PULASKI COUNTY INDIANA
MONROE TOWNSHIP

Monroe Township—Pioneers—Early Election Returns—Founding Of  Winamac — Industrial Development—Manufacturing Establishments—Catalogue of Professional and Business Men —Bankers and Banking—Additions to Winamac—Incorporation OF the County Seat—Town Officials—Secret Societies —Newspapers—Education and Religion—Statistics and Miscellaneous Items of Interest.

It has been impossible to obtain the name of the first white man to visit the spot where now stands the thriving town of Winamac. The fact that white settlements had been founded at Logansport and at numerous other places along the Wabash River, long before the present Pulaski County had a single white family within its borders, or before the county had any existence even in name, renders it certain that wandering hunters, trappers and prospectors had penetrated its almost unexplored regions, and had erected rude cabins in which their semi-civilized families were domesticated. These facts are clearly proved by the old settlers. A few families of the wandering hunters were found here, and as many as twelve or fifteen of their log-cabins, or " shanties," were yet standing, scattered throughout the county, mostly along the larger water-courses, to testify of the earlier presence of this vanguard of civilization. Two of these cabins were standing on the present site of Winamac, and two or three others were on the river in Monroe Township, two miles south of town. Who erected and for a time occupied these rude dwellings are unknown.

Settlement.

As Pulaski County was settled largely by squatters coming from the older localities along the Wabash River, and as the soil in the southern part and along the river was deemed the most valuable, Monroe Township was not settled as early as the more favorably located land in those sections of the county. The squatters who became the first permanent white settlers established themselves, accordingly, in Van Buren, White Post and Indian Creek Townships, and, a little later, in other promising locations. Of the seventy-six tracts of land entered in the county in 1838, not one was in the present Monroe Township. The first entry was by David Klinger on the 5th of February, 1839, the land being the fractional southeast quarter of Section 25. The second was Lots 1, 6 and 7, on Section 25, by Joseph Wason, June 19, 1839.

These were the only tracts entered in 1839. The next was by Ebenezer M. Watkins, the northwest quarter of Section 24, September 16, 1840; and the next by George P. Terry on Section 1:^, December 5, 1840. These were the only tracts entered in 1840. The year 1841 saw a great increase. The following men entered land in this year : Grosvenor S. Adams, Benjamin T. Ballinger, John Ballingef, James Ballinger, John Cunningham, Moses Cleveland, Henry Chase, Jesse Conn, John Crook, John Davenport, Joseph Foust, William Green, Benjamin Ganson, Jerome J. Ganson, Daniel Gabler, T. J. Galbreath, James H. Hodges, Elisha Hall, Rudolph Hoch, Samuel Hoch, James Hicks, Moses Hicks, 0. B. Hayden, Andrew Keys, Francis Kelley, William M. Lemon, P. J. Larose, James Mulvaney, Jesse Millison, John P. Miller, Bartholomew Noel, William Neff, Peter Nickless, Comfort Odds, John R. Price, John Pearson, Peter Quigley, John Shearet, Abraham Stipp, George Shidler, John Spencer, Samuel Yance, Henry Nitcher and John Watts. It should be noted that many men were in the township during these years whose names do not appear in the above list, for the reason that they owned no land. Their names, or many of them, however, are found upon the election returns, and yppear in the following pages.

The First Settler.

The name of the first permanent settler in Monroe Township cannot be indicated with absolute certainty. The family of Hacketts, which settled up the river from Winamac about two miles, though in Congressional Township 30, Range 1, but now in Monroe Township, was one of the very first, if not the first, coming early in the year 1838. It is likely, also, that Joseph Wason squatted some two miles south of Winamac, about the time of the appearance of the Hacketts. Of the two cabins standing on the present site of Winamac when the first settlers came, one was located about two hundred yards northwest of the present grist mill, and the other in the street between the woolen factory and the river. Who had occupied these rude buildings cannot be learned. In about September, 1838, George P. Terry purchased of the owner, a resident of Logansport, the "squatter claim" to the old log cabin, located about two hundred yards northwest of the grist mill, and the land upon which it stood, and immediately came to the cabin, accompanied by Hampton W. Hornbeck, a native of Kentucky, whom he had hired, and began to fit his land for cultivation. These two men. 'J'erry and Hornbeck, brought with them a quantity of rude bedding, some necessary cooking utensils, and the necessary instruments and implemt'iits to carry on their work. They lived alone, or "bached," doing their own cooking, going occasionally to Logansport for provisions, and depending largely upon their rifles for supplies of wild meat. Deer were every day seen moving through the "oak openings," or grazing upon the rich wild grass that grew in abundance upon many of the open glades. The trees were filled with coons and squirrels, and afforded excellent repasts, although neither Terry nor Hornbeck were as good cooks as they, no doubt, often wished. Five times as many fishes were in the river as at present, and the two pioneers, probably respecting the memory of Isaac Walton, often drew out fine " strings " of black bass and other excellent fish. They brought salt pork from Logansport, besides flour, meal, sugar and coffee. There were no bears, and as the men were not experienced hunters, and as they had an abundance of hard work before them, their time was passed in swinging the ax and grubbing hoe.

Subsequent Improvement.

 After about two months, other settlers began to arrive. Moses Cleveland and John Davenport appeared and located north of Terry, and immediately afterward came Peter Quigley, Oliver Hayden, Andrew Keys, John Pearson, John Davis and several others. Pearson moved into the log cabin standing between the woolen factory and river ; but occupied it only while he was building a larger and better log building, into which he moved in November, 1838. He began to entertain travelers, and his log dwelling was soon known as a " tavern." He obtained some $200 worth of goods and notions, selling the same to the few settlers and to Pottawatomies, who often came to trade cranberries, maple sugar, venison and trinkets with him. The old log cabin upon being vacated by Pearson was immediately occupied by Joseph Conkling ; but in January, 1839, was again vacated, and immediately re-occupied by David Harris. Andrew Keys, upon his arrival, moved first into the Pearson log cabin and later into the log cabin in which Terry and Hornbeck had "bached," the latter two beginning to board at the tavern. In January, 1839, Pearson, who had some means at his command, employed several workmen, among whom were H. W. Hornbeck, John Sheram, Abraham Hatterbaugh and others, and began digging a long race across the neck of the river, preparatory to the construction of a dam and the erection of a saw mill, and perhaps a grist mill. The tavern was not fully completed until the spring of 1839. Both Hatterbaugh and Conkling were good carpenters, the former being something of a millwright. Hornbeck took the contract to dig the entire race, and employed the other workmen, receiving his pay in estimates at stipulated periods. Several of the Hackett boys worked on the race, as did Moses Hicks, and almost every other settler who came to the immediate vicinity. Mr. Hornbeck thinks that Pearson continued his store and tavern more for the accommodation of the workmen than for any profit he expected to realize. The store supplies he kept on hand were only about such as his workmen and their families required. Abraham Hatterbaugh took the contract of furnishing the lumber or timber for the frame work of the saw mill for $101.25, completing the task early in the spring of 1839; and immediately afterward the building was raised. The work on the race slowly continued, and thus the time passed, with the advent of a few more settlers, until the location of the county seat at Winamac, in May, 1839. Previous to this, however, about the 1st of April, John Pearson, Jesse Jackson, John Brown, John B. Niles and William Polke employed a surveyor, and laid out twenty blocks of eight lots each, and two fractional blocks, partly on Section 13 and partly on 14, the north street being Madison, and then south in order, Spring, Pearl, Main, Jefferson, Adams and Washington, and, next to the river on the east. Water street ; then west in order. Front, Monticello, Market and Logan. The town thus laid out was named " Winnemac." The direction of the streets was south twenty-four degrees east ; Lot 159 was donated for school purposes, and suitable land outside the town site was donated for a cemetery and for county seminary purposes. When May came, and the Commissioners to locate the county seat performed their duties, a resurvey of the town took place ; but, so far as can be learned, no material change was made in the original plat. The date of the resurvey cannot be given, but must have been at the time of the location of the county seat. The plat was acknowledged by all of the above proprietors, except Polke, who, probably, had sold his interest before the date of acknowledgment—January 22, 1840. The plat was recorded May 7, 1841.

Later Progress.

