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BIOGRAPHIES OF NOTABLE RESIDENTS OF LAKE COUNTY, INDIANA
From the "Encyclopedia of Genealogy and Biography of Lake County, Indiana" from 1834-1904

Submitted by K. Torp and B. Ziegenmeyer


OTTO C BORMAN.

Otto C. Borman, active and energetic in business affairs, has until recently been engaged in general merchandising and in milling at Tolleston. He is a young man who possesses the enterprising spirit of the age, his birth having occurred in Tolleston on March 3, 1877. He is the fourth son of Christopher and Wilhelmina (Kurth) Borman, who were early residents of Lake county, coming here when this was largely a frontier district Otto C. Borman is indebted to the public school system for the educational advantages which he enjoyed, and he entered business life as a clerk in his father's store when a mere boy. He afterward went to Chicago, where he worked for one year, and spent a similar period in Hammond. In 1898 he was united in marriage to Mrs. H. F. Seegers, the widow of the late Henry F. Seegers, who was at that time engaged in business in Tolleston. Mr. Borman then conducted the business and developed this enterprise to good proportions, a large line of general merchandise being carried and a liberal patronage won through honorable methods and straightforward dealing. Mr. Borman was also engaged in conducting a flour and feed store, and was the leading real estate man of the town.

To Mr. and Mrs. Borman has been born a daughter, Caroline, and there are three children by Mrs. Borman's former marriage, Laura, Renata and Hertha. In his political views Mr. Borman is a Democrat and is deeply interested in the success and growth of his party. He belongs to the German Lutheran church, and does everything in his power to promote general progress and improvement along material, social, intellectual and moral lines. He has an intimate knowledge of the history of the county for a quarter of a century or during the entire period of his life, and he is widely and favorably known in Tolleston and the surrounding districts.


FRED T. BUSE

Energy and enterprise coupled with sagacity have made the successful business man Fred T. Buse and brought him to prominent rank among the citizens of Lake county as well as in the other places where his life of activity has been passed. He is now classed among the progressive and prosperous agriculturists of West Creek township, and stands high in the estimation of all who know him.

He is a native of Dubuque, Iowa, where he was born September 13. 1863, being the fifth in a family of seven children, five sons and two daughters, born to Christian and Hannah (Ponta) Buse. Five of these children are yet living: William, who is connected with the commercial activity of Dubuque, and is a man of family; Sena, wife of Henry Ehlers, who is connected with the police force in Washington, D. C.; Charles, a salesman in a hardware establishment at Dubuque, and also married; Fred T.; and Ida K.. wife of Robert Knoll, a machinist of Dubuque. The father and mother of this family were natives of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, and the former was born May 9, 1826, and died July 4, 1900. He learned the trade of mechanic, and remained in his fatherland until he was a grown man. He served for four years in the German army. He came across the Atlantic in a sailing vessel, and from New York went to Cleveland, and thence to Louisville, Kentucky, and then followed the Mississippi as far north as Dubuque, where he permanently established himself. He was a stanch Republican, and he and his wife were members of the German Lutheran church. His wife, Mrs. Hannah Buse, was born April 11, 1827, and at the age of seventy-seven enjoys fine health.

Mr. Fred T. Buse spent the early years of his life in Dubuque, and received his education in the city schools. At the age of sixteen he began his career by working for wages, and from a beginning without any money capital nor with any subsequent material assistance, he has attained by his own efforts an honorable and comfortable position in the world of affairs. He was in Dubuque until 1886, and then for two years he was employed as a brakeman on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, his run being from Savannah, Illinois, to La Crosse, Wisconsin. He was next a baggage master and express messenger for the same road until 1893, running from McGregor, Iowa, to La Crosse. Then for a year he was baggage master from Savannah to La Crosse. and during 1894 he weighed United States mail on the Milwaukee & St. Paul road from McGregor to Chicago. He was then on a way-freight of the same road during a part of 1895-96.

October 2, 1895, he married Mrs. Grace M. (Bailey) Barhite. They have one son, Elliott E., born in Dubuque, October 20, 1896, and who is now in the second grade of school. Mrs. Buse was born June 5, 1867, being a daughter of Josiah B. and Nancy E. (Kile) Bailey - one of the oldest and most prominent families of Lake county and whose history appears on other pages of this work. Mrs. Buse was educated in the common schools of this county, and on December 21, 1887, was married to Adelbert Barhite, from which union there was one son, Ceylon A., who was born October 18, 1888, and who recently graduated from the graded school of the township and in 1904 entered the Lowell high school.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Buse were located in Dubuque for a time, and he was then engaged in the manufacture of harness at West Salem, Wisconsin, in the firm of Wakefield & Buse. He was also interested in the La Crosse Leather Company, and for a time was on the road for that concern, his territory being South Dakota, southern Minnesota and central Wisconsin. After about a year in this latter business he sold out his interests, and he and his wife then came to Lake county and located on the old Bailey homestead in West Creek township. This place is known as the Hickory Grove farm, and contains two hundred and eighty acres of as fine soil as can be found in Lake county. Not only the entire farmstead is a beautiful and profitable estate, but the home is one of comfort and cheer such as is not met with at every turn of the road. Mr. Buse is devoting much of his time and attention to the raising of Hereford cattle. He is an enthusiastic and progressive agriculturist in the true sense of the word, and is interested not only in making his farm a source of profit but in causing it to be a property of beauty such as he or anyone might take pride to call his own. He has recently built a fine modern granary, forty by thirty-six feet, and twenty feet high, with concrete walls and floor, and also in the same style of construction is his tool shed, sixteen by forty feet.

Mr. Buse is a stanch Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for James G. Blaine. He fraternizes with Lodge No. 300 of the Knights of Pythias at Lowell.


JOSIAH B. BAILEY.

In the death of Josiah B. Bailey, on November 25, 1902, the community of West Creek township lost one of its most esteemed and worthy citizens, a man of unimpeachable character, of serious mind and worth, and with an influence emanating from his personality that affected not alone his own family and circle of friends but all with whom he came in contact throughout his career.

At the time of his death he was sixty-seven years, one month and two days old. He was born at Door Village, LaPorte county, Indiana, October 23, 1835. When he was a child he lost his father, and then went to make his home with his grandfather in Pulaski county, and some time later he accompanied his grandfather to Lake county and made this his home throughout the rest of his life, with the exception of two years spent in Kankakee county, Illinois.

March 19, 1857, he was married to Miss Nancy E. Kile, who died April 18, 1876. There were four children born of this union, three sons and one daughter, as follows: Levi E., Charles T., George B., and Grace, who is the wife of Mr. Fred T. Buse, whose history is given above. In February, 1877, Mr. Bailey married Mrs. Amelia Sanger, who is still living. Mr. Bailey was also survived by a sister, Mrs. Mary E. Hamilton, of Minneapolis, and by two brothers, S. T. Bailey, of Battle Grounds, Indiana, and O. L. Chapman of Coyville, Kansas.

Mr. Bailey's life was of that sturdy, upright character such as stands as its own justification and is the mark of the career of a good citizen. He had an inquiring and adaptive mind, and his constant desire to progress made him more than ordinarily successful as a farmer. His advice and opinion in matters of practical concern were often sought, and freely given. He was public-spirited in everything that concerned the welfare of his community of West Creek township, and his good citizenship here made him also a valuable unit and factor in the makeup of the state and nation. He served as supervisor of his township for some time, and during that time urged with all his power and official authority the building of gravel roads. He was of a sympathetic nature and was always ready to help those really in need. While not a member of any church, he was free and open-handed in his giving to the cause of Christianity. He was an attendant of the West Creek Methodist church, and the last rites were performed in that church. He was well known in the county and had many friends, and his death meant a personal loss to many outside the family circle that loved him so well.


E. R. BACON, M. D.


E. Reed Bacon

 


Mrs. E.R. Bacon

During the years which marked the period of Dr. Bacon's professional career he has met with gratifying success, and while a resident of Lake county he has won the good will and patronage of many of the best citizens of Lowell and the surrounding districts. He is a thorough student, and endeavors to keep abreast of the times in everything relating to the discoveries in medical science. Progressive in his ideas and favoring modern methods as a whole, he does not, however, dispense with the time-tried systems whose value has stood the test of years. He has a large practice, which is indicative of the trust reposed in his professional skill, and so widely and favorably is he known that no history of the county would be complete without a record of his life.

Dr. Bacon was born in Orleans county, New York, February 22, 1840. His father, Benjamin Bacon, was a native of Washington county, New York, and was a farmer by occupation. He died in the Empire state in his seventy-fifth year. His wife died when the Doctor was only three years of age, and the boy was reared by B. G. Merrick. He pursued a common-school education and started out in life for himself at a very early age. When a young man of twenty-one years he responded to his country's call for troops, enlisting on the 24th of April, 1861, as a member of Company G, Second Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He was a private and with that command served for three months. In 1862 he re-enlisted in the One Hundredth Illinois Volunteer Regiment and served for three years. In 1864 he was transferred to the regular army as hospital steward, and thus continued his connection with the Union troops until the fall of 1865, when he was discharged on a general war order. His clothing was pierced by five bullets at the battle of Chickamauga, but he sustained no personal injury. During the years of his active service he was in many important battles, and never faltered in the performance of duty or in his allegiance to the old flag and the cause it represented.

In May, 1866, Dr. Bacon came to Lowell, and here took up the study and practice of medicine. He had attended lectures at Nashville, Tennessee, during the war and had begun practice on his arrival in Lowell, at the same time continuing his reading in order to perfect his knowledge of the healing art. He is a graduate of the Chicago Medical College of the class of 1873, and has been in constant practice in Lowell for thirty-five years, during which time he has enjoyed a large patronage, and is now an extremely busy man. He is widely known as an industrious and ambitious student, and his professional career has been marked by continuous advancement. He also has other interests in Lake county, being one of the directors of the State National Bank, of Lowell. He likewise owns farm property and real estate in Chicago.

On the 3d of June, 1868, Dr. Bacon was united in marriage to Miss Martha B. Sanger, a daughter of James H. and Martha (Cleveland) Sanger. Mrs. Bacon.was born in Lake county and by her marriage has become the mother of two children: Sylvia L., who is the wife of S. C. Dwyer, an attorney at law of Lowell; and Grace M., the wife of Dr. A. L. Spindler, a dentist of Chicago Heights.

Dr. Bacon is a member of the Knights of Pythias fraternity, the Masonic lodge and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is now one of the trustees of the first named. He has been active and influential in community affairs, was a school director for eleven years and is now president of the pension board, of which he has been a member for thirteen years. His first presidential vote was proudly cast for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, and since that time he has supported each presidential candidate of the Republican party. He belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church, takes a very active and helpful part in its work and has served as one of the church trustees for thirteen years. Dr. Bacon has been the builder of his own character as well as his own fortune. He started out in life for himself at an early age. and is a self-educated as welt as self-made man. In his profession he has gained prominence and success and in private life he has won that warm personal regard which is the evidence of many sterling traits of character.


BERNARD F. CARLIN.

Emerson, the Sage of Concord, has said that the true history of a nation is best told in the lives of its aggressive and progressive citizens, and what is true of a nation is likewise true of the units of a nation, the county and township. Lake county has reason to congratulate herself because of a man of this type who has recently located within the county boundaries, for in Mr. Bernard F. Carlin are found the qualities which make for success personally and collectively and which are beneficial to the general tone and standard of any community. Coming as he does from the great agricultural state of Illinois, Mr. Carlin will be in his proper element as a factor in the rich agricultural enterprises of Lake county, and will make his influence felt not only in a personal way and as a public-spirited citizen but as a power and producer of wealth in the material affairs of the county.

Mr. Carlin was born in Lexington, McLean county, Illinois, May 8, 1869, and is the fifth in a family of eight children, four sons and four daughters, born to Bernard and Bridget (Murray) Carlin. Six of this family are still living: Anna is the wife of P. H. O'Neill, a wealthy stockman of Faulkton, South Dakota, and they have five children; Patrick J. is in the real estate and insurance business at Kankakee, Illinois, and he married Miss Carrie Klein; Mary is the wife of J. E. Herrington, a farmer at Fairbury, Illinois, and has three daughters; Bernard and Katie are twins, and the latter is the wife of John P. Degnan, of West Creek township, and has two children; John, the youngest, is also in the real estate and insurance business at Kankakee.

The life of Mr. Carlin's father is an interesting narrative of self-achieved success. The senior Bernard Carlin was born in county Mayo, Ireland, in 1830, and is now living in advanced age in Fairbury, Illinois. At the age of twenty-two he set sail from his native land and landed in New York, a stranger in a foreign land, with less than twenty-five dollars in his pocket. For a time he was a wage-earner in Philadelphia at fifty-five cents a day. In 1854 he came to Chicago, when that then small city lacked fifty years of growth before it should become the present-day metropolis. From there he sought employment in New Orleans, and after eight months arrived in Bloomington, Illinois, in 1855, where he remained until 1862. In the latter year he came to Lexington, Illinois, and began sawing wood for the Chicago & Alton Railroad. He was always willing to accept any labor that would earn an honest dollar, and his industry and perseverance are the grounds for his success. He lived at, Lexington until 1870, and during four years ?of this time he was engaged in fanning. In 1859 he had married Miss Bridget Murray, who was born in Galway, Ireland, and who died October 3, 1894, when nearly sixty years old. Both he and his wife were devout Catholics, and he assisted in the building of St. Joseph's church at Chenoa, Illinois, where he lived so many years. In politics he still casts his vote for the Democratic candidates.

Mr. Bernard F. Carlin was reared in Chenoa, Illinois, and besides a good practical education in the public schools he took the teacher's course at Valparaiso College for two years. In 1895 he and his brother Patrick began dealing in live stock and in the butcher business at Chenoa, and continued that with success beyond their expectations until 1899. In November, 1899, Mr. Carlin embarked in the grocery business at Fairbury. with his brother John, and continued this line of enterprise also very successfully for three years. While in this business he and his brother purchased seven hundred acres of land in West Creek township, Lake county, and it is to a part of this that Mr. Carlin has recently decided to devote his attention as a practical farmer. Prior to this purchase of Lake county land he and his brother had bought out the interests of the other heirs in the old homestead in Livingston county, Illinois, but they have since disposed of this property.

September 5, 1899, Mr. Carlin married Miss Katie F. White, and they are the parents of three children, Katherine, John B. and Walter P. Mrs. Carlin was born in Lexington, Illinois, June 26, 1873, being a daughter of John and Katherine (Doody) White. There were four daughters in the family, and two besides Mrs. Carlin are living: Anna, who was educated in the public schools, is a resident of Lexington, Illinois; Mary, who was educated in the Lexington high school and completed all but three months of the course at the Illinois State Normal University, is a resident of Lexington, and is a teacher in the public schools of Pontiac. Mrs. Carlin was reared in the vicinity of Lexington, receiving her education in the schools of that city, and for seven years was a teacher in the McLean county schools. Her father, John White, was born in county Tipperary, Ireland, in 1821, and is living at the present writing in Lexington, being eighty-three years old. He came to America in young manhood, landing in this country with but a shilling to his name, and the greater part of his life has been spent in the employ of the Chicago and Alton Railroad. He has also followed farming, and has been very successful in his life work. He is a Democrat in politics. His wife was born in Queen's county, Ireland, in 1844, and came to America when she was two years old. She died June 1, 1904.

