New Harmony is the location of two attempts at communal living: In 1814 George Rapp bought 20,000 acres on the Wabash River, including land in White county Illinois. Reverend George Rapp, and his utopian culture built the community of New Harmony promoting peace and Harmony. The first community was established as Harmony in PA, but the original spot did not meet George Rapp's plans, so he came to Indiana and established New Harmony.
The Harmonists were industrious and culturally ahead of the area. However after ten years the community was declining and they decided to return to Pennsylvania.
The land and community was bought by wealthy Scottish industrialist Robert Owen, in 1825. He wanted to create a community of equality and education for all. His community only lasted a couple of years but New Harmony became a place known for education and advanced ideas, so scholars came from around the world to study and learn new ideas in New Harmony. It has remained an important cultural center for many years thereafter.

The Workingmen's Institute

NEW HARMONY (in the beginning)

From the History of Posey county Published by Goodspeed 1886

There is no place in Indiana, perhaps no place in the United States, about which there centers more historic interest to the scientist, the socialist or the moralist, than about New Harmony. The place has been praised by some in effulgent, and at times by almost fulsome, eulogies; at other times it has been traduced by the tongue of scandal. This has all occurred from the different views of its very peculiar society. Situated as it is in a bend of the Wabash, and surroimded as it was at first, by the forest primeval, with scarcely a single tree removed by human hands, and no human inhabitants save a few lingering red men who remained as monuments of almost extinct confederacies, it might seem strange that such a place was chosen as the abode of an intelligent and prosperous people. The founders of the place were the Rappites, and the leader and the moving spirit of this peculiar people was George Rapp. No history of New Harmony would be complete without a history of George Rapp and his people. George Rapp was the son of Adam Rapp, a farmer of Wurtemberg. He was born October 28, 1757, and was married to Christina Benzinger. He was the father of Eosina and John Rapp. Eosina died of old age in 1849 at the home of the society at Economy, in Pennsylvania. John Rapp was the father of Gertrude, who is still living in the society.
The story that John Rapp suffered a nameless punishment even to death, at the hands of his father, is most bitterly denied by the society. From a manual or history sent out by the society it is learned that John Rapp received a severe strain while Working at the company's warehouse, which threw him into a quick consumption, of which he died in 1812. A post mortem was held on his body and the testimony of witnesses was taken, all of which showed the above mentioned cause to have led to his death. Frederick Reichert, who is known as Frederick Rapp, was really no kin to George Rapp. He was a stone-cutter by trade, and, when on a visit to the neighborhood of George Rapp, became acquainted with him, and was soon an earnest and zealous follower. George Rapp saw in Eeichert the mechanical skill and business qualification necessary for carrying out the scheme he then had under contemplation. Eeichert soon became the business manager and confidential agent of Rapp, and was known as his adopted son, and was always called Frederick Rapp, and lie so signed his name to legal documents. These were days of great religious intolerance in Germany, and Kapp became a dissenter from the doctrines and practices as taught by the Lutherans of Wurtemberg, and not being willing to submit to the persecution necessary in carrying out his ideas of religion and practice of domestic economy, determined to seek a home more suited to his plans. In 1803 he came to America and purchased 5,000 acres of land of Dr. D. Basse, of Butler County, Penn. In the spring^ of 1804 the "Aurora" sailed from Amsterdam for Philadelphia, with 300 immigrants ; six weeks later the "Atlantic" sailed with 300 more, and in the fall of the same year the "Marquette" brought the remainder. They, however, did not all settle in the same locality. The evil eye of their neighbors was upon them. They lived down suspicions and calumny by well-doing, and soon made the wilderness around them blossom as the rose. In 1807 they adopted celibacy, but this could not have been rigidly enforced, as will be shown "further on. In other things they were far from being ascetics. Music, painting, sculpture and other of the liberal arts flourished under them. Their museums and gardens were the wonder and delight of those around them. Desiring a warmer climate and other more favorable influences, in 1812 Frederick Rapp visited six of the Western States and Territories, and was so favorably impressed with Posey County that he concluded to move the colony to what is now New Harmony. They accordingly sold their possessions in Pennsylvania, amounting at this time to about 6,000 acres of land, with their flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, and their factories ; for these they obtained about $100,000. In 1814 a part of their number arrived at New Harmony, and in 1815 the remainder came, consisting of about 125 families and about 700 persons. Here they bought vast tracts of land, the most of which was in Harmony Township, but they obtained some in Bethel and a considerable amount in Point. They also held lands in Illinois and some in Knox County. All these lands were entered in the name of George Rapp and associates, or in the name of Frederick Rapp, individually.