When it became known that the county seat had been located at Winamac, the Government Land Officers were directed to establish an office there, and immediate preparations were made to erect the necessary buildings. E. A. Hannegan, the first Register, moved at first into a small log cabin which had been built by John Davis ; and Dr. Jesse Jackson, the first Receiver, built a small log house, into which his family was moved. Dr. Jackson was the first resident physician. G. S. Adams was Jackson's Clerk; and H. P. Rowan was Hannegan's. John Pearson had been elected County Clerk and Recorder, entering upon his duties in May, 1839, though his oath of office was not taken until October. He continued to keep hotel until late in the autumn, when he was succeeded by Andrew Keys, who continued for several years, selling liquor, as all tavern keepers did in those days. Mr. Pearson's store (if it can properly be called such) was not continued longer than the early summer of 1839. John Davis was the first blacksmith. Benjamin Ganson and J. C. Waldo (the latter acting as clerk) were licensed to vend foreign merchandise and groceries for one year, beginning May 13, 1839, for which they paid $5 license. The next merchant was Charles Wheeler, who began in December. Mr, Keys paid a license of $25 for one year for the privilege of selling liquor and keeping tavern. The following year Ganson & Waldo paid a license of $25. During the year 1840, J. J. Ganson began merchandising with his brother Benjamin. He probably had an interest in the stock the year before. In 1840, there were living at Winaraac the families of John Pearson, Andrew Keys, E. A. Hannegan, John Davis, Dr. Jackson, H. W. Hornbeck, Joseph Conkling, M. A. Haddon, John Nitcher, and perhaps two or three others. Besides these, there were some ten or twelve single men, workmen on the race and saw mill (not yet completed) and adventurers and others, brought to the town by its being the county seat. This was the Winamac of 1840.

During the year 1839, many families irrived in Monroe Township, quite a number settling near Winamac—so near, in fact, as to become like the Jenkins family, almost identified with the town. For sometime before the location of the county seat, it had become evident to the business men of Logansport and other settlements, that the seat of justice of the new county would not be far from what is now Winamac, and with this object in view the soil in the vicinity of the town was rapidly claimed, and the proprietors mentioned above, to be ready when the Locating Commissioners appeared, laid out the town as already stated. Quite a number of men who never lived at Winamac owned lots and other property in and near the town. Their names may be seen elsewhere in this volume.

The county seat was named for a distinguished Miami chief known as " Wynemac," who, in some of the early cession treaties, reserved a tract of land comprising several sections on the Wabash River. It is stated that this chief once liad a village in what is now Pulaski County, but the writer has been unable to discover any satisfactory evidence that such was the case.

The old Klinger Mill on the river in Monroe Township, south of Winamac, was built not far from 1844, and was well patronized for many years. School was taught in this neighborhood in 1840, but all the circumstances connected with it have faded from the memory of the old settlers. The school is referred to in the county records.

Elections.

At an election held at the house of John Pearson in Winamac June 15, 1839, the following persons polled their votes: Peter Quigley, John A. Davis, Ebenezer Watkins, Francis Kelley, Jesse Conn, Joseph Conkling, Jesse Klinger, Moses Cleveland, Andrew S. Hacket, Oliver B. Hayden, John Hacket, Michael Spencer, Luke Hacket, Moses Holmes, James Ballinger, William Keys, John C. Waldo, U. W. Hornbeck, Job J. Holmes, John Kelley, and William Wall. The following votes were polled : For Justice of the Peace, Peter Quigley, 13 ; Moses Cleveland, 6 ; John A. Davis, 2. For Constable, Ebenezer Watkins, 15 ; Moses Hicks, 5. For Road Supervisor, Abraham Hatterbaugh, 16. Overseers of the Poor, Oliver Hayden, 15; M. Munson, 5; William Keys, 5. Fence Viewers, Jesse Klinger, 16.; James A. Joyce, 16. Clerks of Election, John C. Waldo and H. W. Hornbeck ; Judges of Elections, Job J. Holmes and John Kelley. Inspector, William Wall, At an election held at the house of John Pearson in the town of Winamac Monday, August 5, 1839, the following persons polled their votes : Moses Cleveland, Francis Kelley, John Dowl, Thomas Krause, Eli Demoss, Jesse Klinger, Hampton W. Hornbeck, Robert Scott, Abraham Hatterbaugh, Michael Stump, Luke Hacket, James Stump, Peter Quigley, Jacob Replogle, William Crage, Peter W. Demoss, Benjamin Grant, Jesse Justice, David F. Woods, Jesse Coppock, William Warden, John Reeder, George Stump, William Fisher, Joseph Smith, John M. Cowan, William C. Coppock, Lewis Dawson, Spelden Hacket, John Hacket, John Nitcher, William Keys, Andrew Keys, Elijah Oliver, John Reese, Moses Holmes, James A. Joyce, William N. Wall, Moses L. Washburn, John Shuey, Maxwell A. Hadden, Moses Hicks, Peter Prough, Joseph Conklin, Oliver B. Hayden, Ebenezer Watkins, John C. Waldo, John Davenport, Elisha Hall, Tilghman Hacket, David Klinger, James Ballingger and John Ballinger ; total 54. The following votes were polled: For Congress, Tilghman A. Howard, 32 ; Thomas J. Evans, 22. For Representative, John B. Wilson, 30 ; Randolph Braby, 22. For Probate Judge, Benjamin Ballinger, 26 ; Lewis Dawson, 20 ; John C. Waldo, 1. For Sheriff, David Klinger, 32 ; Hampton W. Hornbeck, 17. For Coroner, Moses Holmes, 31 ; Joseph Conklin, 11. Clerks of Election, M. A. Hadden and Moses L. Washburn ; Judges of Election, James A. Joyce, Elisha Hall and John Shuey.

At an election held at the house of Andrew Keys in Winamac February 3, 1840, for a Justice of the Peace, Samuel Burson received 23 votes and Maxwell Hadden, 7. The following men voted :* William M. Lemon, William Keys, George Nitcher, John Shuey, J. J. Holmes, E. T. Oliver, John Pearson, David Klinger, Peter Nicholas, Michael Decker, Moses Holmes, William Nitcher, J. C. Waldo, Andrew Keys, E. A. Hannigan, Jesse Jackson, Moses Cleveland, H. W. Hornbeck, Charles Wheeler, Jesse Klinger, Luke Hacket, John Hacket, Peter Quigley, John Nitcher, Solomon Whitson, Benjamin Ballinger, Moses Hicks, John Cunningham, Jesse Conn, and G. S. Adams. David Klinger, Inspector ; William M. Lemon and Michael Decker, Clerks of Election; Jesse Klinger and Peter Nichols, Judges of Election.

At an election at the same place in April, 1840, for township officers, 50 votes were polled with the following result : Inspector, Joseph Coaklin, 27 ; W. M. Lemon, 20. Constable, Hampton W. Hornbeck, 19 ; Abraham Hatterbaugh 12; William Keys, 37 ; Job J. Holmes, 31. Road Supervisor; Luke Hacket 18 ; John Watson, 30; Abraham Hatterbaugh; 1 ; Jesse Conn, 1 ; Joseph Conklin, 27 ; William M. Lemon, 20. Overseers of the Poor, Jesse Jackson, 5 ; Michael Decker, 5 ; Phineas Jenkins, 1 ; Michael Munson, 1 ; William M. Lemon, 1. Fence Viewers, G. S. Adams, 5 ; Charles Wheeler, 7 ; Henry B. Rowan, 1 ; A. Farmer, 1. At the Presidential election held at the house of Andrew Keys in Monroe Township, Monday, November 2, 1810, there were cast for the Harrison and Tyler electors 48 votes, and for the Van Buren and Johnson electors, 48 votes. The full strength of the township was not out. The following men polled their votes : George P. Terry, Charles Wheeler, Andrew Keys, Abraham Hatterbaugh Elijah T. Oliver, George Stump, Joseph B. McLean, James C. Stump, Isaac Sanders, Michael N. Stump, Peter Quigley, William Wall, Grosvenor S. Adams, John Pearson, Richard Myers, Phineas Jenkins, John Reeder, William Nitcher, H. P. Rowen, William Keys, George Philips, Robert Scott, Andrew S. Hacket, Francis Kelley, Jethro New, Jonas Good, Danied Woods, Joseph Wason, Joseph T. Wallace, Jesse Klinger, Thomas B. Ward, Peter W. Demoss, James Demoss, John Klinger, David Klinger, Thomas J. Galbreath, Jonathan Washington, James Hodges, John Shuey, John R. Demoss, Frederick Klinger, James Martin, John Sutton, James Murphey, Isaac Olds, William N. Archer, Ezra Olds, Michael Munson, Benjamin Munson, Runyon Compton, Jacob Phipps, Solomon Mutson, Comfort Olds, Elijah Justice, Moses Hicks, Jerome Ganson, Charles Compton, Wilbert Munson, Tilghman Hackett, Maxwell A. Hadden, John Hacket, Luke Hacket, Asa Inman, Joseph W. Oliver, John Sprague, Jesse Conn, Joshua Turnpaugh, John M. Cowan, James Dempsey, Robert Dempsey, Thomas Dempsey, Edward Gilliland, Oliver B. Hayden, Joseph Garvison, John Reese, Lewis Dawson, Daniel McBride, Wilkinson Jenkins, Elisha Hall, William W. Curtis, John Davenport, Thomas Buck, Ira Brown, Moses Holmes, Job J. Holmes, Moses Cleveland, James Ballinger, David Fisher, Peter Nichols, Benjamin Ballinger, John Gardner, William M. Lemon, H. W. Hornbeck, John C. Waldo and Michael Decker; total 96.