Just before disposing of his business interests in Fairbury, Mr. Carlin was appointed joint agent of the Pacific and the Adams express companies at that place, and remained in that capacity one year. He resigned April 16, 1903, and took a district agency for the Continental Insurance Company, and continued in this business until November, 1903. At the latter date he and his family located in West Creek township, Lake county, and during the past year he has been devoting his time and attention to farming and stock-raising, which pursuits he intends to carry on perhaps permanently. His favorite stock are the Durham cattle and the Poland China hogs. He has already shown great sagacity in the management of his enterprises, and is taking full advantage of the great opportunities offered to the stockman and farmer of Lake county.

Mr. Carlin is independent in politics, and usually scratches his ballot according to his own best judgment of the men and principles at stake. Fraternally he is a member of the Court of Honor No. 206, at Fairbury, and the Yeomen of America in the same place. He and his wife are members of the Catholic church at Lowell.


DAVID C. PULVER.

There are few living Lake county citizens who can claim their birth as having taken place in this county over sixty years ago, and among that few is Mr. D. C. Pulver. He and his noble wife are held in the highest esteem by all who know them, and they have made themselves factors of influence and worth ever since entering upon their active careers in this county.

Mr. Pulver was born May 21, 1842, and is the youngest of the seven children, four sons and three daughters, born to David and Mercy (Tobias) Pulver. Besides himself, there are two of the children still living, as follows: Eunice, the wife of Edward Ashton, of Lowell; and Lodemia, wife of Henry Farrington, of Wessington, South Dakota. The father of the family was born in Pennsylvania in 1795, four years before the death of General Washington, and died December 27, 1843. He was reared to farming pursuits, and educated in the old-time schools existing during the earliest years of the past century. His death occurred when his son David was but six months old, so that the latter never knew the energizing influence of his father. The mother of Mr. D. C. Pulver, also a native of Pennsylvania, was born September 2, 1805, and died October 24, 1881, she and her husband being married on November 5, 1826. In the year 1841 this worthy couple came west and took up their residence in Lake county, at a time when the country hereabout was practically a wilderness. David Pulver bought one hundred and ten acres of raw land in West Creek township, and the first home that sheltered the family was a log cabin. In those early days, about the time when David C. was a baby, the Indians were still roaming freely over this part of northwestern Indiana, and one day the red men came to the Pulver home and stole the daughter Eunice, keeping her in their possession for two or three hours before she could be rescued. Deer often fled across the premises, and the howl of the wolf could be heard for many years after their settlement. The town of Lowell had not yet been founded, and while there are now nearly twenty important railroads through the county, the boy David had attained the age of eight or nine years before the wild shriek of the locomotive roused the echoes with its unwonted sound.

Mr. Pulver was thus born and reared in Lake county and has made his home in West Creek township all his life. He was educated in such schools as were common in this county during his youth, and he still distinctly recalls the little log cabin school which stood half a mile from the old homestead. It was about fourteen by eighteen feet in size, was roofed over with the pioneer "shakes" as the rough predecessor of shingles. The seats were rough slabs supported by four legs, and the desk for the larger pupils was a board extending around the room. The building was heated with a cast-iron stove. Both Mr. and Mrs. Pulver have used the old-fashioned goose quill pens, and their lives are a strange blending of the pioneer experiences with twentieth century prosperity and convenience.

Mr. Pulver remained at home and cared for his mother until her death. On February 25, 1869, he was united in marriage with Miss Ursula Vandecar, and the five children born to this union are as follows: Cora, who was educated in the common schools and was a teacher for three years in Lake county, is the wife of E. Van Alstine, a farmer of Roanoke, Huntington county, Indiana, and they have three children, Oakes, Ursula and Elton. Charles W., who after the public school education took the normal course at Valparaiso College, learned the jeweler's trade at the big watch factory in Elgin, Illinois, and is now a successful merchant of Lowell; he married Miss Edith Hull. Lura completed the eighth grade of school work and is now the wife of Jodie Hayden, a prosperous farmer of West Creek township. Earle, at home, has also completed the eighth grade. Jessie, at home, did in addition to the work of the common schools, one year's work in the Lowell high school. Mrs. Pulver was born in Cedar Creek township, Lake county, June 15, 1847, being a daughter of Peter and Wealthy (Clark) Vandecar. There were just two children, and her sister is Lovisa, wife of William Halstead, a farmer at Topeka, Kansas. Mrs. Pulver was reared and has spent all her life in this county. She is a lady of cordial greeting and accomplished in the best activities of the world, and has been an able helpmate to her husband.

Mr. Pulver was among the Lake county citizens who offered their services during the great rebellion. August 9, 1862, he enlisted at Lowell, in Company A, Seventy-third Indiana Volunteers, under Captain Fry. The regiment was organized at South Bend, and was sent to Louisville. Kentucky. He was under the command of General Sherman during his army career. He was taken sick at Siloam Springs, Tennessee, and was forced to leave the service permanently, being finally discharged March 9, 1863.

Mr. Pulver is a stalwart Republican, and since casting his first presidential vote for Lincoln has supported every candidate of the Grand Old Party. He is a member of the Grand Army post at Lowell. Mrs. Pulver is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he has contributed his share to the benevolences and charity. Mr. and Mrs. Pulver have lived in this county so long that not only have they been witnesses to its growth and development from a wild country, but they themselves are well known and held in highest esteem throughout the county. They have a most hospitable home, and it is ever open to their many friends. They have in their possession one of the oldest Bibles in the county, one that was published in 1817. Another valuable heirloom from the preceding generation is one of the old double coverlets, woven by his mother fully three quarters of a century ago. Mrs. Pulver has a silver cup that has been handed down from generation to generation, it having been made in Sweden as far back as the seventeenth century.


SAMUEL A. LOVE.

Samuel A. Love, of the well-known firm of Love Brothers (Samuel A. and James H.) at Leroy, belongs to the representative class of citizens in whose personal histories, as the sage of Concord has said, lies the truest history of community, state or nation. Mr. Love has passed so many years in Lake county, has enjoyed such a high reputation as citizen and business man, and become so well known to all that no introduction is necessary to place his real character before the mind of Lake county people.

He was born on St. Martin's island in Lake Michigan, on March 17 1859, and is the fourth in the family of eight children, five sons and three daughters, born to Samuel and Ellen Jane (Mundall) Love. J. E. Love, of Lowell, who is represented elsewhere in this volume, is the eldest of the six living children; William is a hay merchant at Lowell; Samuel A. is the next oldest; Mary A. is the wife of A. M. Phillips, a farmer of Winfield township; James H., the other member of the firm of Love Brothers, and present trustee of Winfield township, is also given place in this history; and Peter K., the youngest, is a farmer of Winfield township.

The father of the family, Samuel Love, was a Scotch-Irishman, born in Ireland about 1830, and he lived to be seventy-two years of age. He was reared in his native land and before coming to America followed the trade of weaver. When he came to this country he was without money, but with a large stock of honest industry, and he maintained an honorable position in the world. He came west and made his home in Detroit for a time, and was a sailor on the great lakes and also a fisherman. He located in Cedar Creek township, Lake county, about 1868, purchasing real estate near Creston, and he resided there five or six years before making his final abode in Winfield township, where he spent the rest of his life. He was an ardent Republican in politics, and had formerly been a Whig. He supported all enterprises for the public welfare, and was especially interested in the promotion of temperance. He and his wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal church, aiding in the erection of their local edifice. Mrs. Love, the mother, was born in the same part of Ireland as was her husband, also about 1830, and is now living at Leroy at the age of seventy-four years.
Mr. Love became a resident of Lake county when about ten years old, so that his entire active career has been spent in the county. He was brought up and remained on the farm until he was seventeen years old, and since then has been engaged continuously in the mercantile business. His education was obtained in the local schools, and personal application was the source of his best advancement. At the age of seventeen he became associated in business with his father, and continued so until he was thirty-one years old. In 1890 he and his brothers James H. and P. K. formed a partnership and went into the hay and grain business, and the style of the firm has since been known as Love Brothers, although P. K. has since retired. The people of Leroy and surrounding country appreciated the fair dealing and the enterprising spirit of the brothers, and their business has been throughout large and successful. In recent years they also buy and sell live stock.

Mr. Love's wife was Miss Matilda J. Stewart, and they had three children, the two now living being Marguerite, who is in the fifth grade of school and has taken music, and Samuel A., Jr. Mrs. Love is a native of Lake county, was educated in the common schools and the Crown Point high school, and for some years before her marriage was a successful teacher in the county. She was a daughter of Charles and Rebecca (Simpson) Stewart, her father being deceased and her mother a resident of Leroy.
Mr. Love is a Republican, and has supported true Republicanism since casting his first vote for Garfield and has been active in local party and public affairs. He was elected to the office of township assessor, and before his term expired, in 1887, he was elected trustee, holding that office seven years and five months. In 1900 he was elected county commissioner, which is the most responsible office in the county. During his term of office he was a moving spirit in the erection of the one hundred thousand dollar court house at Hammond, also in effecting many repairs and improvements to the county building at Crown Point. The county affairs, both fiscal and administrative, are in the best condition of their history, and, with the Hammond court house finished and out of debt, the county levy has been reduced from twenty-five and a quarter to sixteen and a quarter cents on the hundred dollars, which is certainly a good showing for Lake county. Mr. Love fraternizes with the I. O. O. F., Lodge No. 195, at Crown Point, and with Court No. 17 of the Independent Order of Foresters at Leroy. Both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he is a steward and also the present superintendent of the Sunday school.


JAMES H. LOVE.

In the various members of the Love family Lake county has found during the last thirty-five or forty years some of its most excellent types of citizenship and manhood, and one of the most progressive of these is Mr. James H. Love, of the firm of Love Brothers, dealers in hay, grain and live stock at Leroy. Mr. Love has lived in this county practically all his life, and besides proving his ability and enterprise as a business man has also made himself especially useful to his township in the office of trustee, which position he holds at the present writing.

Mr. Love was born at Washington Harbor, Michigan, August 27, 1864, and is the sixth of the eight children born to Samuel and Ellen Jane (Mundall) Love. In the life history of the other member of Love Brothers, namely, Samuel A., will be found further particulars concerning this family, of which both parents and children have played such useful parts in the affairs of the county.

Mr. Love was about six years old when his father and mother moved from Michigan and took up their residence on a farm near Creston in Cedar Creek township, this county, whence later they moved to Winfield township. James H. Love received a practical training in the public schools of the country and at Crown Point, and as he was reared on a farm he gained experience in agricultural affairs. Like his brother Samuel he was associated in business with his father for a time, and when he was twenty-six years old he entered into business with his brothers Samuel and Peter. Peter has since left the firm, and the extensive trade is now carried on as Love Brothers. Theirs is one of the foremost enterprises of the kind in the east part of the county, and the annual volume of business transacted is a credit to the enterprising- brothers, who have built up a substantial success by their own well directed endeavors. Besides his connection with the business Mr. Love owns a good residence in the town of Leroy and also one hundred and twenty acres of excellent land in Eagle Creek township.

March 29, 1888, Mr. Love married Miss Sallie B. McKnight. and three children were born to them, the two living being: Rosa E., who is in the eighth grade of school and has taken music; and Mary Ellen, who is the baby of the household. Mrs. Love was born in Lake county and was reared and educated here, and her parents, James and Belle (Stewart) McKnight, are still living and residents of Leroy. Her father was born in Pennsylvania, and was a member of the famous old Ninth Indiana Regiment during the Civil war, having veteranized and served till the close of hostilities. He is a Republican in politics.

Mr. Love cast his first presidential vote for Benjamin Harrison, and has stanchly upheld the principles of the Grand Old Party ever since. He was elected a trustee of Winfield township in 1900, and is the present incumbent of that office. He has erected two new schoolhouses, has put in six stone arches for bridges besides two wooden bridges, and has handled the administrative affairs of his township in a way to reflect greatest credit upon his official term. The finances of both township and county are now in excellent shape, and through the loyal efforts of such officials as Mr. Love Lake county presents a history of sound and substantial public administration. Mr. Love affiliates with the Knights of Pythias, Castle Hall No. 405, at Hebron, and is one of the trustees. He is a member of the Independent Order of Foresters, being on the high board of directors for the state of Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Love are both worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Leroy.


WELLINGTON A. CLARK.

Among the real pioneers of Lake county-that is, those settlers who were twenty-one years old before 1840-so far as is known to the Historical Association of Old Settlers, one only is now living, Mr. Wellington A. Clark. A descendant of pioneers from Berkshire, Massachusetts, who formed in Ontario county, New York, the settlement that became Naples in New York, a company of sixty New Englanders making that settlement in 1789, it was very appropriate that W. A. Clark should become a pioneer in Indiana.
W. A. Clark was born in Naples. New York, September 2, 1815. He was a son of Benjamin Clark and Thankful Watkins. whose marriage was the first to take place in that early settlement which is now Naples, his father erecting the first grist mill there in 1795 or 1796. The tradition is that his mother's ancestors came over in the Mayflower, but the full line has not been made out. His father was a soldier and became an officer in the Revolutionary war. He is of good New England Puritan, perhaps Pilgrim, descent. He entered business life as a clerk in a wholesale grocery store in Albany. An older brother, Sanford D. Clark, was then a thriving merchant in Ohio, and as the result of a visit to that brother in 1837 or more probably in 1838; W. A. Clark made a lake voyage to Chicago, and then made a trip into the new Lake county, where he found some acquaintances and relatives, especially Adin Sanger, also Ephraim Cleveland, and others. Arrangements were made for a claim to be entered and bought in his name. He returned to the east, and among the names of settlers in West Creek township for 1839 is found the name Wellington A. Clark. He came through from the east this time across the country in a buggy, and commenced in the fall of 1839 to improve his West Creek farm where had been entered for him at the land sale "three hundred and eight-four acres." In December, 1843, he was married to an estimable young woman, Miss Mary C. Hackley, a member of a family of early settlers residing a little north of the present village of Hanover Center. This marriage was solemnized by Judge Robert Wilkinson, a settler on West Creek in 1835, and who, in true pioneer style, took his rifle with him to go up through the woodland that skirted the west border of Lake Prairie, and with it shot a fine deer when near the home of the bride.

About 1846, leaving farming for a time, W. A. Clark removed with his then young wife to Crown Point, became agent for some large eastern houses, especially Avers of Lowell, traveled considerably over the state, and made money.

The following paragraph is quoted from a record made in 1872 and is believed to be thoroughly correct: "At Crown Point he built a good dwelling house; returned to his farm and built an excellent farmhouse; spent again a few years, including 1864 and 1865, at Crown Point; and once more returned to the West Creek home. In 1867 he erected and started the first cheese factory in the county; kept, some of the time, one hundred cows; became owner of a thousand acres north of Crown Point, and made improvements at the home place. In 1869 or 1870 he disposed of the thousand acres near Crown Point and now holds (1872) his West Creek lands, in amount thirteen hundred and twenty acres." At this time he was considered to be one of the wealthiest citizens of the county and his property, accumulated in some thirty years, was considered to be worth fifty thousand dollars. He at length gave up dairying and farming, and returned to his Crown Point home. He was at this time, 1875, sixty years of age, and for the last period of his life, now almost thirty years, he has been a constant resident in Crown Point. He has been content to remain in that "good dwelling house," one of the best in the town when it was erected, while many quite costly mansions of wood and brick have in these later years gone up around him. His home is a landmark of the earlier years.