On the bank of the "Wabash they laid out the city destined to be their future home. Their home in Pennsylvania had been very properly called Harmonie, i. e. Harmony and this new home for the same reason was called New Harmonie, New Harmony. They at once entered upon the work of clearing away the forest and building houses, and putting in place machinery, and making such other improvements as were necessary for the prosperity of a vigorous and prosperous colony. An extensive water-mill was erected at the "cut off" about two miles below the town, this not only did the work for the community but furnished meal and flour for the entire surrounding country for several years. The place was well selected] for a mill site as the fall in the river gave excellent power. A large vineyard of eighteen acres furnished an abundance of the finest grapes, these grew on the hills south of the town, and Strock, the vinedresser, carefully economized the fruits of his labor. He is said to have remained after the departure of the Rappites and is still remembered by the old settlers. Not far from the vineyard was the wine-press, this consisted of a circular tank or trough in which the grapes were placed and a large circular stone was rolled upon them to bruise them and to extract the juice. The remains of the old press are still to be seen. The wine was stored in cellars near by to await a suitable market. At the head of Brewery Street stood a large brewery from which the street was named. They also had a distillery for making whisky. Possibly not very consistent, yet while Rapp encouraged the manufacture of wine, beer and whisky as an article of commerce, he rigidly prohibited intemperance in the community.


