passed away in 1879. His wife bore the maiden name of Lucretia De Gau, and was born in Canada. Her death occurred in Michigan in 1879. This worthy couple were the parents of twelve children, of whom Mrs. Hayden was the second in order of birth. She has spent her entire life in Lake county, Indiana, and in Kankakee county, Illinois, the district separated only by the boundary line of the states. To Mr. and Mrs. Hayden have been born eight children, of whom George and Willis A. are now deceased. The others are Robert, who is a resident of Virginia; Mary, the wife of William Beeman, who resides in Monticello, Indiana; Lizzie, the wife of E. N. Hayhurst, of West Creek township; Alva, who is married and lives near Roanoke, Indiana; Ella, the wife of J. W. Diss, of Sherburnville, Illinois; and Jesse, of Kankakee township, Kankakee county, Illinois.
Mr. Hayden continued to make his home in Lowell until his death, which occurred on the 6th of October, 1903. He was very well known in the county as the champion of all measures for general progress and improvement. His political allegiance was given to the Republican party, and the cause of education found in him a warm friend. He took a deep interest in the schools and served as school director for about nine years. Mr. Hayden spent almost his entire life in this portion of the country and he possessed many sterling traits of character which gained for him warm personal regard and friendship. He was a devoted husband and father, a progressive and public-spirited citizen and one whose loss was deeply mourned throughout the community.


REUBEN FANCHER.

For a half century Reuben Fancher has made his home in Lake county and is now living a retired life at Crown Point. He was for many years actively identified with agricultural interests, but now is enjoying a well earned rest. His birth occurred in Huron county, Ohio, on the 28th of April, 1834, and he comes of English ancestry. His grandfather and his father both bore the name of Thaddeus Fancher, and his mother bore the maiden name of Amy Chapman. She was born in Connecticut and was a daughter of Cyrus Chapman, who was also of English lineage. To these parents were born twelve children, of whom seven are yet living.

Reuben Fancher, the eldest of the family, was reared in Huron county, Ohio, until twenty years of age, when he started out in life on his own account and, believing that he might have better business opportunities in a less thickly settled district, he went to Michigan, where he attended the public school during the winter months. March 20, 1855, he came to Crown Point, and at that time his capital consisted of only forty dollars in gold, but he possessed a resolute and determined spirit, renting a tract of land on which he began farming. He also bought stock, and when his financial re-sources had increased to a sufficient extent he purchased eighty acres of land, to which he added until his farm comprised one hundred and sixty acres. Subsequently he traded that for property in Crown Point and took up his abode in the city. For three years he served as deputy sheriff. He has, however, been largely engaged in dealing in farm machinery and live stock, but is now living a retired life, for through his perseverance and energy he accumulated a handsome competence that now supplies him with all of the necessities and many of the comforts and luxuries of life.

In August, 1857, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Fancher and Miss Mary Hawkins, who was born in New York and died in Lake county, Indiana, in 1895. They were the parents of four children, the eldest of whom died in infancy. The others are William; Mary, the wife of E. H. Crowell; and Grace, at home.

Mr. Fancher is a Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for Fremont and afterward supported Lincoln in 1860 and again in 1864. He has never wavered in his allegiance to the party, but has always voted for its presidential candidates and has put forth every effort in his power to promote its growth and secure its success. For thirty-five years he has been a member of the Masonic fraternity, and has been identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows for about the same length of time. For half a century he has lived in Lake county, spending much of the time in Crown Point, and his life record is thus closely identified with the history of this portion of the state. He has watched the development of the county as it has emerged from pioneer conditions and has advanced toward its present progress and prosperity. His mind bears the impress of the early historic annals of northwestern Indiana, and what to many others are matters of record are to him affairs of intimate knowledge if not of personal experience.
Many years ago he established the important business, with its adjuncts, of putting down wells; an occupation still carried on by his son; and although nominally retired from business life, being now seventy years of age, he may be found quite regularly in their office on Main street, looking after the interests of their business. The wells which they put down are known as tubular walls. They go down to various depths. Furnishing windmills and pumps is one of the adjuncts of this business.

Mr. Fancher is a believer in Christianity, a friend to Sunday schools and churches, and became a member of the Methodist Episcopal church many years ago.

The fuller genealogic record, which in such a work as this it is desirable to preserve, is the following:
1. Thaddeus Fancher was born in England in 1777. He was by trade a harness-maker. When a young man he came to the United States and settled in Connecticut. He there married Sally Mead, "a daughter of General Mead of Revolutionary fame." There were of this family twelve children.

2. Thaddeus S. Fancher was born in Ulster county, New York (to which state his father had removed in 1808), April 8, 1809. His father was a soldier in the American army in the war of 1812, and in 1815 visited the then new and truly wild region of Huron county, Ohio, to which state he removed with his family in November and December of 1820, when Thaddeus S. was eleven years of age. The Fancher family therefore were true pioneers of Huron county, Ohio, knowing well the experiences of a frontier life. Thaddeus S. Fancher was married to Annie M. Chapman, September 8, 1833. In 1894 they were "the oldest married couple in Huron county."

3. Reuben Fancher, the oldest of twelve children, of whom the foregoing sketch has been written, it thus appears, is a descendant of soldiers of the war of the Revolution and the war of 1812, and of resolute and successful pioneers of the state of Ohio.


P. J. KELLY.

P. J. Kelly, who is engaged in the real estate and insurance business at Hobart and is also notary public, is a type of the representative business man whose life contains no exciting chapter or incidents, but whose record shows the force of consecutive endeavors supplemented by laudable ambition and guided by sound and reliable judgment. He was born in New York city March 4, 1841, and when but four years of age was taken to England by his parents, where he remained until 1864. He then returned to his native land, locating in Chicago, where he engaged in the grocery business at the corner of Randolph and State streets. In 1871 he suffered severe losses in the great fire which swept over the city. He had nothing left but a horse and wagon. He remained in Chicago, however, for about a year or until he had managed to earn a little money, when he again engaged in business as a partner of James Casey under the firm style of Kelly & Casey, at the corner of State and Fourteenth streets. There he remained until he came to Hobart, Indiana, where he was engaged in teaching school for four years, and was also justice of the peace and filled that position for eight years. He was also a railroad postal agent for eight years, running between New York and Buffalo, and during that time he maintained his residence in Hobart. He was known as one of the "short stops" of the postal service. He made the trip between New York and Buffalo three times a week, distributing the mail from the former city west to Buffalo. The mail was distributed on the cars, a regular postoffice being maintained on the mail train. His continuance in that position was from 1881 until 1889, and he never missed a day's service during all that time and many times he substituted for others. Formerly he conducted a newspaper in Hobart for two and a half years, this being the first Republican journal of the town. When he left the mail service he was elected justice of the peace of Hobart and filled the office for eight years, at the end of which time he declined a renomination. He is now notary public and is also engaged in the real estate and insurance business. He is doing well in both branches and has handled many important real estate transfers since beginning in this line.

In 1866 occurred the marriage of Mr. Kelly and Miss Mary E. Wilbur, a native of Compton, Rhode Island. They were married in Chicago, and traveled life's journey happily together for more than a third of a century, when in December, 1901, Mrs. Kelly was called to her final rest. In the following July Mr. Kelly was again married, his second union being with Mrs. Elizabeth Butts, the widow of Frank Butts, who was formerly a prominent contractor and builder of Lake county, Indiana. Mr. Kelly owns his own residence, which is one of the attractive homes of Hobart. He is numbered among the representative citizens of Lake county, and is a stanch Republican, while socially he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He has been grand master, district deputy and chief patriarch of the grand encampment. For thirty-two years he has maintained his residence in Hobart, and throughout this period he has been noted for his reliability in every relation of life in which he has been found, whether in the government service or conducting private business affairs.


EMERSON OTTO SUTTON.

Emerson Otto Sutton is a representative of one of the oldest and most representative families of west Lake county, and in his life vocation of agriculture and in the discharge of those responsibilities which fall to the lot of every substantial and public-spirited American he has shown himself a man of perfect integrity and solidity of character well befitting one of his family name.
He was born in Rush county, Indiana, December 6, 1859, and is the sixth in a family of eight children, four sons and four daughters, born to Gabriel F. and Almeda (Hall) Sutton. Seven of these children are still living', named as follows: Festus, who is a prosperous farmer and stockman of West Creek township, and whose biography will be found on other pages of this history; Maggie, wife of William Smith, a retired farmer of Lowell; Mary, wife of Frank A. Hayden, a resident of Kankakee county, Illinois; John, a farmer of West Creek township: Emerson O.; Grant, a farmer of Jasper county; and May, who resides on the old home with her mother and brother Otto.

Mr. Gabriel F. Sutton, the father of this family, was a factor of great importance in the life of Lake county and a man whose influence will not soon be lost to the world in which he lived. He was born near Connersville, Indiana, and was reared to farming life and educated in the common schools. He was throughout life a man of sound judgment and substantial character, and was successful in whatever he undertook. He followed teaching in this state for a number of years. He was an old-line Whig during the early part of his political career, and later upheld the banner of true Republicanism. He died about 1900, and his remains are interred in the Lowell cemetery, where his devoted wife and children have erected a beautiful monument sacred to his memory. He and his wife were members of the Christian church at Lowell. He had begun life in Rush county with very little capital, and at his death his estate comprised three hundred and twenty-five acres in Lake county and six acres in the village of Lowell, with one hundred and forty acres in Jasper county, besides personal effects, and was valued at forty thousand dollars. The ancestry of this honored citizen is traced back to old England.

Mr. Otto Sutton was reared in Lake county, receiving his education in the public schools, although he is indebted mainly to his own efforts and personal application for the training and insight into practical affairs of the world. He has always resided on the parental homestead, and since his father's death his mother and sister have continued to live with him. He was happily married on Christmas day of 1903 to Miss Maggie Einspahr. She is a native of West Creek township, and comes from one of the prominent German-American families of the township, being a lady who stands high in the social scale. She was educated in both the German and the English languages.

Mr. Sutton is a stanch Republican, cast his first vote for James A. Gar-field, since which time he has never faltered in his allegiance to the party. He has been selected as a delegate to the county conventions, and is a member of the district committee. He affiliates with Castle Hall Lodge No. 300, Knights of Pythias, at Lowell.


GABRIEL F. SUTTON.

Gabriel F. Sutton, deceased, was born October 27, 1822, in the vicinity of Connersville, Fayette county, Indiana. While he was yet in his infancy his parents moved to Rush county. Indiana, where he grew to manhood. On January 1, 1846, he was united in marriage to Almeda Hall, who survives him. To this union were born eight children: Festus P., Maggie J., Mary A., John H., Henry M., Emerson O., Elsworth G., and Viola M. With the exception of Henry M.. who died in his infancy, all remain to mourn the father's loss. Brother Sutton came to Lake county. Indiana, in the year 1862, and from that time until his death evinced the true spirit of citizenship in every detail. He united with the Christian church in early manhood, and filled its pulpit very acceptably many times. He was a loving husband, a kind and indulgent father, a true friend and neighbor, a stanch. believer in the Lord Jesus Christ, and died in peace with God, December 17, 1899, at the age of seventy-seven years, one month and twenty days. His funeral occurred from the Christian church at Rensselaer at 11 a. m., Wednesday, December 20, 1899, Rev. A. L. Ward, pastor of the Christian church at Rensselaer, officiating. His mortal remains were laid away in the Lowell cemetery, there to rest in quiet slumber until the morning of the great resurrection.

"Through all pain at times he'd smile.
A smile of Heavenly birth, And when the angels called him home.
He smiled farewell to earth. Heaven retaineth now our treasure;
Earth the lonely casket keeps. And the sunbeams love to linger
Where our sainted father sleeps."


JAMES H. LITTLE.

James H. Little is a member of a very prominent family in the annals of Lake county, and is the second son of the third successive generation that has found lodgment and prosperous position in this county. He is a prosperous agriculturist of West Creek township, in which same township he was born on February 27, 1863, being a son of Joseph A. Little. His father was one of the true, broad-minded and successful men of this county, and the following account gives the outline of his worthy career:

"There was joy in the home of Thomas Little on the 24th of May, 1830, that came not alone from the beauty of the season, but more largely from the fact that on that day a male child came to add the blessings of its presence to the family circle. The family at that time lived in Webster township, Merrimac county, New Hampshire. In accordance with the faith of the parents the child received its name in connection with the ordinance of baptism, and for nearly two generations the name of Joseph Ames Little has been a synonym for industry, integrity and kindness. The young man came west with his parents in 1855. From that time until his death his home was mostly in West Creek township, Lake county. He united with the Presbyterian church at Lake Prairie in 1859. He was not profuse in profession, but those who knew him best had strongest trust in his Christian character. In 1859 he married Miss Mary Gerrish. Six of their children survive him. During the years 1886-7 he was a member of the legislature of Indiana.

"On the morning of February 19, 1892, the angel of death entered this home. At the call of that imperious visitor the soul that through years of constant suffering had grown weary of earth's sorrows left its pilgrimage to the rest that remaineth for the people of God. On February 22, 1892, the deceased was laid to rest in the Lake Prairie cemetery."

Mr. James H. Little is classed as one of the leading agriculturists and stock-raisers of West Creek township, and he makes a specialty of Durham cattle. He received his education in the common schools, and was also a student for a short time in Wabash College. He graduated from the school of agriculture in Purdue University in the class of 1890, and has ever since devoted himself enthusiastically and profitably to the practical work of farming. He is one of the few men who have received special training for the science of agriculture, and in proportion to his advantages he has made his pursuits a means of success and profitable endeavor. His stock farm is a model of its kind and size.

In June, 1894, he married Miss Bessie Spry, and three children, two sons and one daughter, have been born to them, all living, as follows: Joseph A. and Seth S., of school age, and Hester E., the youngest of the household. Mrs. Little was a native of the Bluegrass state of Kentucky, and was reared for the most part in Illinois and Indiana. She attended the State Normal School at Terre Haute, and for five years before marriage was a successful teacher, and since entering upon her domestic duties she has proved an equally able and worthy helpmeet to her husband. Mr. Little is a stalwart Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for Benjamin Harrison and has always supported the principles of Republicanism. Both he and his wife are members of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church in West Creek township, and he has been one of the elders and also superintendent of the Sunday school. His wife has also taken an active part in church and Sunday school work in different places, and was superintendent and a teacher in the Pine Grove Sunday school. Mr. Little owns four hundred acres of land all in West Creek township, and his residence and buildings are a credit to the entire township. He and his brothers, Lewis and Jesse, are among the foremost and most influential citizens of this county, and these annals would be incomplete without mention of their life and work.


WILLIAM N. HAYDEN.