In all this period of retirement from farming he has been an active business man, having an office where he may be found almost every day, a dealer in real estate, selling farms and town property, and negotiating loans. During his earlier residence in Crown Point he took large interest in church and school matters, as one of New England descent might be expected to do; and in 1875 he was largely instrumental in the organization of an association for the pioneers and early settlers of the county. Of this organization, now called the Old Settler and Historical Association, he was the first president, delivered the inaugural address at what was then the fair ground, September 25, 1875, at the first annual gathering of the pioneers, and has held the same office for twenty years. He has done much to keep alive the interest in the organization. He has done quite an amount of writing for the papers of Crown Point, dealing, not with the political and social questions of the day, but rather with early American history, Spanish and French explorers and missionaries, and their early voyages, travels, and settlements. Many of these articles may be found in the Crown Point Register as late as in the year 1904. Few men in their eighty-ninth year do such writing. In 1876 he visited Philadelphia and on his return wrote quite a description of that Centennial. As a political newspaper correspondent may be placed first. Hon. Bartlett Woods; for a writer of long poems, John Underwood; but as a historical newspaper writer of Lake county, W. A. Clark stands first.
A semi-centennial celebration of the first Masonic lodge of Lake county was held in May, 1904, and he was found to be one of two survivors of the charter members. In 1889 a centennial celebration was held in Naples. New York, and he was named as one of three then known to be living of the children of the first settlers of Naples. He is quite surely the only one now. According to the dates given in the records, it was fifty years before that centennial, and so fifty years from the time of his father's settlement at Naples, when, in 1839, he became a pioneer settler in Lake county. And now, of all his fellow-pioneers, he is left alone. Mr. Clark is honorary vice president of the Sons of American Revolution for Indiana.
A few particulars in regard to his family may be added to this sketch. Mrs. Mary Hackley Clark still lives, sixty years older than she was in 1843, but still cheerful and cheery, sprightly in mind, a noble-hearted and a devoted Christian woman. Two sons were given to them. The older one, Henry Clark, married, commenced business in South Chicago, and soon died, leaving two children, of whom one is now Mrs. Claribelle Rockwell, of Crown Point, and the other, a son, is not in this county. The younger of the two sons of Mr. and Mrs. Clark, known as Fred Clark, a promising youth, died of typhoid fever while studying the science of medicine. They have one daughter, Helen, a charming, intelligent, lovely girl, who married, and has three daughters and one son, all married and settled in life, and she herself has returned to the Crown Point home to care, as a dutiful daughter, for her aged father and mother. The family attend and help to keep up the Presbyterian church.

NOTE.- December 7, 1893, soon after the close of the Columbian Exposition, Mr. and Mrs. Clark celebrated the golden anniversary of their marriage, when, among other exercises, a paper was read by their friend, T. H. Ball, an acquaintance and friend for fifty years, that paper consisting of ten quite closely written manuscript pages, descriptive and historical, that celebration being then considered, as it most probably was, the first "golden wedding" of Lake county.


EDWIN S. GILBERT.

Edwin S. Gilbert, postmaster, editor and business man of Indiana Harbor, is one of the enterprising citizens of this most enterprising town. When Indiana Harbor began to come into prominence as a commercial center he recognized its opportunities and advantages, and has been identified with its progress ever since. He has been in charge of the postoffice since its establishment, and he issued the first paper in the place. He is eminently public-spirited and truly representative of the energy and business push which are going to make this young trade center of northern Lake county one of the foremost harbor cities about Lake Michigan.
Mr. Gilbert was born in Ash Grove, Iroquois county, Illinois, February 5, 1862, a son of Theodore Monroe and Hannah (McDonough) Gilbert, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of Delaware. His paternal grandfather was Asa Gilbert, a native of Connecticut and of English descent. He came west to Michigan and owned and operated lumber mills, and in Ohio had some flouring mills and in 1830 built a canal in that state. He rafted the first cargo of lumber from Michigan to Chicago. He later moved to Illinois, and died, while on a visit to one of his children in Indiana, when upward of sixty years of age. His wife was named Abigail, and they had five sons and one daughter. Mr. Gilbert's maternal grandfather was John Stidham, a native of Maryland. He was an early settler in Iroquois county, Illinois, where he owned six hundred acres of land, and he died there well advanced in years. He was one of the prominent men of the county. His first wife was named Pennington and his second Bonebrake.

Theodore M. Gilbert, the father of Edwin S., was a farmer by occupation. He emigrated to Illinois some time in the fifties, and settled at Ash Grove, where he improved and lived on a farm for a time, but later sold and moved into Onarga, where he was engaged in the grocery business for a number of years. He died at Onarga in 1896, aged seventy-two years. He held the office of assessor of his county for a number of terms. His wife still survives him, at the age of eighty-one years. She, as was her husband, is a member of the Methodist church. They were the parents of ten children, five sons and five daughters, eight of whom are now living: John S., of Onarga, Illinois; Erastus P., of the state of Washington; Evaline, wife of Charles H. Pusey, of Oberlin, Kansas; Miss Jennie, of Onarga; Abigail, wife of John K. Judy, of Goodwin, Illinois; Alice, wife of Wesley Harris, of Oberlin, Kansas; Dwight M.. of Washington state; and Edwin S.

Mr. Edwin S. Gilbert lived on his father's farm until he was fourteen years old, getting his schooling in the district schools. He then went to school in Onarga for a time, after which he learned the printer's trade, which with its allied profession has been his principal occupation throughout the active career. For one year he published the Onarga Review, and for the following three years conducted a paper in North Dakota. On his return to Onarga he established the Leader and published it for three years. After his marriage, in 1888, he lived in the Dakotas for several years, and on January 17, 1891, established the Globe at East Chicago, Indiana. He conducted this paper until August, 1899, when he sold the plant to the present owner, A. P. Brown. For a short time following he was employed at his printing trade, and then bought the Whiting News, which he still publishes in addition to the Saturday issue of the Indiana Harbor News, the first journal to make its appearance in this town.

When the postoffice was established at Indiana Harbor on February 17, 1902, Mr. Gilbert became the first postmaster, and on its becoming a presidential office, January 1, 1904, he was reappointed postmaster. He was city clerk of East Chicago for two terms. He owns a residence in East Chicago, and is now building a double store building with five flats in Indiana Harbor. He is a Republican in politics. He affiliates with the Knights of Pythias, and has been keeper of records and seals since the lodge was instituted in East Chicago four years ago. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church.
June 21, 1888, Mr. Gilbert married Miss Kate A. Lowe, a daughter of Samuel and Eliza (Beattie) Lowe.


DR. ROBERT AUSLEY.

Dr. Robert Ausley, physician and surgeon of Indiana Harbor, has been there almost as long as the town itself, and besides taking a foremost position in his professional work is also a man of influence in all that pertains to the development and welfare of this harbor city of Lake county. His life of less than a third of a century has been filled with activity, and besides the full complement of school days and the last two or three years devoted to his profession he had much experience in different parts of the country engaged in civil engineering, and is also one of the veterans of the Spanish-American war.

Dr. Ausley was born in Waldron, Illinois, November 4, 1872, a son of Elmon and Elizabeth (Kibbons) Ausley, the former a native of Michigan and the latter of Illinois. He has two brothers, Howard and Charles, the latter of Valparaiso, Indiana. He is descended on his paternal side from one of three brothers who came from Scotland to America many years ago. His grandfather was a native of New York state, a farmer by occupation, and died in middle life, having been the father of two children. Dr. Ausley's father was a soldier during the Civil war, enlisting from Michigan, and after the war he settled near Waldron, Illinois, and later in Westville, LaPorte county, Indiana. He now spends his winters in the south and the summers in the north. He is a Mason and in politics a Republican, and his wife is a Methodist. His wife's father was a native of Virginia, and settled in Illinois in 1831, dying in that state at the age of sixty years. He was a prominent farmer and justice of the peace. By his wife, Catherine Custer, he had a large family.
Dr. Ausley spent his boyhood days in Westville, Indiana, where he attended the public schools and graduated from the well known high school in 1887. He then entered Valparaiso College, from which he graduated in 1889. For about a year he was in Wyoming as civil engineer for the B. & M. Railroad. He returned home in 1890 and obtained election as county surveyor and drainage commissioner of LaPorte county, being elected at the age of twenty-one years to that important office, and he was re-elected and served in all four years. He then entered Rush Medical College at Chicago, but before he had completed his course the war with Spain broke out, and he at once enlisted. He was made quartermaster sergeant of Company L, One Hundred and Sixty-first Indiana Infantry, was sent to Cuba, and remained in the service till the close of the war. On his return he resumed his studies at Rush Medical College, from which he was graduated in the spring of 1902. In the following fall he established his office and practice in Indiana Harbor, and has built up a very satisfactory and profitable patronage in town and the surrounding country.

Dr. Ausley is a member of the Lake County Medical Society, the Indiana State Medical Association, the Kankakee Valley Medical association and the American Medical Association. In politics he is a Republican, and his fraternal affiliations are with the Masons, the Knights of the Maccabees and the Independent Order of Foresters. He resides and owns a good home at 3515 Grapevine street. December 28, 1897, he was married to Miss Pearl Gardner, a daughter of Jared Gardner.


OZRO METCALF.


Ozro Metcalf

 


Mrs. Ozro Metcalf

 


Mrs. Fred Buckley

Ozro Metcalf, now deceased, was born in Cataraugus county, New York, and when sixteen years of age came to Lake county, Indiana, being among its early settlers. He found that pioneer conditions existed here at the time of his arrival, for much of the land was still unclaimed and uncultivated, and the homes of the settlers were widely scattered, save that here and there a little village had sprung up and population was more congested in those districts. Mr. Metcalf came to Indiana with his uncle and settled in Eagle Creek township. In 1855 he removed to Cedar Creek township, where he was continuously engaged in agricultural pursuits up to the time of his death, covering a period of forty-five years.

Mr. Metcalf was united in marriage to Miss Clarissa M. Haskin, who was born in Geauga county, Ohio, May 22, 1837. Her father, Abile Haskin, was a native of New York, and became one of the early settlers of the Buckeye state. His last days, however, were passed in Michigan, where he died at the age of fifty-six years. He had married Clarissa Custer, a native of New York, who died in Lake county, Indiana, in her seventy-seventh year. They were the parents of six children, three sons and three daughters, all of whom reached mature years, while only two of the family are now living, the brother of Mrs. Metcalf being Nichols Haskin, who resides in Kansas. Mrs. Metcalf was the youngest of these children, and came to Lake county when but five years old, with her mother. Here she has since lived. She was married in 1855, and this union has been blessed with two daughters and two sons: Clarissa L. is now the wife of William Northrup, their marriage being celebrated February, 14, 1S78. and their children are Loris; Morton O., who died October 29, 1889; Ora; Lulu: and John O. Byron Metcalf is a resident farmer of Center Creek township. Lottie is the deceased wife of Fred M. Buckley. Ordel died in infancy.

Politically Mr. Metcalf was a life-long Republican, and belonged to the Methodist Episcopal church, exemplifying in his life its teachings and belief. He was long a resident of Lake county, and was widely known as a man of unfaltering honor and inflexible integrity.' He died at the age of seventy-one years, respected by all who knew him. Mrs. Metcalf still owns a farm of thirty-two acres in Cedar Creek township, also another tract containing forty-three acres. She likewise has fifteen acres at Lowell. In the management of her property she displays good business ability, and it returns to her a gratifying income. Her father was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, and in that faith she was reared. She has long been identified with the denomination and is a most earnest Christian woman, whose many excellent traits of character have won for her the esteem and friendship of all with whom she has been associated.


DR. HARRY E. SHARRER.

Dr. Harry E. Sharrer, for nearly a decade a leading physician and surgeon of Hammond, Indiana, is a man of striking personality and high professional ability, and has made his mark in this thriving Lake county town in many different ways. He took up the practice of medicine in Hammond almost immediately after his graduation at an early age from college, and in the few years that have since elapsed has risen to a foremost place in the ranks of the medical fraternity. Dr. Sharrer is a young man of great versatility of talents, and while he has done well to reach his present prominence as a physician and surgeon, his accomplishments and value as a citizen are not measured by his professional skill and ability. He is a popular member of social and fraternal circles, and a leader in many of the social functions and entertainments. He takes an active part in practical politics, especially those of his town and county, and in many ways has served his fellow citizens and his fellow partisans. He is also a talented musician. He is highly deserving of honor for his true manhood and many-sided and upright character. While giving a due share of his energies and enthusiasm to the life work whereby he intends to prove his greatest usefulness in the world and provide for his own material needs, he has also recognized the multifarious interests which engage human society on every hand and which likewise lay claim to man's endeavor, and thus has arrived at the happy mean in which he can best serve himself and his fellow men.

Dr. Sharrer was born in Bowen, Illinois, June n, 1873, and may be said to have inherited the profession of medicine from his father. He is a grandson of an early Illinois pioneer, who was born in Pennsylvania and was a general merchant in Bowen, Illinois, where he died at the age of sixty years; his wife died at the age of seventy-nine years, and they were the parents of three daughters and two sons.

Dr. Wilbur F. Sharrer, the father of Dr. Sharrer, was born in Juniata county, Pennsylvania. He was living in that state at the time of the Civil war, and during that conflict served in both the cavalry and infantry arms of the military, being in the Twenty-second and Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania regiments. He was twice wounded, and entered as a private and was promoted through the different grades to lieutenant. Right after the war he moved to Bowen, Illinois, and taught school, and also studied medicine in the Keokuk (Iowa) Medical College. He began practice in Bowen, and in the spring of 1874 came to Indiana and located at Rockfield, where he remained until 1881, when he moved to Delphi, where he has practiced ever since. He has been on the pension examining board for about twenty years. He and his wife are Presbyterians, and are both of Scotch-Irish stock. He married Catharine E. Moore, a native of Juniata county, Pennsylvania, and one of the two sons and three daughters of a native farmer of Juniata county, who died when about sixty-six years old. Five children were born to Wilbur F. and Catharine Sharrer, two sons and three daughters, and the two now living are Ella B. and Dr. Sharrer.

Harry E. Sharrer was reared in Rockfield and Delphi, Indiana, and attended the public schools of those places. In 1888 he entered Purdue University, and was graduated from the School of Pharmacy in 1891. For a time he held the position of manager and chemist of the Hoyt Chemical Company at Terre Haute, but in the same year entered the drug business at Delphi in partnership with M. M. Murphy, which they carried on for several years. In 1894 Mr. Sharrer entered the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati, and remained until his graduation on April 9, 1896. On the 12th of the same month he opened his office in Hammond, and has been engaged in successful practice ever since.

April 12, 1898. Dr. Sharrer was married to Miss Lottie M. Weaver, of Burr Oak, Michigan, a daughter of Edward M. and Mabel Weaver. One daughter was born of this marriage, Anna Kathryn. Mrs. Sharrer died November 25, 1901, aged twenty-six years. She was a member of the Presbyterian church. On June 16, 1903, Dr. Sharrer married Miss Katharine Tracy, of St. Joseph, Missouri. They are both members of the Presbyterian church.