At the April election, 1841, held at the house of Andrew Keys, thirty-seven votes were polled with the following result : Inspector, Benjamin Ganson, 25; William M. Lemon, 11. Constables, H. W. Hornbeck, 26; William Keys, 14; William Trueax, 25; Moses Hicks, 1; J. J. Ganson, 1. Road Supervisor, John Davenport, 24; T. W. F Jenkins, 18; T. J. Galbreath, 10. Overseers of the Poor, Abraham Bruce, 24 ; George P. Terry, 18 ; J. J. Ganson, 10 ; Maxwell A. Hadden, 11; W. M. Lemon, 4 ; G. S. Adams, 1 ; H. P. Rowan, 1 ; S. Burson, 1 ; Jesse Cooper, 1. Fence Viewers, G. S. Adams, 20 ; Jesse Conn, 17 ; Henry P. Rowan, 13 ; G. P. Terry,6 ; J. C. Waldo, 5 ; M. A. Hadden, 2 ; Abraham Bruce, 1 ; Samuel Burson, 1.

The following men voted at the August election, 1841, at the house of Andrew Keys in Monroe Township : Jesse Conn, Richard Myers, Andrew Keys, Andrew Farmer, James Hodges, Moses L. Washburn, Joseph B. McLean, William Oliver, Daniel Nitcher, Joseph T. Wallace, Andrew Cunningham, Isaac Sanders, Robert Trueax, William Nitcher, Rudolph Hoch, Henry P. Rowen, David Klinger, John Ballinger, John Crook, Francis Kelley, Peter Quigley, James W. Ballinger, Joshua Turnpaugh, John Gardner, Stephen Bruce, James Dempsey, Joseph Conklin, Benjamin T. Ballinger, John L. Stump, David F. Woods, George Stump, Ezra Olds, Moses Hicks, Silas Philips, Richard Noggle, Joseph Wason, Frederick Klinger, Joseph W. Oliver, Michael N. Stump, George M. Stump, James P. Stump, John Pearson, Benjamin Ganson, George Replogle, Thomas Klinger, Jesse Justice, William Trueax, Solomon Whitson, James Hicks, John Klinger, Jr., Runyon Compton, Thomas Spencer, Thomas Keys, Maxwell A. Hadden, G. S. Adams, Robert Scott, Moses R. Holmes, Ira Brown, William Keys, W. L. Lemon, James M. Eliott, John Klinger, Sen., William Collins, Joseph Garveson, Thomas J. Galbreath, Thomas W. F. Jenkins, Hampton W. Hornbeck, Oliver B. Hayden, George P. Terry, Job J, Holmes, Philip Trap, Jerome B. Ganson, John Hacket, Comfort Olds, John Davenport, Luke Hacket, Elisha Hall, Isaac Olds and Michael Munson : total 79.

In January, 1842, an additional Justice of the Peace was elected for Monroe Township, sixty-five votes being polled, as follows : Jerome J. Ganson, 49; W. M. Lemon, 16. Fifty-six votes were cast at the April election, with the following result, the election being held at the house of John R. Price: William Wall and William Trueax were elected Constables ; J. J. Ganson, Inspector; Byron T. Lane, John R. Price and G. P. Terry, Overseers of the Poor; T. F. Stokes and Ephraim Routson, Fence Viewers.

In August, 1842, at the election held at the office of J. J. Ganson, the following men voted: John M. Cowan, Hamilton McCay, George Stump, John P. Miller, Peter Quigley, 0. H. P. Grover, William Oliver, T. J. Galbreath, Jeremiah Grover, Andrew Keys, Byron T. Lane, John Spencer, James Mulvany, E. T. Oliver, Zachariah Price, William Nichter, John R. Price, John Klinger, Moses Hicks, James Stump, John Crook, Solomon Whitson, James H. Hodges, George H. Stump, Silas Phillips, Andrew Farmer, David Fisher, Eli Brown, G. P. Terry, John Reese, Jesse Conn, Daniel McBride, Isaac Olds, Ezra Olds, Abraham Bruce, Rudolph Hoch, Stephen Bruce, Julius Huff, Lewis Dawson, Henry Long, James Dempsey, Robert Dempsey, James Bmbree, John Hacket, William Phillips, T. W. F. Jenkins, B. T. Ballinger. Tilghman Hacket, Abraham Hatterbaugh, Joshua Turnpaugh, Jonas Hacket, Ira Brown, Joseph B. McLean, Moses R. Holmes, Phillip Trap, H. W. Hornbeck, James Hicks, Joseph Wason, W. N. Wall, William Collins, William Fisher, John Gardener, J. W. Oliver, John Ballinger, 0. W. Thomas, James W. Ballinger, H. P. Rowan, F. Klinger, G. S. Phillips, Richard Noggle, John L. Stump, William Keys, Michael N. Stump, Philip Klinger, Nathaniel Routson, Jesse Klinger, Francis Kelley, J. J. Ganson, William Wait, Jacob Quigley, William M. Lemon, Adonijah Hester, John Lee, Luke Hacket, 0. B. Hayden, Jacob Nickless, John Pearson, Benjamin Ganson, Jesse Millison, Joseph Garvison, Jacob Phipps, Nathaniel Phipps, Michael Munson, Calvin Olds and Comfort Olds, total 95.

Madison Brake was elected Justice of the Peace, in December, 1842, at an election held in the office of W. N. Wall, formerly occupied by J. J. Ganson. In April, 1843, Ebenezer Watkins and Philip Klinger were elected Constables ; John Pearson and James Ballinger, Road Supervisors; Peter Quigley, Jesse Conn and James Mulvany, Overseers of the Poor; Jonas Hacket and Elijah T. Oliver, Fence Viewers; 0. W. Thomas, Inspector. This election was held at the shop of Stephen Bruce. In June of this year, Rufus Brown was elected Justice of the Peace, the election being held in the schoolhouse, at Winamac, for the first time. Ninety-nine votes were polled at the August election, 1843. G. C. Rogers became Justice of the Peace in January, 1844. In April, John M. Pearson was elected Justice of the Peace ; John Crook, Inspector; William Oliver and Moses Hicks, Constables; W. M. Lemon, Jesse Conn and Michael Munson, Overseers of the Poor ; William Nitcher and Eli Brown, Fence Viewers. One hundred and four votes were polled at the Presidential election in November, 1844. Moses M. Dixon and Jeremiah Hawes became Justices of the Peace in July, 1845. At the August election, 1848, of the seventy-two votes cast, sixty-five were for free schools and seven against free schools. The seven were James Hicks, D. H. Coates, Joseph Stipp, William York, Thomas Crook, George Crook and Michael Munson.

Industrial Grrowth.

The growth of Winamac was slow and took place only as the surrounding country settled up. Mr. Pearson, when he first came to Winamac, had in view a large future milling interest; but, when the county was organized, in May, 1839, and he became the Clerk, Recorder and Auditor, his duties became so numerous that his interest in his milling enterprise was overlooked, and the work on the race and the completion of the building languished. The work continued slowly, with various interruptions, until late in 1840 or early in 1811, when Stephen Bruce, Abraham Bruce and Samuel Burson purchased an interest in the entire enterprise, though Burson soon retired from the partnership. The Bruces gave their personal attention to the work, but the saw mill did not run until late in 1841. Much difficulty was had with the old flutter wheel first used, as no experienced millwright was in the neighborhood, and the owners were compelled to resort to experiment before they could get a wheel that would work. Soon after the saw mill had commenced operating, a set of "nigger-head" buhrs was obtained and placed in one apartment of the building, and by means of suitable shafting was set in motion by the same water which propelled the saw. Thus the mills continued until about 1849, when the Bruces secured Mr. Pearson's remaining interest, and within two or three years erected the old grist mill, the skeleton of which is yet standing on the old site, and adjoining the present mill. The new mill was well equipped, and for many years was an important factor in the material wealth of Winamac.