The large flocks and herds were watched by old Straheli the herdsman, who rode to the pastures in " Noah's Ark," a small house as it were placed upon wheels and drawn by cattle. In this Straheli. sheltered himself and tended his flocks and herds. These were driven to the fields, to the hills south of town, and to the island for pasturage in the daytime and at night they were driven into the barns and sheds for protection. A large steam grist-mill was built about 1820 near where Mott's house now stands; to this was added a cotton and a woolen factory for spinning ; coloring, weaving, dyeing and fulling cloth. A cocoonery and silk factory was in operation for a time and some very fine articles of silk were made. There was also a saw-mill a short distance southeast of town, the power being from a stream running down the hillside ; vast quantities of lumber were sawed by hand with "whip saw.'' About two and one-half miles from town on a small Creek stood an oil-mill for the manufacture of castor oil ; there was a brickyard in the south part of the town. Instead of grinding the mud by wheel or mill it is said that men tramped the mud in the pit.
They had blacksmiths, masons, tinners, physicians and men of almost every craft. They raised almost every article of produce from the garden or orchard to extensive fields of grain. They cleared away the forest, and ditched the land. They built houses and barns and fenced their fields. They were slow in movement, painstaking, orderly, industrious. They were taciturn and courted not the society of strangers except for business. They were peaceable; in the main honest and sober,- little given to literary pursuits, yet not wanting aesthetic tastes, as evidence of which they built a conservatory near where Dr. Owen's residence now is, in which were to be seen orange and fig trees and many rare ornamental shrubs. The most curious of all was the labyrinth, which was located across the street not far from Mr. Wheatcrofs residence. This was entered by mazy, winding passages which made several circuits before reaching the center, where was placed a curiously carved rustic house. The passages were enclosed by espaliers covered by hedges of currant, hazel and various fruit and ornamental trees. In addition to the buildings already mentioned they erected many private residences and a large brick house for Father Kapp. This stood on the ground were Dr. Owen now resides, but unfortunately the Rapp building was burned a few years ago. They also built a frame church not far from Father Rapp's residence, this had a tall steeple in which was placed two bells for calling the devoted followers of Rapp to worship. Those bells regularly pealed forth their solemn tones, inviting the worshipers who were always led by Father Rapp. Later they built a huge hall in the form of a cross, the plan of which, according to Father Rapp, was given to him three different times in a dream. This building was 123 feet in length and was twenty six feet to the ceiling of the first floor, and was two stories in height. The upper story was, however, not of the full size of the lower story. The building was of brick and was entered at the ends of the wings. The building stood almost on the same ground on which now stands the institute building. The old building having fallen into decay by neglect and abuse was torn down a few years ago and the institute erected in its stead. The stone facing surrounding the main entrance of the old hall has been preserved and now fills the same place in the institute building. Overhead is a rude bas-relief of a rose surrounded by a wreath, at the sides of which*is the date, 1822, and beneath is the inscription, "Micha 4, &. 8." This was the work of Frederick Rapp.
In the side of the building is a tablet on which is inscribed "In memoriam of the Harmony Society founded by George Rapp,1805." Near Rapp's residence stands the old granary which was built of stone, the walls being two feet thick and the roof of tile, thus making the building fire proof. In the walls of the granary were cut loop-holes, thus rendering the granary a good fortress, and it is usually known as the "old fort." This was connected with Rapp's residence by a subterranean passage, which is now closed up, but the old fort stands almost as perfect as the day it was finished. About the only changes that have been made are, the port holes have been enlarged to windows, and some slight changes have been made to accomodate the machinery that has been placed in it. It is now used as a grist-mill. The Rappites erected four other large brick buildings, each about 40x80 feet, except one, which was 45x90. Of these one has been torn down ; one is used as a public hall, ball room and theater; another, where the Veets House now stands, was partially destroyed by fire, and the fourth is occupied by Fretageot & Co. as a business house. These buildings were used as common lodging rooms or boarding halls. William Herbert, who visited the place in September, 1823, thus describes it: " The place is characteristic of the society and the people settled there. This singular community consists of about 700 individuals, chiefly from Wurtemburg and neighboring places, and have been here seven years. They have relinquished a similar society in Pennsylvania because it was too thickly settled to suit their peculiar tenets, or the peculiarities of their society. These good people have literally made the barren wilderness to smile. The town is regularly laid out into squares, the streets crossing each other at right angles. The log-cabins are giving way as fast as possible to commodious brick and frame buildings. The brick {houses, from their bright red color, afford a very pleasing contrast when compared with the houses of London. The house of Rapp has large parlors, a fine garden and out-buildings attached. The streets were planted with Lombardy poplars, but from a peculiarity of the subsoil they soon died and were replaced by mulberry, the effect of which is very pleasing to the eye. Being such rigid economists they doubtless planted the mulberry to afford leaves for their silk-worms. They have mills, public ovens, granaries, factories, barns and a church with a tall steeple.


The members encourage celibacy, but do not compel it. They think the celibates stand higher in morals than the married. When a superintendent was asked how long since they had had a marriage he replied that it had been three years, although there were then 100 in the community of marriagable age. They punish by verbal reproof or withholding social intercourse. They observe order and decorum, and are industrious and sober. They work from sun to sun, and those in the brewery and distillery work till late at night. The sounds of conviviality are rare, and there is little talk or mirth, unless while trading with their neighbors. They are adverse to communicate or explain their tenets. They discourage the learning of the English language. They have a superintendent over each department, a general store, their own doctor, saddler, blacksmith, and keep a house of private entertainment (tavern). Each superintendent receives the money in his own department, and each individual is credited with what he does, and is charged for what he receives. They raise everything they use, except groceries, and they get these by exchange. Frederick Rapp is general business manager, and he has agents in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Everything is entered in the name of Frederick Rapp, or George Rapp and associates. Seeing that celibacy was reducing their numbers a head of one of the departments was asked if they did not desire an increase of their number, he replied: 'Not by strangers.' The question was again asked if they would not like an increase from their own countrymen, and again the answer was given that they did not desire an increase by ' strangers,' evidently considering all strangers who were not of their own faith. When asked about their old home, he said: 'We are happier here.' " The same eye-witness further describes the appearance of the church with its tall white steeple, and the sound of its bell calling together the worshipers, and the band of music which furnished music for worship and pastime. He further says he saw men, women and children march to the harvest field to the sound of music to gather in their ripened grain, their numbers being so great that a field of a hundred acres would be gathered in a single day. The women dressed in long, close fitting jackets and gipsy bonnets, all of uniform make. From their sallow skin they did not seem to be very healthful. In March, 1822, the community was increased by the arrival of about 123 immigrants from Wurtemburg, the old home of most of the members. These were soon assigned their places in the community, and all things moved on smoothly again. It is mentioned here as coincident of the time that the visitor mentioned above speaks of millions of wild pigeons flying over New Harmony and filling the air as far as the eye could reach, and many settling down to roost in the neighboring forest; so thick were they that the inhabitants killed many with sticks or clubs.