Dr. Sharrer affiliates with Garfield Lodge No. 569, F. & A. M., and was made a Mason in Delphi Lodge No. 516. He also belongs to Hammond Chapter No. 117, R. A. M., and Hammond Commandery No. 41, K. T. His further fraternal connections are with Hammond Lodge No. 210, K. of P., and with the Royal League and the Knights of Khorassan. He is a member and secretary of the Lake County Medical Society, is a member of the Kankakee Valley Medical Society, the Indiana State Medical Association and the American Medical Association, and is also a member of the executive committee of the National Association of Pension Examining Surgeons. He is president of the Hammond Club and a member of the Commercial Club of Hammond. He is a member of the Hammond Saengerbund, a German singing society, and an honorary member of Barnie G. Young's Concert Band of Hammond.
A stanch Republican in politics, Dr. Sharrer has been precinct committeeman, and is now a member of the county executive committee; is treasurer of the city Republican committee and president of the Hammond Young Men's Republican Club. He has been a delegate to the state Republican conventions for the past eight years. He also belongs to the Chicago Indiana Club. He lives at the corner of Hohman and Doty streets, where in 1897. 1898 and 1899 he built three residences, which he still owns. He is surgeon for five factories in the city of Hammond and is surgeon for the Monon Railroad.


RODMAN H. WELLS.

Rodman H. Wells, a prominent resident of Crown Point, is senior member of the well known firm of R. H. Wells and Son, proprietors of the large livery, sale and boarding stables at 240 Truman avenue in Hammond. He is one of the oldest native sons of Crown Point, and has made that his home throughout the sixty-five and more years of his life. He has thus known the county from its earliest times, has at various periods held important county and other local offices, and for a quarter of a century had the leading livery establishment of Crown Point. He is a fine type of business man and citizen, energetic, progressive and public-spirited, and has lived in the enjoyment of esteem from his fellow men during all his career in Lake county.

Mr. Wells was born in Crown Point, June 6, 1838, a son of Henry and Adaline (Witherell) Wells, natives of Massachusetts. Both his grand-fathers were natives of that state, and both served in the war of 1812. Henry Wells followed farming in early life. In 1836 he moved from Michigan to Indiana, taking up land at Crown Point and following farming in that vicinity for the remainder of his life. He was one of the first sheriffs of Lake county, and afterward filled the office of county treasurer. He always retained and resided on his farm just south of Crown Point, where he died. His wife died about 1861. They both attended the Presbyterian church. There were five children in their family: Susan, widow of Alexander Clark, of Crown Point; Rodman H.; Eliza, deceased wife of Samuel R. Pratt; Homer W., of Crown Point; and Adaline. deceased, who was the wife of John E. Luther.

Mr. Rodman H. Wells was reared on the homestead farm at Crown Point and attended the public schools of the town. Farming was his vocation until some years after the war. In August. 1862, he raised Company A, of the Ninety-ninth Indiana Infantry, and enlisted in the company as a private, although he was offered the second lieutenancy. He served nearly three years, and was compelled to come home on account of ill health. He participated throughout the Vicksburg campaign. After the war he worked his fathers place for several years, and at the same time did considerable stock-buying, in one season purchasing eight hundred head of milch cows for the Western Reserve. On leaving the farm he entered the livery business at Crown Point and carried it on most successfully for twenty-five years. In 1899 he sold out his establishment at the county seat and in partnership with his son. Rodman B.. opened the large stables at Hammond. Their outfits have a uniformly excellent reputation throughout the city and county, and their patronage has been built up to large and profitable proportions.

Mr. Wells is an influential Republican, and has always taken an active part in public affairs. Before the war he was deputy sheriff, and after the Rebellion was deputy sheriff under Sheriff Marble for four years. In 1882 he was elected sheriff and served in that office for two terms, or four years. He has also served as chairman of the county central committee and a number of times as precinct committeeman, and has been sent as delegate to a number of state conventions. Mrs. Wells is a member of the Baptist church.
In 1860 Mr. Wells married Miss Nancy J. Van Houten, a daughter of James and Sallie Ann Van Houten. Mrs. Wells died in 1871, leaving no children. In 1872 Mr. Wells married Miss Emily W. Van Houten, a sister of his first wife. They have two children, Jennie M. and Rodman B., the latter being unmarried and in partnership with his father. Jennie M. married Herman J. Lehman, and they live at Crown Point and have two children, Hermina and Rodman J.


BENJAMIN F. HAYES.

Benjamin F. Hayes, of 206 Hohman street, Hammond, has been connected with business and public affairs in Lake county for a number of years, and is a man of recognized ability and sterling integrity, with an excellent record of successful effort since taking up the active duties of life.

He was born at Muscatine, Iowa, April 4, 1859, a son of Maurice and Julia (Guinea) Hayes, natives of Ireland. His great-grandfather lived to be nearly a hundred years old, and his grandfather also died when well advanced in years. The latter came to America and settled in Connecticut. Maurice Hayes learned the tailor's trade, and from Connecticut moved, about 1856, to Muscatine, Iowa, where he died, when still a young man, in 1860. His wife survived him until 1872, when she was thirty-eight years old, and by her second husband, Philip Myers, she had three children. The family were all Catholics in religious faith. Maurice and Julia Hayes had two sons and two daughters: John, of Sulphur Springs, Ohio; Ella, wife of Edward Rader, of Rapid City, Michigan; Beulah, wife of William J. Wallace, of Chicago Heights, Illinois; and Benjamin F., of Hammond.

When Mr. B. F. Hayes was three years old his mother moved to Chicago, and he remained there and received his education until after the great fire of 1871. He then went to Crown Point, Indiana, and attended the public schools for a year or so, and that was his principal home for twenty-five years. He learned the butcher's trade and followed it for some years. In 1894 he was elected sheriff of Lake county, being re-elected in 1896, and gave a most efficient administration of that office for four years. Since then his health has been rather poor, and he has traveled a good deal, and in business his attention has been confined mainly to real estate dealings, he having transacted a number of important transfers in this county. He took up his residence in Hammond in the spring of 1903. He owns property here and also near Crown Point.

Mr. Hayes affiliates with the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. His wife is a member of the Methodist church. He is a Republican in politics, and has served in the township council, as road supervisor and constable, and for two terms was marshal of Crown Point.

On Christmas day of 1877 he married Miss Nettie L. Maxwell, a daughter of William and Roxanna (Jarvis) Maxwell. Her father was a native of Ireland and her mother of New York. There were eight children in the family, two sons and six daughters, and six are now living: Carrie Adell, the deceased wife of Samuel R. Smith; Nettie L., Mrs. Hayes: Emma F., wife of William Birkley, of Crown Point: Douglas, of Deep River, Lake county; Edith M.; Lewis E., of this county; Georgia B., wife of Lafay Wilkie, of Buffalo, New York; and Jennie, deceased. Mrs. Hayes' father, was a farmer, coming from Ireland and settling at Westville, New York, when a young man, thence came west and lived in Wisconsin eight years, moved from there to Illinois, and in 1865 to Indiana. He died in 1876, aged forty-eight years. His father, also William, died in Lake county well advanced in years, having been the father of a good-sized family. The maternal grandfather of Mrs. Hayes was Alexander Jarvis, a native of Ireland, whence he came to the United States about 1834 and located at Westville, New York. He was a farmer. His wife was Margaret Henry, and they had eleven children. His father, Joseph Jarvis, died in Ireland.


WILLIAM C. SMITH.

William C. Smith, superintendent of the city schools of East Chicago, has been engaged in educational work during most of his active career, and is a man of exceptional fitness for his calling and of recognized ability in both the instructional and administrative fields of his profession. During the past three years he has done excellent work in raising the standard and creating an educational efficiency in the school system of East Chicago, and is held in high esteem among all the patrons of the public schools.

Mr. Smith was born in New York city, February 2, 1869, a son of John G. and Sarah E. (Chandler) Smith, both natives of Massachusetts. He is of one of the oldest American families, dating back for seven generations. His paternal grandfather, John G. Smith, was shoemaker of Beverly, Massachusetts, where he died at the age of sixty-five. His wife was Hannah Cross, and they had a large family. The maternal grandfather of Superintendent Smith was Holbrook Chandler, a native of Massachusetts and also of an old American family. He was custodian of buildings of the Phillips Academy at Andover. He attained the advanced age of eighty-seven years. By his wife Frances Kimball he had a good-sized family. John G. Smith, the father of William C. was a traveling salesman for thirty-five years. In 1879 he left New York and located at St. Louis, Missouri, where he made his home till his death, in 1896. at the age of fifty-seven years. His wife is still living. They both had membership in the Second Baptist church of St. Louis. He had been a soldier during the Civil war, serving in the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry, of the Ninth Army Corps. He was wounded at the battle of Antietam, and was at the siege of Knoxville and in many battles under Sherman. He served as a private for two and a half years. He and his wife were parents of four children: Everett H., of St. Louis; William C.; Miss Mattie, of Godfrey, Illinois; and Hannah, of Lincoln, Illinois.

Mr. William C. Smith received his first schooling in Jersey City, and after the family moved to St. Louis he attended the public schools of that city, and later was a student in the manual training school of Washington University, in St. Louis. After school days were over he was employed in various ways in St. Louis until 1887, when he began his career as teacher, having charge of district schools for three years. He then became assistant principal at Albion, Illinois. In 1901 he came to East Chicago to assume the position of superintendent of the city schools, and has served in that capacity ever since.

Superintendent Smith is a member of the Second Baptist church of East Chicago, while his wife is an Episcopalian. Politically he is a Republican. He resides at 4136 Magoun avenue, where he built his good home in 1902. On September 2. 1891, Mr. Smith married Miss Mary Bowman, a daughter of Kemp and Sarah (Tribe) Bowman. They have one daughter, Sarah Frances.


AARON NORTON HART.


Aaron Hart

 


Martha Hart

Aaron Norton Hart is a figure of the past, whose career came to a close over two decades ago, but whose acts survive as an enduring monument of human energy. Count that man well starred, indeed, who accomplishes aught in this hurrying world that is destined to continuance and endurance, for most men's deeds seldom outlive their mortal years. But A. N. Hart (always called A. N. Hart) was a character of such force and originality that it was inevitable he should leave an impress on some phase of human endeavor, and this will be found in what he did for the advancement of agriculture, and reclamation of the swamps of Lake county to lasting cultivation- and crop-production. He was one of the pioneers and most successful promoters of this work, and as his task at the start was a stupendous one, so the happy solution of its difficulties brought him proportionate rewards, and at his death he was one of the wealthy men of Lake county. And rich not alone in this world's goods, but in the esteem of his fellow citizens and in his own worth as a spirit of action, of energizing power, of virile manhood and nobility of character.

Mr. Hart was well on toward seventy years of age when he was suddenly deprived of life, but he was an active force in affairs and at the moment of his death was employed in the work which will stand as his most important enterprise. He met his death on January 12, 1883, under the following circumstances as related by the local press:

"Friday morning about 11:30 o'clock Mr. Hart was superintending the construction of a ditch cutting off a large bend in Plum creek, which flows through his farm at Dyer. The ditch had already been cut through, and a current was flowing. The bottom of the ditch was about two feet wide, and the banks some ten or twelve feet high. A man was working just ahead of him, cutting off clods and frozen earth, while Mr. Hart was standing at the bottom of the ditch, pulling the loosened clods down into the ditch that they might float off. Suddenly, without warning, the left-hand bank caved, the sharp, frozen edge of the falling bank striking him in the region of the heart. Death was instantaneous. He was thrown against the opposite bank and buried to the waist. The man nearest him states that Mr. Hart did not utter a word, and simply threw up one hand; but whether it was an involuntary motion or a gesture, he cannot tell. It required the exertions of ten men to extricate the body, which was at once taken to the residence of the family near by. It is supposed that the bank had become loosened by the blasting, which had been previously done to open the ditch, and that it was ready to fall at the slightest touch." Funeral services were held at his late residence at Dyer and also at Crown Point, where the remains were interred.

This once so well-known figure in real estate and commercial circles was born at Akron, Ohio, April 16, 1816, being a son of William J. and Flora (Norton) Hart, of New England. His grandfather was a sea captain of Nova Scotia, and William J. Hart's early home before coming west was in Connecticut.

Mr. Hart was well educated in the schools of Ohio, and throughout life was noted for his strong intelligence and keen, alert mind. In the fall of 1850 he went to Philadelphia, where he soon became engaged in the book publishing business, under the firm name of Rice & Hart, Book Publishers. This firm published such works as "National Portrait Gallery," "American Sylva," and "North American Indians," and shortly after the issue of the first named Mr. Hart came west to the territory about Chicago and engaged in selling the work. On July 4, 1861, he located permanently at.Dyer in this county, where he had previously made extensive investments in land. Afterwards he engaged in the real estate business in Chicago, where the firm of Hart & Biggs continued for some years before the fire.

Mr. Hart was one of the large land-owners in Lake county, and it is in connection with his real estate interests that the forceful elements of his life are best manifested. He owned eight thousand acres in one body in St. John township, and at the time of his death possessed altogether seventeen thousand acres in the county. The Hartsdale farm of eight thousand acres was one of the first of the fertile and inestimably valuable tracts to be rescued from the dominion of swamp and fen, which had been its state for centuries. It was about 1857, when he was traveling through this state and Illinois in the interests of his publications, that Mr. Hart saw the immense Cady's marsh, then covered by water, and realized at once that it could be drained. He bought several thousand acres at various prices ranging from seventy-five cents to a dollar and a quarter per acre. He executed an ingenious and thorough system of drainage by which the water was drawn off into the Calumet river, and Mr. Hart found that he had thousands of acres of rich alluvial soil, whose depth of fertility could never be impoverished by cultivation, and where crops have grown through all the successive years in abundance and ever increasing value. A few months before his death Mr. Hart was offered two hundred thousand dollars for his farm, but refused, since it was worth twice that princely sum.

Mr. Hart was energetic and enterprising in many affairs looking to permanent improvement and development of his county, and no feasible plan for public progress could be presented to him without arousing his interest and co-operation. His pioneer efforts in making the fertile farming tracts from the original swamps did more for the permanent growth and prosperity of the town of Dyer than any other one cause, and that town and community lost a great force for good in the death of Mr. Hart. He was very much interested in a ship canal from the southern end of Lake Michigan to Toledo, effecting the saving of the long passage to the north through the straits of Mackinac. He was not a dreamer, but a practical man of affairs, and the solution of hard problems and the undertaking of great enterprises were the natural element for his mind and energies to work in.

Mr. Hart was married at Philadelphia in 1844 to Miss Martha Reed Dyre, who was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1824, and died at Crown Point, January 4, 1897, a companionable and much loved old lady of seventy-three years. She was the niece of Father Taylor, the famous Boston divine. A. N. Hart and wife had the following children: James W., deceased: Milton R.; Malcolm T., deceased; and Mrs. Flora Norton Biggs. Mr. Hart was an uncompromising Republican after that party came into existence, and before that his political alignment had been with the Whig element.

Mrs. Flora Norton Biggs, the only daughter of Mr. Hart, was born in Akron, Ohio, and was educated in Mrs. Cary's private school in Philadelphia. She was united in marriage in 1865 to Mr. James H. Biggs, of Cincinnati, now deceased, and who for some time was engaged in the real estate business.


LOUIS BARKER.

Louis Barker, proprietor of the leading clothing and men's furnishing goods store in Indiana Harbor, will, as a matter of record for all present and future history, have the distinction of being the pioneer merchant of this town, the one who recognized an opportunity and opened a place of business before ever the present work of exploitation and development of the townsite had been begun. His fortunate selection of a location and his fine business ability and reliable methods of dealing have all combined to give him a prosperous trade and an influential position among the men of affairs in whose keeping lies the greatness of Indiana Harbor.