Emerson has said that the true history of a nation is best told in the lives of its most prominent citizens and residents, and in Mr. William N. Hayden, the trustee of West Creek township and a prosperous farmer, we have a representative of one of the most prominent families of the county of Lake. He is a native of Lake county, was born May 24, 1855, and is the youngest of the fourteen children born to his father by two marriages, he being the only son and child of the second union. His parents are Nehemiah and Sarah (Smith) Hayden, and the full record of this worthy family in the earlier generations is given in connection with the biography of the elder Hayden in another portion of this volume.

Mr. Hayden was reared in Lake county and was educated in the common schools. He was brought up to agricultural pursuits, and in the continuation of these has made his best success. His commencement in life was not remarkably auspicious, and possibly he and his wife had not more than four hundred dollars cash capital when they set their feet upon the highroad of life and began to tread their way through circumstance and earnest endeavor and useful purpose to a worthy and successful goal. He was married to Miss Maria J. Edmonds, on August 21, 1876, in Crown Point. They began as renters, and continued in that way until they had a secure start, which was not long. They then located on eighty acres which they had purchased, going in debt for most of it, but their frugal industry and enterprise more than offset the debt. They thus began life happy but not full-handed, and by their continued co-operation and faithful toil from year to year they added to their possessions until now they own in fee simple two hundred and seventeen acres of fine land, all in West Creek township. And the best part of the record is that they have gained this property by their own industry and efforts.

Mrs. Hayden was born in Lake county, March 13, 1858, the youngest of the six children of Melvin and Sarah (Leffler) Edmonds. Her brothers and sisters are: Nelson., a resident and retired farmer of Lowell, and married; Nancy, who is the wife of Charles Morgan, a farmer and resident of West Creek township; Charles, who was a soldier and an active participant in the battles of the Civil war, and is now a resident of Kansas; Mary, who is the wife of Wallace Hayden, a resident and retired fanner of Lowell; Eli, who for many years followed farming and is now a resident of West Creek township, and is married. Mrs. Hayden's father was a native of Canada, and died in 1874 at the age of sixty-three years. He followed farming, and in politics was a Republican. Mrs. Hayden was reared in Lake county and received her education in the common schools.

To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Hayden have been born two children, a son and a daughter, both living. Jodie M. is a citizen of West Creek township and a prosperous young farmer. He married Miss Lura Pulver. He completed his education in the common schools of this county, had two years' work in the Lowell high school, and also took a business course in the Dixon Business College at Dixon, Illinois. For two years he was telegraph operator at Lowell for the Monon Railroad. Edna S., the daughter, is at home. She finished two years of high school work, and at the age of seventeen she took the teachers' examination and passed creditably. But on account of being so young she did not begin active work in the teaching profession until she was eighteen. She has taught three years in her home township, and has been very successful in her work. She has also studied music.

Mr. Hayden is a Republican in politics, and cast his first vote for Hayes, having upheld his party's principles ever since. In 1899 he was elected town-ship trustee of West Creek township. He has the supervision of fourteen schools in addition to the numerous other duties of this important office. He has about seventy-five square miles of territory to cover in this township, and he devotes himself assiduously to his administrative duties. He is a member of Cedar Camp No. 5155, Modern Woodmen, and has held office in this order. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Lowell. Mr. and Mrs. Hayden are citizens of high social standing, and it is with pleasure that this brief history of their lives can be placed in this genealogical record of Lake county.


CHESTER P. PIXLEY.

Chester P. Pixley is a member of a prominent family of the name who have resided in Lake county since the middle of last century, and whose identification with its industrial, social and intellectual interests has been a factor for progress and improvement along all lines. Mr. Pixley belongs to the younger class of men who have so energetically taken hold of affairs in West Creek township and increased its reputation as the banner township of the county, and his energy and fine management have given him a large amount of success in life.

Mr. Pixley was born on the old homestead in this county where he still resides, on October 9, 1863. His parents were William H. and Nancy Ann (Scritchfield) Pixley, and he was the third in their family of ten children, six sons and four daughters, eight of whom are still living, as follows: Alice, the wife of Charles A. Taylor, a prosperous farmer in West Creek township; Chester P.; Mary, the wife of C. P. Edgerton, a farmer of Center township; Edwin, married, and a jeweler of Lowell; Martha, wife of Obediah Vinnedge, of Creston, Indiana; Calvin, a jeweler of Lowell; Clara, who was educated in the Lowell high school and is a teacher in West Creek township; and Milo M., a salesman in F. E. Nelson's store in Lowell.

William H. Pixley, the father, was born in Lake county, Ohio, October 10, 1824, and died January 6, 1897. He was reared in his native state, graduated from Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, was a teacher during his youth, and spent most of his life in farming and stock-raising. During the fifties he and his father came to Lake county, and he and his father laid claim to over seven hundred acres of government land. He erected his home on the very farm where his son Chester now resides, and he lived there until his death. He was a prominent and well known man in the community, was noted for his fairness in all business transactions, and honored for his judgment and worth. He adhered to the Whig party till its dissolution, and from then on till his death voted mainly with the Democrats, although he supported Lincoln, and was later a warm advocate of the greenback principles and a great admirer of Peter Cooper. He was a prominent official in the Masonic fraternity at Lowell. His wife was a native of Kentucky and came to this county from her native state when about thirteen years old. She was one of thirteen children in the Scritchfield family, and one died recently at the age of seventy and eleven are yet living, making a remarkable record for longevity. Both father and mother Pixley are interred in the Creston cemetery, where a monument stands sacred to their memory.

Mr. Chester P. Pixley was reared in West Creek township and was educated in the common schools, and has made the tilling of the soil his chief occupation. He remained at home with his parents for some years after reaching his majority, and on December 6, 1899, was married to Miss Lydia A. Taylor. They have one little daughter, Mae Belle by name. Mrs. Pixley was born in Crown Point, Indiana, February 9, 1873, being the eldest of six children, three sons and three daughters, of John R. and Susan (Strong) Taylor. She has four brothers and sisters living: Hamlet, a farmer of West Creek township, and married; Maude, wife of John Wheeler, of the same township; John A., a farmer of West Creek township; and Cora E., who married William E. Schofield, of Griffith, this county. Mrs. Pixley's father was born in this county March 13, 1846, was reared as a farmer and educated in the common schools, and is still living in the county. He was a member of the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, enlisting from Crown Point for three years, and was in various battles and received some wounds during the war, being honorably discharged November 10, 1865. He is a Republican in politics and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic at Crown Point. Mrs. Pixley was educated in the common schools and took three years in the Crown Point high school, after which she was one of the successful teachers of Lake county for six years, being a teacher in one school for five years. She has also taken work in music.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Pixley settled on the old Pixley homestead and have since made this their happy home, where they are held in high esteem for their social and individual worth and where they have a large circle of friends around them. They have one hundred acres of the choice land of the township. Mr. Pixley is an enthusiastic stock farmer, and raises some fine Norman Percheron horses and Poland China hogs, and is doing his share toward bringing the stock of the county up to higher standards. He is a Democrat in politics, has been a delegate to the state conventions, and has loyally supported the party at all times.


JESSE LITTLE.

Jesse Little is a scion of one of the most prominent families of West Creek township, and he has himself in a most commendable manner carried out the traditions of the family history and made his own career in the township a conspicuous example of industry and sagacious business management as well as public-spirited citizenship.

Mr. Little was born on the old homestead on which he still resides, in West Creek township, January 17, 1868. and was the fourth in the family of children born to Joseph and Mary (Gerrish) Little, whose history in detail will be found on other pages of this work. Mr. Little was reared in his home township, with his early education acquired in the common schools, and he afterward entered Purdue University and in 1894 graduated from the agricultural department. He is thus a twentieth-century fanner, one who believes in making the tilling of the soil a science just as the pursuit of any other profession, and he combines with the necessary practical experience and good common sense of the old-time husbandman the skill and experimental knowledge derived from thorough study of all the conditions tending to retard or promote the success of farming. While in college he took a foremost part in athletics, and played tackle on the Purdue football team, being so vigorous and well trained that he always escaped injury.

August 28, 1898, he was married to Miss Martha Buchanan, and the two children of this marriage are Mary and Earl B. Mrs. Little was born in Porter county, Indiana, was educated in the high schools at Hebron and Crown Point, and was then a student for two years at the ladies' seminary at Oxford, Ohio. She was a successful teacher in Porter and Lake counties, and for two years taught in the city schools of Hammond. Her father is now deceased, and her mother is a resident of Hebron.

Mr. Little is a stanch Republican, having cast his first presidential vote for Harrison. He has also served as a delegate from his township to the district convention. He and his wife are members of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church, and have always contributed to the benevolences worthy their consideration. He and his brother James have about one thousand acres of the fine bottom land of West Creek township, and he resides on and owns his interest in the old homestead of two hundred and forty acres. He has been unusually successful in raising stock, and in whatever enterprise of the character that he has undertaken he has achieved a large measure of prosperity.


T. A. WASON.

T. A. Wason is one of the prosperous farmers and stockmen of West Creek township, and during the nearly sixty years since he came into the world he has gained a most creditable success, has lived uprightly and on good terms with his fellow men, and while industriously and faithfully performing the duties of life he has also enjoyed the comforts and contentment of a worthily lived career.
He was born at Vevay, in Switzerland county, Indiana, September 23. 1845, and is the eldest and the only one surviving of the three children born to Hiram and Elizabeth (Abbott) Wason. His parents both passed away in Lake county in the same year, 1898. His father was born in Hillsboro county, New Hampshire, and was educated for the Presbyterian ministry. He was the first pastor of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church in West Creek township. He was a strong Republican, and voted for the first presidential candidate of that party. His wife was also a native of the same locality of New Hampshire.

Mr. T. A. Wason came with his parents to Lake county in 1857, his father purchasing eighty acres of land in West Creek township. He was educated in the common schools of the township, and was a student in Wabash College in Crawfordsville for three years. He taught for two winters in West Creek township, and also passed one season in the employ of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad Company. He entered into partnership with his father in farming and stock-raising, and at the present time he owns two hundred and sixty acres of the fine land of Lake county. In 1899 he erected a beautiful brick residence on his estate, one that is a credit to his individual enterprise and to the entire township.

Mr. Wason has been twice married. His first wife was Miss Julia Brannan, and they had one daughter, Julia B., who resides at home, and who has completed the common school course and was a student in the high school at Crown Point. Mr. Wason was bereaved of his first wife, July 17, 1876, and was afterward married to Miss Emma S. Peach, who was born in New Hampshire but was reared in Lake county. She was a successful teacher in Eagle Creek township for a number of years. To this marriage have been born three children: Henry Boyd has finished the eighth grade and is about to take up high school work, and he is very fond of literature as well as of athletics; Isabelle is also ready for high school and is also a student of instrumental music; Faith is in the seventh grade. Mrs. Wason, the mother of these children, died in May 1894. She was a lover of home and a good and faithful wife, and her memory is still sacred in the hearts of those who were closest in friendship and ties of kindred. She was a member of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church.

Mr. Wason is a stanch Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for General Grant. He has had no time to accept public or official responsibilities, as his business interests have absorbed all his time. He affiliates with Colfax Lodge No. 378, of the Masons, at Lowell, and is also a member of the lodge of the Knights of Pythias at the same place. He and his family are all members of the Presbyterian church in West Creek township. He has traveled about the country a good deal, and has visited both the New England states and the northwest.


FRANK RICHARDS.

In the tillers of the soil and the gardeners of the crops have always rested the main strength and hope of a nation, and the substantial character of any community is best judged by the personnel of its farming population. Lake county is particularly well favored in this class of men, and among the more recent arrivals to swell the enterprising agricultural element is the solid and substantial citizen Mr. Frank Richards, who is now one of the most active and intelligent farmers and stockmen of West Creek township.

Mr. Richards was born in Kankakee county, Illinois, March 12, 1856, being the eldest of six children, four sons and two daughters, born to William C. and Mary (Campbell) Richards. He has just one brother living, Samuel, a resident of Valparaiso. His father was born in Onondaga county, New York, in 1822, and died in 1875. He was a surveyor by profession, and was educated at Elbridge Academy. He also followed the vocation of teaching in New York, Indiana and Illinois, and was always known for his superior intelligence and breadth of mind. He was a Republican in politics. His wife was a native of Ohio, and she passed away in 1899.
Mr. Frank Richards was reared on a farm, and his education has been mainly self-acquired, and he has been the architect of his own fortune. He remained with his parents, giving them his time and wages, and at the age of twenty-one he had just a team of horses and a plow as capital for his life career, so that what he has since made is the result of his own diligence and prudence. He has had full regard throughout life for the principles of integrity and rectitude, and he is amply rewarded in the confidence and trust in which he is held by friends and business associates. He began his farming career as a renter, and continued so for twenty-one years in the states of Illinois arid Indiana, and during this time he lived comfortably, provided well for his family, and increased his store of world's profits. In 1901 he purchased one hundred and eighty-eight acres in West Creek and Cedar Creek townships, and went in debt for a large amount of the purchase price. During the first year he paid fourteen hundred dollars on the place in addition to the interest, and in a short time will own his fine property free of incumbrance, and its possession will be a fine reward for his life of careful management and industry.

August 18, 1880, he was married to Miss Alice Ballou, and one daughter, Mary Ballou, has been born to them, she now being a student in the Lowell high school and having taken also instrumental music. Mrs. Richards was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, November 2, 1861, being a daughter of Davillo and Mary (Cutler) Ballou. She was reared for the greater part of her early years in Galesburg, Illinois, and received her education in the city schools.

Mr. and Mrs. Richards located as renters in Lake county in 1888, and have made their home in the county ever since. The Richards family traces its ancestry back to the Plymouth Rock Pilgrims. Mr. Richards' father was an important personage, and was appointed by old Governor Richard Yates as a ditch or swamp land commissioner in Illinois. He was the oldest in a family of eighteen children, and was the best educated of them all.

Mr. Richards is a stanch Republican, and has had no cause to falter in his allegiance to the party since casting his first presidential vote for Garfield. Fraternally he is a member of the camp of the Modern Woodmen of America at Lowell.


CHARLES A. TAYLOR.

"Biography is the only true history," says Carlyle, and then the philosopher Emerson further asserts that the true history of a nation is best told in the lives of its representative men and women, so that in detailing the careers of the leading citizens of Lake county its own history is likewise being written. One record that will add to the completeness of this work on Lake county is that of Mr. C. A. Taylor and wife, who belong to the younger class of citizens of West Creek township and whose success in their life work gives them high place in the estimation of their fellow citizens.

Mr. Taylor is a native son of this county, and was born July 16, 1857, being the second in a family of five children, three sons and two daughters, born to DeWitt Clinton and Emma L. (Palmer) Taylor. He is the oldest of those living; his brother Frank J., now married and engaged in stock-raising at Hiawatha, Nebraska, received a college education at Valparaiso and taught school in Lake county three or four years; Emma, the wife of Martin D. Palmer, a farmer of Jennings county, Indiana, received her education in the Lowell high school; William, who was educated in the public schools and at college, is married and is a farmer and butcher at Lowell.