The Harmony Society, viewed from whatever standpoint, were a peculiar people. They have existed for nearly 100 years, and their numbers are gradually diminishing, and but a few years more they will be known only in history, yet perhaps no other people have lived lives more consistent with their doctrines, or have been more uniformly successful in business. It is stated on good authority that in 1807 these people were worth on an average $25 per head, and in 1825 they had $2,500 for every man, woman or child in the community. The community was sorely vexed by an impostor called " Count Leon," who caused dissensions among them and robbed them of about one-third of their wealth ; but happily, his true character was found out, and he was placed on a keel-boat and set afloat on the Ohio River. He went down the Mississippi to Alexandria, La., where, in 1833, he died of cholera. Rapp has been criticised for not encouraging popular education more, and for living such exclusive lives. It is questionable if the community could have succeeded in any other way. The society was moved by one sentiment, guided by one mind, and that mind was Father Rapp's. There was sometimes bitter feeling toward the Rappites by their neighbors, whether from jealousy at their greater prosperity or otherwise, is not known. From some cause they became dissatisfied, and concluded to make another move. Several theories are given for this change: Difficulty with their neighbors, sickness in the community and a preference for isolation. To the first it might be said that the bitterness was not likely to lead to danger; the second might seem reasonable from the amount of malaria that is known to have existed there at that time, yet the extravagant statement was published shortly after their departure that the death rate was only one and one-half per cent annually. The third cause doubtless had something to do with their intended change. Mr. Richard Flower, of Albion, Ill., acting as agent, found a purchaser for the property at New Harmony in the person of Robert Owen, of New Lanark, Scotland. Mr. Owen was a man of talent, wealth and a philanthropist by nature. He was manager of a large manufacturing establishment that he had run successfully on the community plan, and he desired to try the experiment on an enlarged scale. Pending the negotiation of sale, on the 2d of March, 1825, the community, individually and severally, made Frederick Rapp "their true and lawful attorney in fact " for the sale of their property. The article was signed by George Rapp, Christina Rapp, Rosina Rapp, Johana Rapp and 497 others, all of whom except thirty-nine were able to make their own signature. The sale was finally consummated on December 25, 1825, by which Mr. Owen came in possession of 19,997.87 acres of land, 800 of which were in White County, 111. The consideration of said sale was $125,000 " in hand, paid of lawful money, the receipt, etc." This, however, did not embrace all the lands owned by the Rapps. Before dismissing the subject of Rapp it is thought proper to append the following memoradum of Rapp' s doctrine: 1. —He believed in the doctrine of future punishments and rewards. 2. —He did not teach everlasting punishment. 3.—He taught that the end was nigh— could not be later than 1837. 4. —He believed there should be no carnal intercourse between the married or unmarried. 5. —He thought only those who had abstained could occupy the highest places. 6. —He believed in a literal coming of Christ. In the infirmity of George Rapp, Frederick frequently officiated at worship, and before the death of George Rapp he was duly installed their spiritual head. Rapp was their priest and king. The only authority wanted on any question was "Father Rapp says it." The remnant of these people live at Economy, Penn, the most of whom are growing old. Messrs. Leutz and Henrico are now their teachers. It is said that when their numbers are reduced to less than three their vast wealth is to revert to the State of Pennsylvania.