Mr. Barker was born in Russian Poland, December 25, 1850, being a son of Herman and Goldie (Bamett) Barker. His family name was originally Barkawfski, but for business reasons he had it changed after coming to the United States. His paternal grandfather was Jacob Barkawfski. who was a native of Poland and was engaged in buying horses for the government. He had a small family, and he lived to be eighty years of age. Mr. Barker's maternal grandparents were Samuel and Sarah Bamett, both natives of Russia, where the former was a grain dealer and died at the age of eighty-five. Herman Barker, the father of Mr. Barker, was a fruit dealer, and in 1865 emigrated to America. Sickness soon caused him to return to the old country, where he died in 1869, aged sixty-nine years. His wife died in 1890, when about seventy-eight years old. They were both of the Hebrew faith. There were eight children born to them, three sons and five daughters, and the six now living are Simon, Louis. Meier, Pearl, Sarah and Rebecca.

Mr. Louis Barker received his school advantages in his native land. He came to America with his father in 1865, and after living in New York city two years came west to Chicago, where for a number of years he was in the grocery business. In November. 1901, he came out to Indiana Harbor and built a small store building as the first business enterprise of a coming town. He transacted a general merchandise business for some time, and a year later his family moved to the place. In the summer of 1903, after the full tide of prosperity and industrial development had struck the place, he put up a fine brick store and residence, and he also owns other real estate in the city, besides a building in East Chicago. His son Harry was the second person to open a business establishment here, a restaurant, and he later organized the Indiana Harbor Yacht Club. Mr. Barker is a Republican in politics, and the family remain true to the religious faith of their ancestors.

June 26, 1869, Mr. Barker married Miss Rebecca Moses, a daughter of Max and Lillie Moses. Eight children were born of their marriage, as follows: Annie, who married Mr. A. Frank, of Chicago, and they have two sons. Benjamin and Lester; Isaac; Fannie, who married I. Bergson, of Chicago, and has two daughters, Dorothy and Sadie Belle: Harry; Heiman, who married Belle Cohn and lives in Indiana Harbor, and has one son. Earl; Samuel: David and Sadie.


WILLIAM H. HERSHMAN.

William H. Hershman, superintendent of the city schools of Hammond, is a well known educator of Lake county and the state of Indiana, and during the past three years has made a splendid record through his connection with the public schools of Hammond. He has devoted the best years of his life to his profession, and from first to last has been in the front rank of educational progress. The field has been vastly broadened, standards of efficiency have been raised and ideals have changed since he taught his first school, but to-day as well as twenty years ago Professor Hershman is a dominant and influential spirit both as a school manager and an instructor of the young.

He was born in White county, Indiana, July 20. 1851, being a son of Jacob and Mary (Edmondson) Hershman, natives of Ohio and Tennessee respectively. In the paternal line he is of German descent, and his grandfather came from Virginia to Ohio in an early day, and thence became a pioneer of Hamilton county, Indiana, at a time when that portion of the state was the haunt of wild animals and Indians. Many of his descendants still live in Hamilton county. He was a farmer, and lived to be eighty-five years of age. His wife was Mary Cartmill, and she was about the same age at the time of her death. They had a large family, eight sons and several daughters, but all are now deceased but two daughters, Mrs. Sarah Smith, a widow, of Lafayette, Indiana, and Mrs. Mary Strong, in Nebraska.

Jacob Hershman, the father of Professor Hershman, also followed farming. He came to Indiana when fifteen years old, and resided in Hamilton county till after his marriage, when he moved to Benton county and later to White county, and in 1868 to Newton county, where he lived until his death, in Brook in March, 1903, when about eighty-two years old. He was one of the stanchest supporters by faith and works of the Methodist church, as is his widow, who is now seventy-nine years of age. Her father was Thomas Edmondson, who was born in Ireland and came to this country and settled near Knoxville, Tennessee, where he followed his trade of millwright. He died in young manhood, but his wife, whose name was Nancy Box, lived to the age of sixty-three years, having been the mother of seven children, all of the sons but one becoming preachers. Jacob and Mary Hershman were the parents of seven children, five of whom are now living: George died while a soldier in the Civil war; John R. lives in Brook, Indiana; William H., of Hammond; Jennie is the wife of Newton Lyons, of Jasper county, Indiana; Frank is deceased; Sarah and Linnie are twins, the former the wife of James Hoach, of Chicago Heights, Illinois, and the latter the wife of Thomas Gratner, of the same place.
Mr. William H. Hershman lived in White county, Indiana, until he was seventeen, spending his youth on a farm. From the district schools he went to the National Normal School at Lebannon, Ohio, and later to the Indiana State University, at Bloomington, where he was graduated with the degree of A. B. in 1898. He then took a course in the University of Chicago and in the Cook County Normal School. These periods of higher training were interspersed in longer periods of teaching, and except when in college he has been teaching practically ever since he was eighteen years old. His first school was in Newton county. He was president of the Vincennes University one year. He came to Hammond on October 1, 1901, and has held the position of superintendent ever since. There are eight school buildings under his supervision, and the enrollment of pupils is about 2,670. The superintendency is a responsible and arduous incumbency, but he has given eminent satisfaction and done a fine work for the cause of public education in this city. Mr. Hershman served as county superintendent of schools of Newton county for ten years, being elected five successive times with unanimous consent except the first time. He has also concerned himself to some extent with newspaper work, and is one of the proprietors of the Brook Reporter.

Mr. Hershman in politics is independent. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church, and he is one of the church stewards. He affiliates with Garfield Lodge No. 596, F. & A. M., with Hammond Chapter, R. A. M., and with Hammond Commandery No. 41, K. T., and also with Murat Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Indianapolis; with Delphi Lodge No. 28 and with Carroll Encampment No. 17, I. O. O. F., and with the Patriarchs Militant at New Albany, Indiana. He resides and owns a nice home at 39 Webb street.

July 3, 1873, Mr. Hershman married Miss Jennie Lyons, a daughter of Samuel and Margaret (Smith) Lyons. They have two children. Ara Ethel is a teacher in the Hammond public schools, and George is attending Armour Institute of Technology.
Mrs. Hershman's father was a native of Virginia and her mother of New Jersey, and she was the only daughter of five children. Her father, a son of Morris Lyons, also a native of Virginia, was a blacksmith in early life, later a farmer, and now lives with his daughter at the great age of ninety years. His wife died in August, 1903, aged seventy-eight years. Her father was named Joseph Smith, and he was truly a hardy and venerable old pioneer. He lacked only two months of being ninety-eight years old at the time of his death. He helped build the breastworks around New York during the war of 1812. His birthplace was Hoboken, New Jersey. He was one of the first settlers of Jasper county, Indiana, and was one of the first county commissioners of Jasper and Newton counties, serving for several terms. He left Indiana and went to Kansas in the fifties, where he took part in the border warfare of that state. He died at Brook, Indiana. He had been left an orphan, and been bound out as apprentice to a tanner, and his long life was filled with honorable and useful effort.


JOHN A. GAVIT.

John A. Gavit, attorney at law in the Majestic building at Hammond, has carried on a successful practice in this city since 1896, and has been practicing at the bar for the past sixteen years. Before coming to Hammond he took considerable part in public affairs, and he still gives public-spirited interest to all matters affecting the general welfare of his community. He is an able lawyer, well read and a fluent talker, and is a genial and talented gentleman who wields a good influence in the city and county.

Mr. Gavit was born in Walsingham, Canada, August 19, 1861, a son of Albert N. and Bridget (Highland) Gavit, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of Ireland. His paternal grandfather, Albert Gavit, was a native Connecticut farmer, but who died in Canada in old age, having reared a large family. His maternal grandfather, Patrick Highland, was born in Ireland and followed farming during his earlier years. He emigrated to Canada, and after some years moved to Pontiac, Michigan, where he died in old age. By his wife Hannah he had a number of children. Albert N. Gavit has always followed farming, and is still living on his farmstead near Saginaw, Michigan. He has been honored with various township offices. He and his wife had seven children: John A.: Frank M., of Whiting, Indiana; Louis N., of Saginaw, Michigan; Mary, wife of Frank Cole, of Saginaw; William, of Saginaw; the other two children are deceased.

Mr. John A. Gavit spent his boyhood days near Pontiac, Michigan. He attended the public schools there, and in 1886 graduated from the Normal College at Flint, Michigan. He then read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1888. He was engaged in practice at Saginaw from then until 1896, at which date he came to Hammond, where he has created a good reputation in his profession and built up a very fine clientage. Mr. Gavit is a Democrat in politics, and at Saginaw was justice of the peace for three years. He resigned that office to accept the nomination for prosecuting attorney, and was elected and served in that office for two years.
Mr. Gavit affiliates with the Knight of Pythias, the Maccabees and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He resides at 755 Sibley street, where he bought ground and erected a good home. In January, 1890, he married Miss Emma Campbell, the daughter of John and Adelia (Johnson) Campbell. They have six children: Elwin J., Russell, Bernard, Donald, Hubert and Inez.


MELVIN A. HALSTED.


Melvin A. Halsted

 


Mrs. M.A. Halsted

Melvin A. Halsted, who is living a retired life in Lowell, was born in Rensselaer county. New York, March 29. 1821. The ancestry of the family can be traced back to William the Conqueror, and three brothers of the name came to America in early colonial days, settling in New York. The great-grandfather of Melvin A. Halsted was a minister of the Baptist church and was one of a party of six that owned an entire township in Rensselaer county, New York. One representative of the family. Thomas Halsted, remained loyal to the British crown, but Joseph Halsted, the grandfather of our subject, espoused the cause of the colonists and valiantly did battle for their rights. He was born in the Empire state on the bank of the Hudson river, became a farmer and followed that occupation throughout his entire life. William Halsted, the father of Melvin A., was also a native of Rensselaer county, New York, and after arriving at years of maturity he was united in marriage to Miss Patty Haskin. who was born in Pittstown, New York, and was a descendant of Enoch Haskin, who was of Scotch birth, coming from the land of the heather to America in the year 1700. Mr. and Mrs. William Halsted were the parents of two sons, but the younger, Edson, is now deceased.

The only surviving member of the family is Melvin A. Halsted, who was reared in the place of his nativity until fourteen years of age and attended the public schools there. He was also a student in the high school at Benning-ton, Vermont, and in 1837 he removed to Montgomery county, Ohio, locating in Dayton. He was there married in May, 1842, to Miss Martha C. Foster, and for three years they continued their residence in Dayton, at the end of which time they came to Lake county, Indiana, locating in West Creek township, where Mr. Halsted carried on farming until 1848. He then came to what is now the town of Lowell and built and operated a sawmill. The following year he burned four hundred thousand brick, and erected the house in which he still lives. It is yet a substantial structure and is a monument to his life of thrift and energy. Attracted by the discovery of gold in California, Mr. Halsted crossed the plains in 1850, accomplishing a part of the journey with ox teams and the remainder of the trip with mule teams. He was one hundred days upon the way, and after spending about a year on the Pacific coast he returned to the Mississippi valley by way of Salt Lake city, being eighty days upon the return trip. In 1852 he built the flour mill at Lowell, hauling all of the machinery from Chicago in wagons. In 1853 he began the operation of this mill, and it became one of the important industries of this part of the state, receiving a patronage from a large district. About 1857, however, he sold the property and removed to southern Illinois, but in the meantime he had entered the land upon which the town of Lowell now stands. In southern Illinois he built and operated a grist and saw mill at Kinmundy, twenty miles north of Centralia, on the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad. There he remained until 1859, when he sold his property and again went to California, where he built another flouring mill thirty miles south of San Francisco. In 1861 he sold this for twelve thousand dollars, and then returned to Kinmundy, Illinois, where he owned real estate. After four months, however, he again went to California, by way of New York and the isthmus route, arriving eventually at San Francisco. He then made his way to Virginia City and was engaged in mining at Gold Hill for about three years, when he returned by way of Panama and New York to Lowell, Indiana. His family had joined him at Gold Hill in 1862, and in 1863 he made a trip among the giant trees of the state. At Gold Hill he built four houses, which he rented, and thus he contributed to the improvement and development of the town. On the 4th of January, 1864, he started for Indiana by the water route, leaving his family, however, in California. On reaching Lake county he found that his original property at Lowell was for sale, and purchased it, together with other property, including a flour mill three miles from Lowell, in addition to the one at Lowell. On his return to Lowell he put the mills in excellent condition and carried on the business of manufacturing flour for some time. He then sent word for his wife to sell his property in California and Nevada and join him in Lowell. He met his family at New York city and went to Washington, where they visited Mount Vernon and many places of interest in and about the city. While there Mr. Halsted obtained the assistance of Mr. Colfax in getting the first daily mail for Lowell.
Mr. Halsted continued in the milling business at Lowell until 1869, when he sold out and spent the succeeding winter in San Francisco, again making the trip to the Pacific coast by water. He erected fourteen houses for renting purposes at Valejo, California, twenty-two miles from San Francisco, and continued to own that property until 1872, when he sold out to one of the owners of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. In that year his family returned to Indiana, while Mr. Halsted made a hunting tour off the Island of St. Barbara. He captured four sea lions on the expedition, which he sold to John Robinson, the showman, for twelve hundred dollars. Later Mr. Halsted visited Kinmundy, Illinois, before returning to Lowell. He has also visited New England, viewing many points of historic interest in that country, including Plymouth Rock, on which the early settlers first stepped as they landed from the Mayflower on American soil. Going to Utah territory, he sent for his family to join him there, and became superintendent of a mine, which he conducted until the demonetization of silver in 1873. After his return from Utah he was instrumental in securing the building of the Monon Railroad through Lake county. He did grading to the value of eighty-five thousand dollars, but only received sixty-five thousand dollars, thus suffering a loss of twenty thousand dollars. He is now engaged in the real estate business in Lowell.
Mr. and Mrs. Halsted have two sons, William M., who is a resident of Topeka, Kansas, and Theron H., who is residing in Lowell. Mr. Halsted gave his early political support to the Whig party, and heard William Henry Harrison deliver a political speech on the 10th of September, 1840. On the dissolution of that party he joined the ranks of the new Republican party, of which he has since been a stalwart advocate. He is now the oldest Mason of Lowell and a charter member of the lodge in this place. He has passed the eighty-third milestone on life's journey, and his has been a very eventful career, in which he has largely witnessed the growth and upbuilding of the country and has taken an active and helpful part in the work of progress in many sections of the United States. From actual experience he has intimate knowledge concerning the history of pioneer days in California as well as in Indiana and Illinois, and his life record, if written in detail, would present many chapters of intense and thrilling interest. He is very widely known in northwestern Indiana, and his worth as a man and citizen is widely acknowledged.


BENJAMIN F. IBACH.

Benjamin F. Ibach, lawyer of Hammond, with offices in the Hammond building, has been prominent in practice at the bar of Indiana for the past forty years. He has gained an enviable reputation as pleader and counsel, but h"s also gone afield into politics and public life, and one of the most important state charitable institutions owes its organization and high efficiency to his sincere and intelligent efforts. Before entering the law he had made a great success in the teaching profession, and he performed noteworthy service in this line in both Pennsylvania and Indiana. Mr. Ibach is a man of broad practical and scholastic attainments, devoted to his main work in life and also interested in world and community affairs, and has the humanly sympathetic instincts which are the marks of the well rounded and large character.

Mr. Ibach was born in Cherrington, Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, January 31, 1834, so that he has now passed the limit of life set by the Psalmist, but is still able to perform a useful part in life for some years to come. He is a son of Charles and Elizabeth (Hine) Ibach, and is the only one living of the three sons and two daughters born to those parents. His father was born at Reimscheid, near Dusseldorf, Germany, and was a manufacturer of iron kitchen utensils, as was also his father. He was brought to America in 1799, when six years old, the family locating in Chester county, Pennsylvania, and there he was reared and in that state lived the rest of his life. He died in Cherrington, Pennsylvania, in August, 1833, before his son Benjamin was born. He and his wife were both Lutherans in faith. His wife was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, and survived him until 1881, being then eighty-two years old. Her father, John Hine, was a life-long resident of Pennsylvania, dying at Philadelphia when nearly seventy years old. He was a farmer until he retired late in life to Philadelphia.