Merchandising.— In 1841, Maxwell A. Hadden was licensed to retail groceries and merchandise at Winamac. About the same time Andrew Keys was licensed to keep a ferry across the river at the town, the rates being fixed by the County Commissioners. He was required to keep a skiff or canoe for the passage of persons, and a flat-boat for the passage of teams and stock. John R. Price succeeded Keys as tavernkeeper, in the summer of 1841. In September, 1841, T. F. Stokes & Co. were licensed to sell groceries and dry goods ; they continued with a fair trade for the time and place, until about the year 1846. Eli Brown became tavern keeper and liquor seller in 1844 ; his petition was signed by twenty-four voters of the town. In November, 1840, Jerome J. Ganson was licensed to sell groceries and merchandise ; he continued for several years. The county agent bought of Mrs. Mary Jenkins, in the spring of 1846, the necessary ground for a graveyard, and Carter D. Hathaway was appointed to lay the same out in lots. Henry P. Rowan began selling goods in 1847. In 1845, John Bliss was licensed to keep tavern and to sell liquor, provided he maintained good order and sold no liquor on Sunday, except to travelers. So far as known, the proviso was complied with. William C. Barnett began keeping grocery in 1845; his store was afterward enlarged to a fine stock of goods. A. L. Wheeler began merchandising about this time.

Other Early Events.

The first death was that of David Harris in July, 1839, and the first marriage that of his widow, Amanda C, to H. W. Hornbeck, October 24 of the same year. The second death was that of Talbott Vandevere, who was drowned in the Tippecanoe River in the spring of 1840, and over whom an inquest was held. Joseph Conklin made the coffin, and was paid $3 for the same in 1843 by the County Commissioners. It took almost as long then for the Commissioners to come to time financially, as it does now to get copies of records from Washington, D. C. Red tape has an astonishing effect upon the human mind and heart. Rudolph Hoch was probably the first cabinet-maker ; he commenced work in 1842, and has continued until the present. He has always been one of the substantial men of Winamac. John Stiner opened ^ cabinet shop soon after Hoch, and continued for a number of years. Many grand juries met in his shop to deliberate. Abraham Bruce was probably the first blacksmith in town. Thomas Burns followed the same calling as early as 1845. In 1846, there were not to exceed thirty families in Winamac, if there were that many, according to the recollection of Dr. Thomas. The town had thus a population of little less than 150 souls.

Among the merchants of Winamac from 1850 to 1860 were H. P. Rowan, W. C. Barnett, Hiram Nichol, M. D. Falvey, Daniel Curtis, W. S. Huddleston, Lewis Hoffman, Thomas Sheehy, F. B. Thomas, Abraham Phillips, J. D. Vurpillat, Dennis Brown, William Brown, Buchanan Bros., John Darrow, John O'Connell, Becker Bros. From 1860 to 1870 were John Kelley, Nathan Falk & Co., James Tallerton, Obadiah Carper, Christopher Kline, Jesse Taylor, Falvey & Carroll, D. C. Buchan, S. & M. Becker, Dr. G. W. Reddick, Barnett & Son, Hoffman & Vurpillat, Shubel Pearson, Jesse Clark, B. F. Hathaway, A. D. Perry, F. B. Shaffle. From 1870 to the present, 1882, George Van Gorder, Brown, Wood & Co., J. H. Parcel, Keller, Bouslog & Co., Dukes & Rogers, F. W. Williams, A. A. Miller, S. Gross & Son, F. Seidel, Michael Hogan, George Wagner, W. W. Agnew, Schadell & Swartz, Morehart Bros.

Present Business.— The present business of the town may be summed up in the following manner: Dry goods, Keller, Bouslog & Co., B. R. Brown & Co., A. Phillips, S. B. Agnew, R. S. Rogers ; groceries, Keller, Bouslog & Co., R. S. Rogers, A. Phillips, S. B. Agnew, W. W. Agnew, E. R. Brown & Co., J. H. Parcel, Jesse Taylor, M. D. Falvey, Michael Falvey, Dunfee & Co., J. D. Clark, J. D. Vurpillat, Shubel Pearson, F. Seidel, Conrad Bridegroom ; drugs, Morehart Bros., Dolph & Carper, F. W. Thomas & Co. ; hardware, John Kelley, J. D. Vurpillat, Paul Gross, Michael Hogan, Hoffman & Sons ; books, same as drugs; agricultural implements, same as hardware; furniture, George Wagner, Rudolph Hoch, Hoffman & Sons ; boots and shoes, M. D. Falvey, E. R. Brown & Co., Keller, Bouslog & Co., J. D. Vurpillat, A. Phillips, R. S. Rogers, S. B. Agnew & Co., Dunfee & Co. ; harness shops, J. A. Kills ner, John Anstis, John Smith ; merchant tailors, F. P. Sheffel, Joshua Wittmer ; milliners, Mrs. Mary Vurpillat, Mrs. C. W. Beans, Gorham & Fowler, Mrs. E. A. Dilts, Miss Julia Shea, Mrs. L. A. Gillespie, Mrs. Hulda Agnew, Miss Alice Grafton ; photographers, A. J. Summers, S. B. Hazen ; cabinet manufacturers, Rudolph Hoch, George Wagner ; woolen factory, John T. Hey ; grist mills, Bruce heirs, David Wood lumber, Kittinger & Perry, Hugh C. Smith ; grain buyers, John Steis, C. D. Wood, Kittinger & Perry ; live stock, John Steis, John Weaver jewelry, T. B. Martin, Henry Routson ; barbers, William Hoffman, Jacob Anheir; restaurants, Benjamin Cooper, A. A. Miller, Mrs. Mettle Warrick, C. C. Messerly, Mrs. Van Valkenburg, A. Deutsch, P. Kroft; carriages and wagons, C. W. Gertig, Bennett Bros., Henry Rarick ; saloons, L. C. Graves, A. Deutsch, J. A. Miller, Peter Gross, • Sebastian Gross, John Myers, F. Seidel ; meat shops, Michael Burgel, Fred Keppler, Jacob Foy ; hotels, Frain, St. Nicholas, Farmers'; abstract oflBces, S. Weyand, Wickersham and Gorham ; real estate, M. A. Dilts, Wickersham & Gorham ; livery. Carter & Fowler, Holsinger & McCay, Henry Baker; newspapers, Republican, Democrat, Journal; cigar manufacturer, J. H. Tobul ; planing mill, Killinger & Perry ; brick and tile, Jonas Michaels, Jr,; poultry, F. W. Williams ; boot and shoe manufacturer, Hugh B. Kilander ; foundry, Rudolph Hoch ; hay press, Bouslog & Van Gorder ; architects and builders, G. W. Rhodes & Son, Stacy Collins ; brick and stone contractors, Andrew Wall, William Ward ; laundry and dyeing, Aaron Hey ; secret societies. Odd Fellows, Masons, Grand Army of the Republic, Knights of Labor, Royal Arcanum; churches, Methodist Episcopal, German Reformed, Christian, Catholic schools. Public, Catholic ; ministers, Allen Lewis, Jonas Michaels, J. P. Barnett, C. J. Corbin, Father Nigsch, George Fleisch, J. H. Gillespie ; lawyers, George Burson, John Nye, N. L. Agnew, W. Spangler, S. Weyand, T. S. Gorham, G. T. Wickersham, B. S. B. Stamats, Andrew Keys, J. F. Yarnell; doctors or dentists, L. B. Perry. Virgil Chittenden, J. F. Noland, D. F. Moss, H. E. Pattison, Henry Kittinger, J. J. Thomas, W. G. Wright, Thompson & Bro., F. B. Thomas, 0. J. Stephens.

Manufactures.

Winamac has had but very few really important manufacturing establishments. The old Pearson Grist Mill was conducted by the partnership referred to until 1852, when the entire property passed to Stephen Bruce, since which time it has been owned by him, and, at his death, by his heirs. The old mill did good service, as the old settlers of Winamac and vicinity testify, until the year 1873, when the erection of the present large, frame grist mill was commenced, the work being completed in 1875 at a cost of $10,000. The building is three stories high. is 28x40 feet, has three sets of buhrs, and has a capacity of twenty-five barrels per day. Attached to the mill is an engine room, two stories high, 26x35 feet, in which is an engine of twenty-horse power. The mill is one of the best in Northern Indiana, its flour being of the first grade. Since the death of Stephen Bruce, his son, Jerome T. Bruce, has had charge of the mill. At first and until 1882, the mill was operated by water-power, but under a judgment of the Circuit Court the dam was removed, though it is stated that the question will be taken to the Supreme Court of the State for final arbitration. Stephen Bruce conducted a steam saw mill for many years, a short distance below the grist mill. Henry Kittinger also owned and conducted a saw mill some twenty years ago. Barnett & Woodrufi" built the grist mill near the depot about twelve or fifteen years ago. Several changes were made until 1877, when the property was purchased by John H. and C. D. Wood, but in 1880 the latter bought his brother's interest and is yet sole owner and proprietor. The building is frame, three and a half stories high, 40x50 feet, with a large brick engine-room attached, in which is an engine of forty-horsepower. There are three sets of buhrs, all for swheat, and the capacity of the mill is forty-five barrels per day. The mill does nothing but merchant work, flouring by the new patent process, and the quality of the flour is not surpassed in the market.