Mr. Owen believed with Mr. Eapp in the community system of property, but differed widely in policy of management ; instead of. absolute control himself and keeping his own council, as did Mr. Rapp, he seems to have allowed every one a share in the deliberation. From every State in the Union, except one or two of the most southern, and from every civilized State of Europe flocked the people to Mr. Owen's community. Such a conglomeration of people, and such a variety of ideas could hardly be conceived. That such a community could succeed seemed hardly possible. That Mr. Owen was in earnest is evident from the fact that he spent such a vast sum of money in the enterprise. That he was honest, was evident from his opening his heart to every one and taking every one into his confidence. That he was enthusiastic is evident from his first lecture to the community, in which he said, "I am come to introduce an entirely new state of society; to change it from the ignorant and selfish system to an enlightened social system which shall remove all causes of complaint and reconcile all differences between individuals." That he had charity, is evident from the New Harmony Gazetfe, his organ, the motto of which was "If we cannot reconcile all opinions, let us endeavor to unite all hearts." On the 4th of July, 1826, Mr. Owen pronounced the death knell to the " Trinity of evils," irrational religions, individual property and inconsistent marriages. He certainly felt that he had accomplished the work, for there appeared ever afterward for a year or two, at least, on the title page of the Gazette, in italics, " The first year of Mental Independence, and of American Independence the fifty-first," and so on through the second year of " Mental Independence," and fiftysecond of "American Independence."
The first form of government was the " Preliminary Society," which was established May 1, 1825. This invited people of every nature and tongue to share the benefits of the society, except persons of color, and these might be admitted on certain conditions. The preliminary society provided for the admission of members, the general duties of members, general privilege of members and the dismission of members. February 25, 1826, the new constitution for the government was adopted. • It was called the " Constitution of the New Harmony Community of Equality." Its object was stated to be happiness; its principles— equality of rights, union in business, community of property ; and demanded freedom, sincerity, kindness, courtesy, order, obedience and economy. The committee on constitution consisted of Phillip M. Price, president; Thomas Pearce, secretary; W. "W. Lewis, James O. Wattles, John Whitley, William Owen, Donald McDonald, R. L. Jennings and K. D. Owen. The community was divided into six departments, viz. : Agriculture ; manufacture and mechanics; literature, science and education; domestic economy; general economy and commerce. The superintendents of the departments were Thomas Pearce, agriculture; J. K. Colidge, manufactures and mechanics; Thomas Say, literature, science and education; Richardson Whitby, domestic economy; Feldman Whitwell, general economy, and William Owen, commerce. The property embraced at this time, 8,000 acres of improved lands adjacent to the town, and nineteen detached farms embracing about 300 acres more. In 1826 Mr. Owen sold to William McClure, about one-third of the town, 490 acres in all, for $40,000. Although the constitution seemed liberal and good, it was soon found necessary to modify it to suit the clamors of the community. In January, 1826, there was a modification; in April it was allowed that twenty-five persons might move out and form a separate community. In May there were made three distinct divisions. The first, or New Harmony proper, was Community No. 1, called Ipba Veinul; the second was McCluria, or Community No. 2, called Ipad Evinle; the third was Community No. 3, called Feiba Peveli. These terms were invented by Stedman Whitwell, who endeavored to establish a new nomenclature to indicate latitude and longitude. There seemed to be a growing disposition on the part ot the community to acquire individual property and everything seemed drifting that way. In a short time there was the fourth community established. Many began to acquire individual property and the " beginning of the end" was nigh. An individual store had been established in opposition to the general store, and the courts had established its rights to sell goods within the community. McCluria was not governed in the same manner as No. 1. The continuance of the community, as a community, was found impossible and was soon abandoned, not by any formal declaration, but rather by common consent.
A glance at the two communities will be of interest. The Rappites were of one nationality, one tongue, and all of nearly the same rank in society, the common walks of life, and all looked upon Father Kapp as an oracle. Few, if any, had more than a passable education. Of the latter community, many of the highest talents were attracted to it by Mr. Owen's influence. Under the Rappites there was little gayety or mirth ; there was little attention given to education ; no assemblies or town meetings, except when called to worship by the solemn peals of the church bells. Under Mr. Owen there were frequent assemblies; one every week to discuss the interests of the community; balls or concerts or lectures were held almost every evening in the week. Sunday was usually given to the discussion of some scientific subject, but no provision was made for religious worship, yet Such was not forbidden. Instead of celibacy was taught that marriage was a simple rite and facility of divorce should follow from incompatibility or inconsistency of make up—^but not free lovism.
In religion Mr. Owen held great freedom, he regarded charity in all things as the foundation of the purest morals. In these matters he has been more " sinned against than sinning." The business condition of the town at this time was^ about as follows: There were four streets running from north to south, six from east to west, three dividing the town into six wards. There were 35 brick houses, 45 frame buildings and 100 log-cabins. The boarding school contained 160 children, the machinery of the factory was moved by a fine sixty horse-power engine ; the woolen factory was not doing much for want of good hands ; the fulling and dressing departments were suffering from the same cause ; the dye house was of brick and had copper vessels capable of holding 1,500 to 2,000 yards of cloth; the cotton spinning department was employing three or four good hands. Soap, candles and glue were manufactured in excess of the demand by the community ; these employed eight men. There were 17 good boot and shoe-makers, 36 farmers, 4 tanners, 2 gardeners, 2 butchers, 2 bakers, 2 distillers, 1 brewer, 2 watch-makers, 4 black and white smiths, 2 turners, 1 machine-maker, 4 coopers, 3 printers, 1 stocking weaver, 3 sawyers, 7 tailors, 12 seamstresses and mantua-makers, 9 carpenters, 4 bricklayers, 2 stone-cutters, 4 wheelwrights, 1 cabinetmaker, 3 cloth weavers, 3 tobacconists and 2 paper-makers; the remaining trades were not represented. From this time on the history of New Harmony has not differed greatly from other towns of its size with this exception, there is a certain freedom and ease in the social relation of New Harmony that is peculiar to it, and something that strikes the stranger very forcibly. The name and fame of Mr. Owen drew together a class of talented men and women that, perhaps, have never been equaled in a place of its size. It would be unpardonable not to mention some at least of these.