Mr. Benjamin F. Ibach was reared on a farm in Pennsylvania. He attended one of the first public schools established in the state. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to Emanuel Schaeffer, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and learned the saddle, harness, collar and trunk-making business. After completing his apprenticeship he worked at his trade long enough to earn money with which to attend the Strasburg Academy. After a term or so in that institution he taught in the public schools of Lancaster county, and then became principal of the Strasburg Academy, which position he held for several years. While principal he and James P. Wickersham and another gentleman were appointed a committee at a teachers' county convention to organize a normal school. They organized and set going such a school at Millersville, with Mr. Wickersham as president, and out of this institution grew the State Normal School at Millersburg. After leaving the Strashurg Academy Mr. Ibach for several years was superintendent of the public schools of Columbia. Pennsylvania, and in 1862 became superintendent of the public schools of Huntington, Indiana.
While engaged in school work both in Pennsylvania and in Huntington Mr. Ibach was reading law, one of his preceptors being W. T. Phail, of Lancaster. Pennsylvania, and in November, 1864, he was admitted to the bar at Huntington. He began practice in that city at once. He was elected prosecuting attorney for several terms, and was also judge of the common pleas court for a time. He held the office of city attorney of Huntington for seventeen years. As a matter of recreation principally he had devoted some study to feeble-minded children, and when the legislature passed an act for the organization of a school to care for such children, Governor Williams appointed Mr. Ibach as one of the trustees. After the completion of a suitable building for the purposes, the governor induced him to resign his place as trustee on condition that the board of trustees should elect him superintendent of the institution, which was done. He organized the school, placed it on a good business basis, and during his two years' management the asylum attracted national attention to its efficiency and was visited by superintendents from various states for the purpose of noting its methods of improving this class of children.

After resigning this important work he resumed legal practice at Huntington, where he remained until 1895, m which year he came to Hammond, and has continued his successful legal career in this city to the present writing. In 1886 he was elected to the legislature for the counties of Hunting-ton and Allen, being a member of the memorable assembly of 1887, during which he voted for David Turpie for United States senator. His political allegiance was given to the Democratic party until after Cleveland's first election, and from that time until 1896 he was in alignment with the Republicans. His views as to money caused him to swing with the silver Republicans, and since then most of his influence has been on the side of Democracy. He is a member of the Methodist church, and fraternally is affiliated with Garfield Lodge No. 569, F. & A. M., at Hammond.

January 29, 1856, Mr. Ibach married Miss Kate E. Warfel, whose parents died when she was an infant, and she was taken and reared as the daughter of B. B. Gonder. Three children were born of this marriage, Charles L., Preston G. and Joseph G. Charles L. was a clerk in Indianapolis at the time of his death; his wife was Lizzie Chambers, of Camden, New Jersey, who is also now deceased. Preston G. is a successful physician in Hammond; he married Miss Nellie Huntoon. Joseph G. is an attorney in Hammond; he married Miss Minnie Friedley, and they have three children. Mary, Anna and Joseph. Mrs. Kate Ibach died in February, 1864, when twenty-nine years old. She was a member of the Methodist church.

In May, 1876, Mr. Ibach married Miss Martha Wilson, a daughter of Samuel Wilson. She died in October, 1891, at the age of sixty-three, having been a faithful member of the Methodist church. There are no children living of that union. On July 22, 1903, Mr. Ibach married for his present wife Mrs. Amanda L. Rounds, a widow.


PATRICK REILLEY.

Patrick Reilley, at present of the Reilley Plumbing Company of Hammond, is a man of broad and varied business and industrial experience, covering several important fields of human activity and in different parts of the country. He has known a life of busy and useful effort since he was a young boy, when he joined the naval service of the United States while the Civil war was still in progress. While with the navy he saw much of the inhabited part of the globe. He came west to Hammond, about twenty years ago, to identify himself with the butterine department of the packing company, and since then has embarked in the plumbing business, in which he has been most successfully employed for a number of years. He is now able to rely and place much responsibility on the shoulders of his stalwart sons, and he has good reason to be proud of his fine family, which he has reared to careers of usefulness in addition to performing well his own part in life. He has entered much into public affairs since taking up his residence in Hammond, has been honored with the office of mayor of the city, and in many ways is identified prominently with the life and welfare of his community.
Mr. Reilley was born in Verplanck's Point, New York, January 1, 1848, a son of James and Bridget (O'Donnell) Reilley, both natives of Ireland, where their parents lived and died. His father followed various pursuits in young manhood. He was a brick-maker by trade, and on coming to America settled in New York state. He was for some time superintendent of the Second Avenue car stables, and in 1855 was killed there by the kick of a horse. He and his wife were both Roman Catholics. His wife survived him three years, and by her second husband, John Allen, had one son, John Allen, Jr. There were six children, two sons and four daughters, born to James and Bridget Reilley, but only two are now living: Patrick and Bridget, the latter the wife of John Hessick, of Lebanon, Indiana.

Mr. Patrick Reilley lived in New York state until after the breaking out of the Civil war, and received his early education in that state. On October 23, 1863, when fifteen years old, he enlisted at Philadelphia in the United States Marine Corps, and served as drummer for five years, three months and eight days. He re-enlisted at the close of his service, and went to Europe in the United States frigate Guerriere. He served four years in all, and was also assigned to other ships, the Don, the De Soto and the Brooklyn. After leaving that department of naval work he was employed in the Brooklyn navy yard for some time, and later began the manufacture of butterine at Charlestown, Massachusetts. He was in the employ of the Standard Butter Manufacturing Company for some time, and later with John Reardon and Son of Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. In 1884 he came to Hammond to accept the position of superintendent of the Hammond butterine department, remaining with the company for twelve years. He resigned and went into the plumbing and later into the grocery business with his sons James and Edward, confining his attention to that line of merchandising for three years. For the past six years he has given his principal energies to the conduct of the Reilley Plumbing Company, which has a large and profitable patronage in this city.

Mr. Reilley gives his political allegiance to the Democratic party. He served as councilman of the third ward for eight years, and for the last eighteen months of that time acted as mayor. Two years later he was re-elected to the council, and was afterward elected to the office of mayor, which he held four years. He and his wife and family are members of the Catho-lic church, and he affiliates with the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Order of Foresters, the Independent Order of Foresters of the State of Indiana, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He has lived at his pleasant home at 283 South Hohman street for the past eighteen years.

Mr. Reilley married Miss Mary A. McSweeney, a daughter of Edward and Mary (Murphy) McSweeney. They are the parents of thirteen children, eight of whom are living, as follows: Mary Ann, James C, Edward, Catherine, Bessie, Nora, Julia and Joseph. James C. married Josie Enright.


FRED S. CHARTIER.

Fred S. Chartier, the popular liveryman at Hammond, has been identified with the business affairs of this city for the past five years and has gained the esteem and high regard of all his fellow citizens through his fair and progressive business methods and his own personal integrity of character.

He was born in Valparaiso, Indiana, May 24, 1871, being a son of Jacob and Emma Chartier, natives of Napierville, Quebec, and born, respectively, November 2, 1835, and October 19, 1845. The father of Mrs. Emma Chartier was a native* of Canada, whence he came to the United States and was one of the early settlers of St. Ann, Illinois, where he died at the age of eighty-four years, having been the father of a large family. The paternal grandfather of Mr. Chartier was of French parentage but a native of Canada, and was a farmer by occupation. He died at Valparaiso, Indiana, at the advanced age of eighty-one years. There were eight children in his family.

Jacob Chartier was eighteen years old when he came to the United States in 1853 and located at Valparaiso, Indiana, where he engaged in farming for a few years. He then became a brick manufacturer, and continued that business up to 1897, since which time he has lived retired. He served as city councilman of Valparaiso for several terms, and has otherwise been prominent in business and public affairs. He and his wife are Catholics in faith. They had eleven children, six sons and five daughters, and eight are now living: George, of Stony Island, Illinois; Fred S., of Hammond; Leonie, of Valparaiso; Eliza, wife of H. B. Blair, of Fort Wayne, Indiana; Alfred C, of Hammond; Margaret, wife of Clarence Dillingham, of Valparaiso; Stella, wife of David Lameroux, of Chicago; and Peter, of Valparaiso.

Mr. Fred S. Chartier was reared at Valparaiso, in which city he attended both the parochial and the public schools. He undertook life's responsibilities at an early age, and has since made his own way and gained by self-achievement the prominent position in business affairs that now belongs to him. At the age of fifteen he went to Michigan, where he remained for a year, and then went to South Chicago, where he lived for eleven years. He followed railroading until 1894, and was then in the oil and gasoline and bottle-beer business. In September, 1899, he came to Hammond, and for the past two years has been engaged in conducting a first-class livery establishment, to which he has recently added an undertaking business. He is a live, wide-awake business man. and understands the art of gaining trade and retaining it by fair and honorable dealings.

Mr. Chartier was married April 10, 1893, to Miss Catherine Young, a daughter of Michael J. and Mary (Conway) Young. They have three children, Fred Walter, Marie Agnes and Irene Alice. Mr. and Mrs. Chartier are members of the Catholic church, and he affiliates with the North American Union, and with the Independent Order of Foresters of Toronto. In politics he is a Democrat.


OSCAR DINWIDDIE.

Oscar Dinwiddie, of whom a likeness is here given, is the oldest son of the pioneer J. W. Dinwiddie. He is a farmer and large land owner of Plum Grove, in Eagle Creek township, is master of Center Grange, has been an officer in the State Grange and National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, and is president of the Old Settler and Historical Association of Lake county. He takes an active part in the Farmers' Institutes and is a member of the Lake County Tax Payers' League. He is corresponding secretary of the Dinwiddie Clan.


J. FLOYD IRISH.

J. Floyd Irish engaged in the real estate and insurance business at Hammond, with office over the First National Bank, has been connected with various departments of business activity in Lake county for the past twenty years, and has made a commendable record for reliability, integrity and ability in all his dealings. He takes much interest in the progress and welfare of his city and county, and is a citizen who can be depended upon to carry out his obligations in every department of life.

Mr. Irish was born in Brunswick, Lake county, Indiana, June 19, 1867, a son of Josephus Hull and Mary Ellen (Vinnedge) Irish. His paternal grandfather, Joab Irish, was a native of Vermont, a farmer by occupation, and died well advanced in years, having been the father of twelve children, six sons and six daughters. Josephus H. Irish was born in Chittenden county, Vermont, and trained himself for the profession of veterinary surgeon. He came west to Brunswick, Indiana, in 1850, and lived there until 1888, when he moved to Hammond, where he died January 20, 1902, at the age of seventy-five years. He held the office of justice of the peace for thirty-four years. His wife still survives him, and now resides in Zion City, Illinois. He was married three times. His first wife died about a year after their marriage, and her child died in infancy. His second wife was Clarissa Bidwell, by whom he had four children, three now living, as follows: Cornelius E., of Hammond; Martha M., wife of Elliott J. Jarrard, of Hammond; and Arvilla. wife of Walter Bowes, of Crown Point, Indiana. His third wife was Mary Ellen Vinnedge, who was born near Plymouth, Indiana, and they were the parents of six children: Ida May; deceased, who was the wife of Adolphus E. Crowell; Clara A., the deceased wife of Ernest W. Sohl; Iva E., deceased, who also was the wife of Ernest W. Sohl; George Edward, deceased; J. Floyd Irish, of Hammond; and Charles Hull Irish, of Zion City, Illinois, assistant cashier in a bank.

Mr. J. Floyd Irish was born and reared and has lived all his life in Lake county. He attended the public schools at Brunswick and Crown Point, after which he engaged in teaching school for six terms. He clerked in a furniture and undertaking establishment in Crown Point for some time, and in 1888 came to Hammond. He taught school and later clerked in a confectionery store, after which he returned to Crown Point, and was in the employ of Peter Geisen for two years. He went back to Hammond and was circulator and reporter for the Hammond Tribune until January, 1898, when he entered the real estate and insurance business in connection with his father. In 1899 he bought his father's interest, and has since conducted the business alone, dealing in city and country property on an extensive scale and annually writing large amounts of insurance for the standard companies.

In politics Mr. Irish is a Republican, and is one of the city commissioners. He affiliates with Hammond Lodge No. 210, Knights of Pythias, and with Pioneer Council No. 38, Royal League. He and his wife are members of the First Presbyterian church of the city, and he is an elder. He purchased his present good home at 628 May street in 1897. He was married, September 30, 1891, to Miss Eva A. Pierce, and their family circle now contains two daughters, Zella Gertrude and Blanche Marie.

Mrs. Irish is a daughter of Israel R. and Mary C. (Atkin) Pierce, the former a native of Ontario, Canada, and the latter of Ohio. Her paternal grandfather was James Pierce, who came from Canada to the United States, and lived at Valparaiso, Indiana, many years. He died in advanced years. By his wife, Jane (Lane) Pierce, he had three sons and three daughters. Mrs. Irish's maternal grandparents were Major B. and Betsey (Banks) Atkin, five of whose children are still living; he was a farmer and lived in Crown Point during the last fifteen years of his life, which ended in 1897; he was a Republican. Mrs. Irish's father was a farmer and an early settler in Indiana, having left Canada when he was eight years old. He lived on a farm near Merrillville from before the war until his death, on April 23, 1885, when forty-nine years old. He served as a private in the Civil war for three years, being in many important battles and in Sherman's campaign to the sea. He was a Republican, and he and his wife, who survives him, were both Methodists. They had five children, four of whom are now living: Jennie, wife of Alva Saxton, of Merrillville, Indiana; Carrie, wife of Robert Saxton, of Merrillville; Eva A., wife of Mr. Irish; Ernest L. Pierce, of Crown Point; and one that died in infancy.


ARMANIS F. KNOTTS.

Armanis F. Knotts, mayor of Hammond and since 1888 continuously engaged in law practice in this city, is an able, industrious and successful member of the Lake county bar, and deserves all the more credit because he arrived at his present prominent position by diligent application early and late from the days of boyhood. He has spent nearly all his active career in northwestern Indiana, and for a number of years was a successful school teacher, by which profession he entered upon his broader field of activity in the law and public life. He is one of the influential Republicans of Lake county, and to the social, institutional, professional and political affairs of his community has given a generous share of his time and effort.

Mr. Knotts was born in Highland county, Ohio, February 29, 1860, a son of Frank D. and Margaret (Bell) Knotts, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Ohio. His mother was a daughter of an early settler and farmer of Ohio, of Irish descent, and who reared a large family. On the paternal side the family is of Holland Dutch stock, from early settlers in Maryland, and the great-grandfather was a soldier in the Revolution. The grandfather, a soldier in the war of 1812, moved to Ohio at an early day, and lived there till his death at the age of seventy years, having reared a large family.

Frank D. Knotts, the father of Mayor Knotts, has followed the occupations of carpenter and farmer principally. When he was quite young he moved with his parents to Ohio, and in 1868 came to Indiana, locating first in Tippecanoe county, near Lafayette, and afterward at Medaryville, Pulaski county, where he was engaged in farming, but now lives in the town. He is a Democrat in politics, and has held various township offices. His first wife died in 1870, at the age of twenty-nine years, and he married for his second wife Miss Jennie Yates, who became the mother of two children: Nettie, the wife of Nandis Cox, of Medaryville; and William, of Medaryville.