In 1867, Rudolph Hoch and Frank Harris erected near the depot a rude frame building, and began to manufacture Pittsburgh plows and to do a general repair work of casting. Additions were made to the foundry, and in autumn of the same year, about the time the machine shop was built, W. B. Jenkins became a partner, investing in the enterprise about $300. Up to this time, a total expense of $1,000 had been incurred. Mr. Harris, who had had some experience in the business, was to have charge of the foundry, the other men furnishing the capital. The machine shop was at first operated by horse-power, but later by steam. For each of the first few years, some twenty-five plows were manufactured, besides considerable repair work, the total annual business amounting to about $800. But the enterprise proved unprofitable, and for some time past the building has stood deserted by the glowing furnace and the workmen who formerly plied their craft there. Mr. Harris went out early, Mr. Hoch buying his interest at Sheriff"s sale. The foundry should be put in running order again. For a time, the building was rented to others, who conducted the business.

Among other enterprises which might be favorably mentioned is the planing mill erected a number of years ago near the depot by Mr. Kittinger. It was combined with the saw mill, and, under the immediate supervision of the owner, has been conducted with abundant success until the present. The lumber yards of A. D. Perry and Hugh Smith are important additions to the business enterprises of the county seat. In 1882, a quasi-stock company, with a capital of several thousand dollars, erected a large frame building, designing the same for a woolen mill. The Keys, father and son, were at the head of the company, and it was largely due to their efforts that the citizens were induced to take stock in the enterprise. In the large two-story frame building was placed a complete set of all necessary machinery to transform the crude wool from the back of the sheep into handsome cloth. Work was done under the experienced eyes of the Keys, and for a few months all seemed prosperous. At length, however, owing to some cause not yet fully developed, work was stopped, and at present (November, 1882) the building, yet bright and new, with abundant promise of usefulness, stands silent and deserted. The Bennett Brothers are manufacturing and repairing wagons on quite an extensive scale. Soon after the railroad was completed, Rowan & Huddleston erected the large elevator building near the depot. Here, during the time which elapsed until their respective deaths, they purchased and shipped large quantities of grain. Their successor, John Steis, still continues to deal in grain, and has done the citizens good service.

Ferries and Bridges.— Prior to about 1856 or 1857, the river at Winamac was crossed by fording, or by means of a ferry, under the control, a portion of the time, of the County Commissioners. A wooden bridge was begun and partly completed in 1849 or 1850, but ere it could be secured, a sudden flood washed it away. In about 1857, a wooden bridge was built a short distance below the present iron one, but after being used a few years, it shared the fate of its predecessor. Another was built in the same place during the last war, and it, also, was swept away. The new iron bridge was begun in 1875 and finished in 1876. It is a wroiight-iron truss in one span of 160 feet, and was built by Sprague & Winters, of Toledo, Ohio, through their agent, for $29.25 per linear foot, the total cost of the iron work alone amounting to about 4,680. The entire bridge, iron work and masonry cost, in round numbers, $0,000. David Hubbell was the Superintendent. The large iron bridge over the river, about two miles south of Winamac, on the Logansport road, was built in 1872, by Miller, Jamison k Co., of Cleveland, Ohio. It is in two spans, both 260 feet long, the contract price being $25.75 per linear foot, and the total cost of the iron work amounting to about $6,700. The masonry increased the cost to about $8,000. The above bridges are a credit to the builders and to the county.

Professions.

Among the physicians who have resided and practiced at Winamac, are the following : Jesse Jackson, Rufus Brown, Dr. Elliott, Oliver Thomas, F. B. Thomas, Elias Patterson, Dr. McCray, G. W. Reddick, Asa Pearson, E. P. Stephens, Levitt, Henry Thompson, G. W. Thompson, H. E. Pattison, D. F. Moss, L, B. Perry, Virgil Chittenden, W. G. Wright, Henry Kittinger, J. F. Noland, J. J. Thomas and 0. J. Stephens. Among the resident lawyers have been : E. A. Hannegan, G. S. Adams, C. D. Hathaway, William Gray, James W. Eldridge, John Ryan, W. J. Gridley, Mr. Dye, A. Gould and those mentioned a few pages back.

Postmasters.

Among the Postmasters have been John Pearson, John C. Waldo, Jerome J. Ganson, W. C. Burnett, H. P. Rowan (1850), A. D. Perry, J. W. Eldridge, G. T. Wickersham, Asa Pearson, Lewis Hoflfman (1863j. John Ingram, Charles Budd, Shubel Peareon, Jacob Keiser, William Wright, Peter Kroft, Jacob Keiser, and the present agent, W. B. Jenkins.

In 1875, the Board of Commissioners ordered county bonds to the amount of $20,000 issued, to cover indebtedness which had been contracted in building excellent and numerous iron bridges at various places across the Tippecanoe River. The bonds were to draw 8 per cent interest, payable semi-annually, and were to be redeemed at the rate of $5,000 annually. Within a few weeks after this, the amount was raised to $25,000, and the interest to 10 per cent. This debt has all been paid.

Banking.

The first attempts in Winamac at banking were made in about the year 1855, when John W. Wright and others of Logansport established a branch of their State Bank in the village. H. P. Rowan was cashier. The capital of the "Tippecanoe Bank," of which the one at Winamac was a branch, is said to have been about $50,000, the issue of wild-cat bills being limited to the amount of bonds deposited with the Auditor of State. As the bonds of any State could be thus deposited, and as such bonds were often at a great discount, and at all times subject to the wildest fluctuations in value, abundant means were at the disposal of unscrupulous bankers to speculate at the expense of the holders of their paper. The bills depreciated as the bonds depreciated, and men who were so situated that they could readily learn the actual value of the bills would buy up large quantities of them for a song and then sell them for a handsome profit. These eifects were felt at Winamac, though the presence of the bank did not add materially to the trouble. The entire system was at fault. The bank remained only a few years.

In November, 1876, the Bank of Winamac, a private organization, was founded by W. S. Huddleston, W. C. Burnett, A. E. Bundy, John S. Thompson and H. P. Rowan, with a capital of $10,000. In 1878, Mr. Rowan sold his interest to L. & J. Kellar, and about the same time W. H. Bouslog bought Mr. Burnett's interest. At Mr. Huddleston's death in 1879, his interest passed to his partners ; and at Mr. Bandy's death in 1881, his interest, likewise, went to his partners. In 1881, Mr. Thompson sold out to J. F. Holsinger. Thus the partnership remains at present. L. Keller is President, and W. H. Bouslog, Cashier. The original capital and all its earnings are the present capital. The bank enjoys the confidence of the public.

On the 1st of July, 1881, J. R. Dukes and J. H. Wood began a private banking business, and have continued until the present, receiving a liberal patronage at home and abroad. They have an excellent Diebold safe with a Yale double time lock, and can guarantee the safety of funds intrusted to their care.

Business Blocks.

Prior to three or four years ago, no business building of considerable size had been erected. The Rowan store building, and the small brick now occupied by Morehart Bros., were about the largest. But within the past four years an era in improvements has occurred which will not be overlooked even with the lapse of time. In 1879, the Keller-Huddleston brick was erected, followed in 1880 by the Frain Hotel brick, and in 1882 by the Vurpillat brick, neither building costing less than $20,000. Either building would be a credit to a town of five times the population of Winamac. Other buildings of similar cost are talked of, and the business future of the county seat appears with a silver lining and without a cloud. As an indication of the present satisfactory condition of business brought about by the erection of these splendid buildings, it will be sufficient to say that Keller, Bouslog & Co. have in store at the present writing (November, 1882) $28,000 worth of goods. Their annual sales amount to more than $100,000. Brown & Co. are not far behind them. Winamac is just beginning a rapid growths the wonders of which some future historian may extol. In the meantime, let the citizens do what they have not done in the past—preserve such facts and figures as, when put in shape, will indicate what Winamac and Pulaski County will have done for the benefit of coming generations.

Additions to the Town.