Mr. Owen was himself the central figure at first. He was known as an author, a lecturer and philanthropist. Robert Dale Owen was for a time member of the State Legislature, to whose influence to a great extent does Indiana owe her school fund. He was also trustee of the State University, member of Congress, regent of the Smithsonian Institute, and American Minister to Naples. Dr. David Dale Owen was United States geologist for six or seven years, also State geologist of three different States. He frequently gave free lectures to the inhabitants of his native town. William Owen was for a time one of the editors of the New Harmony Gazette. Richard Owen was at one time State geologist, and until recently held a chair in the State University. He is now devoting his energies to investigations in electricity and the cosmic forces. William McClure, mentioned before, was a geologist, one of the principal founders of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. He made collections in geology and mineralogy in Europe and America, was the author of "McClure' s Opinion," consisting of sixty-two different articles; "Essay on the Formation of Rocks," "Outlines of the Geology of the United States," and "Geology of the West India Islands." He was the founder of the McClure Libraries that are found scattered over the country. He died in Mexico after willing his property to charitable purposes. Thomas Say, who with three of the McClures, lies buried in Dr. Owen's yard, was the husband of Lucy Sistere, a lady of talent. He accompanied the United States expedition to the Pacific Coast under Maj. Long, as naturalist. He was pronounced by Louis Agassis to be the best entomologist of his day and was the author of "Conchology of North America." C. A. Le Sueur accompanied as naturalist Le Perouse in his tour around the world. Le Sueur stopped off at Australia and the remainder of the crew were lost. He was compelled to reside in France to obtain a pension which the French Government gave him as the only survivor of that expedition. E. H. Fauhtley was one of the principal officers of the United States coast survey and a son-in-law of Robert Owen. Joseph Reef was a coadjutor of Pestalozzi, and for a time taught at the falls of Schuylkill. He was the teacher and friend of Admiral Farragut and the father-in-law of Dr. Eichard Owen. Gerard Troost became State geologist of Tennessee. William Phiquefal D'Arnsmont, commonly known as William Phiquefal, an eccentric Frenchman, became the husband of Frances Wright. Madame Fretageot came to New Harmony at the request of William McClure. She was an educated French lady, and assisted Mr. McClure in his work and was for a time his financial agent. She was the grandmother of A. H. Fretageot of New Harmony. She died in Mexico in 1831. Frances Wright was a woman of extraordinary talent as a lecturer and author. She was a companion of Gen. Lafayette and the founder of Nashoba, a colony which she tried to establish on a body of 200 acres of land near Memphis, Tenn. The object of this society was the ameleoration of the condition of the poor and the freedom of the slave "on a just and equitable basis." Her plan was something as follows: She would purchase the slave, say for $400. She would place him at work upon the farm and feed and clothe him. At the end of the year the product of his labor was sold and the cost of living taken out and the balance was given to his credit on the purchase price, which when paid he would become free. If the product of his labor was worth in the market $150 and the expense of feeding and clothing him was $50 he would then get a credit of $100, and would then work out his own freedom in four years. It is not necessary to say that the enterprise was a failure.
On her leaving Nashoba she deeded her lands in trust to Gen. Lafayette, R. D. Owen, Camilla Wright Whitby, Richardson Whitby, husband of Camilla Wright, and some others. Frances Wright was editress of the Nashoba Gazette, which was soon after combined with the New Harmony Gazette. William Michaux, an Frenchman of means and talent, lived for a time in New Harmony. Prof. E. T. Cox, for many years State geologist, is a native of the town. Mr. James Samson, the fatherin- law of Prof. Cox, and the intimate friend of William McClure, has been for many years collecting fresh water shells, fossils and of these he now has an extensive and well selected collection. Besides there were Mr. and Mrs. Chapellsmith, who were recluses and very abstemious vegetarians.