Mayor Knotts was eight years old when he came with his parents to Indiana, and he grew to manhood in Pulaski county, being reared on a farm and learning its duties at an early age. He laid the foundation for his larger training while a student in the district schools, and later attended the normal school at Valparaiso. After leaving the home schools he had taught for some time in the country schools and in Medaryville. He spent five years at Valparaiso, and graduated in the classical course in 1883. He then taught two years at Ladoga, being principal of the Central Indiana Normal and Business College. He then returned to Valparaiso, where he took the law course and was graduated in 1887. In 1888 he opened his office in Hammond, and has been, successfully practicing in this city ever since. He was elected county surveyor of Porter county while in school in Valparaiso, and held the office eighteen months, resigning when he came to Hammond. Since coming to Hammond he has been much interested in Republican politics. He was elected and served one term in the state legislature, from 1898. In May, 1902, he was elected mayor of Hammond, and has given a very efficient administration of municipal affairs.

Mr. Knotts resides at 8 Clinton street, where he built a comfortable home in 1892. He affiliates with Garfield Lodge No. 569, F. & A. M., with Hammond Chapter No. 117, R. A. M., and with Hammond Commandery, K. T. His wife and the children are members of the Catholic church. In 1884 he married Miss Mary Hennessy, a daughter of Michael Hennessy. They have had four children: Anna Frances, Eugenia, Leo and Marguerite. Leo died at the age of two years.


JAMES A. GILL.

James A. Gill is well known in the business circles of Whiting, where his keen sagacity, enterprise and well directed efforts have led to his connection with important interests and his consecutive progress therein. He is now the superintendent of the wax-pressing department of the Standard Oil Company, is president of the Whiting Electric Light Company and is also a director of the First National Bank of Whiting.

Mr. Gill was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on the 3d of January, 1865. His father, Isaac Gill, was a native of England and was reared in that country, remaining there until about thirty years of age, when, hoping to enjoy better business opportunities in the new world, he crossed the Atlantic, taking up his abode in Cleveland, Ohio. In that city he was united in marriage to Miss Barbara Heck, who was born in Germany and came to the United States after reaching womanhood. Isaac Gill was in the employ of the Standard Oil Company of Cleveland for thirty-eight years, in fact, he was one of the pioneer representatives of the company and was employed
directly by John D. Rockefeller. After the establishment of the plant at Whiting he came to this city, and here died in his seventieth year, while his wife also died when about seventy years of age.

James A. Gill, their only child, spent the days of his boyhood and youth in the city of his nativity, and came to Whiting in 1889 when the Standard Oil Company located its manufacturing plant at this place. He acted as timekeeper for the brick-layers employed in the construction of the buildings, was afterward made inspector of oils in the laboratory, filling that position for about three years. He was next appointed superintendent of the acid works, holding this position for about ten years, going from the acid works to the paraffine department, which position he now holds. He is one of the most trusted as well as capable representatives of the corporation, and this department is always managed with excellent executive ability that results in efficient workmanship. As his financial resources have increased, owing to the increased wages that have come with promotion, he has been enabled to extend his efforts into other lines of activity and is now the president of the Whiting Electric Light Company and one of the directors and stockholders of the First National Bank of Whiting. He was one of the incorporators of the Petrolene Paint and Roofing Company, and was made its first president, resigning same some time ago, as the duties of the office were getting too great for him to handle in connection with his other business. He is also the owner of valuable real estate here and erected the first three-story brick block built in Whiting.

In 1891 occurred the marriage of James A. Gill and Miss Carrie H. Halsey, a daughter of Charles Halsey. She was born and reared in Cleveland, Ohio, and by her marriage has become the mother of two children: Jesse M. and Grace A. Mr. Gill is a stanch Republican who keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day, but has never sought office as a reward for party fealty. Fraternally he is connected with the Masons, and he is also a member of the Owls Club, in which he formerly took a very active part. He is deeply interested in the growth and progress of his adopted city, and has witnessed its development from its earliest inception to the present time. For fifteen years he has been connected with the upbuilding of the place, and has just reason to be proud of the fact that to his efforts can be traced several substantial enterprises and achievements contributing greatly to the prosperity and progress of Whiting. In every sense of the word he is a representative citizen devoted to the welfare of his chosen state and community and loyal to the government.


WARREN HENRY HAYWARD.

Perhaps the majority of Lake county families have some visible evidence of Mr. Hayward's artistic work in their homes, and there are certainly very few families in the county that have not some knowledge of who Mr. Hayward is and what his life work represents in the way of fine art. For over a quarter of a century he has been the leading photographer of Lake county, and in a profession which, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, made as phenomenal advancement as any other science he kept up with the rapid pace of improvement, and as he stood for the highest type of art in the seventies and eighties so now in the early years of the twentieth century he takes the palm in competition with the masters of the profession. The probable secret of Mr. Hayward's success is that he has from his first acquaintance with photography as a profession been enthusiastic and invincibly industrious in its pursuit, and he spared none of the resources of body or mind in his preparation for the work.

Mr. Hayward is a native son of Lake county and the county has been his home and center of activity nearly all his years. He was born in Ross township, June 25, 1852, being the eldest son of Henry and Martha D. (Kronkright) Hayward, the former a native of England and the latter of Vermont. Henry Hayward emigrated with his parents to Canada when he was eight years old, and a few years later the family home was located in Lake county. After his marriage Henry Hayward entered eighty acres of land in Ross township, and his industry and successful management increased this estate to three hundred and twenty acres, on which fine farm he lived until 1897, when he moved into Crown Point. After living there for a few years he moved out to Santa Barbara, California, where he now lives in retirement from a career of activity that has been splendidly useful and fruitful.

Warren H. Hayward attended the common schools of his township during the winter seasons, and when summer came he was at home helping on the farm. This routine of boyhood he continued until he was eighteen years old, and he then entered the Valparaiso Male and Female Methodist Episcopal College, where he remained two years until his graduation in the commercial department. On his return home he decided to teach district school during the winter seasons, and was accordingly examined and received a license to engage in pedagogic work. He was hired to teach a winter term in Ross township, but before the term began he had settled upon his definite life occupation, and his resignation was therefore sent in and accepted by the school authority.

It was Mr. Hayward's plan to launch into the photographic business at Valparaiso as a full partner with his uncle, who had had much experience in the profession. In order to learn his part of the work Mr. Hayward at once commenced in what was then the best studio in Chicago, the firm of Copelin and Melander, where he paid ten dollars a week tuition fee, and at the end of six weeks graduated from their printing and finishing rooms. At Valparaiso the partnership of E. J. and W. H. Hayward was carried on for a little over a year, and then the junior partner bought out his uncle's interest on account of the latter's failing health, and for the following two years continued the business alone. He then sold out and returned to Chicago in order to continue his professional training and prepare himself for the extended career in photography which he saw was opening up before him.

On May 10, 1876, Mr. Hayward married Miss Jessie Indiana Bliss, the youngest daughter of Captain H. G. and Louise M. Bliss, of Crown Point. On the day following the marriage they left for Santa Barbara, California, where for a year Mr. Hayward was manager of a large photographic business. He then returned to Crown Point and in September, 1877, started in business for himself. He has made Crown Point his headquarters ever since, and at different times has also conducted branch establishments at Hammond and Lowell.

Many things prove the high estimate in which Mr. Hayward's art is held, not only in Lake county but wherever it has come into competition with other work. He was selected by the G. H. Hammond Company packing house officials to make a set of interior and exterior photographs of their plant, which were to be sent and placed on exhibition at the Paris exposition of 1900. He has likewise taken many prizes on pictures entered in various competitions, and he was awarded a bronze medal at the National Convention of Photographers at St. Louis in 1894.

From childhood Mr. Hayward has found his greatest recreative pleasure in the rod and gun, and his vacations have usually been spent on the banks of the Kankakee river, whence many times he has brought home a hundred ducks and geese that have fallen before his accurate and practiced marksmanship. When wild game became scarce he interested himself for several years in trap-shooting as a diversion, and won numerous prizes and medals in competition with Chicago's best shooters. Fraternally Mr. Hayward is a member of the Independent Order of Foresters of America, the Knights of Pythias, and the National Union. He is also a member of the Crown Point Commercial Club, and at this writing has the honor of being its president, now serving his second term as such. This club is primarily a social organization, but at the same time is always looking out for the best interests of the town and has effected much for its welfare in the past.

Three children have come to bless the home of Mr. and Mrs. Hayward. Nina Louise was born June 20, 1878, and on Christmas day of 1900 married Frank E. Daily, of Chicago. By this daughter Mr. and Mrs. Hayward have a little grandson, Milton Hayward Daily, who is now three years old, having been born November 21, 1901. Harry Bliss, the only son, was born August 28, 1879, and after spending five years in the study of medicine in Chicago graduated in 1902, and is now located at Valley Mills, Texas, where he is practicing his profession with flattering success. Neva Belle, the youngest of the family, was born April 21, 1881, and on January 12, 1904. married John T. Daily, of Chicago. The two daughters married brothers. This happy family is well known and highly esteemed in the social circles of Crown Point, and both children and parents individually have found and are performing worthy parts in the world's affairs.


JAMES HERVEY BALL. Esq.

James H. Ball, of whom a likeness is here given, youngest son of Judge Hervey Ball, was fifteen months of age when his father settled at Cedar Lake. A student for a time at Franklin College in Indiana, he became a teacher in the public schools of Lake county, and at length school examiner of the county. He held as county examiner the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh county institutes. He made the first official school visitations before they were required by law.

In 1871 he graduated at the Law School of the University of Chicago. He was in active life in Lake county for several years. He has been for some time a resident in Scott, Kansas, where he has a law office, and he has been for two terms probate judge of Scott county.

Before leaving Crown Point he erected four brick dwelling houses which still remain as memorials of his enterprise, as well as his work for many years in educational lines.

He now holds, in Scott county, quite a tract of land, through which flows a stream of water, making it valuable for grass and for pasturage. On this pasture land he keeps some fine cattle of the Galloway variety. His place is called "Edith Ranch."


JOHN J. WHEELER.

John J. Wheeler, proprietor and publisher of the Lake County Star at Crown Point, the newspaper known as possessing the best equipment and the largest circulation of any paper in northwestern Indiana, is a representative of the journalistic fraternity whose present prosperous and successful position in life has been won by hard and persevering labor and serious attention to the interests which of his own responsibility he has assumed or which have been intrusted to him through circumstances. His career, like that of many newspaper men, has been varied and concerned with several fields of human activity; and, also, his, entire life spent within the bailiwick of Lake county has brought him into most intimate relations with its citizenship and industries, forming experiences and associations of inestimable value in the conduct of a local journal. The Lake County Star is a conservative journal in that it adheres to the best traditions and policies of the past, whether in political or material affairs, but is also exceedingly progressive in that its point of view broadens with the advance of the decades and it continually advocates the upbuilding of the county and state and a betterment of all the vital conditions of society and the world in general. The Star is an influential organ, contains the best winnowings of the local news, and both as an indicator and director of public opinion its strength has long been felt in Lake county.
Mr. Wheeler is a native son of West Creek township, Lake county, and was born in that prosperous agricultural section of the county January 11, 1848. The Wheeler family originally came from Connecticut, and this branch is from the same strain as is General Joe Wheeler, the famous little rebel general, but the political associations of the Lake county Wheelers have always adhered to the Union and Republicanism.

Mr. Wheeler's father was John Wheeler, and his mother Ann Wheeler, a daughter of John D. Jones. These parents came from Ohio to Indiana in 1847. The father first engaged in school teaching, later was county surveyor of Lake county, and in 1857 founded the Crown Point Register, which he continued to publish until June, 1861. He then entered the Union army as captain of Company B, Twentieth Indiana Infantry, and in the spring of 1863 he was promoted to colonel of the command. He had been in all the Potomac battles up to that time, and on the second day of the great Gettysburg engagement he was shot from his horse and instantly killed at the "Devil's Den," July 2, 1863. His children are John J., Edgar C, and Alice M., now Mrs. S. S. Cole, of East Brookfield. Their mother died in the seventies.

John J. Wheeler received a very meager education in the country schools of this county, nor did his opportunities of school attendance long continue, since he was obliged to make his own way from the time he was fourteen years old. For several years he clerked in a store. He entered the army when he was fifteen years old, and he now possesses two honorable discharges, showing that his youth did not hinder him from performing a full meed of patriotic service to his country. His field of life work has always been in Lake county, and he was twice elected to the office of county surveyor. While in the second term of this office he resigned in order to enter the newspaper business, which he has followed since 1872. He has owned his present fine newspaper plant for twenty-four years, and is among the oldest as he is one of the most successful publishers in northwest Indiana. During Harrison's term of president he served Crown Point as postmaster, and it is needless to state that he has always been a stanch Republican in political faith. He has been a member of the Masonic fraternity for thirty-three years, and also a Forester, and has been identified with the Grand Army of the Republic since its organization. He is eclectic in his religious views.

Mr. Wheeler was married to Miss Belle Holton, October 27, 1870, at Crown Point. She was a granddaughter of Solon Robinson, who figures so prominently in this history as the founder of Crown Point; he was a remarkable man in many other ways, was the author of numerous books, and for many years was agricultural editor of the New York Tribune. Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler have two sons and two daughters. Harold H., the eldest, is now serving his second term as county clerk, and when his time expires he will have been connected with that office for twenty-two years, he having been deputy fourteen years. Fred, the second son, is foreman in the Star office. Jennie A., the older daughter, is now Mrs. W. P. Tice, and Josephine C, aged fifteen, is still at home.

Mr. Wheeler's career is its own best justification, and he has every reason to be satisfied with the outcome of the battle of life as he has fought it. He is prosperous and a highly esteemed man of affairs in his county, and a conscientious and diligent devotion to the work of the present world makes him content with what his lot will be when he is called upon to cross the great unknown.


DR. JAMES GILBERT VAN DEWALKER.

Dr. James Gilbert Van DeWalker, a prominent and well known physician and surgeon residing at 712 Johnson street, Hammond, Indiana, has been numbered among the popular practitioners of this city for over twenty years, and has been engaged in professional work for nearly a half century. His long life has been full of useful activity, and he has been identified with many enterprises both public and private during his career. He is a man of breadth and harmony of character, and his energetic disposition and large intelligence have brought him into relationship with all kinds of people and with various activities. He is one of the veteran soldiers of the republic, and has also been a lawyer of no mean ability, and has taken his full share in the social, fraternal, political and public affairs of the various communities where he has had his home.

Dr. Van DeWalker was born in Otsego county, New York, January 31. 1831. He is a descendant of one of three brothers who settled in New York during the early Dutch colonization of that state, and the family has been numbered among the Knickerbocker houses of New York. Martin Van DeWalker, the grandfather of Dr. Van DeWalker, was a native New York farmer, and several of his brothers were Revolutionary soldiers. He- and the same has been true of the family in general- lived to an advanced age, dying when he was ninety-five years old, and his wife, whose maiden name was Christina Flansbury, lived to be still older.