DeWitt C. Taylor was born in 1826 and died in January, 1888. He was reared to farm life, and his education was mainly self-acquired. He was a successful man, being so through the energy and forcefulness of his own character. During his boyhood he had attended the old log-cabin school. He was one of the early settlers of Lake county, and was here before the Indians had left their ancestral haunts. His first home was on the east side of Cedar lake, where he was domiciled in a log cabin for a time, then sold that and moved to Cedar Creek township, and afterward became a pioneer settler of West Creek township. He accumulated over two hundred acres of fine land, and did well by his family. He cast his early votes for the Whig party, and later became one of the stanchest supporters of Republican principles, being a warm admirer of Lincoln. He was one of Indiana's brave men who went to the front during the Civil war, enlisting at Crown Point in the Sixty-third Indiana Infantry, along at the first of the war. He was first assigned to the Army of the Potomac and later to the Trans-Mississippi department, and he wore the blue uniform and continued in service until the end of the war, when he returned to peace and quiet labor on his own farm. His wife was born in St. Joseph county of this state, in 1831, and died in March, 1903. Her ancestors were early New Englanders, some of whom were soldiers in the Revolution, which entitles the Taylor family to membership in the patriotic orders of the Sons and Daughters of the Revolution. Both parents of Mr. Taylor are interred in the Creston cemetery, where suitable monuments mark their final resting places.

Mr. Charles A. Taylor was reared and educated in this county, and from his earliest years his training and pursuits have been in farming and stock-raising. When he was twenty-three years old, on August 19, 1880, he was united in marriage to Miss Alice E. Pixley. They have one son, Edson M., who received his diploma from the grammar schools in 1903 and has taken one year's work in the Lowell high school. Mrs. Taylor was born January 20, 1861, a daughter of William H. and Nancy Ann (Scritchfield) Pixley, whose history will be found in connection with their son Chester Pixley. Mrs. Taylor was reared in this county and educated in the common schools. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Creston.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Taylor began as renters in West Creek township, but a year later purchased sixty acres of land where they now live. They went in debt for practically all of this, but their combined industry, economy and capable management have given them a beautiful estate in their own name, improved it immeasurably above its first condition, and made the Taylor farm a model of thrifty and progressive agricultural enterprise. They have since added forty acres to their first farm, and also twenty acres inherited by Mrs. Taylor. Besides their country farmstead they own a pretty residence property on the west limits of Lowell, and this they contemplate making their home.

Mr. Taylor has been loyal and efficient in supporting the Republican party ever since casting his first vote for Garfield, and has served as a delegate to the county conventions. As a resident of the banner township of the county he has done his share in all public works and enterprises and made his influence felt on the side of progress in social, moral and intellectual affairs.


WILLIAM H. MICHAEL.

William H. Michael is one of the oldest living native citizens of Lake county, but also has many other claims to distinction in connection with his residence here. He is a man of much ability in the various affairs of life, has been prosperous in his agricultural and stock-raising enterprises, gives attention to religion and education in his community, and is altogether a type of the true American citizen, self-reliant and upright.

He was born March 23, 1847, and he and his brother Edwin are the only survivors of a family of five children, four sons and one daughter, born to John J. and Wealthy Ann (Green) Michael. He was reared to manhood in this county, and his education was received in the country schools and in the excellent high school at Westville. He has always taken much interest in good literature, and in his home some good books will always be found handy with their information and culture. He was reared to farming pursuits, and has given his best years and efforts to that line of industry, with the result that he is one of the prosperous farmers of this rich agricultural county. As a stockman he makes a specialty of shorthorn cattle, and he justly takes much pride in his herd, which at present numbers fifty-five head of registered animals. This stock is of such high grade that a demand comes for them from every part of the country, and he has shipped by express cattle as far west as California and as far east as Maryland. His estate comprises one hundred and sixty-six acres of fine land in West Creek township, and he has a nice residence and delightful home, with all the associations and surroundings capable of making him happy and contented with what the good world has given.
He was with his parents until attaining his majority, and in November, 1872, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary S. Morey. Five children, three sons and two daughters, were born to them, and the three now living are as follows: Loren P. is a mechanical engineer and foreman in the Big Four shops at Mount Carmel, Illinois: he was a graduate in the class of 1896 from the engineering department of Purdue University; he is married and has a son, William Conrad. The second son, Herbert, graduated with the class of '04 in the classical course at Butler University at Indianapolis. fessie M., the daughter, is at home, and has received, besides a public school training, a musical education in a conservatory at Chicago and in Indianapolis. From this it is evident that Mr. and Mrs. Michael believe in giving their children the best of equipment for life, and the children, in turn, have proved the wisdom of this course by the honorable part they have already taken in life's activity.

Mrs. Michael was born in New Hampshire, in March, 1850, being a daughter of Ephraim and Susan (Peach) Morey, the former deceased and the latter still living in West Creek township. The father of Mr. Michael was born in Orleans county, New York, in 1811, and died in 1897. He was a carpenter by trade, which he followed in the early part of his life, and later gave his attention to farming. He was an old-line Whig, and later a Republican, and served as justice of the peace for a number of years during the early history of Lake county. He came to Lake county as a pioneer in 1838, and his first habitation was a log house, in which his children were also born. He and his wife were Baptists.

Mr. Michael is a stanch Republican, and since casting his first ballot for General Grant, the soldier president, he has been an unfaltering advocate of true Republicanism. At various times he has been selected as a delegate to district conventions of his party. He and his family are members of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church, and he has aided by his means in the erection and support of the church. He is a trustee and also treasurer of the official board. The society is in a flourishing condition, and there is a Sunday school with a regular attendance of forty.


PHILIP STUPPY.

German-American citizens have contributed more largely than any other race to the material development and progress of Lake county, and the thrift, honest industry and integrity which are the characteristics of the people as a class can nowhere be better proved than in this county. Among these practical and enterprising men in West Creek township should be mentioned Mr. Philip Stuppy, who has lived in the county for something over a third of a century and from small beginnings advanced to a place of esteem and affluence among all his fellow men.

He was born in Bavaria, Germany, April 20, 1845, being the second child of Adam and Elizabeth (Lindemer) Stuppy. There were seven children, four sons and three daughters, and four others are still living and all residents of Germany, as follows: Mary E., wife of Mr. Kaufman, of Bonn, Germany, a farmer; Magdalene, wife of a Mr. Guider; Amelia, who is married; and Adam. The father of this family was also a native of Bavaria, was born in 1819 and died in 1862, and followed farming most of his life. He was a man of superior education, having been trained for the priesthood. His wife was also born in the same locality, and died when her son Philip was an infant.

Mr. Philip Stuppy was reared to farm life, and received his education in the German tongue. He is the only one of the family who decided to leave his fatherland and seek better opportunities in the Occident, and he was twenty-one when he crossed the ocean. He left the fatherland in company with one of his comrades, on June 28. 1866, and sailed from Havre, France, and landed in New York. For the first four years he employed himself at Scranton, Pennsylvania, accepting any work which would give him an honest dollar. He finally bought a piece of land in Wyoming county, but after a year sold and came to Lake county, arriving here in 1871. He purchased forty acres of land with a little house and stable and with few improvements. He has since added to his possessions till he is now the owner of one hundred and sixty-eight acres of choice land, and has one of the model farmsteads of the entire township of West Creek. He came here early enough that much of the land was unimproved, and has thus witnessed most of the agricultural development and material progress.

On February 12, 1867, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Rodel, who became the mother of two children, a son and a daughter, the latter dying in infancy. The son, Philip P., is a prosperous farmer in West Creek township. Mr. Stuppy lost his first wife in Pennsylvania, in September, 1870, and on March 1, 1871, married Miss Bridget Murphy. Three sons and two daughters came to this second union, and four are living: John A., a farmer on his father's place, completed the common schools and took the teacher's course in Valparaiso; Emma L., who attended high school and was a teacher in her home township six years, is the wife of Lewis Belshaw, of West Creek township; Frank M. graduated from the Lowell high school in 1898, attended the University of Indiana and took a business course at the Valparaiso normal, and is now a practicing attorney at Crown Point; Edgar T., the youngest, was educated in the Lowell high school and is now a practical farmer and stockman. Mrs. Stuppy was born in county Mayo, Ireland.
Mr. Stuppy is a Democrat, but cast his first presidential vote for Grant, although he has since upheld the principles of the Democracy. He was selected as a delegate to the state convention of the party in 1896, and at various times has been sent to the county conventions. He was once candidate for the office of county commissioner. He has always performed his share of the civic duties devolving upon the public-spirited man, and the general welfare of his community finds in him a loyal advocate. He aided in the erection of the Methodist Episcopal church at Creston, and has duly proportioned his time and energies toward all proper enterprises, social, intellectual and personal.


CYRUS HAYDEN.

Cyrus Hayden was born in Lake county over sixty years ago, to be exact, on the 24th of September, 1843, so that he is among the oldest of the native born citizens of the county. He has spent the adult years of his life in useful activity in farming pursuits, and from an impecunious beginning has, by his constant industry and sagacious management, acquired a measure of success such as to place him among the truly representative men of the county.

He was the youngest of thirteen children, eight sons and five daughters, whose parents were Nehemiah and Harriett (Kitchell) Hayden. Six of this family are still living, and all residents of Lake county. The Hayden family long since gained the reputation of being one of the most progressive in the west part of the county. The parents migrated out to this part of northwest Indiana when the country was all a wilderness, without railroads, and everything in the primitive condition of unsettled regions.

Mr. Cyrus Hayden was reared to farm life, and has from boyhood known the details of farming and stock-raising. He is one of the citizens of West Creek township who in their childhood attended the old log-cabin school-house. The school was located a little north of the Hayden homestead, on section 12 of West Creek township, and the size of the building was about fourteen by sixteen feet, with one or two rough windows, and a wood-stove to furnish heat. He sat on a slab seat supported by wooden legs, and when he became classed with the older boys and girls he used as a desk the slanting board that ran nearly around the room and rested on pins driven into the wall. His pen was a goosequill, fashioned into the necessary shape by the schoolmaster. From the conditions of which this school was a representative Mr. Hayden has seen Lake county pass through a most wonderful period of development, witnessing when a small boy the advent of the railroad and then the many other concomitants of rising civilization, until he now lives in a county that is among the most highly improved of the middle west and contains all the arts and industries and institutions of twentieth century life.

He remained at home until he was fifteen years old, when his father died, and he then lived with his brothers for three years. When he was ready to begin on his own account all he had was a team, so that he has risen from the very bottom of the ladder. In his early days he has raked the grain after the old-fashioned cradle, and has seen the hay cut down with a scythe. It is a well remembered event when the first reaper came into his neighborhood, and with that machine it was necessary to rake the grain by hand off the platform, and the reaper could also be used as a mower.

He has thus been intimately acquainted with all the improvements in agricultural processes as they have been introduced.
During the war Mr. Hayden offered his services to the Union cause, enlisting in Kankakee county, Illinois, in Company K, One Hundred and Thirteenth Illinois Infantry. He joined his regiment at Memphis, and was then assigned to duty in the trans-Mississippi department. He did guard and patrol duty, and got as far south as New Orleans. He was still in the service when the glad news of Lee's surrender came, followed five days later by the distressing tidings of Lincoln's assassination. He received his honorable discharge at Chicago, and then returned home to take up his duties as a peaceful citizen.

September 1, 1864, he was married to Miss Caroline Cleaver, and five children, two sons and three daughters, were born to them, three of the children being still living: Myrtie, the wife of William Einspahr, a farmer of West Creek township, finished the public school work and took instruction in music. Thuel A. was educated in the country schools and the Lowell high school, and prepared himself for teaching, which profession he followed very successfully in this county, having taught in his home township for four years; he is now a successful farmer of West Creek township, and married Miss Minnie Shirley, an old soldiers daughter, and they have a son, Hugh. Mamie, the youngest, is at home, and she graduated from the public schools in 1904 and has also taken music. Mrs. Hayden was born in Yellowhead township, Kankakee county, Illinois, June 15, 1846, and was the second of five children born to Woster D. and Eliza A. (Sargeant) Cleaver, four of the family being alive at the present writing and residents of Lake county. Mrs. Hayden was reared and educated in Illinois and was a teacher in her native county for three years. Her father was born in Connecticut. April 7, 1816, and died November 28, 1867. He was a carpenter and joiner by trade. In young manhood he came to Illinois, where he resided till his death. He was a strong Republican in politics. He and his wife were members of the Christian church. His wife was born in Fountain county, Indiana, December 31, 1825, and passed away August 14, 1897.

During the first year of their married life Mr. and Mrs. Hayden were tenant farmers in Yellowhead township of Kankakee county. He then purchased eighty acres in West Creek township of this county, and this land was the nucleus around which they have since built up their fine estate. Their first eighty was in the condition of nature, and it was by his persevering labor that it became such a profitable piece of agricultural land. There was a lone burr-oak tree on the place, and it stood for many years as a natural guide-post to the traveler across the prairie, being finally cut down by Mr. Hayden in the spring of 1904. His first home was a little frame building, and the barn was small and roofed with hay. But the days of early struggle and hard labor have given place to comfortable circumstances, and Mr. and Mrs. Hayden now look out upon a beautiful estate of three hundred and forty acres, all of which is in West Creek township with the exception of five acres in Cedar Creek. They have a nice country residence, and they take much satisfaction in the knowledge that their possessions are the result of their own work. Mr. Hayden is a Simon-pure Republican, and has cast his ballot for the presidential candidates from Lincoln down.


BENJAMIN L. P. BELL.

Benjamin L. P. Bell, chief of the Hammond fire department, has had a career in this important branch of public service lasting over fifteen years, both in the employ of a private concern and with the municipality. The fireman does more for the conservation of property than any other individual, and he has a proportionately high regard in the public favor and esteem. Heroes are discovered every day in this branch of municipal service, yet their quiet performance of duty goes on without interruption and their deeds often fail of casual mention in the press. The Hammond fire department has developed and maintains as high a state of efficiency as that of the near-by city of Chicago, and takes rank among the best of the state, so that Mr. Bell occupies both an honorable and a responsible position in the city of his choice.