In 1826 New Harmony could boast of a fine military display, for she had one company of infantry, one of artillery and of riflemen, one of veterans and one compaiiy of fusileers. In the same year the society was compelled to give notice through the Gazette that no more immigrants could be accommodated for the present. Notice was given that on the night of December 1, a military ball would be given, to which the staff officers of Illinois and Indiana were invited and that the New Harmony Light Infantry would serve as an escort. March 26, 1826, the steamboat "Highland Laddie" arrived at the wharf bound from Louisville to Vincennes, under command of Oapt. McCuUum; owing to the storm prevailing the passengers were compelled to remain on board till next morning, among them were Joseph Neef and family who came to join the community, also Mr. Smith's family. But a short time before the "William Tell" had borne the last of the Rappites away. On Sunday Phillip M. Price of Philadelphia, and Matilda Greentree of "Washington City, and Eobert Robson and Eliza E. Parvin were married in the hall, according to the custom of the society. They were married by or in the presence of the Rev. Burkitt. The usual questions were propounded and were answered by the father. They, however, stated that they did this not because they thought it was necessary, but because it was the law. May 13, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar arrived in New Harmony, where he remained some time on a visit. At a little later date Baron Bransfeld from a little province on the east bank of the Rhine, arrived in the place and remained a welcome guest of the citizens. May 31, 1827, during a storm the lightning struck the old frame church which was then used as a workshop. At the time there were sixty boys in the building and the wires supporting the stovepipe were melted and other damage done to the building, but no one was injured. The house containing the boarding school, in which were 100 children, was struck, but slight damage was done to the building and no one was seriously hurt, yet some narrowly escaped with their lives. January 11, 1828, the first number of the Disseminator was issued. It was begun by the New Harmony School of Industry, under the direction of William McClure and Samuel Bolton. In 1828 Mr. Owen leased to Taylor, Fauntlesay & Co., for the period of 10,000 years, the cut off and lands to the amount of 3,000 acres. The conditions were that the children should be sent to school for a certain time, the place should remain as community property and they should pay all taxes on the land, and should pay a nominal sum to Mr. Owen, if called upon, and should manufacture only certain articles of commerce, and the company should have an interest in the general store. Taylor proved to be a rascal, and set up a distillery in opposition to Mr. Owen, and it was only by great sacrifice that he was got rid of. In 1828 the educational society reconveyed certain of these lands to Robert Owen, who transferred it to Oliver Evans for a period of 10,000 years, "to be completed and used" for the purpose of establishing an iron foundry. The establishment was started but did not prove successful.