The following additions have been made to Winamac : Pearson & Barnett's in September, 1860, in the northern part and east of the railroad ; Lane k Porter's in March, 1861, mostly west of the railroad; John Falvey's in August, 1869, eight lots on the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 14; H. E. Woodruff's in September, 1870, some twenty-four lots on both sides of the railroad; H. P. Rowan's in June, 1874, eighty-six lots south of the original plat and east of the railroad ; M. D. Falvey's in January, 1875, ten lots. Probably the most important event in the past history of Winamac was the completion of the " Chicago & Cincinnati Railroad," and the location of a station at the county seat. Business of all kinds multiplied rapidly, and erelong the population of the town was doubled. Regular trains began running during the summer of 1861, and grain and live stock buyers soon afforded the citizens a market which had formerly been sought at Logansport. The citizens began to assume airs of the most killing kind. Sidewalks were built and old ones improved ; streets were drained ; herds of swine and cattle in the streets were unanimously considered a nuisance to be tolerated no longer, and a general appearance of industry, thrift and growth usurped the place so long occupied by apparent immovability. This satisfactory state of aifairs led to the incorporation of the village.

Incorporation.

In 1868, the county seat became the incorporated town of Winamac. The question was submitted to the qualified voters residing within the limits to be incorporated, at a special election called for the purpose, and was carried by 89 affirmative votes to 18 negative; whereupon the first officers were elected, as follows : Trustees, H. E. Woodruff, H. P. Rowan, W. S. Huddleston, Robert Carroll, and R. W. Hathaway. These officers first met for the transaction of business on the 7th of May, 1868, and made the following appointments for the current year: Clerk, Alonzo Starr; Treasurer, Mark D. Falvey ; Marshal, Alonzo Starr ; School Trustees, George Burson, G. F. Wickersham and John N. Ingrim. The following have since been the officers of Winamac : May 1869—Trustees, James Gill, 0. Carper, Jonas Michaels, Caleb Brobst and J. H. Kelley ; Clerk, Assessor and Marshal, Alonzo Starr; Treasurer, M. D. Falvey; School Trustee, F. B. Thomas May, 1870— Trustees, H. E. Woodruff, S. L. Rowan, 0. Carper, J, Michaels and Joseph Collins ; Clerk and Assessor, J. H. Kelley ; Marshal, Alonzo Starr ; Treasurer, M. D. Falvey ; School Trustees, F. B. Thomas, George Burson and W. S. Huddleston. May, 1871—Trustees, 0. Carper, H. E. Woodruff, H. P. Rowan, Jacob N. Little and George Burson ; Clerk, G. T. Wickersham; Treasurer, M. D. Falvey; Marshal, W. C. Barnett; School Trustees, W. S. Huddleston, Jonn Steis and John H. Kelley ; Street Commissioners, 0. Carper and J. N. Little, May, 1872—Trustees, J. D. Vurpillat, W. C. Barnett, 0. Carper, Lewis Hoffman and C. Messerly ; Clerk, Ben. Frank ; Treasurer, M. D. Falvey ; Marshal, Jacob Van Valkenburg ; Street Commissioners, Lewis Hoffman and J. D. Vurpillat. May, 1873—Trustees, Lewis Hoffman, W. C. Barnett, Benjamin Frank, Joseph Vurpillat and James B. Long; Clerk, W. B. Burson ; Treasurer, J. H. Kelley ; Marshal, Horace Terry; School Trustees, J. R. Dukes, G. T. Wickersham, M. D. Falvey and R. Hock. May, 1874—Trustees, Lewis Hoffman, Joseph Vurpillat, Abraham Phillips, John Steis and James Martz ; Clerk, C. W. Wickersham ; Treasurer, J. H. Kelley ; Marshal, John Mehan ; Street Commissioners, John Steis and James Martz. May, 1875—Trustees, J. N. Little, W. H. Thorapson, J. C. Nye, J. M. Agnew and J. W. Clark ; Clerk, Shubel Pearson, Treasurer, II. E. Pattison ; Marshal, J. W. Bennett. In October, Jacob Kiser took Thompson's place as trustee, and Joseph Collins took Agnew's place ; Street Commissioner, J. N. Little ; May, 1876—Trustees, Joseph Collins, James Toby, Simon Weyand, J. N. Little and J. H. Kelley ; Clerk, S. Pearson ; Treasurer, H. E. Pattison ; Marshal, John James ; School Trustee, C. Messerly; Street Commissioners, James Toby and J. H. Kelley. In October, John H. Gill took Collins' place as Trustee, and in February, 1877, G. T. Wickersham took Toby's place, same. May, 1877—Trustees, 0. Carper, J. H. Kelley, S. Weyand, J. N. Little and G. H. Barnett ; Clerk, S. Pearson ; Treasurer, W. H. Thompson ; Marshal, J. B. Agnew, Jr., School Trustee, James B. Dukes. May, 1878 — Trustees, George Barnett, John Steites, J. H. Kelley, George Burson and W. Nimrod; Clerk, T. B. Martin; Treasurer, W. H. Thompson; Marshal, J. B. Agnew, Jr. ; Trustee Burson was succeeded by Joseph Vurpillat ; School Trustee Burnett was succeeded by William Spangler ; Street Commissioners, John Steites and W. Nimrod. May, 1879—Trustees, G. W. Barnett, John H. Wood, John H. Kelley, Joseph D. Vurpillat and John James; Clerk, S. Pearson; Treasurer, W. H. Thompson; Marshal, S. B. Hazen ; Street Commissioners, J. H. Wood and J. D. Vurpillat ; School Trustee, G. W. Thompson. May, 1880—Trustees, M. A. Dilts, N. B. Bennett, H. Kittinger, T. B. Martin and W. W. Nimrod ; Clerk, S. Pearson ; Treasurer, W. H. Thompson ; Marshal, Frank Long ; Street Commissioners, H. Kittinger and W. VV. Nimrod ; School Trustee, George Burson. May, 1881—Trustees, J. H. Reddick, William Keys, W. H. Bouslog, S. Weyand and J. Michaels ; Clerk, S. Pearson ; Treasurer, M. Hogan ; Marshal, C. Bridegroom. May, 1882 —Trustees, J. H. Reddick, jJohn Hustis, W. H. Bouslog, 0. H. Hathaway and James Martz; Clerk, W. B. Taylor; Treasurer, M. D. Falvey ; Marshal, C. Bridegroom.

The first tax levied for corporate purposes was as follows, in 1868: Special school tax, 20 cents on each $100 valuation and 50 cents on each poll; special tax, 10 cents on each $100 valuation and 25 cents on each poll. The report of the Town Treasurer from May, 1868, to May, 1869, was as follows : Peddlers' licenses, $15 ; auction licenses, $10 ; from the Faishal, $10.80; total receipts, $35.80. Paid Town Marshal on orders $18; balance on hand, $17.80. In July, 1871, the Trustees purchased, for $215, a wagon and the necessary hooks, ladders, pails, etc., for extinguishing fires. At the same time, a meeting was called to organize a fire company, resulting in an incomplete organization which was afterward perfected. In April, 1872, a town pound was erected. The present organization for the extinguishment of fires reflects no credit upon the care of the property-holders. The truth of the old adage of "locking the barn door after the horse is stolen" may yet be impressed upon the minds of the citizens to their sorrow. In June, 1882, town bonds to the amount of $1,000 were sold to obtain money to defray the expense of repairing the heavy " wash-outs" on Front street adjoining the river.

At a special meeting of the Trustees on the 26th of September, 1881, the following preamble and resolutions were passed::
"Whereas, Our nation has been called to mourn the loss, by the hand of death, of its beloved chief magistrate, James A. Garfield; and
Whereas, It is fitting that the citizens should in a public manner express their grief for his loss, and their recognition of his eminent public services and private worth; therefore
Resolved, That we, the Board of Trustees of the incorporated Town of Winamac, in behalf of the citizens of the town, do sincerely mourn the loss of President James A. Garfield as a great national calamity, and extend our sympathy to his stricken family; and further
Resolved, That the citizens of Winamac be and are hereby requested to meet at the Methodist Episcopal Church at 2 o'cloclt, P. M., of to-day, and there hold proper memorial services in honor of our illustrious dead; and further
Resolved, That all the business men of Winamac are hereby requested to close their respective places of business from half-past 1 until half-past 3 o'clock, P. M.
S. Weyand, W. H. BOUSLOG,
J. Michaels, Shubel Pearson,
Clerk. J. H. Reddick, Trustees.

In 1872, the Board of Trustees were petitioned to vote for Monroe Township $8,000 in aid of the Fort Wayne & Pacific Railroad, which was to be run on the old surveyed line of the American Central Railroad, one station to be at Winamac and another at Francisville. The citizens of the western and the eastern portions of the county, especially of the former, were highly in favor of the enterprise, as the want of better communication between the two widely separated portions of the county had lono- been felt (and will long continue to be felt). The aid petitioned for in Monroe was voted when submitted in June to the citizens, and a portion of the tax was afterward collected; but as the project was abandoned, the money was finally returned to the tax payers. Other townships voted aid. Such a road would be a blessing to Pulaski County, and if again on foot should be liberally assisted by the citizens. An increase of from ten to thirty per cent in the value of real estate would be the result of the completion of such an enterprise.