Chief Bell was born in Chicago. Illinois, November 14, 1849, a son of Joshua and Hannah (Weaver) Bell, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of New York state. His grandfather, also Joshua Bell, was of Scotch ancestry, but was born, lived and died in Ireland, having been the father of several children. The younger Joshua Bell emigrated from Ireland in 1819, and became a shoe merchant in Montreal, Canada, where he lived until the rebellion in 1836. He then came to Chicago, in the early period of that city's history, and remained there till his death in 1875, when he was eighty-four years old. His wife, Hannah Bell, was one of a good-sized family of children born to Benjamin and Phoebe (Paddock) Weaver, the former of whom was a native of Onondaga county, New York, was a farmer, and lived to be over ninety years old. Mrs. Hannah Bell survived her husband until 1883, being sixty-three years old at the time of her death. She had come to Chicago in 1833, when the Indians still made it their haunt. Both she and her husband were Protestants. They had four children, three sons and one daughter: Joshua, of Chicago; Kossuth H., of Chicago; Benjamin, of Hammond; and Grace, deceased, who was the wife of Henry F. Schiefer, who is also deceased.

Mr. Benjamin L. P. Bell was reared in Chicago, attending the public schools, and later took a course in Bryant and Stratton's Business College. He learned the plumber's trade, and followed that for a number of years in Chicago. He came to Hammond in 1889 to take the position of fire marshal for the Hammond Packing Company, and two years ago was appointed to the office of fire chief of the city fire department.

Mr. Bell was married August 6, 1890, to Miss Agnes Henrietta Hohraan, a daughter of Ernest W. and Caroline (Sibley) Hohman, who were the first settlers of the original town of Hammond, and whose six children are still living. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bell, Fred J., Grace Lena, Alice and Gladys Hohman Bell. Fred J. and Alice both died when about a year old, and the other two are in school. They reside at 276 South Hohman street, where Mr. Bell built a good home in 1898. Mr. and Mrs. Bell are members of the Episcopal church, and he affiliates with Garfield Lodge No. 569, F. & A. M., and with Hammond Commandery No. 41, K. T. He is a strong Republican in politics.


WILLIAM T. DICKINSON.

William T. Dickinson is so well known as a worthy citizen of West Creek township as to need hardly any introduction to the readers of this volume. Pie has spent all his life in the county, and in farming and stock-raising has found the proper sphere for the successful direction of his energies, but in addition is also a public-spirited man and willing to serve the common weal wherever possible.

He was born in Lake county, July 26, 1860, and is the sixth of nine children, six sons and three daughters, born to Thomas and Rachel (Miller) Dickinson. Of this family the six yet living are as follows: Minerva, wife of E. L. Watson, a farmer of Cedar Creek township; Susie, widow of G. H. Baker and a resident of Lowell; William T.; S. E., a farmer of Cedar Creek township, and married; P. B. and E. G., residents also of Cedar Creek township.

Thomas Dickinson, the father, was born in Yorkshire, England, December 30, 1821, and died December 16, 1892, and followed farming during most of his career. When about eight years old he accompanied his mother to America, the voyage being made on a sailing vessel and being protracted forty days on account of storms. For three years he and his mother lived in Philadelphia, and then moved to Ohio, where he lived until the spring of 1860, when he came to Lake county and took up his residence on a tract of land two miles south of Lowell. He was reasonably successful in his life work, and was held in high esteem by his fellow men. He always supported the Republican party until his death. He was a member of the Odd Fellows lodge at Lowell for many years before his demise. He was baptized in the Established Church of England. Rachel, his wife, was born in Ohio in February, 1825, and is now living at a very advanced age in Cedar Creek township, being a very bright old lady.

Mr. William T. Dickinson was reared to the life of farming. After completing the work of the common schools he took a literary course at Valparaiso College, and also taught a year in West Creek township. His first purchase of land was eighty-six acres at his present place, which he has since increased to ninety-four acres. He keeps his farm in fine condition, and has a very comfortable residence and all necessary improvements.

October 3, 1881, he was married to Miss Lida Miller, and three sons were born to them, one of them now being deceased. Thomas A. is a boy who has shown unusual talent in school work and made remarkable advancement. He completed the common school course of study on April 29. 1898, when he was twelve years old, then took three years' high school work in the Lake Prairie high school, and in 1902 graduated from the Lowell high school, at the age of sixteen. He entered Purdue University as a student, but after two months was compelled to forego his further education for the present on account of failing health. The younger son, Charles E., graduated from the common schools May 9, 1901, and is now a student in the Lowell high school. The parents may be very proud of what these youths have accomplished in their preparation for life's duties, for they have shown capacity and industry which will at some day rank then among the successful men of the world.

Mrs. Dickinson was born in Kankakee county, Illinois, April 10, 1863, and was reared in that county and in Iroquois county. Her parents were Uriah and Catharine (Jones) Miller, and of the four children in the family, Mrs. Dickinson has two brothers living: John A., who is a general merchant at Pittwcod, Illinois, and Charles U., a resident of Lowell, Indiana.

Mr. Dickinson and his wife spent the first two years of their married life on his father's farm in Cedar Creek township, and he then located on his present place. He had to begin in the world without capital, and it has been through "industry, careful economy and wise management that he and his wife have made for themselves a comfortable home and pleasant surroundings. Mr. Dickinson has supported the Republican party since his first vote went for Blaine, and he has at various times been selected as a delegate to county and district conventions of his party. He has fraternal relations with the Masonic lodge No. 378, at Lowell, and with Camp No. 5500 of the Modern Woodmen at the same place. Both he and his wife are members of the Christian church at Lowell.


FRANK B. PLUMMER.

Frank B. Plummer comes from one of the best known and most prominent families identified with the business and agricultural industries of Lake county. He has spent practically all his active career in this county, and in connection with farming, and has been prosperous in material affairs and a leading and influential spirit in civic and social matters.

He was born in this county January 16, 1857, and is the eldest of three children born to Abiel and Kate (Baughman) Plummer, a detailed history of the father being given place on other pages of this volume. He has one brother living, Edwin, who is a resident of Chicago and employed in the Masonic Temple.

Mr. Plummer passed his early years in Lake county, and in addition to the course at the common schools he attended the high school at Fisherville, New Hampshire. All his active career has been spent as a farmer and stockman, and with the exception of two years in Kansas his work has been confined to this county. When he made his start in Kansas he had very little capital, and his own intelligent management and industry have been the principal factors in bringing him success.

In September, 1881, he was married to Miss Lizzie Alexander, and of this happy marriage two daughters have been born. Blanche, the elder, is in the eighth grade of school and has also taken music; Beulah will graduate with the class of 1905 from the Lowell high school. Mrs. Plummer was born in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, in September. 1867, and was reared and educated in her native state. Her mother is still living in Pennsylvania, but her father is deceased. She has been a true and worthy helpmate of her husband, and is a lady of many social attractions and gracious and kind-hearted at home and abroad.

After his marriage Mr. Plummer located in Lake county and began farming. He now has charge of about a section of fine land in West Creek township, and in 1896 he erected a beautiful country residence on the estate. He gives especial attention to the raising of stock, and has some fine registered Galloway cattle and Poland China hogs. He has voted for Republican principles and candidates since the time of Garfield. He and his wife are adherents of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church, and stand high in the social circles of the township.


ABIEL G. PLUMMER.


Abiel G. Plummer

 


Mrs. A.G. Plummer

Abiel G. Plummer has been a citizen of Lake county since the years 1852, for over half a century, and he thus belongs to the pioneer class of the citizens of the county and state. It was a matter of great pleasure to his many friends throughout the county that he was able recently to celebrate his eightieth birthday, and he has lived this long life so usefully and worthily that he is venerated and held in the highest esteem by all who know him.

He is a native of New England, and was born in the state of New Hampshire, May 24, 1824. He is of true colonial stock, and it is related that the earliest progenitor of the Plummer family was Francis Plummer, who came from England in the year 1633, only thirteen years after the advent of the Pilgrim Fathers upon the shores of New England. Abiel G. is the only son and the second of the five children born to Ephraim and Lucy (Gerrish) Plummer. His sisters are all living. Mary, the oldest, is the widow of Henry Dodge, a former agriculturist at Webster. New Hampshire, and she has three daughters living: Priscilla, the widow of Luther Gage, is a resident of Pennicoke. New Hampshire. Helen is also a resident of Pennicoke; and Frances, widow of Albert Reed, lives in Jersey City.

Ephraim Plummer, the father of this long-lived family of children, was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, August 29, 1793, and died July 20, 1872, his birth having occurred six years before the death of George Washington. He was a farmer and received a meager education. His home was near that of the celebrated Daniel Webster. He espoused the cause of the Whig party until it was merged with the stronger Republican organization, which he supported until his death. Both he and his wife were members of the Congregational society of which the Rev. Dr. Wood was pastor for half a century. His wife was also a native of the same part of New Hampshire as her husband, and at her death on March 29, 1879, she was seventy-five years and six months old.

Mr. Abiel G. Plummer was reared in his native state and had only a common school education, which was much supplemented and rounded off by the subsequent practical experience of life. He had early become acquainted with farming in all its phases, and when he reached his majority he began on his own account with only his energy and industry as his capital. When he was twenty-four years old he concluded to come west and lay the foundation of his substantial career, and he made the journey to Niles, Michigan, partly by rail, partly through the Erie canal and partly by the lakes. His first wages in Michigan were a dollar a day for hard manual labor, and while he was getting started he was always willing to do any work that would afford him an honest living. In 1852 he came to locate permanently in West Creek township, Lake county. In the preceding year he had bargained for three quarter sections of land in this township, and this was the land upon which he worked and wrought so as to bring him his present easy circumstances.
Mr. Plummer has some old parchment deeds which are valuable souvenirs in his household and interesting relics of the past. One was executed April 1, 1843, and signed by President Tyler, another was signed by President Polk and executed December 1, 1848, and of the same date and signature are two others. There are only a few of these documents in the county, and they are therefore the more precious as heirlooms and antiquities.

When Mr. Plummer came to this township Lowell contained but two houses, and there was not a railroad in the entire county, now so crossed and recrossed by great trunk lines. His first home was a little plank house, and in the early days he has seen as many as fifteen deer at one time on his premises. The old Indian trail led across his land, and wolves were still plentiful. He has thus witnessed all the great development that has trans-formed this country so wondrously in the past half century. He used to drive into the city of Chicago when the stockyards were located on the Lake shore. One of his greatest pioneer accomplishments in this county was the breaking of three hundred and twenty acres of virgin prairie with ox teams.

June 5, 1855, he was united in marriage with Miss Kate Baughman, and three sons were born to them, Frank and Edwin living at the present time, and elsewhere in these pages will be found the personal history of Mr. Frank Plummer, who manages the old homestead. Mrs. Plummer was born in New Philadelphia, Ohio, June 9, 1832, being one of the ten children, five sons and five daughters, born to Jacob and Sallie (Ritter) Baughman. She has a sister and three brothers still living: Barbara, who is the widow of Edward Knisely, of Lowell; John, who is a carpenter and joiner by occupation and a resident of Arlington, Washington; Jacob, a retired farmer of Lowell; and Jay D., who is a farmer at Jackson, Minnesota. Jacob Baughman, Mrs. Plummer's father, was born in Pennsylvania of old Pennsylvania German stock, on February 9, 1798, and died October 4, 1853, in Lake Prairie, this county. He was a farmer by occupation. His wife was born in Pennsylvania, April 30, 1799, and died in West Creek township of this county. She was a member of the Evangelical church. Mrs. Plummer was reared in Ohio until she was seventeen years old. and received her education in that state. She came with her parents to Porter county, Indiana, in 1849. She is a kind-hearted and genial lady, and in many ways has smoothed out the rough places where family and friends were treading. She and her husband have together traveled life's journey for forty-nine years, and it is the hope of all their numerous friends that they will the next year celebrate their golden wedding.

Mr. and Mrs. Plummer began their wedded life in West Creek township and continued in the pursuits of agriculture there for many years. In 1901 they moved into the town of Lowell, and there live a retired and peaceful life. Mr. Plummer owns about seven hundred acres of land in West Creek township, and his career of industry and honest dealing has brought him comfortable circumstances. He is a stanch Republican, and began casting his ballot for president when the Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, ran for the office. He has voted for all the Republican nominees from Lincoln down, and has served as a delegate to the county convention. Mrs. Plummer is a member of the Evangelical church.


JOHN E. LOVE.

John E. Love, cashier of the State National Bank at Lowell, has also been identified with farming interests, with educational work and with hay and grain dealing in this place, and is a successful business man of marked enterprise and energy, whose ready recognition of opportunity has been one of the salient features m his successful career. He was born in Detroit, Michigan, April 16, 1854, and is a son of Samuel and Ellen J. (Mundall) Love, both of whom were natives of Belfast, Ireland. The father was reared in the place of his birth and became a weaver. In 1852, however, attracted by the business possibilities of the new world, he crossed the Atlantic to America and located at Washington Island, Wisconsin. He came to Lake county in 1870, and his last days were spent in Leroy, Indiana, where he died in 1902, when about seventy-one years of age, his birth having occurred in 1831. His widow still survives him and now resides in Leroy, Winfield township.

John E. Love was the second child and eldest son in their family of eight children. He was born in April, 1854, and in 1854 his parents removed to Washington Island, Wisconsin, where he was reared, pursuing his education in the public schools. He remained at home until twenty-four years of age, and at the age of nineteen years he began teaching school, which profession he followed through the winter months, while in the summer seasons he assisted his father in the work of the home farm. In 1870 he came to Lake county, Indiana, and here engaged in farming and in teaching school for about ten years. In 1880 he built a hay barn and elevator at Creston, Lake county, which he still operates. In 1893, however, he removed to Lowell and was engaged in dealing in hay alone in this place until 1900, when he admitted A. S. Hull to a partnership under the firm style of Love & Hull, a relation that is still maintained. The firm does an excellent business., making large purchases and sales and their enterprise has become a profitable one. In February, 1903, Mr. Love was elected cashier of the State National Bank and is thus actively connected with financial interests of the county. He also has valuable real estate in Lake county, Indiana, and Fayette and Clayton counties. Iowa. His business interests and his property holdings are the visible evidence of his life of thrift and industry.

On the 19th of June, 1878, Mr. Love was united in marriage to Miss Martha E. Jones, a daughter of Perry and Mary (Gilson) Jones, who were early settlers of Lake county, prominent and influential here. Mrs. Love was born in Cedar Creek township, February 22, 1862, attended the public schools of the county, and also continued her studies in a private school at Crown Point under the management of Miss Martha Knight. Five daughters have been born of this marriage, but the eldest. Rosa, is now deceased. The others are: Mollie, Ina, Grace. Mabel. Bessie May and Alice Edith.