In the year 1828, the New Harmony Gazette and Nashoba Gazette were consolidated and called the Free Enquirer, with R. D. Owen and Frances Wright as editors. The paper was soon moved to New York. The persons who had served on the editorial staff of the New Harmony Gazette up to this time were Robert L. Jennings, William Owen, William Pelham, Thomas Palmer, Frances Wright and R. D. Owen. About this time this curious advertisement appeared in the Gazette: "One hundred dollars reward for a human soul. Proof by the Bible. George W. Brock, Salina, 111." In the same year the New Harmony Thespian Society presented their first play, the "Poor Gentleman." New Harmony has to this day been favorably known for her dramatic talent, and has always kept in the front rank for entertainments by home talent. In 1835 the first agricultural society was formed. It was duly incorporated and had the following officers: Jacob Schnee, president; William Casey, vice-president; John Cooper, treasurer; R. D. Owen, recording secretary, and Louis Gex, corresponding secretary. Curators were appointed for the various townships. The society was called the Agricultural Society of Posey County. It was intended for the improvement of stock and to provide for their sale. To encourage improvement in produce private premiums were offered by different individuals. Owen & Fauntlesay offered $25 for the best bushel of castor beans.
In the same year was made an attempt to establish the New Harmony College of Manual Labor. President, vice-president, bursar and other necessary officers were duly elected, and the most prominent men of the town were enlisted in the cause but it did not prove a success.


In 1842 Josiah Warren, who had been a member of the community of 1825, and a somewhat eccentric character, started his celebrated time-store. He was a man of some ability and was the author of what was known as "Equitable Commerce." He considered one man's time worth as much as another's, and endeavored to prove the correctness of his theory by experiment. The following extended description of his store is given: "A portion of a room was divided ofE by lattice work, in which were many racks and shelves containing a variety of small articles. In the center of this lattice an opening was left through which the storekeeper could hand goods and take pay. At the back of the storekeeper against the wall was a time-piece, and underneath this was a dial. In other parts of this room were such articles as are usually kept in a general store. There was a board hanging on the wall conspicuous enough for all to see, on which was placed the bill that had been paid to the wholesale merchant and the price intended for them, to which was added a small per cent for risks. I entered the store one day and walked up to the wicket and asked the storekeeper for some glue. I was immediately asked if I had a "labor note?" On my saying no, I was told I must get one. I then traded in the following manner : I made or presented a written labor note promising so many hours labor at so much an hour, to Mr. Warren. I went to the time-store with my note and cash and informed the keeper that I wanted a few yards of Kentucky jeans. As he commenced business with me he set the dial which was underneath the clock and marked the time. He then attended to me, giving me what I wanted and taking from me as much cash as was paid the wholesale merchant including expressage, and taking out of my labor note as much time as he had spent with me. If we had been twenty minutes in trading I received forty minutes in change." Mr. Warren was sometimes imposed upon by unprincipled persons who overcharged for their own labor. The notes of such persons soon depreciated in value at the time-store. Mr. Warren continued his store about two years, and demonstrated to his satisfaction its practicability.
In 1844 the town contained twelve stores, two steam-mills and two tanneries, the streets were raised and the sidewalks graveled and enclosed by hand-rails. A high levee was built to the river so as to make a passable road to it at any season, and at the sides of this levee were canals sufficiently large to admit keel-boats and flat-boats into the city during high water.


On petition of the requisite number of citizens, eighty-two in all, the town was duly incorporated in August, 1850. The board was organized by electing James Sampson president, and proceeded to pass the customary ordinances and by-laws regulating saloons, pedlars, the rate of taxation, etc. The tax duplicate for the town for 1865, shows a total value of $225,353 of property. April 11, 1867, the town board at their meeting adjourned sine die, and their charter was allowed to lapse. In 1881 the town was reincorporated. J. W. Miller was elected trustee of the First Ward ; O. N. Fretageot of the Second ; Henry Hunsdon of the Third; John Walz of the Fourth, and W. M. Ford of the Fifth. John Walz was chosen president of the board. W. S. Boren is the present clerk. The school trustees chosen were Richard Owen, John Corbin and Thomas Munford. June 13, 1882, the city was provided with a fire engine and a hook and ladder company. It is but justice to say that New Harmony has practically never been in debt.


The first enlargement added to the town was Robert Owens' September 6, 1832; McClure's enlargement was added in 1841, and an additional part was added in 1844; Victor C. Duclos' enlargement was added October 9, 1857 ; Samuel Arthur's March 15, 1858; John Wiley's March 2, 1871, and Richard Owen's additional enlargement September 12, 1871.