Secret Societies.

Winamac Lodge, No. 168, Odd Fellows, was founded in 1855, its charter bearing the date July 18 of that year. The charter members were : Henry P. Rowan, James W. Eldridge, Dr. G. W. Reddick, Andrew D. Perry, Samuel Ward, Jr., and Samuel Hoch. The first officers were : G. W. Reddick, N. G.; Samuel Hoch, V. G.; A. D. Perry, Secretary ; H, P. Rowan, Treasurer. The lodge grew quite rapidly at first, and after a few years built their two-storied frame building just south of the court yard, fitting up the upper story for the use of the society, and the lower to rent. For several years prior to the erection of the present court house, the lower portion of this building was occupied by the county officers. The present value of lodge property is about $1,500, and the present membership of the lodge is thirtytwo. The present officers are : J. H. Reddick, N. G.; S. F. Keppler, V. G.; John H. Gill, Recording Secretary ; Jesse Taylor, P. Secretary ; S. Pearson, Treasurer. Pulaski Encampment, No. 62, was organized October 20, 18H0, but for some reason no charter was obtained until March, 1873, the Encampment working, in the meantime, under its dispensation. The charter members were James W. Eldridge, Isaac Eldridge, A. D. Perry, G. T. Wickersham, James Gill, W. T. Clelland and T. F. Reynolds. The first officers were : James Eldridge, C. P.; A. P. Perry, H. P.; G. T. Wickersham, S. W.; W. T. Cleland, J. W.; Isaac Eldridge, Scribe ; James Gill, Treasurer. The present membership is eighteen, and the present officers are ; S. F. Keppler, C. P.; Peter Kroft, H. P.; John Pfyffer, J. W.; A. Madantz, S. W.; J. T. Bruce, Scribe, and H. Kittinger, Treasurer. The Odil Fellows first met in the old Barnett building on front street, formerly the principal business street of the town. The Rebecca Degree was founded in 1874, with the following first members : H. Kittinger, S. Pearson, G. T. Wickersham, A. D. Perry, Peter Kroft, H. Baker, W. R. Ballinger, J. M. Kline, Jesse Taylor, J. T. Bruce, J. D. Clark, S. Weyand, B. F. Frank, Mrs. Una Pearson, Martha Bruce, Melinda Burson, Susanna Taylor, Susanna Ballinger, Mary J. Perry, Mary Wickersham, Louisa Baker, C. M. Frank, Anna Kroft, Phoebe Clark and Ilulda Agnew. The degree is Sophronia Degree, No. 122, Daughters of Rebecca.

The first records of Winamac Lodge, No. 262, F. & A. M., are lost. The charter is dated May, 1860, the charter members being James W. Selders, G. W. Reddick, Stephen Bruce, John Myers, and George Burson. The lodge worked for several years under a dispensation before obtaining a charter. The first officers in existing records were: J. W. Selders, W. M.; G. W. Reddick, S. W.; Stephen Bruce, J. W. The present officers are : S. Weyand, W. M.; Mr. Burnett, S. W.; Simon Keppler, Treasurer; Edward M. Morehart, Secretary; R. S. Rodgers, S. D.; J. R. Connor, J. D.; John Falcon, Tiler. The present membership is twenty-nine; value of lodge property, about $300.

Tippecanoe Council of the Royal Arcanum, No. 803, was organized in October, 1879, with the following charter members: C. D. Wood, L. B. Perry, J. W. Clark, M. A. Dilts, T. B. Hedges, T. E. Allison, J. M. Ward, W. T. Gary, W. S. Myers, W. H. Conn, W. H. Bouslog, Jacob Keiser, J. H. Gill, W. H. Barkalow, J. W. Brown, S. Pearson, D. H. Gary and G. W. Thompson. The first officers were: C. D. Wood, R.; M. A. Dilts, V. R.; D. H. Gary, P. R.; J. M. Ward, 0.; T. B. Hedges, Secretary ; W. T. Gary, Collector ; W. H. Bouslog, Treasurer; Jacob Keiser, Chaplain; J. W. Clark, G. ; T. E. Allison, W. A. R.; L. W. Perry, S.; G. W. Thompson, Med. Ex.; Trustees, W. S. Myers, C. D. Wood and J, W. Clark. The present officers are: T. B. Hedges, R.; L. D. Perry, Secretary; W. H. Hoffman, Collector; W. H. Bouslog, Treasurer ; J. T. Bruce, Chaplain. The present membership is twenty-nine.

Various temperance movements have striven to do away with the sale and consumption of liquor in Winamac. The Good Templars effected an organization some ten years ago, and for a season was very prosperous, numbering, it is stated, as high as 300 members. They did good work, and for a time largely reduced the sale of liquor ; but the citadel of King Alcohol was too strong to be taken, and the lodge finally went down, and the records were carried away by one of the members. Articles of association of a lodge of the Patrons of Husbandry were filed in the Recorder's office in August, 1875 ; and about the same time lodges of the order were instituted in various portions of the county. As the records of the organization at Winamac could not be found, but little can be stated, except that the order flourished for a few years, did good work in reducing the price of various farm implements, and finally disbanded. Farmers must look out for their own interests, as the rest of mankind are hawks, so to speak, which swoop down upon their hard-earned homes like veritable birds of prey.

In August, 1882, Division Master Workman Halley organized at Winamac a chapter of the secret order known as Knights of Labor. But little could be learned regarding this society, probably for the reason, as stated, that such things are not permitted to be divulged. The members meet once a month over Michael Falvey's store, charge 1 initiation fee, and work in the interest of the laboring classes.

Newspapers.

The first attempt to publish a newspaper in Winamac (or in Pulaski County) was made during the summer of 1858, when several prominent Democrats formed a sort of stock company, purchased the necessary material, and engaged a native of the Emerald Isle—a Mr. James Mahaffie—to manage and edit their party paper, called the Pulaski Democrat. Mr. Mahaffie was an odd genius, and loved the flowing bowl better than was good for him ; not that there was anything paricularly odd in that fact, but, in general, because his social proclivities were too preponderant for financial success. He edited the paper, in a way, until after the political campaign of 1858, when he shook the dust of the place from his feet and has since cast his lot elsewhere. The paper remained suspended until the early autumn of 1859, when Tibbatts & Magee began issuing it, continuing until the following year, when Mr. A. Valentine became connected with it. Some time during 1860, or the early part of 1861, the publication was again abandoned ; but, in 1862, was again revived by Rufus Magee, who issued it until 1863, except for a short time when it was suspended by military orders. George Burson obtained editorial control in 1863, and issued the sheet as a Republican organ until February, 1865, when M. H. Ingrim became editor, remaining thus until about 1868. About this time, the name was changed to Winamac Democrat. Under him, the paper was again Democratic. In about 1868, F. B. Thomas secured a one-half interest, and in October, 1870, Ben Frank bought out Mr. Ingrim's interest. In a short time, Mr. Thomas purchased Mr. Frank's interest, and remained sole editor and proprietor until November, 1882, when the entire paper was sold to a number of prominent Democrats, who had associated themselves together as the " Winamac Democratic Publishing Company," with A. B. Crampton as editor-in-chief, and Thomas Benton Hedges as associate editor. John 0. Behymer purchased the paper in the sprii)g of 1883. Mr. Behymer came from Tipton, Ind., where for some time he was the proprietor of the Tipton depress. He is an able journalist, and the Democrat, under his management, will be ably conducted. From 1865 to 1868, the paper was a six-column folio, but at the latter date became an eightcolumn folio. During these years, the circulation was usually between 300 and 400, but after 1868 it increased. The paper, during its entire career, except when issued as the organ of the Pulaski County Republicans, has been of the "stalwart" Democratic character, and has upheld, with unfaltering determination, the principles of the party of which it is an ardent supporter.