In his political views Mr. Love is an earnest Republican, keeping well informed on the questions and issues of the day and giving unfaltering support to the principles of the party. He served as township trustee from 1895 until 1900 in Cedar Creek township. He is also well known in Masonic circles, belonging to Colfax Lodge No. 378, F. & A. M., of which he has been secretary for twenty years. He is likewise a member of the Knights of Pythias Lodge No. 300, at Lowell, Indiana, of which he is one of the trustees, and he holds membership relation with the Independent Order of Foresters of America. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which he has filled various offices. His nature is kindly, his temperament jovial and genial, and his manner courteous. He has steadily advanced in those walks of life demanding intellectuality, business ability and fidelity, and today he commands the respect and esteem of all of those with whom he has been associated in business or social relations.


ALEXANDER E. AYERS.

Alexander E. Ayers is a recent addition to the already fine personnel of Lake county citizens, and his energetic character and successful prosecution of his business affairs make him a valued factor in the material and civic progress and prosperity of the county. He has been in the county for the past three years, and is already well known throughout the township of West Creek.
He was born in Shelby county, Ohio, December 15, 1847, and is the seventh of eight children, four sons and four daughters, born to Alexander H. and Julia (House) Ayers. He has two brothers still living. Michael, now a resident of Lake county, was a soldier for four years in the Civil war, was under fire for one hundred days during the Atlanta campaign under Sherman, then was on the march to the sea, was wounded at Stone River, December 31, 1862, being struck in the hips; at Marietta, Georgia, was struck on the head by a piece of shell, and received his honorable discharge at Louisville, July 17, 1865. Samuel is a retired farmer of Heyworth, Illinois, and is a man of family.

The father of this family was born in Butler county, Ohio, December 12, 1812, and died December 20, 1885. He was reared and educated in his native county, and throughout life was a great reader and profound thinker. He was an active Whig and later an equally ardent Republican, and cast his votes for the candidates of the party from Fremont until his death. He came out to Woodford county, Illinois, in 1865, and lived there the greater part of his remaining years. He was a Universalist in religion, and his wife was inclined to the Methodist faith. The ancestry of the Ayers family is traced to the French. Julia Ayers, the mother of Mr. Ayers, was born in Butler county, Ohio, September 15, 1810, and died in 1897, December 21, being then eighty-seven years of age.
Mr. Alexander E. Ayers accompanied his parents to Woodford county, Illinois, in 1865. He is in the main a self-educated man. He lived with and took care of his parents for many years. He has been married twice. His first wife died without issue, and on February 25, 1885, he married Miss Alice V. DeBolt, who became the mother of eight children, six of whom are still living: Arthur H., who has reached the eighth grade in his school work; J. Emerson, who is a bright lad in the eighth grade of school, with an especial fondness for mathematics and history; N. Guy, who has received his diploma from the eighth grade; Ava Ray; H. Bernard., who is in the fifth grade; and Frank Leslie, the baby of the family. Mrs. Ayers was born in Woodford county. Illinois, October 5, 1860, and is the oldest of the three children and the only daughter born to John and Eliza J. (Drake) DeBolt. One brother is living, John M., a successfil grain merchant at El Paso, Illinois.

Her father was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1830, and died July 28, 1898, at the age of sixty-eight. He was a farmer and went from Pennsylvania to Virginia, where he was reared. In 1857 he located and purchased land in Woodford county, Illinois, near El Paso. He was a strenuous Jackson Democrat in politics, and was a man of broad intelligence and ability. He was a member of the Christian church at the time of his death. His wife was a strong Methodist, and she was a bright and intelligent lady. Mrs. Ayers is a lover of the choicest literature, and she finds books to be her best companions. She is an ardent Methodist, and joined a class of one hundred and twenty-one under Rev. Milsap.

Mr. Ayers owned fifty acres of excellent land in Woodford county, and resided there until March 1, 1902. when he purchased and removed to his fine estate of bottom land in West Creek township, consisting of four hundred and fifty-five acres, on which he has already placed many valuable improvements and which in time will be one of the model farms of the county. He is very much interested in stock-raising, and keeps some fine grades on his place. He is a Republican in politics, and has supported the candidates since casting his first vote for General Grant. He holds in the highest respect the tenets of Christianity, and for himself has tried to guide his path according to the golden rule. During their short residence he and his wife have gained the confidence and high regard of all with whom they have become associated in Lake county, and are people of the best personal worth and character.


HON. WILLIAM H. RIFENBURG.

Hon. William H. Rifenburg, so prominent in the ranks of the citizens of Hobart, was born in the town of Summit, Schoharie county, New York, October 22, 1834. His grandfather, Henry Rifenburg, was born in Columbia county, New York, near Poughkeepsie, and was a farmer and a contractor by occupation, having assisted in the building of the Erie canal. His father, also named Henry, was born along the Hudson, and was the son of an emigrant from Holland, the family being a sturdy New York Dutch stock. Aaron Rifenburg, the father of our Hobart citizen, was a native of Schoharie county, and was reared and educated there and became a farmer. He passed away at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. His wife was Mary Banks, and she died when about forty-five years of age. Her father, William Banks, was a native of the same portion of New York state as the other members of the family, and was of Holland Dutch descent. Aaron Rifenburg and wife had seven children, and all reached adult age except one.

Hon. William H. Rifenburg, the eldest of the family, was reared in New York, received his education in the common schools, and at the age of twenty went west to Allegan county, Michigan, where he spent one year. He came to Lake county in 1856, among the early settlers, and for a while clerked in a store. He bought a farm in Hobart township, and was engaged in farming until the Civil war. In 1861 he enlisted in Company E of the famous old Ninth Indiana Infantry, and served as a private and second sergeant. At the battle of Shiloh he was wounded in the shoulder, and in the following August received his honorable discharge. On returning to Hobart he embarked in the mercantile business, and from then until 1892 was concerned in various enterprises. In the latter year he began contracting, and did some important work in that line. In 1897 he was elected to the state legislature from Lake county, and his Republican constituents returned him for two years, his record at the state capital being in every way creditable. He served as trustee of his township for two years, 1864-65, and held the office of justice of the peace from 1864 to 1868. He is a charter member and was the first commander of Hobart Post No. 411, G. A. R. During his legislative career he was chairman of the prison committee north, and it was largely due to his influence that the Michigan City penitentiary was rebuilt, the contract system of prison labor abolished, and the indeterminate sentence law passed. He is also recognized as the father of the present gravel road system of Indiana.

In 1859 Mr. Rifenburg married Rebecca Steams, and of this marriage there is one daughter, Mary, now the wife of John J. Wood. In 1866 Mr. Rifenburg was married to Anna Howe, by whom there are no children living, and in 1869 he married Miss Sabrina Sawyer. They have three living children: Grace, the wife of Joseph H. Conroy, whose history is given on another page; Maude, the wife of Elmer Armet, an official at the Michigan City prison; and Ruth, single.

Mr. Rifenburg affiliates with the M. L. McClellan Lodge No. 357, of the Masonic Order, at Hobart, and is a member and a trustee of the Unitarian church.


EDGAR HAYDEN.

Edgar Hayden, after long years of active connection with agricultural interests, is now living a retired life in Lowell and belongs to a family of prominence in the county-a family that has taken a very active and helpful part in the work of public progress and improvement. He was born in West Creek township, October 16, 1840, and in a family of thirteen children is the eleventh in order of birth. His parents are Nehemiah and Harriet (Kitchell) Hayden, and the family history is given in connection with the sketch of Joseph Hayden on another page of this volume.

No event of special importance occurred to vary the routine of farm life for Mr. Hayden in his youth. In his boyhood he pursued his education in a log schoolhouse, which had a puncheon floor and was seated with slab benches. He attended through the winter months, and when spring came he assisted in the work of plowing and planting in the fields, continuing their cultivation until after crops were harvested in the late autumn. He started out to earn his own living when a mere boy, working by the month as a farm hand, and thus he was employed until 1861, when he was married and began farming on his own account. He secured as a companion and helpmate for life's journey Miss Rachel Knisely, a sister of the wives of Jacob and Lewis Hayden. She was born in New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, February 16, 1841, and is the third in a family of five daughters.

The young couple began their domestic life in Yellowhead township, Kankakee county, Illinois, just across the state line that divides Illinois and Indiana. His barn, however, was located in Lake county, while the house stood in Kankakee county. Mr. Hayden was there engaged in farming for a quarter of a century, and during that period he transformed his land into very arable and productive fields, making his property one of value and also of attractive appearance. When twenty-five years had passed he put aside farm labor and took up his abode in Lowell. He at one time had two hundred and sixty acres of land, but has since sold one hundred acres, and he now rents the remaining quarter section. His first purchase of land comprised sixty-five acres, for which he paid fifteen dollars per acre, and the greatest price which he ever paid was thirty-seven dollars per acre. He sold one hundred acres in October, 1903.,for one hundred dollars per acre, a fact which indicates how well he had improved the property. He began life a poor man, but by his own energy and unflagging perseverance, supplemented by the assistance of his estimable wife, he has become the owner of a valuable farm and is today enjoying the fruits of his former toil in a comfortable home in Lowell, his competence being sufficient to enable him to surround himself and family with the necessities and many of the comforts and luxuries of life.

To Mr. and Mrs. Hayden have been born two children, Nellie, who is now the wife of Charles Beebe, who is living a half mile west of Lowell upon a farm in West Creek township; and Seigel, who resides in Lowell.

Mr. Hayden is numbered among the honored pioneer settlers of Lake county. The family was established here in 1837, and since that time has been closely identified with the improvement and upbuilding of the county. In the family were eight sons and five daughters, most of whom have remained residents of this county. When a boy Edgar Hayden drove ox teams to Chicago, taking grain and hogs to the city market in that way. There were no railroads at that time and he did teaming to the city even after his marriage. His political views have ever been in harmony with the principles of the Republican party, but he has never sought or desired the honors or emoluments of public office. He has endeavored to live peaceably with all men, and has himself been engaged in no lawsuit. He is now a member of the town council of Lowell and is deeply interested in everything pertaining to its progress and upbuilding.


JOSEPH HAYDEN.

Joseph Hayden, now deceased, was a prominent old settler of Lake county and a man whom to know was to respect and honor. He lived here for many years and because of his upright life, his activity and reliability in business and his fidelity in matters of citizenship he won the respect, confidence and friendship of the large majority of those with whom he came in contact. He claimed Ohio as the state of his nativity, his birth having occurred in Knox county, July 7, 1832. He was a son of Nehemiah Hayden, who removed with his family to Lake county, Indiana, during the early boyhood of his son Joseph, who was reared in West Creek township upon the old homestead. He endured the hardships and trials incident to pioneer life and assisted in the arduous task of developing his father's farm. Outside of this no special event occurred to vary the routine of his life in his youth.
He remained at home with his parents up to the time of his marriage, which was celebrated on the 10th of October, 1854, the lady of his choice being Miss Maria P. Green, who was born in Michigan, March 13, 1836, and is a daughter of John and Phebe Green. The mother died when Mrs. Hayden was but a week old, and she was reared by her sister, Mrs. Michaels. She was brought to Lake county when but three years old and pursued her education in one of the old-time log schoolhouses common in all frontier settlements in the middle west. By her marriage she became the mother of nine children: Lester, who is living in Topeka, Indiana; Sidney, who follows farming in West Creek township; Wilbur, who carries on agricultural pursuits near Momence, Illinois; Anna, the wife of Elias Bryant, of Lafayette, Indiana; Hilton, who makes his home in Chicago: Clarence, who follows farming near Momence, Illinois; Cass J., a banker of Grant Park, Illinois; Merritt, who follows farming on the old homestead; and Ralph, who is a physician of Chicago and a member of the firm of Fosmer & Hayden, dealers in farm lands and investments. All of the children are married.
Joseph Hayden was a life-long Republican and as a citizen was deeply Interested in everything pertaining to public progress and improvement. He was honorable in all business transactions, faithful to his friends and family, and his death, which occurred in 1898, was therefore the occasion of deep and uniform regret throughout the community in which he had so long lived. After her husband's demise Mrs. Hayden came to live in Lowell in 1899. She attends the services of the Christian church, being a devout member, and is well known in Lake county, where almost her entire life has been passed.


GEORGE B. BAILEY.

George B. Bailey comes from one of the old families of Lake county, of which he is a representative agriculturist and a man whose standing as a stanch business man is unquestioned. He is a native of West Creek township, of Lake county, and was born March 26, 1870, being the youngest of the four children, three sons and one daughter, born to Josiah and Nancy (Kyle) Bailey. All the children are living: Leroy is the efficient treasurer of Lake county, and whose biography appears on other pages of this volume; Charles is a progressive farmer of West Creek township; Grace M. is the wife of F. T. Buse, also of West Creek township.
Mr. George B. Bailey was reared and educated in Lake county. His advanced training was acquired in the Valparaiso College, where he was a student during the years 1887-88-89 and took the teacher's course. His active career has been spent as an agriculturist and stockman, and his active, aggressive and business nature causes him never to stop short of real attainment in whatever he undertakes. After his return from college, being the youngest child, he remained at home and soon became a partner with his father. For the past thirteen years he has been engaged in the business of buying and feeding cattle, being with his father for seven years.

November 16, 1891, he married Miss Julia Foster, and one son has been born to them, Leon L., who is in the fourth grade of the public schools and thus early in life seems to be inclined to follow in the footsteps of his father. Mrs. Bailey was born in Parker, Kansas, November 16, 1872, and is the tenth and youngest of a family of ten children, five sons and five daughters, born to George Lyman and Lucy J. (Hathaway) Foster. There are nine of her brothers and sisters living, and five are in Lake county. She was about four years old when the family came to Lake county. Her early education was obtained in the public schools, and then for two years she took the teacher's course in Valparaiso College.

Mr. Bailey is a strong Republican, and was a stanch supporter of the administration of Benjamin Harrison, for whom he cast his first presidential vote, and during every subsequent administration he has upheld Republicanism in doctrine and practice. He has served as a delegate to the county conventions. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey are people who respect true Christian principles and the church institution, and they are attendants of the West Creek Methodist church. The Lowell National Bank, detailed mention of which is made on other pages, was organized on May 13, 1903, with a full roster of solid financial men at its head, and Mr. Bailey is vice-president of its official board.

Mr. and Mrs. Bailey's beautiful country seat, known as the "Diamond Farm," comprises five hundred and ninety acres, all in West Creek township. Their comfortable and cosy residence was erected in 1897, and during several subsequent years excellent improvements and outbuildings were constructed., so that as concerns general appearance and profitable usefulness there is hardly a place in the township more deserving of the reputation of "a model farmstead." Cleanliness and order are cardinal points in the management of this farm,, and the passer-by cannot but pause and admire the entire farm as one of the bright and high-class agricultural enterprises of Lake county. Mr. Bailey belongs to the young and substantial business men upon whom the responsibility for the welfare of a community will in the main always rest. While enthusiastic and aggressive, he possesses also a due amount of conservatism and finely balanced judgment, and these excellent qualities are to determine his success in the future as they have in the past and give him his due meed of prominence in the substantial industrial enterprise of Lake county.