John Van DeWalker, the father of Dr. DeWalker, was a native of New York state, was a farmer there, and about 1842 came west and settled in Pleasant township, LaPorte county, Indiana, where he bought a farm and lived until his death, in 1889, at the age of eighty-one years. He and his wife, who died in 1880, at the age of seventy-seven, were both members of the Methodist Protestant church. His wife's maiden name was Nancy Thompson, a native of New York and a daughter of Robert Thompson. The latter was a New York farmer, and for a short time was a soldier in the war of 1812. He married Elizabeth Hull, an own cousin of General Hull, who surrendered at Detroit, and also a cousin of General Stark, who fought at the battle of Bennington, Vermont, where she was born. Robert Thompson died at the age of forty-five, and his wife lived to be eighty years old. They had three sons and three daughters. Robert Thompson's father was known as Colonel Thompson. He was the founder of the family in America, having come from the north of Ireland and settled in Cherry Valley, New York, a short time before the Indian massacre. John and Nancy Van DeWalker had six sons and three daughters, and the three now living are Dr. James G.; Emma Jane, the widow of W. T. Horine, of Washington, D. C.; and Elizabeth, the wife of Preston Green, of Lapaz, Indiana.

Dr. James G. Van DeWalker was about eleven years old when he left New York state and came to Indiana with his father, and he grew to manhood on the farm in LaPorte county. He attended the district schools, and later studied by the light of a tallowdip, and in the main he is a self-educated man, having gained by hard efforts all the advantages for education and intellectual development. After leaving home he studied with an uncle, Dr. Pierce, of Momence, Illinois, and up to the time of the Civil war did a small practice. He enlisted in 1862 in Company B, Twelfth Indiana Infantry, and served till the close of the war. He was in the battle at Richmond, Kentucky, in the siege of Vicksburg, at Jackson, Mississippi, at Missionary Ridge, and all the fifteen engagements of the Fifteenth Army Corps during the Atlanta campaign. He was then with Sherman to the sea, thence up through the Carolinas, the last battle being at Bentonville. In 1863 the officers had learned that he was a physician, and put him on duty as hospital steward, and he was assigned to General John A. Logan's, Fifteenth Army Corps headquarters, where he served till the close of the war in 1865.
After the war he practiced medicine at Lisbon, Noble county, Indiana, until 1868; from then until 1875 was at Lafayette; until the fall of 1878 was at Medaryville, Indiana; then moved to Davenport, Nebraska, and practiced until 1882, in which year he took up what has proved his permanent location at Hammond, where he has carried on a successful practice ever since. Right after the war he also studied law, and was admitted to the bar in Pulaski county, Indiana, in 1876, and practiced that profession there until 1878, and also in Nebraska. He had served as marshal of Valparaiso in 1856.

March 22, 1856, Dr. Van DeWalker married Miss Mary Beattie, who died January 21, 1891. On March 31, 1892, he married Mrs. Jennie Simpson, the widow of Robert Harrison Simpson and a daughter of Daniel and Ann (Shannahan) Foley. Dr. Van DeWalker is a member of the First Congregational church. He affiliates with Calumet Lodge No. 601, I. O. O. F.. and John A. Logan Encampment No. 95. He belongs to the Colonel Robert Heath Post No. 544, G. A. R., of the Department of Indiana. He is a member of the Lake County Medical Society, an honorary member of the Nebraska Eclectic Medical Association, and a charter member of the Indiana State Eclectic Association. In politics he is a Republican. He was secretary of the board of health of Hammond for eight years, was county physician twelve years and county coroner two years. He has also been pension attorney for a number of years. He bought his present home and added improvements, and also built his office on the same lot.


JOSEPH STARK.

Joseph Stark is a representative of the best ideals in agriculture, citizenship and personal character, and as such he is held in the highest esteem in Lake county, and especially throughout West Creek township, where the years of his activity have been passed.

He is a native of St. John township, this county, and was born December 30, 1859, being the fourth in a family of eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, born to Joseph and Mary Ann (Merrick) Stark. There are nine of the children still living, as follows: Afra, who is the wife of Matthew Herman, a farmer of St. John township; John, who is a prosperous farmer of West Creek township, and who has a sketch elsewhere in this book; Mary, the wife of Jacob Klassen, a retired farmer of St. John; Joseph; Frank, a resident farmer at St. John, who married Miss Amelia Koeblin; George, who resides on the old homestead and who married Miss Rosa Thiel; Michael, who is a butter-maker at St. John, and married Miss Mary Schreiner; Peter, a farmer of St. John, who married Miss Lizzie Klassen; and Frances, who resides with her mother at St. John. The children were all confirmed in the Catholic church, and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Stark are members of St. Martin's church at Hanover Center.

The senior Joseph Stark, the father of this large family, was born in the province of Bavaria, Germany, December 30, 1824, and died March 17, 1879. He was deprived of his mother's care when six years old, and at the age of thirteen began to earn his own way in life. He worked day and night in a mill until he was twenty-two years of age, and his wages were wonderfully meager when compared with those paid by twentieth century American prosperity. He had a common school education in his native tongue, but in the main was self-trained and self-educated. He was always reckoned as a man of character and solid manhood. At the age of twenty-two he took passage on a sailing vessel at Bremerhaven, bound for the free land of America, and at the end of six weeks he landed in New York city. At this stage of his career he was three dollars in debt, and the first thing he did in the new world was to work three days and clear himself of this incumbrance. He then worked his way to Chicago, where he was employed on the docks until cold weather, when he obtained work from a minister, being, in fact, willing to accept anything that would earn him an honest dollar. After remaining in Chicago for thirteen months he enlisted as a soldier in the Mexican war, and served throughout that important struggle. After the war he traveled through South America, where he was very much pleased with all he saw, and thence he returned to New York by ship and finally arrived in Chicago again. He and two other men purchased teams and drove through to California, but on the great salt desert the horses perished, and the remaining distance they were compelled to cover on foot. Mr. Stark was in California thirteen months, and during that time he dug out of the ground three thousand dollars in gold. He returned on foot to Chicago, got married, and for a year farmed on rented government land at Home-wood, Illinois. He came to St. John in Lake county, about 1859, and lived here till the end of his useful and busy life. He owned four hundred and forty acres in St. John township, and when it is recalled how he started out in young manhood with less than nothing, and before he had reached the meridian of his career, had gained a competency for those days, he must be recorded in this history as one of the truly successful and worthy men of the past who have made Lake county what it is at the present. In politics he was a loyal Democrat, and he and his wife were devout Catholics. His wife, Mary Ann Stark, was born in Alsace, Germany, in June, 1836, and is now living in St. John, a hale and hearty old lady.

Mr. Joseph Stark, who was born on the same day of the month with his father and who received the latter s name, was reared and has spent practically all his life in Lake county. His education was obtained in the parochial schools. He has made farming and stock-raising his vocation, and has been more than ordinarily successful in all his enterprises.

He remained at home and cared for his mother until he was twenty-five years old, and on February 5, 1885, he married Miss Susan Thiel. They have been made happy by the birth of ten children into their home, four sons and six daughters, and all but one of these are still living, as follows: Tillie S., who is in the seventh grade of school and is a piano student; Frances M., who is in the eighth grade and also a music student; Josephine is in the eighth grade and takes music; George, who is now in the German school; Edward J., who is in the fifth grade; Joseph, in the fourth grade; Oliva E.; Madeline M.; and Christina B., the baby of the family. Mrs. Stark was born in Lake county, March 17, 1864, and was educated in the parochial schools. Her parents were Mathias and Susan (Laurerman) Thiel. Her father was born near the Rhine river, and was eleven years old when he accompanied his parents to America and to Lake county, and he lived in this county until his death, on November 10, 1901. At the time of his death he owned a farm of one hundred and forty-eight acres in St. John township, and also had real estate in Hammond. He was a Democrat in politics, and he and his wife were Catholics. There were eleven children in the Thiel family, and ten are living, six of them residents of Lake county, and those elsewhere are: Katie, wife of George Thielen, a farmer of Cresco, Howard county, Iowa; Mathias L. is a merchant of Chicago, and is married; Frank, who was born June 2, 1870, and was educated in the parochial schools, is a resident of Chicago, and married Miss Lena Keilman, who was born in Lake county, November 17, 1873, and educated in the common schools, both of them being Catholics: and Andrew, who is a merchant of Chicago, and is a married man.

Mr. Stark is independent in politics, casting his vote for the best man in his judgment. He is the owner of one hundred and sixty acres of land in West Creek township, and on this he has recently erected a beautiful and comfortable farm residence. The farm is improved with good buildings and other conveniences, and the entire place has a progressive and prosperous appearance. He is a stock fancier, and takes much pride in his fine cattle and hogs. He is a shareholder in the West Creek creamery, which is located near his property.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF WILLIAM CLINTON MURPHEY.
CORPORAL. COMPANY B. ONE HUNDRED THIRTY-NINTH INDIANA INFANTRY IN THE CIVIL WAR.
MERCHANT AND BANKER.

The Murphey family in Henry county is as old as the county itself. The family came originally from North Carolina, for it was in the old North State that Miles Murphey and Dorothy Evans were united in marriage. They were the parents of sixteen children, six of whom died in North Carolina. About 1820 the family determined to emigrate to Indiana, and, coming to this state, they settled first in Wayne county, bringing their ten surviving children with them. In the spring of 1822, the same year that Henry county was organized, the family moved to what is now Henry county and settled on Flat Rock, two and one-half miles southeast of the present town of New Castle. One of the ten surviving children was a son, named Clement, born in North Carolina, December 23, 1808. In 1827, near New Castle, he married Huldah Bundy, also a native of North Carolina, and soon thereafter settled on a piece of land and started out to make a farm in Prairie township, about four miles northeast of New Castle. Clement and Huldah Murphey were the parents of fifteen children, eight boys and seven girls, viz.: Joel L., Hiram B., Francis M., Robert P., Eli C, William C, Miles E. and John F.

The daughters were named Elizabeth, Sarah J., Mary, Martha, Eliza J., Huldah E. and Catherine. Clement Murphey became a prominent farmer and was one among the most successful agriculturists that ever lived in Henry county. He and his wife were upright, religious people and took great interest in church and educational matters. They were very highly respected by all who knew them, and the good name which they left behind them is a valuable legacy to their children. In 1860 Mr. Murphey retired from his farm and moved to New Castle, where he and his excellent wife continued to reside until the day of their death.

William Clinton Murphey, the sixth son, is the subject of this sketch. He was born on his father's farm above mentioned, January 1, 1842. He lived with his parents, working on the farm and attending the public schools, until 1860, when he accompanied his parents to New Castle. He early developed mercantile and business qualities of a high order. In the fall of 1860 he became a clerk in the hardware store of his brother, Joel L., in New Castle, and soon after obtaining his majority in 1863, he had a hardware store of his own. Later he moved to Middletown in Henry county, and engaged in the dry-goods trade, remaining there for a period of about two years, when he returned to New Castle, where he continued in the dry-goods business until the summer of 1868, when he engaged in the grocery business, which he operated until the fall of 1871. In the fall of this year came the turning point in Mr. Murphey's business career, for at this time he was induced by Mr. George Hazzard of New Castle to dispose of his grocery store and engage in the banking business.

A firm was formed consisting of George Hazzard, William C. Murphey and Reuben Tobey, under the firm name of Hazzard, Murphey and Co., operating a private bank, known as the Citizens Bank of New Castle, with a combined capital of $40,000, ten thousand dollars of which was contributed by Mr. Murphey. This venture was highly successful, so much so that in the summer of 1873 these partners, with some new capital solicited in Henry county, were able to and did organize, under the laws of the state of Indiana, the Citizens State Bank of New Castle, with a capital of $130,000, of which bank Mr. Murphey was made cashier.

In 1874 there was not a banking institution of any kind in Lake county, Indiana. Now there are, perhaps, twenty such organizations in the county.

Neither was there a banking institution of any kind on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad, between Logansport and Chicago. This unoccupied territory was certainly an inviting field, and accordingly Mr. Murphey disposed of his interests in the Citizens State Bank of New Castle, when he together with Martin L. Bundy, George Hazzard and Augustus E. Bundy of New Castle, and John Brown, William W. Cheshire, David Turner, James Burge, James H. Luther and perhaps one other of Crown Point, the latter taking $1,000 each in the capital stock, organized the First National Bank of Crown Point., with a capital of $50,000, Mr. Murphey becoming vice president. Later the other parties from New Castle sold their stock in the bank, and Mr. Murphey became cashier, a position he held until physically disabled for further service. With this bank Mr. Murphey was continuously identified as the controlling spirit from the date of its organization until the close of his business career. Under his management the bank was highly successful. It accumulated a surplus fund equal to its capital, and so desirable was the stock as an investment that it readily sold for two hundred and fifty dollars a share. The par value of the shares was one hundred dollars each. It was in Crown Point that he made his great reputation as a prudent and sagacious business man and banker, and it was there also that he accumulated the fortune of a quarter of a million dollars which he left at the time of his death.

In the Civil war Mr. Murphey was not forgetful of the patriotic duty which every citizen owes to the government, for he became a soldier in Company B, One Hundred Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, being mustered into the United States service as a corporal June 5, 1864, and mustered out September 29, 1864.

At New Castle on the 29th day of November, 1866, he was married to Alice lone, second daughter of Joshua and Nancy Holland, old and highly respected citizens of Henry county. Mrs. Murphey was a native of New Castle where she lived all her life. She was highly esteemed by all who knew her. She died December 22, 1869, and her body now lies at rest in beautiful South Mound cemetery. From this union there was one child, a daughter, Anna Florence, born October 12, 1867. This loving child was not permitted to reach her full estate, for while at the Oxford (Ohio) Female College, she was suddenly stricken and died, February 22, 1885. Her remains were laid at the side of her mother in South Mound cemetery. Her death was a great shock to her father, who never fully recovered from the great loss then inflicted.

On November 22, 1882, Mr. Murphey again married, this time to Louise M. Luther, nee Louise M. Whippo, now his surviving widow, a most estimable woman, highly educated and who was born at Dublin, Wayne county, Indiana, September 9, 1844. It was after Mr. Murphey's union with Mrs. Luther that his greatest success and prosperity came to him. She proved in every way a true wife, a good companion and a great business helpmeet. It was with the most tender solicitude that she cared for Mr. Murphey during his last years of almost total helplessness and supervised his business affairs. Mr. Murphey died July 21, 1898, at Crown Point, Indiana.
On August 3, 1895, while engaged in the duties of his position at the bank, Mr. Murphey was stricken with paralysis. For days he hovered between life and death, but finally a change for the better came, and as soon as he was able to travel he was taken to southern California, where with the warm sun and genial climate he rapidly improved and in May was able to return home. But in November he returned to California, spending the winter in Los Angeles. In May he again came home, but soon left for Mt. Clemens, Michigan, where he hoped to find his health restored. He did receive some benefit, but in the fall again went to California, remaining until spring. He was failing before his departure for home, and on his return was confined to the bed for some days, but for ten weeks he was able to be out and meet his old friends, but finally the fatal disease was more than his heroic efforts could overcome and death claimed its own.

For many years Mr. Murphey had been an earnest advocate of cremation, as the proper method of disposing of the dead, and, in accordance with his often expressed wish and direction, that disposition was made of his remains, and his ashes deposited by the side of his wife and only child in South Mound cemetery, New Castle.

No man that ever lived in Lake county, for that matter in northwestern Indiana, left behind him a more enviable reputation for prudence, sagacity and sterling integrity than William Clinton Murphey. His judgment was the controlling factor in all disputed business affairs, throughout Lake county. He was an excellent person for one in doubt to consult, for he could take up the case and point out the uncertainties as well as the winning points. His advice was sought far and wide. He was a man of polished manners and pleasing address. His memory will long be cherished by all who knew him.


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