In the spring of 1865, a joint-stock company was orgauized for the purpose of issuing a Republican paper at the county seat. The members were B. T. Lane, Stephen Bruce, John P. Barnett, Charles Meeker, Rudolph Hoch and Peter Kroft. Money to the amount of f300 was raised, and John Ferrell was induced to publish the paper, the members receiving their papers free. The sheet was christened the Winamac Republican, and presented a creditable appearance. Mr. Ferrell had his failings, and fell into bad circumstances and finally induced Mr. Lane to purchase the office, which was done about two months after the paper was first issued. Mr. Lane conducted the paper for a time and finally employed John W. Ryan to edit it. At last the office was sold to F. S. Remington, who issued the paper until March, 1869, when it passed to the present owner, Hon. Jacob Keiser, who has since remai ned sole editor and proprietor. The paper under Mr. Keiser was first issued as a sevencolumn folio, subscription $1.50 per year, and the circulation at the time of the transfer to Mr, Keiser did not exceed about 200. In 1872, the paper became a six-column quarto, but after the lapse of a year was changed to a eight-column folio, and has thus remained since. The paper has been skillfully and ably conducted, has a largely increased circulation, and has done a great deal to reduce the Democratic strength of the county. It is one of the best county papers in the State.

On the 7th of September, 1878, appeared the first member of the Winamac Journal, an organ devoted to the interests of the Greenback party. The paper presented a neat appearance, was a seven- column folio issued every Saturday, subscription $1.50 per year, and from the start enjoyed a large circulation. Its editor, M. H. Ingrim, an old newspaper man, and a fluent and forcible writer, succeeded in increasing the strength of his party in the county to about 300, but in April, 1883, the Journal's politics were changed to Democratic, and it is still issued under the same name, form and editorship. The local advertising patronage is

Schools.

The first session of school held in Winamac was during the summer or early autumn of 18 -^9. It was taught by John 0. Waldo in a small log cabin which had been built and occupied by the family of John Davis. Those who sent children to him were John Pearson, Joseph Conklin, John Davis, Mrs. Harris, and possibly several other families living in the neighborhood, but without the limits of the village proper. He had in all some ten scholars. Nothing further can be stated regarding this first school. The following year the house was occupied as a dwelling, and as there was no other suitable building that could be used as a schoolhouse, the town was without further educational facilities until some time during the year 1841, when John Staley was employed to teach the second term in the old log cabin of Davis. In 1840, the work of building the hewed-log schoolhouse on Lot 159, which had been donated by the proprietors of the town for the purpose, was begun ; but owing to some obstacles no longer remembered was not completed until the spring of 1843, and soon afterward the first term in this house was taught by John Staley, probably. This house was a substantial structure, and ought to have been, judging from the length of time required to build it, and and was used for educational, religious, political and other purposes until about 1858 or 1859, when the frame building now occupied by Hon. Jacob Keiser was constructed at a cost of about |800, and located on the school Lot No. 159. This building was used for school purposes until the present brick was erected In April, 1869, the School Trustees asked the Town Trustees to issue the bonds of Winatnac to theamount of $7,0U0 to defray the expense of erecting a much-needed larger school building ; but conclusive action was deferred until the following February, when the question was again brought to their notice ; whereupon it was ordered that eighty-six bonds each for $100 should be issued, the principal to be paid in two equal annual installments in June, 1871 and 1872, the bonds bearing ten per cent interest payable annually. The bonds were issued, and purchased, it is stated, at a slight discount, by men residing mostly in Logansport. In December, 1870, town bonds to the amount of $343.32, were issued to purchase of Eden Shotwell the necessary ground for the contemplated house. When the time arrived for the payment of the bonds, the town was unable to meet its obligations, and even the annual interest was neglected. In one or more instances suit was brought by the bond-holders to collect the overdue interest. At last the Trustees were compelled to issue additional bonds for the payment of the interest and judgments ; $500 in bonds was issued June, 1874 ; and $1,000 in April. 1875. Again, in December, 1876, $3,00u in bonds was issued for the same purpose. The obligations of the town are yet outstanding to the amount of about $2,000. The schoolhouse, a square, two-storied brick building, was erected in 1871, at a total cost in round numbe»-s of $9,000. The present appearance of the building invites conjecture as to what has become of the School Trustees and the fund for repairs.

Churches.

The Methodist Episcopal class was first organized at Winamac in 1839, not far from the month of August. Among the first members were Mrs. Andrew Keys, Mrs. John Pearson, several of the Munsons, several of the Oldses and others, whose names cannot be remembered. Comfort Olds was one of the first preachers. Rev, Taylor was the minister in 1842. Among the members, up to this time, in addition to those above, were Mrs. Mary Jenkins, John Pearson, several of the Hatterbaughs, Maj. John Gardner, and a little later, John N. Ingram, W. M. Lemon, Nathaniel Routson, Elijah T. Oliver, John Reeder and various members of their families. The five men last named were Trustees in 1844. At this time, John and Edna Pearson deeded Lot 119 to the Trustees in trust, for ground upon which to build a church which was strongly talked of at that time. The class weakened, however, and the church was not erected for many years. The first meetings were held in the old log cabin built for the family of John Davis. Sometimes the class met in private houses, in the court house and in barns. Upon the completion of the schoolhouse in 1843, church was held therein until the Reformed Church was erected, which the class was permitted to use until their own frame church was built in 1867. Oliver and F. B. Thomas served the class early in the capacity of pastors. In 1859, the Trustees were Joseph E. Reed, William C. Barnett, Stephen Bruce, John Stephens, A. Wirick, Daniel Short, William Murphy, James Raver and C. G, Cleland. At this time, meetings were yet held in the old frame schoolhouse. For some reason the old Pearson lot was not used, and in about 1859 the class purchased Lot 104 for $100. At this date, Rev. Miles H. Wood was the pastor in charge. Among his successors have been Revs. Kahler, Sanders, Hines, McKinsey, Handley, Beal, Potter, Beatty, Cook, Reeder, Beebe, Harrison, Jackson, Clifton, Conner, Tarr, and the present pastor. Rev. Allen Lewis. The class is prosperous, and numbers about eighty-four members. The church, begun in 1866 and completed in 1867, cost about $1,000.

The Christian class was organized in 1860 by Rev. John O'Kane, and consisted of the following members : Ephraim Dukes, wife and two daughters. Dr. F. B. Thomas and wife, G. T. Wickersham and wife, L. W. Estes and wife, James Dukes and wife, James Tobey and wife and W. H. Jacks. The class was organized in the Reformed Church, and continued to assemble there the most of the time until their frame church was erected in 1869 and 1870, at a cost of about $3,600. An indebtedness of $400 was upon the house at the time of its completion, which amount was fully paid on the occasion of the first public meeting. The ministers of the class have beert Revs. Dukes, Kemp, Edmundson, Wheeler, Gary and Barnett. The class is doing well.

The Emanuel Congregation of the Reformed Church was organized in 1861 by Rev. Jonas Michaels with the following first members : Rudolph Hoch, Jacob Little, Harrison Hoch, Conrad Smith, E. Hoch, Eliza Little, Mary A. Hoch, Benjamin Zellers. Mary Zellers, James J. Mills and Mary Mills. The organization of the class at this time was in reality a re-organization of an old class which had met at the old schoolhouse many years before for a short time. The first trustees, after the re-organization in 1861, were Rudolph, Jacob and E. Hoch. Rudolph Hoch and Jacob Little were Elders, and Harrison Hoch and Conrad Smith were Deacons. The frame church was begun in 1862, upon a subscription of $300 ; but, owing to the diflSculty of getting funds during the hard times of the war, was not completed until 1866 ; $1,000 in subscriptions was raised during one summer; the house cost about $1,500. Rev. Michaels served the class some fifteen years, but was finally compelled to resign his pastorate owing to ill-health and the infirmities of age. Rev. Henry Sands served the class two years, and John Skinner three years. The class has had no pastor for the past year. The present membership is about forty.

In the year 1858, Father Hamilton, of Logansport, organized a small class of Catholics at Winamac, among the first families being those of John O'Connell, M. D. Falvey, James Mulvaney, M. Krats, John Hoffman and Thomas McSheehy. The growth of the class was so rapid under the able management of Father Hamilton that in 1859 their frame Church was built at a cost of about $700. The lot upon which the church was built was donated by W. C. Barnett. Other outsiders assisted the class. Father Hamilton served the class, though he resided at Logansport, until about the year 1867, since which the resident priests have been Fathers Carolus, Koenig, Viedeau, Koenig, Viedeau, Wittmer, Schoch, and the present excellent man. Christian Nigsch, Some sixty families belong to the church at present. The value of the church property aside from the old church of 1859, which is yet in use, is about $1,200. A fine new church is to be built in 1883, the expected cost being about $8,000. A church fair held in Keller's Hall four evenings in November, 1882, netted the class over $800. The class is highly prosperous. Connected with the church is St. Mary's School, founded in 1873, and conducted since by the Sisters of the Precious Blood of Christ. School is held some ten months of the year, with an average attendance of about sixty pupils.

*It must be kept in mind, that at all the early elections in Monroe Township, men from all portions of the county voted, probably for the reason that the polls were not opened in their own townships or neighborhoods.





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