MRS. ELIZABETH HARRISON.

Mrs. Elizabeth Harrison, well known in Lowell, was born in Center township. Lake county, Indiana, on the 17th of August, 1840. Her father, Dr. James A. Wood, was a native of Medina county, Ohio, and when a young man came to Indiana. He was married in the former state to Miss Anna Jacobs, whose birth occurred in New York, on the 7th of January, 1818. It was in the year 1838 that they removed to this state, settling in Porter county, and soon afterward they came to Lake county, taking up their abode in Center Prairie. Dr. Wood was a well-known physician and practiced for many years in Lake county, carrying professional assistance and relief into many of the households, where his labors proved of great value in the alleviation of human suffering. At the time of the Civil war he served as assistant surgeon in the First Indiana Volunteer Cavalry, and then returned to his practice in Lake county. He followed his profession here in the early days when the work of a physician demanded that he take long rides across the country, for the homes were widely scattered. This involved many personal sacrifices and hardships, but Dr. Wood faithfully performed his duties as a physician and frequently responded to a professional call when he knew that he would receive no remuneration for his services. He became very widely known through Lake and adjoining counties, and his professional skill, combined with his broad humanitarian principles and kindly spirit, won for him the respect and love of the great majority with whom he was associated. He died only twenty-six days before the eighty-fourth anniversary of his birth, and his wife passed away in her eightieth year. They were the parents of eleven children, of whom two died in infancy, while three died in childhood.

Mrs. Harrison, the third child of this family, was reared in Lake county and began her education in the common schools. She afterward continued her studies in Crown Point, Indiana, and in Valparaiso. She afterward engaged in teaching school in Indiana, Illinois and Kansas. In 1873 she went to Jewell county, Kansas, where she took up a claim on which she remained for about two years, and during that period she continued teaching. She then returned to Lake county to take care of her parents, and remained with them until their death.

On the 11th of November, 1878, Miss Elizabeth Wood gave her hand in marriage to John Harrison, who was born in Dorchester, England, and died on the 1st of January, 1884. Soon after her husband's death Mrs. Harrison returned to Lowell, where she has since resided. With the exception of two years spent in the Sunflower state her entire life has been passed in Lake county, and she is numbered among the worthy pioneer women of this part of the state. She belongs to the Christian church, is a very active worker therein, has long been a teacher in the Sunday-school and is now a teacher of the old people's Bible class. She is well known throughout Lake county, and her Christian character, her many kindly traits and good deeds have won for her the love and good will of those with whom she has been associated.


JOSEPH H. CONROY.

Joseph H. Conroy, engaged in the practice of law at Hobart, Indiana, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 20, 1872, a son of Thomas and Kate (Musser) Conroy, the former a native of New York and the latter of Sacramento, California. Thomas Conroy removed from the Empire state to Pennsylvania in early manhood, and at the time of the Civil war he responded to the country's call for aid, enlisting in the Ninety-first Pennsylvania Infantry as a private. He served for four years, doing valiant duty as a defender of the Union cause. Removing westward he spent his last days in Allen county, Indiana, where he died in 1883. His wife was born in Sacramento, her parents having removed to California at an early period in the development of that state. She is a graduate of the Northern Indiana Normal School at Valparaiso, and is now a teacher in the public schools of Hobart.

Joseph H. Conroy, the only child born to his parents, was reared in Allen and in Adams counties of Indiana, having been brought to this state when only a year old. His education was acquired in Valparaiso, where he was graduated in 1890, completing the course in the scientific department of the Northern Indiana Normal School. In early life he had attended the common schools of Adams county. In August, 1890, he came to Hobart and was principal of the Miller public school for two years, while for three years he engaged in teaching in the high school at Hobart. During this time he took up the study of law, devoting all his leisure hours to the mastery of the principles of jurisprudence. He read alone for a time and afterward under the direction of George W. Musser, an uncle, who is now a prominent attorney of Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1895 he retired from the field of educational labor and opened a law office at Hobart, where he has since engaged in practice, and during the nine years which have since elapsed he has secured a large and gratifying clientage, connecting him with much important litigation tried in the courts of this district.

Mr. Conroy was married in 1895 to Miss Grace Rifenburg, a daughter of Hon. W. H. Rifenburg. There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Conroy three children, one son and two daughters: Elliott R., in the fifth grade; Kathryn S., who died at three years of age; Mary J., died in infancy. Mr. Conroy is quite prominent in fraternal circles, belonging to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Earl Lodge No. 333, the Knights of Pythias fraternity No. 458, the Knights of the Maccabees, Tent No. 65, the Modern Woodmen, Camp No. 5202, and the Independent Order of Foresters of Indiana, Court No. 3. He has been city attorney for five years. Since attaining his majority he has been recognized as a stanch advocate of the Democracy. He has taken a very active interest in public affairs in Hobart, and his.labors and influence have been effective in promoting general progress and improvement. He has made for himself an enviable reputation as a lawyer through earnest effort, close study and untiring devotion to his clients' interests.


F. E. NELSON.

Few men are more prominent or more widely known in the enterprising city of Lowell than F. E. Nelson, the president of the Lowell National Bank. His success in all his undertakings has been so marked that his methods are of interest to the commercial world. He has based his business principles and actions upon strict adherence to the rules which govern industry, economy, and strict, unswerving integrity. His enterprise and progressive spirit have made him a typical American in every sense of the word, and he well deserves mention in history. What he is to-day he has made himself, for he began in the world with nothing but his own energy and willing hands to aid him. By constant exertion, associated with good judgment, he has raised himself to the prominent position which he now holds, having the friendship of many and the respect of all who know him.

Mr. Nelson is a native son of Lake county, his birth having occurred in West Creek township, February 4, 1855. His father, Truman Nelson, was born in Oswego county, New York, came to Lake county, Indiana, in 1850. and after about six years' residence here was called to his final rest, his death occurring in 1856. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Sena French, was a native of Ohio and died in Lake county, Indiana, in 1879. They were the parents of seven children, two daughters and five sons, of whom F. E. Nelson was the sixth child and fifth son.

Reared in his native township, Mr. Nelson acquired his education in the common schools and in Valparaiso, where he studied for two years. He also engaged in teaching, first having charge of a school when eighteen years of age. He continued in educational work until twenty-five years of age, spending two years as principal of the schools of Lowell. He was very capable in his work in the schoolroom, being an excellent disciplinarian and at the same time having the ability to impart clearly and readily to others the knowledge that he had acquired. When twenty-five years of age he began farming in the southwestern part of West Creek township, where he remained for eleven years. On the expiration of that period he removed to Lowell and was chosen cashier of the State Bank in 1893, filling that position in an acceptable manner until 1900, when the institution became the State National Bank of Lowell. He was retained as cashier until 1903, when he resigned his position, and in May of the same year joined other prominent businessmen in the organization of the Lowell National Bank, of which he was chosen president. He has since remained at the head of this institution, which is capitalized for twenty-five thousand dollars. The other officers are George B. Bailey, vice president, and P. A. Berg, cashier, and the directors are Frank E. Nelson, George B. Bailey, C. E. Nichols, George M. Death and Henry Suprise. In addition to his financial interests Mr. Nelson has farming property in West Creek township, Lake county, and in Monroe county, Indiana.

In 1879 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Nelson and Miss Emeline Foster, a daughter of Liman and Lucy Foster, early settlers of West Creek township, where Mrs. Nelson was born and reared. Six children graced this union, two sons and four daughters, namely, Raymond L., Bernice S., Ned E., Julia F., Emily and Marion, all of whom are natives of Lake county, Indiana.

Mr. Nelson has been a life-long Republican and for five years served as trustee of West Creek township. He is a member of Colfax Lodge, F. & A. M., also of Lowell Lodge No. 300, K. of P., and is true and loyal to the teachings of these fraternities. He has been an important factor in educational and financial circles in Lake county, and his popularity is well deserved, as in him are embraced the characteristics of an unbending integrity, unabating energy and industry that never flags.


DANIEL LYNCH.

Daniel Lynch is an honored veteran of the Civil war and is now filling the position of postmaster at Lowell. He was born in Cedar Creek township, Lake county, Indiana, on the 6th of July, 1843, and is a son of Daniel and Mary Lynch, both of whom were natives of Ireland and became residents of Lake county during the pioneer epoch in its history. The father was identified with the early progress and development of this portion of the state. He died in the month of February, 1843, and it was not until July following that the birth of the son Daniel occurred. The mother afterward married again, and Daniel Lynch remained at home with his step-father until about fourteen years of age and during that period attended the common schools through the winter months. He afterward started out in life on his own account and worked by the month as a farm hand, thus earning his living until after the outbreak of the Civil war. He watched with interest the progress of events in the south, and in 1861 he enlisted as a member of Company H, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he became a private. He served in this regiment for about a year and a half. He was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, after which he received an honorable discharge on account of his disability. Later, when he had recovered his health, he once more offered his services to the government and this time became a member of Company A, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry, with which he served until the close of the war. He was promoted from the ranks to the position of orderly sergeant and was then discharged. He participated in a number of important engagements, and was always a loyal defender of the Union cause, faithfully performing his duty, whether it led him into the thickest of the fight or stationed him on the lonely picket line.
When the war was over and the preservation of the Union was assured Daniel Lynch located in Hebron, Porter county, Indiana, where he was engaged in the livery business for two years. On the expiration of that period he removed to Lowell, where he conducted a similar business for about twelve years, when he traded his livery stable for a farm in Center township. There he carried on agricultural pursuits for seven years, at the end of which time he sold his property and bought a farm in Cedar Creek township, one mile from Lowell. This he continued to cultivate and improve for about twelve years, when he again sold out and once more took up his abode in Lowell. He was appointed postmaster under President McKinley in 1897 and was re-appointed in 1902 by President Roosevelt, so that he is now filling the position. As a public official he is capable and loyal, his administration being characterized by business-like manner, and the patrons of the office have for him high words of commendation. In politics he has ever been a stanch Republican, having firm faith in the principles of the party.

In 1869 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Lynch and Miss Ada Starr, and to them have been born five children: Fred J., Alva, Daniel, Benjamin L. and Ruby. Mr. Lynch is a member of Burnham Post No. 256, at Lowell, in which he has filled some of the offices. He is likewise a member of Colfax Lodge No. 356, F. & A. M. Mr. Lynch is a self-made man, who without extraordinary family or pecuniary advantages at the commencement of life has labored earnestly and energetically and by indomitable courage and integrity has achieved both character and a fair measure of success By sheer force of will and untiring effort he has worked his way upward and is numbered among the respected and leading citizens of Lowell.


H. F. C. MILLER, M. D.

Dr. Miller, who recently passed away, was a native of New York city, born on the 15th of September, 1850. His father, Augustus Miller, was born in Westchester county, New York, and was a son of Daniel Miller, whose birth occurred in the eastern part of this country. The family is of German lineage and was established in America in colonial days. Augustus Miller was reared in the county of his nativity. He was reared by a carriage manufacturer of Bedford and he spent his entire life in Westchester county, residing upon a farm until called to his final rest at the age of sixty-four years. He married Miss Emily Baker, a native of Connecticut, or of New York. She is still living in the Empire state at the advanced age of eighty-five years, and she is of Scotch descent. By her marriage she became the mother of seven children, all of whom have passed away with the exception of one daughter and Horace B. Miller, of New York.

Dr. Miller, the fourth child of the family, was reared in New York, while his education was acquired in the public schools and in the academy at Bedford, that state. At the age of sixteen years he started out to make his own way in the world and secured a clerkship in the wholesale and retail jewelry store of Brown, Spalding & Company, of New York city. There he remained for about four years and was afterward for two years with the firm of Scoville, Gray & Company, also jewelry merchants of that city. Desiring, however, to leave mercantile circles and enter professional life, he took up the study of medicine, and from 1872 until 1877 was a student in Rush Medical College of Chicago, being graduated in the latter year. Most of the money needed to pay his college expenses was earned by him, and he certainly deserved great credit for thus acquiring his education as well as for the success which he gained since his graduation.

Dr. Miller located for practice at Salem Crossing in LaPorte county, Indiana, where he remained for about two years, and then came to Hobart in 1879. Here he was in active practice until 1890, when he removed to Chicago, where he remained for five years, but in 1895 returned to Hobart. He enjoyed a large and growing patronage.

In July, 1874, Dr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Deetta Van Horn, who was born in Herkimer county, New York, and in childhood came to Indiana, where she was reared and educated. It was in 1857 that her parents, Jake and Elizabeth (Brown) Van Horn, came to this state. Mr. and Mrs. Miller had two sons and two daughters, Spencer A.; Jennie D., who is the wife of Ed Tibbits, of Urbana, Illinois; Hosea Mortimer; and Julia E., at home. They also lost one daughter, Emily E.

Dr. Miller was an exemplary member of the Masonic fraternity and at one time took a very active part in other fraternal organizations, but the demands of his practice left him little time for such work. He was a Democrat in his political views. He had a large patronage, which extended to Valparaiso, South Chicago and even to the city of Chicago. The resolution which he showed in acquiring an education was proof of the elemental strength of his character, and his latent resources and powers were developed as the years passed until he stood as one of the strongest representatives of his profession.


JOHN A. KIMMET.

One of the most prominent and energetic business men of Lowell and Lake county is John A. Kimmet, the vice president of the State National Bank at Lowell, a director of the First National Bank at Dyer, and a dealer in grain, lumber and building materials. His business career has been characterized by consecutive advancement along modern lines of progress, and his ready recognition and utilization of opportunity have formed the basis of his present success. His activity touches so many lines of business that he has become a most important factor in commercial and financial circles, and while promoting his individual success he has at the same time contributed to the general prosperity. He is a self-made man, and one who deserves great credit for what he has accomplished, since he started out in life empty-handed, but, brooking no obstacles that could be overcome by determined purpose and honorable effort, has steadily worked his way upward.

Mr. Kimmet was born in a log stable in Seneca county, Ohio, on the 25th of April, 1856. His father, Jacob Kimmet, was born in Bavaria, Germany, near the river Rhine. After establishing his home in Seneca county, Ohio, he became prominent and influential there, and although he was in very limited financial circumstances during the period of his early residence in that portion of the Buckeye state, he improved his opportunities and through earnest labor won a comfortable competence. His ability and loyalty to the general good made him a recognized leader in public affairs, and one who aided in shaping public thought and action. In political circles he was particularly influential, and he delivered campaign addresses throughout the state in connection with Charles Foster. He also held local positions in Seneca county. His wife bore the maiden name of Catherine Scheiber, and was born in France. She came to America when six years of age, and was reared among the Indians who lived in Seneca county, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Scheiber, the maternal grandparents of Mr. Kimmet, lived for the first six months of their residence in this country in a house built with only four posts, and later used to shelter cattle. Mrs. Catherine Kimmet made all the clothes for her children from raw wool, which she spun and wove, and from the cloth she manufactured coats, pants and even hats and caps. Like her husband, she bravely met the conditions of pioneer life, but as the years advanced all the comforts of civilization were introduced and the family were enabled to enjoy better privileges and come into possession of many of the luxuries of life. Mr. John A. Kimmet has eight living brothers, all of whom voted for William McKinley as the presidential candidate of the Republican party. Seven of the number are residents of Ohio, and one, George Kimmet, is now a merchant of Lowell, Indiana. The only sister, Tillie, is the wife of Anthony Deponet, of Seneca county, Ohio.

John A. Kimmet was but seven years of age when his father removed from the log stable in which the son had been born into a house built after more modern plans. His early education was acquired in the common schools, but afterwards, he enjoyed excellent school privileges, attending Heidelberg College at Tiffin, Ohio; St. Vincent College in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania; and St. Francis College near Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It was his intention to prepare for the ministry of the Catholic church, and he studied Latin, English and German, devoting five years to the mastery of the first named language. When but sixteen years of age he began teaching, and followed that profession for five years in Ohio. He was also principal of the Dyer school in Lake county, Indiana, for three years. In the meantime he abandoned his intention of becoming a member of the priesthood, and on the 10th of July, 1881, he removed to Lowell, where he has since been an active business man. He assisted in building the elevator here, and is now well known as a grain merchant at this place. He was the business manager for the Du Breuil and Keilman firm from 1881 to 1892. When the senior partner of that firm died Mr. Kimmet purchased a half interest in the firm, which is now conducted under the firm style of L. Keilman & Company, the partners being L. Keilman and John A. Kimmet. Mr. Kimmet also owns a farm of twenty acres, on which he resides and which is located within the city limits of Lowell.

In 1893 he became a director of the State Bank of Lowell, and later, upon the consolidation of the State Bank with the First National Bank, the name of State National Bank was chosen. Upon the death of A. A. Gerish, vice president, Mr. Kimmet was appointed vice president, and holds said position now. He is also a director of the First National Bank at Dyer, is engaged in the milling business, and is dealing in grain, lumber and building materials. His business interests have assumed extensive and profitable proportions, and his activity has reached out to many lines of trade that affect general progress.

On the 24th of June, 1880, occurred the marriage of Mr. Kimmet and Miss Maggie Keilman, a daughter of Leonard and Magdalena (Austgen) Keilman. Mrs. Kimmet was born and reared at Dyer, and by her marriage has become the mother of eleven children, seven of whom are yet living: M. Tillie, M. Lena, Rose, Charles F., Ida V., Celia M. and Hilda. Those who have passed away are Elizabeth, Rose, Leonard, and one that died in infancy.

Mr. Kimmet is a gold Democrat, and cast his ballot for William McKinley in order that he might support the gold standard, the money question being at that time the paramount issue before the people. He is a member of the Catholic church, and was active in the building of the house of worship at Lowell in 1897, contributing more largely to this undertaking than any other resident of the community. In public affairs he is very prominent, and his aid and co-operation might be counted upon for all measures that have for their object the public welfare and general advancement. He is now treasurer of the Three Creek Monument Association, a monument being erected at Lowell in memory of the soldiers of the three townships of West Creek, Eagle Creek and Cedar Creek. He is also a trustee of the high school at Lowell. He possesses untiring energy, is quick of perception, forms his plans readily and is determined in their execution. His close application to business and his excellent management have brought to him the high degree of prosperity which is today his, but while he has gained wealth it has not been alone the goal for which he is striving, for he belongs to that class of representative American citizens who promote the general prosperity while advancing individual interests.



NICKOLAS SCHAFER.

Nickolas Schafer, of West Creek township, is a leading and prosperous farmer of this section of Lake county. He is of German birth and parentage, although he has spent all the years of his life since early boyhood in this country. It is to the lasting credit of the sterling ability and worth of the German-American citizens that such beautiful agricultural sections as that comprised in West Creek township have been largely developed and brought to their present value and richness through the painstaking efforts and intelligent direction of men of this nationality, among whom Mr. Schafer is one of the most influential and progressive.

His birthplace was along the beautiful and historic Rhine river, at the village of Alflen, in Prussia, where he first saw the light of day on January 12, 1846. He was the second in age of a family of ten children, six sons and four daughters, and he and his brother Edward are the only survivors, the latter being a resident of Chicago and an engineer on a lake steamer. His parents were Jacob and Anna Mary (Schoenerock) Schafer. His father was born in the same part of Germany, June 13, 1817, and died July 23, 1880. He was educated in Germany and reared to agricultural pursuits, and about 1855 embarked his family and sailed down the Rhine to the North sea, thence to London, where he set out for the new world in a sailing vessel which was seven weeks before reaching the port of New York. Storms and heavy seas beset the ship, and the passengers were compelled to cook their own meals and endure many other hardships before blessed land finally hove in sight, many times it seeming as if the craft would go to the bottom. From New York city the family went to Springfield Hollow, in New York, and remained there a year and a half, and thence made the once more stormy and perilous voyage by the great lakes to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This German family landed in the new world with only two dollars in cash, and a friend afforded them free transportation to the village of Springfield Hollow. From this state of poverty of material resources, when they were in a strange country and unable to speak the English tongue, handicapped in countless ways, their honest industry and persevering labors effected, in the end, a substantial and honorable place in the world's activity. The father Jacob got work in the erection of the custom house at Milwaukee, at a dollar and twelve cents a day, and was thus employed for three years. He then moved to Dodge county, Wisconsin, near Beaver Dam, and purchased forty acres of land and engaged in farming and stock-raising. He finally sold this and came to Chicago, where he was in the lumber yards for a year, and then arrived in West Creek township of Lake county. Here he purchased one hundred acres of land, going in debt nine hundred dollars for it, and by industry and good management paid off the entire indebtedness and resided on this good home until his death. He was entirely independent in political sentiments, and he and his wife were Catholics and members of the St. Martin's church at Hanover Center. His wife was also born near the river Rhine, August 1, 1821, and she died December 13, 1898. She was a kind and good mother, and a good disciplinarian in her home.

Mr. Schafer was nine years old when the eventful journey was made to this country, and he was educated mainly in the English tongue, although he can read the German text. His life has been throughout devoted to farming pursuits, and he was no more than twelve years old when he began adding his share of labor to the family establishment, and he remained with his parents until he was grown to manhood. At the age of twelve he began working for wages, four dollars and a quarter per month, and the first cow and the first pair of steers owned by the family were purchased from his wages. With the exception of one year in Chicago he has spent all his active life on the farm.

October 9, 1883, he was married to Miss Mary Massoth, and it is to their combined industry and management that their success has been mainly due. They have been the parents of nine children, and happily the family circle has never been broken by the hand of death. The children are as follows: John Adam, who is in the eighth grade and already a practical farmer; Henry, who is in the seventh grade; Cecelia M., who has passed the eighth grade; Katrina, in the seventh grade; and Ida E., John J., Marie, Marguerite and Frank Nicholas. The first three children have been confirmed, the two sons by Bishop Radamacher, and Cecelia by Bishop Allerding, of the North Bishopric of Indiana.

Mrs. Schafer was born in Hanover township, Lake county, May 5, 1863, and is the second and the only survivor of the three children, all daughters, born to Adam and Johanna (Hack) Massoth. Her father was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, September 8, 1833, and died September 2, 1899. He came to America when a young man, and with his mother purchased forty acres of land just north of pretty Cedar Lake in Lake county. He was a Democrat in politics, and he and his wife Catholics. Mrs. Schafer's mother was a native of St. John township in this county, and was the first white child born in the township. She was educated in the German language. Mrs. Schafer was born and reared in this county, and was confirmed at the age of thirteen by Bishop Twenger of St. Martin's.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Schafer began life on the farm where they still reside. Their first estate consisted of one hundred and twenty-nine acres, and most of the improvements have been placed there by their own efforts. Their home is a large and comfortable country residence, and their farm, now comprising two hundred and forty-four acres in Center, Hanover and West Creek townships, is among the best land in the county. And they have especial reason to be proud that there is not a dollar against the entire estate.

Mr. Schafer is, like his father, entirely independent as to politics, and casts his vote according to his best judgment and where he thinks it will do the most good. He and his wife are members of St. Martin's church, and Mrs. Schafer is a member of the Rosary sodality and Cecelia a member of the young ladies' sodality.


CHARLEY T. BAILEY.

Industry and enterprise coupled with a disposition of sagacity culminate in the successful man of the day. The truth of this aphorism is especially manifest in the case of Charley T. Bailey, who comes from one of the most prominent families in the west part of Lake county. He is a native of Illinois, was born in Kankakee county, April 12, 1862, being the second of a family of four children, three sons and one daughter, the oldest of whom is Levi E., the county treasurer of Lake county, who is represented elsewhere in this volume; the daughter Grace is the wife of Fred T. Buse, a prosperous agriculturist of West Creek township (see their sketch) ; and George, another leading farmer of West Creek township. The father of this family is biographed in full on another page, and mother Bailey is deceased.

Mr. Charley T. Bailey was an infant when he became a resident of Lake county, and consequently he has been reared in this county. He is a practical agriculturist and stock farmer, and in the latter department of his business has gained more than ordinary reputation. He makes a specialty of Hereford cattle and coach horses. He has one of the finest Hereford bulls to be found in northern Indiana, having purchased it from the well known stockman, Tom Clarke, of Beecher, Illinois. He is making a great success in the breeding of this fine stock, and his long experience of sixteen years has given him a big leverage for causing a happy culmination of all his enterprises. He has devoted much time and money to raising the grade of cattle to a high standard in this county. He has also bred coach horses for a number of years.

Mr. Bailey is what may be termed a self-made man, having in a scholastic sense received only a common school education and one term in high school. He remained at home till the age of twenty-six, when he married for his first wife Miss Tillie E. Grimes, on April 23, 1888. Four children, two sons and two daughters, were born of this union, and all are living. The eldest is May, who graduated from the eighth grade as salutatorian of her class and has also taken instrumental music; Ray is in the seventh grade of school: and Earl and Hilda are both at the sixth grade in their school work. All the children are bright and progressing rapidly in their preparation for life's larger duties. Mrs. Bailey, the mother of this family, died on January 3, 1897. On September 4, 1899, Mr. Bailey was united in marriage to Miss Esther Starkweather, who was born in Michigan and was reared and educated in that state, graduating from the Romeo schools. She is a woman of more than ordinary business ability and acumen, and has been able to assist her husband in many ways.

After his first marriage Mr. Bailey located on one hundred and forty-acres in section 7 of West Creek township, and he has made his home here ever since, although his first tract of land was but the nucleus of his present fine large estate. He has erected a modern country residence and excellent barns and outbuildings, and now owns four hundred and fifty-three acres of land in this township. His farm is known as the Lanthus stock farm, which name was given by the government when it established the postoffice which at one time existed on this farm. Mr. Bailey is classed among the young and successful and progressive farmers of this township, and coming from such a prominent family as the Baileys are in Lake county it is a pleasure to be able to record his biography in this handsome work.

Mr. Bailey is a stanch Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for James G. Blaine, the "plumed knight." He has ever since strenuously upheld the banner of Republicanism during each administration. He has been chosen as a delegate to the county and district conventions, but as to office-seeking has never had any aspirations at all. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey attend the West Creek Methodist Episcopal church, and contribute their share of the benevolences. Their beautiful estate lies entirely in West Creek township, and they stand high in the estimation of all who know them. Mr. Bailey has traveled quite extensively in the Mississippi valley and also in the east, and is a well informed man both as to his business and concerning the outside world and its important happenings.


LEWIS G. LITTLE.

Among the many names known for integrity of character and honesty of purpose in West Creek township of Lake county we find that of Little to hold no inconspicuous place, and it is with modest courtesy that we present a review of Mr. Lewis G. Little, a scion of this well known family. He is a product of this locality of Lake county and was born February 21, 1861, being the eldest of the seven children, three sons and four daughters, born to Joseph A. and Mary (Gerrish) Little. Six of the children are still living, and in order of birth from Lewis they are: James H., who is a prosperous agriculturist and stockman of West Creek township, and whose personal sketch will be found in this work; Ellen, who is now the wife of- the Rev. John C. Wilson, minister of the Presbyterian church at Willow City, North Dakota, by whom she has three children, was formerly a successful teacher in the schools of Lake county, and was educated at the Oxford Female Seminary at Oxford, Ohio; Jesse, a prosperous farmer of West Creek township, resides on the old homestead with his mother, and his history will also be found elsewhere in this volume; Myra is the wife of Solomon Spry, of West Creek township; M. Emma, wife of Claire Landis, a resident of Montreal, Canada, and a mechanical draftsman for the Northern Pacific Railroad, has one son, Chester G. by name.

The father of this family was born in the Granite state of New Hampshire in 1830, and died February 19, 1892. By occupation he was a farmer. He was reared in his native state, and about 1856 he migrated to Lake county, Indiana, where he purchased some two hundred and forty acres of land in West Creek township. He traced his lineage to the English, and some of his ancestors figured as soldiers in the Revolutionary war. There was a Benjamin Little who bore arms against the British and who himself weighed by ninety-six pounds and carried an old flint-lock or Queen Ann's gun that itself weighed twelve pounds. The Little family are of most honorable birth and lineage. Joseph A. Little, the father, was an old-line Whig in politics, but at the birth of the Republican party he ardently espoused its political and moral principles, and continued so until his death. He represented his district most worthily in the Indiana state legislature in 1886 and 1887. While residents of the east he and his good wife were members of the Congregational church, but in West Creek township they became members and devoted adherents of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church. His wife was also a native of New Hampshire, and is still living.

Mr. Lewis G. Little was reared in his native county, and after finishing the common schools he took a course of study at Wabash College in Crawfordsville. He is a gentleman of modest and unassuming disposition, avoiding aught that savors of display or ostentation. June 12, 1900, he was married to Miss Effie G. Kearney, who was born in Will county, Illinois. She followed the profession of teacher before her marriage. Politically Mr. Little is a Republican, and began his active advocacy of the principles of that party by casting his first presidential vote for James G. Blaine, the Plumed Knight. He and his wife are member of the Lake Prairie Presbyterian church. He and his wife enjoy the comforts of a happy and cosy farm residence, where they meet and welcome their many friends from the community.


JACOB HAYDEN.

Jacob Hayden, a retired farmer and one of the early settlers of Lake county now living in Lowell, was born in Knox county, Ohio, March 11, 1831. His parents were Nehemiah and Harriet (Kitchell) Hayden, both of whom were natives of New Jersey and became pioneer settlers of Knox county, Ohio, where they were married. In March, 1837, they removed to Lake county, Indiana, casting in their lot with its pioneer residents. They settled in West Creek township, where Nehemiah Hayden developed a new farm, continuing the work of improvement and cultivation there until his death, which occurred when he was but fifty-eight years of age. His wife died at the age of forty-two years. In their family were thirteen children, of whom Jacob Hayden was the sixth in order of birth, and he was but six years of age at the time of the removal to Lake county.

In a log schoolhouse near his father's home Jacob Hayden pursued his education. His training at farm labor was not as meager as his school privileges, for at an early age he began to assist in the cultivation and development of the home farm and continued to follow agricultural pursuits for many years. He was married December 10, 1854, to Miss Sarah M. Knisely, a daughter of Edwin and Barbara (Baughman) Knisely, both of whom were natives of Tuscarawas county, Ohio, where they were reared and married. They came to Lake county in 1837, and the father, who was born in 1814, passed away in 1886 when about seventy-two years of age. The mother, who was born in October, 1819, is still living, having reached the very venerable age of eighty-five years. In their family were eleven children, of whom Mrs. Hayden is the eldest, and she was a maiden of fourteen summers when she came to Lake county. Her birth occurred in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, August 7. 1837.

At the time of their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Hayden began their domestic life in West Creek township, where he was engaged in farming, and there they lived for more than forty-four years. He devoted his energies to the improvement and cultivation of his fields and annually gathered rich harvests as a reward for his labors. He now owns one hundred and sixty acres of land, but at one time the old family homestead comprised more than four hundred acres, but he has been very generous with his children, dividing his landed possessions with them. He was in very limited circumstances when he started out in life on his own account, possessing only two steers. In the early days he hauled wheat to Chicago with an ox team, and sold the grain for thirty-five cents per bushel. He went through all the hardships and experiences of pioneer life, and carried on farming at a time when much of the work was done by hand, before the introduction of the modern machinery which is to-day in use and has rendered labor much less difficult than it was in former years. He is now living retired in the enjoyment of a well earned rest, his capital having been acquired entirely through his own labors.

To Mr. and Mrs. Hayden have been born nine children: Elmer, Leroy, Alice. Fred, Bertha, Martha. George, Jessie and Grace. George and Grace are now deceased, and the others are all married. One son now lives in Bloomington, Indiana, one daughter in Billings, Montana, while the others are residents of West Creek township, Lake county, and with the exception of the eldest son, who was born in Illinois, all are natives of Lake county, Indiana. Mr. Hayden has given his political allegiance to the Republican party since its organization, and prior to that time he was a Whig. He voted for Fremont in 1856 and for Lincoln in 1860 and 1864, and since that time he has supported each presidential candidate of the party. At one time he served as assessor of West Creek township, but has never sought or desired political preferment. On the contrary, he has felt that his business affairs claimed his entire time and attention, and in the careful conduct of his agricultural interests he has won the prosperity that now enables him to live a retired life.


ELDON N. HAYHURST.

Eldon N. Hayhurst is representative of the best interests of western Lake county, whether in industrial, social, intellectual or moral affairs. Emerson has said that the true history of a nation is best told in the lives of its progressive citizens, and in presenting the biographies of the foremost men of this county there is necessarily and at the same time a recording of the most authentic annals of Lake county's history.

Mr. Hayhurst was born May 16, 1867, in Momence township, Kankakee county, Illinois, being the fourth in a family of six children, four sons and two daughters, born to Benjamin Perry and Juliet (Farrington) Hayhurst. There are four of his brothers and sisters still living: Isadora is the wife of Hubert C. Libheart, of Woodstock, Illinois; Alvin is a barber of Chicago; Ellsworth is a barber in Kankakee, Illinois, and is married; Alletha is the wife of John Hart, a carriage-maker of Connersville, Indiana.

Mr. Hayhurst's father was born in Yellowhead township, Kankakee county, Illinois, in December, 1838, and died in March, 1883, being of English lineage. He was reared to farm pursuits and was educated in the public schools. He enlisted as a Union soldier in Company K, Seventy-sixth Illinois Infantry, and was at the siege of Vicksburg and with Sherman on the march to the sea. He served as a boy in blue for two years, and then received an honorable discharge. He was a Republican in politics. His wife survives him and is a resident of Attica, Indiana, being sixty years of age.

Mr. Eldon N. Hayhurst lived the first seventeen years of his life in Illinois, and received his education in the common schools. He has depended on his own energy and resources for success in life, and is truly a self-made man. At the age of sixteen he hired out for a wage of sixteen dollars a month, and when he began life on his own account at the age of majority he had a small capital.

On December 22, 1886, he was married to Miss Lizzie Hayden, and five children have been born to them, all but one living at the present time. Lyrrel, the eldest, received her diploma from the schools in 1902, and has also taken a year of high school work, being especially fond of the sciences; she has taken about five years of piano instruction and is a lover of music and accomplished in the art beyond the average of young ladies. Kitchell, who is in the eighth grade of school, has also taken some music instruction. Eleanor is in the third grade, and the youngest of the family is Ruby. Mrs. Hayhurst was born December 30, 1866, in Kankakee county, and is a daughter of John and Rachel (Dodge) Hayden, whose histories are told on other pages of this volume. The Hayden family is one of the oldest and most progressive in Lake county, and its various members have taken a prominent part in developing its resources. The lineage of the family is English. Mrs. Hayhurst was reared in her native county until her marriage.
Mr. and Mrs. Hayhurst began domestic life as tenant farmers on eighty acres of land in West Creek township, and continued as renters until 1896. They then purchased one hundred and thirty-three acres of good land with modern improvements, and as they were continually prospered in their endeavors, in 1901 they bought eighty acres just east of their original estate. On April 7, 1904, they purchased one hundred and sixty acres in Hand county, South Dakota, near Wessington, and they now have fine property holdings and are in comfortable circumstances as a reward of past industry and effective management. Mr. Hayhurst takes much pride in his Percheron horses, and raises only good grades of live-stock. He is a Republican in politics, and his active participation in public affairs as a voter began with the campaign of Benjamin Harrison. He has served as a delegate to the county conventions at various times. Fraternally he affiliates with Lodge No. 300 of the Knights of Pythias at Lowell, and the choice of himself and wife as to churches has favored the Christian denomination.


ALBERT L. HAYDEN.

The student of history does not have to carry his investigations far into the annals of this section of the country without learning of the important part which the Hayden family have played in the agricultural development and progress of western Indiana and eastern Illinois. Mr. Hayden of this review was for many years closely identified with agricultural interests, and is now enjoying a well earned rest in Lowell. He was born in Kankakee county, Illinois, about seven rods from the boundary line of Lake county, Indiana, on the 1st of March, 1849. His father, Daniel Hayden, was a native of Knox county, Ohio, and was the eldest son in a family of thirteen children. He came to Lake county in 1837, locating in West Creek township near the state boundary line. Soon afterward, however, he crossed the boundary line into Kankakee county, Illinois, but he ever maintained his association with the public interests and with the people of Lake county. His death occurred when he was sixty-nine years of age. In early manhood he married Louisa Hill, a native of Connecticut and who lived to be sixty-five years of age. They were the parents of thirteen children, all of whom reached adult age and are still living. All are married and most of the number reside in Lake county.

Albert L. Hayden, the second child and eldest son, was but twelve years of age when his father built a home in West Creek township, Lake county, just across the border line from Illinois. He was reared in that township and began his education in a log schoolhouse, where he mastered the elementary branches of English learning. He attended school only through the winter months, while in the summer seasons his time and energies were devoted to farm work. He remained at home until he had attained his majority, assisting in the development of his father's farm and thus gaining the practical knowledge and experience which enabled him to successfully carry on agricultural pursuits in later years.

On the 26th of January, 1872, Mr. Hayden was united in marriage to Miss Julia Clement, a daughter of H. V. and Lydia (DeWitt) Clement, who became pioneer residents of Lake county and were here married. Mrs. Hayden was born in Fulton county, Ohio, and was only about a year old when brought to Lake county, her girlhood days being passed in Cedar Creek township. She attended the common schools and was also trained in the work of the household so that she was well qualified to take up the cares of her own home at the time of her marriage. By this union have been born three children: Amenzo, who is a resident farmer of Lake county; Albert D., who follows agricultural pursuits in West Creek township; and Lydia, at home.

At the time of his marriage Albert L. Hayden located on a farm in West Creek township, where he remained for three years, at the end of which time he removed to Cass county, Iowa, where he spent about seven years. He then again took up his abode in West Creek township, where he carried on general farming until 1902, since which time he has lived retired. He owns, however, a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, which is well improved and is equipped with all modern conveniences. The improvements upon this property he made himself, and the farm is, therefore, a monument to his capable management, unflagging energy and business capacity. No one need remain in doubt as to his political views, for he is fearless and out-spoken in his advocacy of the principles of the Republican party, believing that its platform contains the best elements of good government. He is now enjoying a well earned rest at his pleasant home in Lowell, having won the competence that enables him to live retired.


WILLIAM BUCKLEY.

William Buckley, who was formerly identified with agricultural interests in Lake county, but has put aside business cares and is now resting in the enjoyment of the fruits of his former toil at his pleasant home in Lowell, is numbered among the worthy citizens that Ireland has furnished to Indiana. He was born in county Cork, Ireland, in 1831. His father, Dennis Buckley, was also a native of that county, and in the green isle of Erin carried on agricultural pursuits, making his home there until 1849, when he came to Lake county, Indiana. He settled in Cedar Creek township, about a half mile from the present site of Lowell, but he was not long permitted to enjoy his new home, his death occurring in 1851. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Catherine Fleming, was born in county Cork, Ireland, and died in Lake county, Indiana, in 1858. Their family numbered five children, four sons and a daughter, and William Buckley is the eldest. John is a resident of Lowell; and Patrick makes his home in Cedar Creek township, where he follows agricultural pursuits. The sister, Julia, is the wife of Patrick Feley, a leading farmer of Cedar Creek township. She is the only sister of Mr. Buckley.

The first eighteen years of his life William Buckley passed in Ireland, and then came to America, hoping that he might have better business opportunities in the new world. He made his way direct to Lake county, where he began working by the month as a farm hand, and following any employment that would yield him an honest living. He assisted in building the first brick house in Lowell and for some time worked for Mr. Halsted, the founder of the town. He was employed by the month for about five years, and then began buying small tracts of land. He soon located on one of these and improved the place. In partnership with his brothers, John and Patrick, he carried on agricultural pursuits for several years. He afterward engaged in farming alone until about seven years ago, when he retired from active connection with agricultural pursuits and took up his abode in Lowell. His progress has been consecutive and enviable. He has worked on year after year, and as his financial resources have increased he has become the owner of valuable realty holdings. Today he owns four hundred acres of good farming land in Lake county, all of which has been accumulated through his capable management.

Mr. Buckley has been twice married. He first wedded Miss Elizabeth Darst, who died leaving nine children, namely: Kate, Franklin D., Dennis P., Addie, Julia M., John P., Joseph L., Fred W. and Raymond. John P. is a finely educated man. He graduated at Valparaiso College, and is a professor of chemistry in a college in Chicago. He received his education by his own ambition. On the 3d of June, 1901, Mr. Buckley was again married, his second union being with a Mrs. Louisa Comeford, who was born in Vermilion county, Illinois, June 11, 1851, but was reared in Dwight, Illinois. She is a daughter of Reuben and Lovina (Kuntz) Comeford, both of whom are now deceased. Mrs. Buckley is the mother of nine children by a former marriage: John F., Fred W., Mary A., Thomas P., Daniel A., Joseph E., Rosa E., Ella L. and Lizzie L. Comeford.

Mr. Buckley is a member of the Catholic church and in politics is a Democrat, where state and national issues are involved, but at local elections he votes independently. He has never had occasion to regret his determination to seek a home in the new world. He found the opportunities he sought, which, by the way, are always open to the ambitious, energetic man, and, making the best of these, he has steadily worked his way upward. He possessed the resolution, perseverance and reliability so characteristic of people of his nation, and his name is now enrolled among the best citizens of Lake county.


LEWIS HAYDEN.

Lewis Hayden is numbered among the early settlers of Lake county and is a retired farmer now living in Lowell. In fact, he is one of the native sons of this portion of the state, his birth having occurred in West Creek township, March 12, 1838. He is the eleventh of a family of thirteen children whose parents were Nehemiah and Harriet (Kitchell) Hayden, mention of whom is made on another page of this work in connection with the sketch of Jacob Hayden. Amid the wild scenes of frontier life Lewis Hayden was reared upon the old family homestead in West Creek township. The settlements in northwestern Indiana were then widely scattered, and much of the land was still unimproved. Crude farm machinery was used in developing the fields, for the era of modern invention had not yet dawned resulting in the production of the modern agricultural implements that are to-day in use. Lewis Hayden performed his full share of the work on the home farm, clearing the fields, planting the seed and harvesting the crops. He hauled wheat to Chicago with ox teams before there was any railroad, and he remained upon the home farm until the death of his father, when he started out in life on his own account. His educational privileges were such as were afforded in a log schoolhouse of that period.
Mr. Hayden was united in marriage to Miss Lucinda Knisely, and to them were born two sons and a daughter, Sherman, Grant and Addie, but the last named is now deceased. The mother passed away January 5, 1867. and Mr. Hayden afterward wedded Almeda Knisely, a sister of his first wife. She was born in New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, October 16, 1846, and by her marriage she became the mother of ten children: Judson; Edward; Sylvia; Albert and Alma twins: and Carrie, Mark, Bruce, Rubie and Blanche, all of whom are now deceased. All were born in West Creek township and the living children are all married with the exception of Albert.

Mr. Hayden has spent his entire life in Lake county and during the greater part of the time has engaged in farming. He now owns two valuable farms comprising rich and productive land, one of which is two hundred and seventy-two acres in extent and the other one hundred and twenty acres. This land he rents, and it brings to him a good annual income. He himself was actively engaged in farming until 1899, when he retired from business life and removed to Lowell. He had been very successful as an agriculturist, had placed his fields under a high state of cultivation, and had annually garnered rich crops which found a ready sale on the market. He improved his farm by building fences and erecting a large modern residence, substantial barns and other outbuildings: in fact he added all modern equipments and accessories to his place and his property is now very valuable. His political allegiance has ever been given to the Republican party, and upon that ticket he has been chosen for a number of local positions. He belongs to a family of nine brothers, who have contributed in large measure toward the improvement and progress of the southwestern part of Lake county. They own adjoining farming property in West Creek township, and contribute in large measure to the agricultural interests of this portion of the state. They always favor general progress and improvement touching the interests of society at large, and Mr. Hayden has given his hearty co-operation to many movements that have been of direct benefit to this portion of the state.


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